9,665 results match your criteria Vagus Nerve Stimulation


Magnetoencephalographic Source Localization of the Eye Area of the Motor Homunculus.

Can J Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 17:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

1Division of Neurology,Krembil Brain Institute,University Health Network, Toronto Western Hospital,University of Toronto,Toronto, Ontario,Canada.

A patient with intractable epilepsy, previous right frontal resection, and active vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) developed new onset quasi-continuous twitching around the left eye. Electroencephalography showed no correlate to the orbicularis oculi twitches apart from myographic potentials at the left supraorbital and anterior frontal electrodes. Magnetoencephalography was performed using spatiotemporal signal space separation to suppress magnetic artifacts associated with the VNS apparatus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cjn.2018.373DOI Listing
December 2018

Vagus nerve stimulation reduces ventricular arrhythmias and increases ventricular electrical stability.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Medical Animal Model Research, Clinical Medical Research Institute, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China.

Background: Transcutaneous stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (AB-VNS) is a potentially non-invasive, inexpensive and safe approach for vagus nerve stimulation that suppresses the induction and duration of atrial fibrillation and reduces sympathetic nerve outflow in healthyhumans. Researchers have not determined whether AB-VNS affects ventricular arrhythmias.

Objective: To evaluate the antiarrhythmic effects of noninvasive AB-VNS on ventricular arrhythmias induced by myocardial infarction (MI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.13585DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Autostimulation in Vagus Nerve Stimulator Treatment: Modulating Neuromodulation.

Neuromodulation 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurosciences and Rehabilitation, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Objectives: Until now, the vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) treatment in epilepsy has consisted of two different modes: normal and magnet stimulation. A new vagus nerve stimulator model (106 AspireSR®, LivaNova, Houston, TX, USA) also allows automatic stimulation (AutoStim). The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of autostimulation on seizure frequencies together with energy consumption. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ner.12897DOI Listing
December 2018

A systematic review of deep brain stimulation for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy in childhood.

Authors:

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2018 Nov 1:1-11. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

OBJECTIVEDrug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) presents a therapeutic challenge in children, necessitating the consideration of multiple treatment options. Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been studied in adults with DRE, little evidence is available to guide clinicians regarding the application of this potentially valuable tool in children. Here, the authors present the first systematic review aimed at understanding the safety and efficacy of DBS for DRE in pediatric populations, emphasizing patient selection, device placement and programming, and seizure outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.9.PEDS18417DOI Listing
November 2018

Cost-effectiveness of noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation for acute treatment of episodic migraine and role in treatment sequence strategies.

Am J Manag Care 2018 Dec;24(24 Suppl):S527-S533

electroCore, Inc, Basking Ridge, NJ. Email:

Migraine affects 15% of the population in the United States and is associated with comorbidities, with an estimated economic burden of $78 billion annually. GammaCore is used adjunctively with current standard of care and abortive medications and has shown to be superior in acute treatment of episodic migraine compared to sham. However, the economic impact has not been characterized for this indication. Read More

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December 2018
2.264 Impact Factor

Noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation in a primary care setting: effects on quality of life and utilization measures in multimorbidity patients with or without primary headache.

Am J Manag Care 2018 Dec;24(24 Suppl):S517-S526

electroCore, Inc, Basking Ridge, NJ. Email:

A patient audit was conducted in the UK to evaluate the impact of gammaCore use in multimorbidity patients on quality of life and healthcare resources utilization measures. A total of 233 patients were enrolled and their data was examined over a 1-year period after their gammaCore prescription. Of these patients, 132 (56%) had primary headache disorders while 101 (44%) were patients without a headache disorder (nonheadache patients). Read More

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December 2018
2.264 Impact Factor

Review of evidence on noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation for treatment of migraine: efficacy, safety, and implications.

Am J Manag Care 2018 Dec;24(24 Suppl):S507-S516

electroCore, Inc, Basking Ridge, NJ. Email:

GammaCore was cleared by the FDA for the acute treatment of episodic migraine and episodic cluster headache and has 5 Conformité Européenne marks. Data indicate that gammaCore treatment is both safe and effective as an acute treatment for migraine. Current reimbursement policies need to be updated based on the growing body of evidence to reflect the established status of gammaCore that is no longer experimental. Read More

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December 2018
2.264 Impact Factor

Adenylyl Cyclase 6 Mediates Inhibition of TNF in the Inflammatory Reflex.

