31,741 results match your criteria Vagus Nerve


Effect of vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy: A protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jun;99(23):e20315

Department of Neurology, Yan'an People's Hospital, Yan'an, China.

Background: Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) is a very tricky disorder, which greatly affects quality of life in such patients. Relevant studies suggested that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has potential benefits for DRE. However, there are inconsistent conclusions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020315DOI Listing

The Physiological Role of Ghrelin in the Regulation of Energy and Glucose Homeostasis.

Cureus 2020 May 3;12(5):e7941. Epub 2020 May 3.

Medicine, Imperial College London, London, GBR.

Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that is primarily released from the stomach. It is best known for its role in appetite initiation. However, evidence also suggests that ghrelin may play a much wider role in energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266561PMC

Thirty years of translational research in Mobility Medicine: Collection of abstracts of the 2020 Padua Muscle Days.

Authors:
Ugo Carraro

Eur J Transl Myol 2020 Apr 1;30(1):8826. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Interdepartmental Research Centre of Myology (CIR-Myo), Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Italy.

More than half a century of skeletal muscle research is continuing at Padua University (Italy) under the auspices of the Interdepartmental Research Centre of Myology (CIR-Myo), the European Journal of Translational Myology (EJTM) and recently also with the support of the A&CM-C Foundation for Translational Myology, Padova, Italy. The Volume 30(1), 2020 of the EJTM opens with the collection of abstracts for the conference "2020 Padua Muscle Days: Mobility Medicine 30 years of Translational Research". This is an international conference that will be held between March 18-21, 2020 in Euganei Hills and Padova in Italy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ejtm.2019.8826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254447PMC

A Gut Feeling about Dopamine.

Neuron 2020 Jun;106(5):703-704

Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. Electronic address:

In this issue of Neuron, Fernandes et al. (2020) compare intra-gastric sugar and non-caloric sweetener to investigate how post-ingestive effects can be reinforcing, revealing a role for the hepatic vagus nerve in transforming sugar sensing by the gut into behavioral reinforcement via midbrain dopamine neuron responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2020.05.018DOI Listing

Anatomical Variations in Recurrent Laryngeal Nerves in Thyroid Surgery.

Ear Nose Throat J 2020 Jun 4:145561320927565. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Pathology, Jingzhou No. 1 People's Hospital and First Affiliated Hospital of Yangtze University, Hubei Province, China.

Objective: To study terminal bifurcation of recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLNs) with original direction to larynx entry and to decrease the risk of vocal cord paralysis in thyroid patients.

Methods: The RLNs of 294 patients (482 sides) were dissected according to the branches into the larynx, and the original direction of each RLN trunk in thyroid surgery was recorded.

Results: (1) About 30. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145561320927565DOI Listing

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS)-induced layer-specific modulation of evoked responses in the sensory cortex of rats.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 2;10(1):8932. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan.

Neuromodulation achieved by vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) induces various neuropsychiatric effects whose underlying mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Innervation of neuromodulators and a microcircuit structure in the cerebral cortex informed the hypothesis that VNS exerts layer-specific modulation in the sensory cortex and alters the balance between feedforward and feedback pathways. To test this hypothesis, we characterized laminar profiles of auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of anesthetized rats with an array of microelectrodes and investigated the effects of VNS on AEPs and stimulus specific adaptation (SSA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65745-zDOI Listing

Tentonin 3 as a baroreceptor mechanosensor: not a stretch.

J Clin Invest 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Mechanical stretch of baroreceptors in the wall of the aortic arch and carotid sinus initiates autonomic reflexes to change heart rate and blood pressure for cardiovascular homeostasis. In this issue of the JCI, Lu et al. show that tentonin 3 (TTN3), a recently identified stretch-sensitive ion channel, was present at the vagus afferent nerve endings innervating the aortic arch to function as a baroreceptor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI138120DOI Listing

Clearing method for 3-dimensional immunofluorescence of osteoarthritic subchondral human bone reveals peripheral cholinergic nerves.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 1;10(1):8852. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

The cholinergic system plays a major anti-inflammatory role in many diseases through acetylcholine (Ach) release after vagus nerve stimulation. Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with local low-grade inflammation, but the regulatory mechanisms are unclear. Local Ach release could have anti-inflammatory activity since articular cells express Ach receptors involved in inflammatory responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65873-6DOI Listing

Pharyngolaryngeal spasm-induced dysphagia in an epileptic patient undergoing vagus nerve stimulation therapy.

