10,182 results match your criteria Vagus Nerve Stimulation


Pharyngolaryngeal spasm-induced dysphagia in an epileptic patient undergoing vagus nerve stimulation therapy.

Clin Case Rep 2020 May 26;8(5):858-861. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Otolaryngology Unit ASST Santi Paolo e Carlo Department of Health Sciences Università degli Studi di Milano Milan Italy.

Vagus nerve stimulation for refractory epilepsy may induce laryngeal side effects such as dysphonia and dysphagia. Careful tuning of the stimulation parameters and collaboration between epileptologists and otolaryngologists can help significantly reduce side effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.2761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250986PMC

High-Resolution Episcopic Imaging for Visualization of Dermal Arteries and Nerves of the Auricular Cymba Conchae in Humans.

Front Neuroanat 2020 12;14:22. Epub 2020 May 12.

Institute of Electrodynamics, Microwave and Circuit Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria.

Therapeutic applications of auricular vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) have drawn recent attention. Since the targeted stimulation process and parameters depend on the electrode-tissue interaction, the lack of structural anatomical information on innervation and vascularization of the auricle restrain the current optimization of stimulation paradigms. For the first time, we employed high-resolution episcopic imaging (HREM) to generate histologic volume data from donated human cadaver ears. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2020.00022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236887PMC

Vagus Nerve Stimulation Paired With Upper-Limb Rehabilitation After Stroke: One-Year Follow-up.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2020 Jun 1:1545968320924361. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with rehabilitation may improve upper-limb impairment and function after ischemic stroke. . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1545968320924361DOI Listing

Comparison between the cervical and abdominal vagus nerves in mice, pigs, and humans.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2020 May 31:e13889. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Chronic Diseases, Metabolism and Ageing (CHROMETA), Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Vagus nerve (VN) stimulation is currently evaluated as a novel approach to treat immune-mediated disorders. The optimal stimulation parameters, however, largely depend on the VN composition potentially impacting on its clinical translation. Hence, we evaluated whether morphological differences exist between the cervical and abdominal VNs across different species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13889DOI Listing

Networks in Frontal Lobe Epilepsy.

Authors:
Niravkumar Barot

Neurosurg Clin N Am 2020 Jul 16;31(3):319-324. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

University of Pittsburgh, Kaufmann Medical Building, 3471 Fifth Avenues, Suite 810, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

Epilepsy affects about 1% of the general population. Frontal lobe epilepsy is the second most common focal epilepsy accounting for nearly 25% of medically refractory epilepsies. This paper reviews frontal lobe epilepsy from a perspective of a network disease that may help us to understand epilepsy from the microscale of genes, to local neuronal circuits, to the macrolevel of a whole-brain network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nec.2020.03.001DOI Listing

A limited range of vagus nerve stimulation intensities produce motor cortex reorganization when delivered during training.

Behav Brain Res 2020 May 28:112705. Epub 2020 May 28.

The University of Texas at Dallas, Texas Biomedical Device Center, Richardson, TX, United States; The University of Texas at Dallas, Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science, Richardson, TX, United States.

Pairing vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with rehabilitation has emerged as a potential strategy to improve recovery after neurological injury, an effect ascribed to VNS-dependent enhancement of synaptic plasticity. Previous studies demonstrate that pairing VNS with forelimb training increases forelimb movement representations in motor cortex. However, it is not known whether VNS-dependent enhancement of plasticity is restricted to forelimb training or whether VNS paired with other movements could induce plasticity of other motor representations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112705DOI Listing

Circadian distribution of autostimulations in rVNS therapy in patients with refractory focal epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2020 May 27;110:107144. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Neurosciences and Rehabilitation, Tampere University Hospital, P.O. Box 2000, Tampere FI-33521, Finland; Tampere University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, FI-33014 Tampere, Finland.