Front Immunol 2018 27;9:2648. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Medicine, Center for Bioelectronic Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Macrophage cytokine production is regulated by neural signals, for example in the inflammatory reflex. Signals in the vagus and splenic nerves are relayed by choline acetyltransferase T cells that release acetylcholine, the cognate ligand for alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine subunit-containing receptors (α7nAChR), and suppress TNF release in macrophages. Here, we observed that electrical vagus nerve stimulation with a duration of 0. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02648
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6277584PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Opportunities and challenges for developing closed-loop bioelectronic medicines.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Jan;14(1):46-50

Medical Devices and Neuromodulation, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH, USA.

The peripheral nervous system plays a major role in the maintenance of our physiology. Several peripheral nerves intimately regulate the state of the brain, spinal cord, and visceral systems. A new class of therapeutics, called bioelectronic medicines, are being developed to precisely regulate physiology and treat dysfunction using peripheral nerve stimulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.243697DOI Listing
January 2019

The effect of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation on treatment-resistant depression monitored by resting-state fMRI and MRS: The first case report.

Brain Stimul 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Radiology, Guang' anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2018.11.013DOI Listing
November 2018

Translational Study on Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Temperature Susceptibility.

J Surg Res 2019 Feb 27;234:7-12. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Division for Endocrine Surgery, Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood "G. Barresi," University Hospital G. Martino, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Background: Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury is the most common and serious complication after thyroid surgery. However, little is known about the temperature threshold leading to RLN injury. In this study, we investigated threshold temperatures that cause RLN injury during thyroid surgery using continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring in swine models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2018.08.041DOI Listing
February 2019

Neuromodulation - Science and Practice in Epilepsy: Vagus Nerve Stimulation, Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation, and Responsive NeuroStimulation.

Expert Rev Neurother 2018 Dec 11:1-13. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

a Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences , Stanford University School of Medicine , Stanford , CA , USA.

Introduction: Neuromodulation devices can be safe and effective for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy. A body of scientific work supports peripheral, subcortical and cortical targets, each with different fundamental methods of action. Areas covered: High-quality evidence is available for vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and responsive neurostimulation (RNS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737175.2019.1554433DOI Listing
December 2018

Hypothesized mechanisms through which acute exercise influences episodic memory.

Physiol Int 2018 Dec 10:1-13. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

1 Exercise & Memory Laboratory, Department of Health, Exercise Science and Recreation Management, The University of Mississippi , Oxford, MS, USA.

Emerging research demonstrates that exercise is favorably associated with several cognitive outcomes, including episodic memory function. The majority of the mechanistic work describing the underlying mechanisms of this effect has focused on chronic exercise engagement. Such mechanisms include, e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2060.105.2018.4.28DOI Listing
December 2018

Effect of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation on muscle activity in the gastrointestinal tract (transVaGa): a prospective clinical trial.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Purpose: Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common complication after abdominal surgery. Invasive stimulation of the cervical vagus nerve is known to reduce inflammatory response and ameliorated POI after surgery in a mouse model. However, the transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) is a possible non-invasive approach. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00384-018-3204-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-018-3204-6DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Electric stimulation of ears accelerates body weight loss mediated by high-fat to low-fat diet switch accompanied by increased white adipose tissue browning in C57BL/6 J mice.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Dec 5;18(1):323. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, 40402, Taiwan.

Background: Weight reduction frequently occurs in patients receiving vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy. Therefore, we hypothesized that during dietary intervention for weight loss, auricular electric stimulation (AES), an alternative of VNS, accelerates weight loss by increasing white adipose tissue (WAT) browning and increases energy expenditure.

Methods: C57BL/6J male mice were fed a high-fat diet for 5 wk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2388-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282328PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Changes in self-perception in patients treated with neurostimulating devices.