Clin Case Rep 2020 May 26;8(5):858-861. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Otolaryngology Unit ASST Santi Paolo e Carlo Department of Health Sciences Università degli Studi di Milano Milan Italy.

Vagus nerve stimulation for refractory epilepsy may induce laryngeal side effects such as dysphonia and dysphagia. Careful tuning of the stimulation parameters and collaboration between epileptologists and otolaryngologists can help significantly reduce side effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.2761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250986PMC

High-Resolution Episcopic Imaging for Visualization of Dermal Arteries and Nerves of the Auricular Cymba Conchae in Humans.

Front Neuroanat 2020 12;14:22. Epub 2020 May 12.

Institute of Electrodynamics, Microwave and Circuit Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria.

Therapeutic applications of auricular vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) have drawn recent attention. Since the targeted stimulation process and parameters depend on the electrode-tissue interaction, the lack of structural anatomical information on innervation and vascularization of the auricle restrain the current optimization of stimulation paradigms. For the first time, we employed high-resolution episcopic imaging (HREM) to generate histologic volume data from donated human cadaver ears. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2020.00022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236887PMC

Vagus Nerve Stimulation Paired With Upper-Limb Rehabilitation After Stroke: One-Year Follow-up.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2020 Jun 1:1545968320924361. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with rehabilitation may improve upper-limb impairment and function after ischemic stroke. . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1545968320924361DOI Listing

Spontaneous Axonal Dystrophy in the Brain and Spinal Cord in Naïve Beagle Dogs.

Toxicol Pathol 2020 Jun 1:192623320926475. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Global Pathology and Investigative Toxicology, Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, USA.

Axonal dystrophy (AD) is a common age-related neurohistological finding in vertebrates that can be congenital or induced by xenobiotics, vitamin E deficiency, or trauma/compression. To understand the incidence and location of AD as a background finding in Beagle dogs used in routine toxicity studies, we examined central nervous system (CNS) and selected peripheral nervous system (PNS) tissues in twenty 18- to 24-month-old and ten 4- to 5-year-old control males and females. Both sexes were equally affected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623320926475DOI Listing

Comparison between the cervical and abdominal vagus nerves in mice, pigs, and humans.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2020 May 31:e13889. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Chronic Diseases, Metabolism and Ageing (CHROMETA), Translational Research Center for Gastrointestinal Disorders (TARGID), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Vagus nerve (VN) stimulation is currently evaluated as a novel approach to treat immune-mediated disorders. The optimal stimulation parameters, however, largely depend on the VN composition potentially impacting on its clinical translation. Hence, we evaluated whether morphological differences exist between the cervical and abdominal VNs across different species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13889DOI Listing

Networks in Frontal Lobe Epilepsy.

Authors:
Niravkumar Barot

Neurosurg Clin N Am 2020 Jul 16;31(3):319-324. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

University of Pittsburgh, Kaufmann Medical Building, 3471 Fifth Avenues, Suite 810, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

Epilepsy affects about 1% of the general population. Frontal lobe epilepsy is the second most common focal epilepsy accounting for nearly 25% of medically refractory epilepsies. This paper reviews frontal lobe epilepsy from a perspective of a network disease that may help us to understand epilepsy from the microscale of genes, to local neuronal circuits, to the macrolevel of a whole-brain network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nec.2020.03.001DOI Listing

Restraint stress increases the expression of phoenixin immunoreactivity in rat brain nuclei.

Brain Res 2020 May 28:146904. Epub 2020 May 28.