Background: Responsive vagus nerve stimulation (rVNS) utilizes an electrocardiograph (ECG)-based algorithm to detect rapid sympathetic activations associated with the onset of a seizure. Abrupt sympathetic activation may also be associated with nocturnal arousals between sleep cycles or transitioning from sleep to wakefulness, a period in which many patients with epilepsy experience seizures. Because of circadian changes in autonomic function, we hypothesized that the autostimulation feature might also behave in a circadian fashion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107144DOI Listing

Chronic vagus nerve stimulation for drug-resistant epilepsy may influence fasting blood glucose concentration.

Biomed Eng Online 2020 May 29;19(1):40. Epub 2020 May 29.

Research Center for Biomedical Engineering, Medical Innovation & Research Division, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China.

Background: Cervical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been widely accepted as adjunctive therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy and major depression. Its effects on glycemic control in humans were however poorly understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential effects of VNS on fasting blood glucose (FBG) in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12938-020-00784-1DOI Listing

Non-invasive brain stimulation modalities for the treatment and prevention of opioid use disorder: a systematic review of the literature.

J Addict Dis 2020 Apr-Jun;38(2):186-199. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

The U.S. is currently facing an unprecedented epidemic of opioid-related deaths. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10550887.2020.1736756DOI Listing

A proposed guideline for vagus nerve stimulator handling in palliative care and after death.

Epilepsia 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is often used for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Although this intervention may improve seizure control and mood, a number of factors must be considered when patients with VNS near end of life. We reviewed relevant literature to create a proposed guideline for management of patients with VNS in palliative care and after death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16553DOI Listing

The Efficacy and Safety of Rapid Cycling Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Children With Intractable Epilepsy.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Division of Neurology, Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri. Electronic address:

Purpose: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an effective adjunctive therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Nevertheless, information is lacking regarding optimization of stimulation parameters to improve efficacy. Our study examines the safety and efficacy of rapid duty cycle VNS (OFF time ≤1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.04.003DOI Listing

Implications for Neuromodulation Therapy to Control Inflammation and Related Organ Dysfunction in COVID-19.

J Cardiovasc Transl Res 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Center for Perioperative Organ Protection, Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

COVID-19 is a syndrome that includes more than just isolated respiratory disease, as severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) also interacts with the cardiovascular, nervous, renal, and immune system at multiple levels, increasing morbidity in patients with underlying cardiometabolic conditions and inducing myocardial injury or dysfunction. Emerging evidence suggests that patients with the highest rate of morbidity and mortality following SARS-CoV2 infection have also developed a hyperinflammatory syndrome (also termed cytokine release syndrome). We lay out the potential contribution of a dysfunction in autonomic tone to the cytokine release syndrome and related multiorgan damage in COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12265-020-10031-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250255PMC

Identification of vagus nerve stimulation parameters affecting rat hippocampal electrophysiology without temperature effects.

Brain Stimul 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Laboratory for Clinical and Experimental Neurophysiology, Neurobiology and Neuropsychology, Ghent University, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Recent experiments in rats have demonstrated significant effects of VNS on hippocampal excitability but were partially attributed to hypothermia, induced by the applied VNS parameters.

Objective: To allow meaningful preclinical research on the mechanisms of VNS and translation of rodent results to clinical VNS trials, we aimed to identify non-hypothermia inducing VNS parameters that significantly affect hippocampal excitability.

Methods: VNS was administered in cycles of 30 seconds including either 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.05.011DOI Listing

Electrocardiogram Corrected Q-T Interval Predicts Response to Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Depression.

J ECT 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

From the Unité de Neuromodulation Psychiatrique.

Introduction: Recent studies have revealed a possible link between heart rate variability (HRV) and major depressive disorder (MDD), with decreased HRV in MDD compared with healthy subjects. Corrected Q-T interval (QTc) has been suggested to represent an indirect estimate of HRV, as QTc length is inversely correlated to parasympathetic activity in healthy subjects. This retrospective study assessed the ability of QTc length in predicting response to vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) treatment in refractory depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCT.0000000000000684DOI Listing

Study protocol for the antidepressant advisor (ADeSS): a decision support system for antidepressant treatment for depression in UK primary care: a feasibility study.