Epilepsy Behav 2018 Nov 27;90:25-30. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

University Hospital Freiburg, Dept. of Epileptology, Hugstetter Strasse 49, DE 79106 Freiburg, Germany; University of Freiburg, BrainLinks-BrainTools Cluster of Excellence, Friedrichstrasse 39, DE 79098 Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: In recent years, qualitative changes in self-perception have been reported in individual patients undergoing brain stimulation to treat their neurological disease. We here report a first systematic study addressing these unwanted treatment effects in a semiquantitative way.

Hypotheses: Hypothesis 1 (H1): Changes in self-perception can be detected and documented in patients following interventions with various neurostimulating devices using standardized assessment tools. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.10.012DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Modulation of neural oscillations by vagus nerve stimulation in posttraumatic multifocal epilepsy: case report.

Authors:

J Neurosurg 2018 Nov 1:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

The putative mechanism of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for medically refractory epilepsy is desynchronization of hippocampal and thalamocortical circuitry; however, the nature of the dose-response relationship and temporal dynamics is poorly understood. For greater elucidation, a study in a nonepileptic rat model was previously conducted and showed that rapid-cycle (RC) VNS achieved superior desynchrony compared to standard-cycle (SC) VNS. Here, the authors report on the first in-human analysis of the neuromodulatory dose-response effects of VNS in a patient with posttraumatic, independent, bilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy refractory to medications and SC-VNS who was referred as a potential candidate for a responsive neurostimulation device. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.6.JNS18735DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

BOLD fMRI effects of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation in patients with chronic tinnitus.

PLoS One 2018 28;13(11):e0207281. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Neuroscience Research Institute, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a neuromodulation method used for treatment of epilepsy and depression. Transcutaneous VNS (tVNS) has been gaining popularity as a noninvasive alternative to VNS. Previous tVNS neuroimaging studies revealed brain (de)activation patterns that involved multiple areas implicated in tinnitus generation and perception. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207281PLOS
November 2018
1 Read

Non-invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation Protects Against Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Promotes Microglial M2 Polarization Via Interleukin-17A Inhibition.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xianyang, 712000, China.

Microglia play an essential role during cerebral an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-related inflammatory process. Because the M2 phenotype of microglia exhibits anti-inflammation activity, it has become a promising target for anti-inflammatory therapy. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) reportedly has neuroprotective effects against cerebral I/R injuries via its anti-inflammatory action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-018-1227-7DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

[Influence of vagus nerve on multiple organ function and immune reaction of T lymphocytes in septic rats].

Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2018 Nov;34(11):815-820

Trauma Research Center, the First Hospital Affiliated to the PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100048, China.

To explore influence of vagus nerve on multiple organ function and immune reaction of T lymphocytes in septic rats. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham injury group, sepsis group, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) group, and vagotomy (VGX) group, according to the random number table, with 10 rats in each group. Rats in sepsis group, VNS group, and VGX group were inflicted with sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Multiphasic side-switching seizures are easily misdiagnosed as unilateral seizures during a single EEG monitoring session-a specific subtype of bitemporal epilepsy.

World Neurosurg 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Bitemporal epilepsy (BTLE) is a specific anatomo-electro-clinical phenotype in the spectrum of temporal lobe epilepsy. The diagnosis of BTLE and the evaluation of the degree of seizure lateralization in BTLE patients are greatly influenced by the duration of EEG recording and the number of recorded habitual seizures.

Case Description: A 25-year-old female patient had a 5-year history of seizures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.11.138DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Preoperative administration of the 5-HT4 receptor agonist prucalopride reduces intestinal inflammation and shortens postoperative ileus via cholinergic enteric neurons.

Gut 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Chronic Diseases, Metabolism and Ageing, Translational Research Center for GastroIntestinal Disorders, Intestinal Neuroimmune Interactions, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Objectives: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), most likely via enteric neurons, prevents postoperative ileus (POI) by reducing activation of alpha7 nicotinic receptor (α7nAChR) positive macrophages (mMφ) and dampening surgery-induced intestinal inflammation. Here, we evaluated if 5-HT4 receptor (5-HT4R) agonist prucalopride can mimic this effect in mice and human.