Charité Center for Internal Medicine and Dermatology, Department for Psychosomatic Medicine, Charite - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany; Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Phoenixin is a recently discovered peptide, which has been associated with reproduction, anxiety and food intake. Based on a considerable co-localization it has been linked to nesfatin-1, with a possible antagonistic mode of action. Since nesfatin-1 is known to play a role in anxiety and the response to stress, this study aims to investigate the effects of a well-established psychological stress model, restraint stress, on phoenixin-expressing brain nuclei and phoenixin expression in rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2020.146904DOI Listing

A limited range of vagus nerve stimulation intensities produce motor cortex reorganization when delivered during training.

Behav Brain Res 2020 May 28:112705. Epub 2020 May 28.

The University of Texas at Dallas, Texas Biomedical Device Center, Richardson, TX, United States; The University of Texas at Dallas, Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science, Richardson, TX, United States.

Pairing vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with rehabilitation has emerged as a potential strategy to improve recovery after neurological injury, an effect ascribed to VNS-dependent enhancement of synaptic plasticity. Previous studies demonstrate that pairing VNS with forelimb training increases forelimb movement representations in motor cortex. However, it is not known whether VNS-dependent enhancement of plasticity is restricted to forelimb training or whether VNS paired with other movements could induce plasticity of other motor representations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112705DOI Listing

Sensory neurons in the human jugular ganglion.

Tissue Cell 2020 Jun 9;64:101344. Epub 2020 Feb 9.

Division of Oral and Craniofacial Anatomy, Graduate School of Dentistry, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8575, Japan. Electronic address:

The jugular ganglion (JG) contains sensory neurons of the vagus nerve which innervate somatic and visceral structures in cranial and cervical regions. In this study, the number of sensory neurons in the human JG was investigated. And, the morphology of sensory neurons in the human JG and nodose ganglion (NG) was compared. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2020.101344DOI Listing

Circadian distribution of autostimulations in rVNS therapy in patients with refractory focal epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2020 May 27;110:107144. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Neurosciences and Rehabilitation, Tampere University Hospital, P.O. Box 2000, Tampere FI-33521, Finland; Tampere University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, FI-33014 Tampere, Finland.

Background: Responsive vagus nerve stimulation (rVNS) utilizes an electrocardiograph (ECG)-based algorithm to detect rapid sympathetic activations associated with the onset of a seizure. Abrupt sympathetic activation may also be associated with nocturnal arousals between sleep cycles or transitioning from sleep to wakefulness, a period in which many patients with epilepsy experience seizures. Because of circadian changes in autonomic function, we hypothesized that the autostimulation feature might also behave in a circadian fashion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107144DOI Listing

Chronic vagus nerve stimulation for drug-resistant epilepsy may influence fasting blood glucose concentration.

Biomed Eng Online 2020 May 29;19(1):40. Epub 2020 May 29.

Research Center for Biomedical Engineering, Medical Innovation & Research Division, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China.

Background: Cervical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been widely accepted as adjunctive therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy and major depression. Its effects on glycemic control in humans were however poorly understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential effects of VNS on fasting blood glucose (FBG) in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12938-020-00784-1DOI Listing

Mitochondria and immunity in chronic fatigue syndrome.

Authors:
G Anderson M Maes

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2020 May 26;103:109976. Epub 2020 May 26.

Dept Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Dept Psychiatry, Medical University Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.; IMPACT Research Center, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

It is widely accepted that the pathophysiology and treatment of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) could be considerably improved. The heterogeneity of ME/CFS and the confusion over its classification have undoubtedly contributed to this, although this would seem a consequence of the complexity of the array of ME/CFS presentations and high levels of diverse comorbidities. This article reviews the biological underpinnings of ME/CFS presentations, including the interacting roles of the gut microbiome/permeability, endogenous opioidergic system, immune cell mitochondria, autonomic nervous system, microRNA-155, viral infection/re-awakening and leptin as well as melatonin and the circadian rhythm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2020.109976DOI Listing

Non-invasive brain stimulation modalities for the treatment and prevention of opioid use disorder: a systematic review of the literature.