BMJ Open 2020 May 24;10(5):e035905. Epub 2020 May 24.

Centre for Affective Disorders, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK

Introduction: The Antidepressant Advisor Study is a feasibility trial of a computerised decision-support tool which uses an algorithm to provide antidepressant treatment guidance for general practitioners (GPs) in the UK primary care service. The tool is the first in the UK to implement national guidelines on antidepressant treatment guidance into a computerised decision-support tool.

Methods And Analysis: The study is a parallel group, cluster-randomised controlled feasibility trial where participants are blind to treatment allocation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-035905DOI Listing
May 2020
2.063 Impact Factor

Tragus Nerve Stimulation Suppresses Post-Infarction Ventricular Arrhythmia by Modulating Autonomic Activity and Heterogeneities of Cardiac Receptor Distribution.

Med Sci Monit 2020 May 24;26:e922277. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Cardiac Pacing and Electrophysiology, Heart Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Imbalanced cardiac autonomic control and cardiac receptors redistribution contribute to the arrhythmogenic substrate under the myocardial infarction (MI) condition. Stimulating the auricular branch of vagus nerve (AB-VNS) has been proven to reduce post-infarction ventricular arrhythmia (VAs), but its potential mechanisms were largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether long-term intermittent low-intensity AB-VNS could produce a protective effect on modulating autonomic activities and abnormal redistribution of autonomic nerve efferent receptors in a MI canine model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.922277DOI Listing

Acupuncture for cancer-related hiccups: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 May;99(20):e19973

Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, China.

Background: Hiccups are involuntary contractions of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, which lead to sudden contractions of the glottis. CAM, such as acupuncture is commonly used and stimulation of the vagus nerve and interference with phrenic nerve conduction are also used to treat hiccups. However, there is little evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture for cancer-related hiccups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019973DOI Listing
May 2020
5.723 Impact Factor

Vagal Nerve Stimulation in Epilepsy: Experiences of Participants with Cognitive Deficits.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2020 8;16:1181-1188. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Neurology and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine patients' experiences of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) with a special interest in patients with cognitive deficit (CD).

Materials And Methods: An open, retrospective study was conducted on 82 patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, who were treated with VNS for at least 10 months. Based on the inability to live independently, they were divided into two groups: patients with cognitive deficit (CD group) and patients without cognitive deficit (non-CD group). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S241716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217302PMC

Autonomic Modulation of Cardiac Arrhythmias: Methods to Assess Treatment and Outcomes.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2020 May;6(5):467-483

Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

The autonomic nervous system plays a central role in the pathogenesis of multiple cardiac arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. As such, autonomic modulation represents an attractive therapeutic approach in these conditions. Notably, autonomic modulation exploits the plasticity of the neural tissue to induce neural remodeling and thus obtain therapeutic benefit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2020.02.014DOI Listing

α7nAchR mediates transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation-induced neuroprotection in a rat model of ischemic stroke by enhancing axonal plasticity.

Neurosci Lett 2020 May 19;730:135031. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Axonal plasticity is important for neurofunctional recovery after stroke. This study aimed to explore the role of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (ta-VNS) on axonal plasticity and its underlying association with the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor(α7nAchR) after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated by intraperitoneal injection with either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or an α7nAchR antagonist and then subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and ta-VNS treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135031DOI Listing

Feasibility of Attachable Ring Stimulator for Intraoperative Neuromonitoring during Thyroid Surgery.

Int J Endocrinol 2020 30;2020:5280939. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 07061, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Stimulator-attached dissecting instruments are useful for intraoperative nerve monitoring during thyroidectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an attachable ring stimulator (ARS) by comparing the electromyography (EMG) amplitudes evoked by an ARS and a conventional stimulator.

Methods: Medical records of fourteen patients who underwent thyroidectomy using intraoperative neuromonitoring between June and August 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5280939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204267PMC
January 2020

Critical Review of Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Challenges for Translation to Clinical Practice.

Front Neurosci 2020 28;14:284. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, Australia.