Design: Using Ca imaging, the effect of electrical field stimulation (EFS) and prucalopride was evaluated in situ on mMφ activation evoked by ATP in jejunal tissue. Read More

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http://gut.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/gutjnl-2018-317263
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2018-317263DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation for treatment of cluster headache: early UK clinical experience.

J Headache Pain 2018 Nov 23;19(1):114. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

University Hospitals of North Midlands, Newcastle Road, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 6QG, UK.

Background: Evidence supports the use of non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS; gammaCore®) as a promising therapeutic option for patients with cluster headache (CH). We conducted this audit of real-world data from patients with CH, the majority of whom were treatment refractory, to explore early UK clinical experience with nVNS used acutely, preventively, or both.

Methods: We retrospectively analysed data from 30 patients with CH (29 chronic, 1 episodic) who submitted individual funding requests for nVNS to the National Health Service. Read More

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https://thejournalofheadacheandpain.biomedcentral.com/articl
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10194-018-0936-1DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Efficacy and Safety of Treatment with Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation in 17 Patients with Refractory Epilepsy Evaluated by Electroencephalogram, Seizure Frequency, and Quality of Life.

Med Sci Monit 2018 Nov 23;24:8439-8448. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of treatment with transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) for patients with refractory epilepsy by evaluation of the frequency of seizures, electroencephalogram (EEG) changes, and quality of life on follow-up at three months and six months. MATERIAL AND METHODS EEG evaluation followed baseline evaluation with EEG at three months and six months following tVNS treatment. The frequency of seizures was recorded during the six-month study period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.910689DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

Vagus nerve spiking activity associated with locomotion and cortical arousal states in a freely moving rat.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

The vagus nerve serves as a central pathway for communication between the central and peripheral organs. Despite traditional knowledge of vagus nerve functions, detailed neurophysiological dynamics of the vagus nerve in naïve behavior remain to be understood. In this study, we developed a new method to record spiking patterns from the cervical vagus nerve while simultaneously monitoring central and peripheral organ bioelectrical signals in a freely moving rat. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ejn.14275
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14275DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Prevalence of Arnold nerve reflex in subjects with and without chronic cough: Relevance to Cough Hypersensitivity Syndrome.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA.

Introduction: Cough is induced by stimulation of structures innervated by the vagus nerve, including the upper and lower airways and distal esophagus. The Arnold nerve reflex describes cough resulting from stimulation of the external auditory canal, which is innervated by the auricular branch of the vagus. We have recently reported the increased prevalence of this reflex in adults, but not children, with chronic cough, relative to healthy adult and pediatric subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2018.11.003DOI Listing
November 2018

PEDOT:PSS electrodes for acute experimental evaluation of vagus nerve stimulation on rodents.

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2018 Jul;2018:4760-4763

The vagus nerve (VN) is involved in the autonomic regulation of many physiological systems (cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, etc.) and its stimulation is already an approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and depression. Other pathologies are thought to be treatable through vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), such as heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia, inflammation or auto-immune diseases. Read More

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https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8513235/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2018.8513235DOI Listing
July 2018
6 Reads

Neurophysiologic and Chronic Safety Testing of a Miniaturized Active Implanted Device with Integrated Electrodes for Bioelectronic Medicine Applications.

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2018 Jul;2018:3689-3692

New dosing paradigms in bioelectronic medicine applications, such as low duty cycle stimulation of the vagus nerve to treat inflammatory disorders, enable architectural shifts in active implantable devices that benefit patients. Herein, we describe various features of the MicroRegulator (MR), an innovative neurostimulation system that includes a unique electrode-integrated implantable nerve stimulator. To verify efficient activation of neuronal targets within the vagus nerve, a geometric emulator of the MR (identical form and electrical contact properties as the clinical MR device) was tested in situ and neurophysiologic outcomes were compared to a control electrode in wide clinical use. Read More

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https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8513061/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2018.8513061DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Acute cardiovascular and hemodynamic effects of vagus nerve stimulation in conscious hypertensive rats.

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2018 Jul;2018:3685-3688

Hypertension (HTN) affects over 1 billion people worldwide, with a significant number who are unable to control their blood pressure (BP) with conventional therapies. Recently, novel device-based therapies targeting the autonomic nervous system have been evaluated for treating HTN, including vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Numerous studies have indicated the beneficial effects of chronic VNS in various models of HTN, however the acute effects of VNS on physiological responses have not been widely investigated. Read More

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https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8513025/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2018.8513025DOI Listing
July 2018
3 Reads

Electrical Interaction between Implantable Vagus Nerve Stimulation Device and Implantable Cardiac Rhythm Management Device.

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2018 Jul;2018:3681-3684

Background: Autonomic regulation therapy via vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) was recently approved as a therapy for chronic heart failure, and will likely be utilized in patients who are also indicated for cardiac rhythm management device implantation. This study is designed to assess the degree to which VNS is likely to cause interference in the cardiac sensing of an implantable cardiac rhythm management device.

Methods: A VNS stimulation lead and a cardiac sensing lead were placed in a simulated biological medium. Read More

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https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8513067/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2018.8513067DOI Listing
July 2018
5 Reads

Modified Sequence Method to Assess Baroreflex Sensitivity in Rats.

Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2018 Jul;2018:2764-2767

Baroreceptors respond to fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) by modifying physiology in order to maintain a homeostatic set point. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is used to quantify baroreceptor function and is a useful metric for tracking cardiovascular disease state and treatment effects. Pathological conditions such as hypertension (HTN) alter baroreflex function and reduce BRS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2018.8512734DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Effects of Intraoperative Vagal Nerve Stimulation on the Gastrointestinal Microbiome in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Comp Med 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

The gastrointestinal microbiota (GM) plays a fundamental role in health and disease and contributes to the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal system and brain. The direct line of communication between these organ systems is through the vagus nerve. Therefore, vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), a commonly used technique for multiple disorders, has potential to modulate the enteric microbiota, enabling investigation and possibly treatment of numerous neurologic disorders in which the microbiota has been linked with disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-CM-18-000039DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Anterior laryngeal electrodes for recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring during thyroid and parathyroid surgery: New expanded options for neural monitoring.

Laryngoscope 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Otolaryngology, Division of Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: Intraoperative neural monitoring is a useful adjunct for the laryngeal nerve function assessment during thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Typically, monitoring is performed by measurement of electromyographic responses recorded by endotracheal tube (ETT) surface electrodes. Tube position alterations during surgery can cause displacement of the electrodes relative to the vocal cords, leading to false positive loss of signal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.27362DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Vagus nerve stimulation intensity influences motor cortex plasticity.

Brain Stimul 2018 Nov 3. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

The University of Texas at Dallas, School of Behavioral Brain Sciences, Richardson, TX, USA; The University of Texas at Dallas, Texas Biomedical Device Center, Richardson, TX, USA; The University of Texas at Dallas, Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science, Richardson, TX, USA.

Background: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with forelimb motor training enhances reorganization of movement representations in the motor cortex. Previous studies have shown an inverted-U relationship between VNS intensity and plasticity in other brain areas, such that moderate intensity VNS yields greater cortical plasticity than low or high intensity VNS. However, the relationship between VNS intensity and plasticity in the motor cortex is unknown. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1935861X183036
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2018.10.017DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Activity of swallowing-related neurons in the medulla in the perfused brainstem preparation in rats.

Laryngoscope 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Objectives/hypothesis: We aimed to investigate and validate the cellular activity patterns and the potential topographical organization of neurons of the medullary swallowing pattern generator (Sw-CPG). We used the perfused brainstem preparation as an innovative experimental model that allows for stable neuronal recording in the brainstem.

Study Design: Animal model. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/lary.27401
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.27401DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Non-invasive transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation prevents postoperative ileus and endotoxemia in mice.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2018 Nov 8:e13501. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Surgery, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Background: The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway comprises the perception of peripheral inflammation by afferent sensory neurons and reflex activation of efferent vagus nerve activity to regulate inflammation. Activation of this pathway was shown to reduce the inflammatory response and improve outcome of postoperative ileus (POI) and sepsis in rodents. Herein, we tested if a non-invasive auricular electrical transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) affects inflammation in models of POI or endotoxemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13501DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

[Ten years' experience with vagus nerve stimulation in a paediatric population].