Several studies have illustrated that transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) can elicit therapeutic effects that are similar to those produced by its invasive counterpart, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). VNS is an FDA-approved therapy for the treatment of both depression and epilepsy, but it is limited to the management of more severe, intervention-resistant cases as a second or third-line treatment option due to perioperative risks involved with device implantation. In contrast, tVNS is a non-invasive technique that involves the application of electrical currents through surface electrodes at select locations, most commonly targeting the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) and the cervical branch of the vagus nerve in the neck. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199464PMC

The Association Between Vascular Inflammation and Depressive Disorder. Causality, Biomarkers and Targeted Treatment.

Authors:
Hans O Kalkman

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2020 May 12;13(5). Epub 2020 May 12.

Retired pharmacologist, Gänsbühlgartenweg 7, CH-4132 Muttenz, Switzerland.

Diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction are frequently co-morbid with major depressive disorder. In the current review, it is argued that vascular inflammation is a factor that is common to all disorders and that an endothelial dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier could be involved in the induction of depression symptoms. Biomarkers for vascular inflammation include a high plasma level of C-reactive protein, soluble cell-adhesion molecules, von Willebrand factor, aldosterone, and proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 or tumor necrosis factor α. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph13050092DOI Listing

Stimulation of the vagus nerve reduces learning in a go/no-go reinforcement learning task.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2020 May 10. Epub 2020 May 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, Calwerstr. 14, 72076 Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

When facing decisions to approach rewards or to avoid punishments, we often figuratively go with our gut, and the impact of metabolic states such as hunger on motivation are well documented. However, whether and how vagal feedback signals from the gut influence instrumental actions is unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of non-invasive transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2020.03.023DOI Listing

Stereotactic laser anterior corpus callosotomy for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Epilepsia 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Objective: Corpus callosotomy is an effective palliative treatment for drug-resistant Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). Laser interstitial thermal therapy has been increasingly used in the treatment of epilepsy. Here, we assess the safety and effectiveness of minimally invasive stereotactic laser anterior corpus callosotomy (SLACC) for drop attacks in LGS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16535DOI Listing

Clinically-derived vagus nerve stimulation enhances cerebrospinal fluid penetrance.

Brain Stimul 2020 Mar 26;13(4):1024-1030. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1550 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI, 53706, USA; Department of Neurological Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an FDA-approved neuromodulatory treatment used in the clinic today for epilepsy, depression, and cluster headaches. Moreover, evidence in the literature has led to a growing list of possible clinical indications, with several small clinical trials applying VNS to treat conditions ranging from neurodegenerative diseases to arthritis, anxiety disorders, and obesity. Despite the growing list of therapeutic applications, the fundamental mechanisms by which VNS achieves its beneficial effects are poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.012DOI Listing

Peripheral Focused Ultrasound Neuromodulation (pFUS).

J Neurosci Methods 2020 May 6;341:108721. Epub 2020 May 6.

General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: A fundamental limit to the study of the peripheral nervous system and its effect on organ function is the lack of tools to selectively target and stimulate specific neurons. Traditional implant and electrode-based systems remain too large and invasive for use at the organ or sub-organ level (without stimulating or effecting neighboring organs and tissues). Recent progress in optical and genetic tools (such as optogenetics) has provided a new level of molecular specificity and selectivity to the neurons that are stimulated by bioelectronic devices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2020.108721DOI Listing

Alteration in brain connectivity in patients with Dravet syndrome after vagus nerve stimulation (VNS): Exploration of its effectiveness using graph theory analysis with electroencephalography.

J Neural Eng 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Seoul, Korea (the Republic of).

Objective: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a nonpharmacologic therapeutic option for patients who have pharmaco-resistant Dravet syndrome (DS). Plentiful efforts have been made for delivering VNS to DS patients, but its effectiveness still requires further verification. We investigated the effectiveness of the VNS treatment of DS patients using brain connectivity analysis with electroencephalography (EEG). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ab914fDOI Listing

Stimulus frequency modulates brainstem response to respiratory-gated transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation.