Rev Neurol 2018 Nov;67(10):382-386

Hospital Infantil Universitario Nino Jesus, 28009 Madrid, Espana.

Introduction: Fifty million people are affected by epilepsy. Up to 30% are not controlled with the aid of antiepileptic drugs. The vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) is a therapeutic alternative that must be taken into account. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Low-level transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation attenuates cardiac remodelling in a rat model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Exp Physiol 2018 Nov 6. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? What is the effect of chronic intermittent low-level transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation on cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction in a rat model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction? What is the main finding and its importance? In salt-sensitive rats fed with high salt diet, low-level transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation significantly attenuated blood pressure elevation, ameliorated diastolic function, and attenuated left ventricular inflammation and fibrosis compared to the sham group. Further studies to examine the efficacy of this novel treatment in humans are warranted.

Abstract: Inflammation and fibrosis play a central role in the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1113/EP087351
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087351DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Modulating the Inflammatory Reflex in Rats Using Low-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Stimulation of the Vagus Nerve.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.

Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is linked to several chronic inflammatory diseases. Electrical vagus nerve stimulation reduces serum TNF-α levels but may cause chronic nerve damage and requires surgery. Alternatively, we proposed focused ultrasound stimulation of the vagus nerve (uVNS), which can be applied non-invasively. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03015629183040
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2018.09.005DOI Listing
November 2018
23 Reads
2.214 Impact Factor

Medial septal cholinergic mediation of hippocampal theta rhythm induced by vagal nerve stimulation.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(11):e0206532. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Neurobiology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, The University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

Background: Electrical vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has been used for years to treat patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. This technique also remains under investigation as a specific treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Recently we discovered that VNS induced hippocampal formation (HPC) type II theta rhythm, which is involved in memory consolidation. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206532PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6218045PMC
November 2018

Bioelectric neuromodulation for gastrointestinal disorders: effectiveness and mechanisms.

Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

The gastrointestinal tract has extensive, surgically accessible nerve connections with the central nervous system. This provides the opportunity to exploit rapidly advancing methods of nerve stimulation to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Bioelectric neuromodulation technology has considerably advanced in the past decade, but sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence currently remains the only neuromodulation protocol in general use for a gastrointestinal disorder. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41575-018-0078-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41575-018-0078-6DOI Listing
November 2018
22 Reads

Electroconvulsive Therapy and Other Neuromodulation Techniques for the Treatment of Psychosis.

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2019 Jan 31;28(1):91-100. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Vanderbilt Psychiatric Hospital, 1601 23rd Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37212, USA.

Electroconvulsive therapy is an established treatment for symptoms of psychosis and is currently recommended for use in patients who are experiencing an acute exacerbation of positive symptoms or who have had catatonia. There is also evidence to suggest that electroconvulsive therapy can be a safe, effective treatment in first episode psychosis, such as schizophrenia spectrum disorders, particularly in treatment-resistant patients. Other forms of neuromodulation (transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation) have less of an evidence base to support their use and are not formally indicated for the treatment of psychosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2018.07.004DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Improvement of intellectual outcomes in 20 children with refractory epilepsy after individualized surgery.

Surg Neurol Int 2018 8;9:203. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, Auhui Province, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Background: Refractory epilepsy is a common and troublesome neurosurgical disease. This study is designed to compare seizure control and degrees in intellectual outcome in children with refractory epilepsy after surgical treatment.

Methods: 20 children with refractory epilepsy were treated with tailored epilepsy surgery or vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Read More

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http://surgicalneurologyint.com/surgicalint-articles/improve
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/sni.sni_381_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194735PMC
October 2018
4 Reads

Consistent effects of non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) for the acute treatment of migraine: additional findings from the randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind PRESTO trial.

J Headache Pain 2018 Nov 1;19(1):101. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Neurophysiology and Pain Unit, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.

Background: Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) has been shown to be practical, safe, and well tolerated for treating primary headache disorders. The recent multicenter, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled PRESTO trial provided Class I evidence that for patients with episodic migraine, nVNS significantly increases the probability of having mild pain or being pain-free 2 h post stimulation. We report additional pre-defined secondary and other end points from PRESTO that demonstrate the consistency and durability of nVNS efficacy across a broad range of outcomes. Read More

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https://thejournalofheadacheandpain.biomedcentral.com/articl
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10194-018-0929-0DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Effect of Electrical Vagus Nerve Stimulation on Cerebral Blood Flow and Neurological Outcome in Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest Model of Rats.

Neurocrit Care 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 82, Gumi-ro 173 Beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 13620, Republic of Korea.

Background: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) during post-resuscitation may increase recovery of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and reduce neurological injury.

Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of electrical VNS on neurological outcomes following cardiac arrest (CA).

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) were subjected to the asphyxial CA model and blindly allocated to the VN isolation (CA + VN isolation) or VNS group (CA + VNS group). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12028-018-0640-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12028-018-0640-7DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

Invasive Neuromodulation for the Treatment of Pediatric Epilepsy.

Neurotherapeutics 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, 1503 555 University Ave., Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.

Neuromodulatory strategies are increasingly adopted for the treatment of intractable epilepsy in children. These encompass a wide range of treatments aimed at externally stimulating neural circuitry in order to decrease seizure frequency. In the current review, the authors discuss the evidence for invasive neuromodulation, namely vagus nerve and deep brain stimulation in affected children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13311-018-00685-1DOI Listing
October 2018
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Interregional metabolic connectivity of 2-deoxy-2[ F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography in vagus nerve stimulation for pediatric patients with epilepsy: A retrospective cross-sectional study.

Epilepsia 2018 Dec 28;59(12):2249-2259. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Division of Pediatric Neurology, Severance Children's Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: With the recognition of epilepsy as a network disease that disrupts the organizing ability of resting-state brain networks, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may control epileptic seizures through modulation of functional connectivity. We evaluated preoperative 2-deoxy-2[ F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in VNS-implanted pediatric patients with refractory epilepsy to analyze the metabolic connectivity of patients and its prognostic role in seizure control.

Methods: Preoperative PET data of 66 VNS pediatric patients who were followed up for a minimum of 1 year after the procedure were collected for the study. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/epi.14590
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.14590DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Improved seizure control and regaining cognitive milestones after vagus nerve stimulation revision surgery in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Epilepsy Behav Case Rep 2018 11;10:111-113. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Maastricht UMC +, P. Debyelaan 25, 6202 AZ Maastricht, the Netherlands.

We report a child with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome with an increase in seizure frequency and loss of psychomotor skills due to a disintegrated cervical VNS lead, not detected during standard device monitoring. The lead was completely removed and replaced by a new 303 lead on the same nerve segment. After reinitiating VNS, side effects forced us to switch it off, resulting in immediate seizure recurrence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebcr.2018.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6197149PMC
September 2018
2 Reads

Vagus nerve stimulation modulates the cranial trigeminal autonomic reflex.

Ann Neurol 2018 Oct 25. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Systems Neuroscience, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Objective: The trigeminal autonomic reflex plays an important role in primary headache syndromes. Noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation (nVNS) may be an effective modulator of this reflex.

Methods: Twenty-two healthy volunteers underwent kinetic oscillation stimulation (KOS) of the left nostril as a reliable trigger of the trigeminal autonomic reflex. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ana.25366
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25366DOI Listing
October 2018
17 Reads

Breath of Life: The Respiratory Vagal Stimulation Model of Contemplative Activity.

Front Hum Neurosci 2018 9;12:397. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Institute of Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.

Contemplative practices, such as meditation and yoga, are increasingly popular among the general public and as topics of research. Beneficial effects associated with these practices have been found on physical health, mental health and cognitive performance. However, studies and theories that clarify the underlying mechanisms are lacking or scarce. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2018.00397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6189422PMC
October 2018
1 Read