Brain Stimul 2020 Mar 27;13(4):970-978. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA; Department of Radiology, Logan University, Chesterfield, MO, USA.

Background: The therapeutic potential of transcutaneous auricular VNS (taVNS) is currently being explored for numerous clinical applications. However, optimized response for different clinical indications may depend on specific neuromodulation parameters, and systematic assessments of their influence are still needed to optimize this promising approach.

Hypothesis: We proposed that stimulation frequency would have a significant effect on nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) functional MRI (fMRI) response to respiratory-gated taVNS (RAVANS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.011DOI Listing

Plasma neuropeptide as a prognostic marker of vagus nerve stimulation in the treatment of epilepsy.

Authors:
Jing-Bo Gao Min Bao

Brain Stimul 2020 Apr 1;13(4):959-960. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No. 36, Sao Hao Street, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110004, PR China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.021DOI Listing

Transcutaneous Stimulation of Auricular Branch of the Vagus Nerve Attenuates the Acute Inflammatory Response After Lung Lobectomy.

World J Surg 2020 May 1. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, North Clinic, Bruennerstrasse 68, 1210, Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: Systemic inflammation is a potentially debilitating complication of thoracic surgeries with significant physical and economic morbidity. There is compelling evidence for the role of the central nervous system in regulating inflammatory processes through humoral mechanisms. Activation of the afferent vagus nerve by cytokines triggers anti-inflammatory responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-020-05543-wDOI Listing

Molecular Aspects of Regional Pain Syndrome.

Pain Res Manag 2020 11;2020:7697214. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

MAGI's Lab, Via delle Maioliche. 57/D, 38068 Rovereto, TN, Italy.

The purpose of this review is to summarize the pathophysiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), the underlying molecular mechanisms, and potential treatment options for its management. CRPS is a multifactorial pain condition. CRPS is characterized by prolonged or excessive pain and changes in skin color and temperature, and/or swelling in the affected area, and is generally caused by stimuli that lead to tissue damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7697214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171689PMC

Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation Does Not Affect Verbal Memory Performance in Healthy Volunteers.

Front Psychol 2020 15;11:551. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

4Brain, Department of Neurology, Institute for Neuroscience, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Introduction: Invasive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) improves word recognition memory in patients with epilepsy. Recent studies with transcutaneous VNS (tVNS) have also shown positive effects on various subdomains of cognitive functioning in healthy volunteers. In this randomized, controlled, crossover study, we investigated the effect of tVNS on a word recognition memory paradigm in healthy volunteers to further investigate the potential of tVNS in the treatment of cognitive disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174665PMC

The Use of Non-invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation to Treat Respiratory Symptoms Associated With COVID-19: A Theoretical Hypothesis and Early Clinical Experience.

Neuromodulation 2020 Apr 27. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Anesthesia Pain Care Consultants, Tamarac, FL, USA.

Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a pandemic with no specific therapeutic agents and substantial mortality, and finding new treatments is critical. Most cases are mild, but a significant minority of patients develop moderate to severe respiratory symptoms, with the most severe cases requiring intensive care and/or ventilator support. This respiratory compromise appears to be due to a hyperimmune reaction, often called a cytokine storm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ner.13172DOI Listing

Vagus nerve stimulation paired with tones for tinnitus suppression: Effects on voice and hearing.

Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol 2020 Apr 24;5(2):286-296. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

MicroTransponder, Inc., Austin Texas.

Objective: In individuals with chronic tinnitus, our interest was to determine whether daily low-level electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve paired with tones (paired-VNS) for tinnitus suppression had any adverse effects on motor-speech production and physiological acoustics of sustained vowels. Similarly, we were also interested in evaluating for changes in pure-tone thresholds, word-recognition performance, and minimum-masking levels. Both voice and hearing functions were measured repeatedly over a period of 1 year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lio2.364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178458PMC

[Bibliometric analysis on clinical trials of auricular acupuncture treatment of obesity].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2020 Apr;45(4):334-8

Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700.

Objective: To review the current situation of researches on auricular acupuncture treatment for obesity by using bibliometric analysis, so as to provide a reference for clinical application and experimental research in the future.

Methods: Articles written in both Chinese and English and published from the time of establishment of the following databases were collected from databases of CNKI, Wanfang, PubMed and Web of Science by using key words of "otopoint sticking" "otopoint seed-pres-sing" "auriculotherapy" "ear/auricular acupuncture" "auricular pressure" "auricular-plaster therapy" "acupuncture and auricular pressure" "auriculopressure" "transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS)" "obesity" "adiposity" "adiposis" and "fatty". The articles met our inclusive criteria were analyzed for summarizing their publication years, involved journals, research organizations and selected acupoints. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.200088DOI Listing

The evolving indications of KD therapy.

Epilepsy Res 2020 Jul 14;163:106340. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Neurology, Hospital de Pediatria Juan P Garrahan, Combate de los Pozos 1881, C1245 CABA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Despite the rapid increase of clinical and basic-science knowledge on ketogenic diet therapies over the past years, it has not always been easy to determine the adequate indications of this treatment. Over the nearly 100 years of use, from being a last resource in the therapeutic algorithm, the diet has become one of the four main treatments for patients with difficult-to-control epilepsy together with antiepileptic drugs, surgery, and vagus nerve stimulation. The use of the diet has also changed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106340DOI Listing

Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease: pathophysiology, risk factors and treatments.

Transl Neurodegener 2020 15;9:12. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

1Department of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common, disabling symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms and treatments of FOG remain great challenges for clinicians and researchers. The main focus of this review is to summarize the possible mechanisms underlying FOG, the risk factors for screening and predicting the onset of FOG, and the clinical trials involving various therapeutic strategies. In addition, the limitations and recommendations for future research design are also discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40035-020-00191-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161193PMC

Intraoperative neuromonitoring by vagus nerve stimulation in thyroid surgery: Clinical assessment of recurrent and superior laryngeal nerves.

Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis 2020 May 17;137(3):227-230. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Laboratoire d'anatomie, faculté de médecine de Saint-Étienne, 42000 Saint-Étienne, France; Service d'ORL et de chirurgie cervico-faciale-CHU Nord Saint-Étienne, 42000 Saint-Étienne, France.

Intraoperative neuromonitoring of the laryngeal nerves during thyroidectomy is a reliable method to assess nerve function. After identification of the cricothyroid ligament, a bipolar electrode is selectively inserted through the ligament into the thyroarytenoid muscle (TAM) and cricothyroid muscle (CTM). Vagus nerve stimulation then allows precise monitoring of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) in the TAM and CTM, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anorl.2020.04.005DOI Listing

Neurophysiological investigations of drug resistant epilepsy patients treated with vagus nerve stimulation to differentiate responders from non-responders.

Eur J Neurol 2020 Apr 20. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Neurology, 4Brain, Institute for Neuroscience, Reference Center for Refractory Epilepsy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Background And Purpose: In patients treated with vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for drug resistant epilepsy (DRE), up to a third of patients will eventually not respond to the therapy. As VNS therapy requires surgery for device implantation, prediction of response prior to surgery is desirable. It is hypothesized that neurophysiological investigations related to the mechanisms of action of VNS may help to differentiate VNS responders from non-responders prior to the initiation of therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14270DOI Listing

Specific vagus nerve stimulation parameters alter serum cytokine levels in the absence of inflammation.

Bioelectron Med 2020 10;6. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Biomedical Science, Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research, Northwell Health, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030 USA.

Background: Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves is a widely used technique to treat a variety of conditions including chronic pain, motor impairment, headaches, and epilepsy. Nerve stimulation to achieve efficacious symptomatic relief depends on the proper selection of electrical stimulation parameters to recruit the appropriate fibers within a nerve. Recently, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve has shown promise for controlling inflammation and clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42234-020-00042-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146955PMC

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation modulates attentional resource deployment towards social cues.

Neuropsychologia 2020 Apr 14;143:107465. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Leiden University, Cognitive Psychology Unit & Leiden Institute for Brain and Cognition, Leiden, the Netherlands; Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, TU Dresden, Germany; Department of Cognitive Psychology, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) has been shown to promote inferences of emotional states based on eye-related information provided by facial expressions of emotions. Eye gaze direction can influence the allocation of attentional sources when processing facial emotional stimuli. Here we sought for further evidence indicating whether tVNS effects would be specific to emotional expressions or to gaze - both socially relevant stimuli - and whether they reflect the enhancement of attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2020.107465DOI Listing

Acute effects of vagus nerve stimulation parameters on gastric motility assessed with magnetic resonance imaging.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2020 Apr 15:e13853. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an emerging bioelectronic therapy for regulating food intake and controlling gastric motility. However, the effects of different VNS parameters and polarity on postprandial gastric motility remain incompletely characterized.

Methods: In anesthetized rats (N = 3), we applied monophasic electrical stimuli to the left cervical vagus and recorded compound nerve action potential (CNAP) as a measure of nerve response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13853DOI Listing

A neural circuit mechanism for mechanosensory feedback control of ingestion.

Nature 2020 04 8;580(7803):376-380. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Mechanosensory feedback from the digestive tract to the brain is critical for limiting excessive food and water intake, but the underlying gut-brain communication pathways and mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that, in mice, neurons in the parabrachial nucleus that express the prodynorphin gene (hereafter, PB neurons) monitor the intake of both fluids and solids, using mechanosensory signals that arise from the upper digestive tract. Most individual PB neurons are activated by ingestion as well as the stimulation of the mouth and stomach, which indicates the representation of integrated sensory signals across distinct parts of the digestive tract. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2167-2DOI Listing

The Immediate Effects of Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Intractable Epilepsy: An Intra-operative Electrocorticographic Analysis.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2020 May 15;60(5):244-251. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Sapporo Medical University.

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) reduces the epileptogenic activity in the bilateral cerebral cortex in patients with intractable epilepsy. We analyzed the electrocorticograms (ECoGs) of five patients who underwent callosotomy due to intractable epilepsy even after VNS implantation. We recorded ECoGs and analyzed power spectrum in both VNS OFF and ON phases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.oa.2019-0221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246227PMC

Design and validation of a closed-loop, motor-activated auricular vagus nerve stimulation (MAAVNS) system for neurorehabilitation.

Brain Stimul 2020 May - Jun;13(3):800-803. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Brain Stimulation Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Studies have found that pairing vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with motor activity accelerates cortical reorganization. This synchronous pairing may enhance motor recovery.

Objective: To develop and validate a motor-activated auricular vagus nerve stimulation (MAAVNS) system as a potential neurorehabilitation tool. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.02.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196027PMC
February 2020

Electrical stimulation of cranial nerves in cognition and disease.

Brain Stimul 2020 May - Jun;13(3):717-750. Epub 2020 Feb 23.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, City College of New York, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

The cranial nerves are the pathways through which environmental information (sensation) is directly communicated to the brain, leading to perception, and giving rise to higher cognition. Because cranial nerves determine and modulate brain function, invasive and non-invasive cranial nerve electrical stimulation methods have applications in the clinical, behavioral, and cognitive domains. Among other neuromodulation approaches such as peripheral, transcranial and deep brain stimulation, cranial nerve stimulation is unique in allowing axon pathway-specific engagement of brain circuits, including thalamo-cortical networks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.02.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196013PMC
February 2020

The effects of low-and high-frequency non-invasive transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation (taVNS) on gastric slow waves evaluated using in vivo high-resolution mapping in porcine.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2020 Apr 13:e13852. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Backgrounds: Gastric motility is regulated by an electrophysiological activity called slow-wave and neuronal innervations by the vagus nerve. Transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation (taVNS) has been demonstrated to have therapeutic potential for a wide range of medical conditions, including the management of gastric dysfunctions. The main objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of how non-invasive neuromodulation influences gastric slow wave under in vivo conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13852DOI Listing