J Addict Dis 2020 Apr-Jun;38(2):186-199. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

The U.S. is currently facing an unprecedented epidemic of opioid-related deaths. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10550887.2020.1736756DOI Listing

Closed-loop bioelectronic medicine for diabetes management.

Bioelectron Med 2020 15;6:11. Epub 2020 May 15.

1Centre for Bio-Inspired Technology, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Modulation of the nervous system by delivering electrical or pharmaceutical agents has contributed to the development of novel treatments to serious health disorders. Recent advances in multidisciplinary research has enabled the emergence of a new powerful therapeutic approach called bioelectronic medicine. Bioelectronic medicine exploits the fact that every organ in our bodies is neurally innervated and thus electrical interfacing with peripheral nerves can be a potential pathway for diagnosing or treating diseases such as diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s42234-020-00046-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227365PMC

A proposed guideline for vagus nerve stimulator handling in palliative care and after death.

Epilepsia 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is often used for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Although this intervention may improve seizure control and mood, a number of factors must be considered when patients with VNS near end of life. We reviewed relevant literature to create a proposed guideline for management of patients with VNS in palliative care and after death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16553DOI Listing

Atrial fibrillation ablation-induced gastroparesis: A case report and literature review.

HeartRhythm Case Rep 2020 May 22;6(5):249-252. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrcr.2020.01.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244628PMC

The Efficacy and Safety of Rapid Cycling Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Children With Intractable Epilepsy.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 Apr 13. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Division of Neurology, Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri. Electronic address:

Purpose: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an effective adjunctive therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Nevertheless, information is lacking regarding optimization of stimulation parameters to improve efficacy. Our study examines the safety and efficacy of rapid duty cycle VNS (OFF time ≤1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.04.003DOI Listing

Implications for Neuromodulation Therapy to Control Inflammation and Related Organ Dysfunction in COVID-19.

J Cardiovasc Transl Res 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Center for Perioperative Organ Protection, Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

COVID-19 is a syndrome that includes more than just isolated respiratory disease, as severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) also interacts with the cardiovascular, nervous, renal, and immune system at multiple levels, increasing morbidity in patients with underlying cardiometabolic conditions and inducing myocardial injury or dysfunction. Emerging evidence suggests that patients with the highest rate of morbidity and mortality following SARS-CoV2 infection have also developed a hyperinflammatory syndrome (also termed cytokine release syndrome). We lay out the potential contribution of a dysfunction in autonomic tone to the cytokine release syndrome and related multiorgan damage in COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12265-020-10031-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250255PMC

Identification of vagus nerve stimulation parameters affecting rat hippocampal electrophysiology without temperature effects.

Brain Stimul 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Laboratory for Clinical and Experimental Neurophysiology, Neurobiology and Neuropsychology, Ghent University, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Recent experiments in rats have demonstrated significant effects of VNS on hippocampal excitability but were partially attributed to hypothermia, induced by the applied VNS parameters.

Objective: To allow meaningful preclinical research on the mechanisms of VNS and translation of rodent results to clinical VNS trials, we aimed to identify non-hypothermia inducing VNS parameters that significantly affect hippocampal excitability.

Methods: VNS was administered in cycles of 30 seconds including either 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.05.011DOI Listing

Electrocardiogram Corrected Q-T Interval Predicts Response to Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Depression.

J ECT 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

From the Unité de Neuromodulation Psychiatrique.

Introduction: Recent studies have revealed a possible link between heart rate variability (HRV) and major depressive disorder (MDD), with decreased HRV in MDD compared with healthy subjects. Corrected Q-T interval (QTc) has been suggested to represent an indirect estimate of HRV, as QTc length is inversely correlated to parasympathetic activity in healthy subjects. This retrospective study assessed the ability of QTc length in predicting response to vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) treatment in refractory depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCT.0000000000000684DOI Listing

The vagus nerve mediates the suppressing effects of peripherally administered oxytocin on methamphetamine self-administration and seeking in rats.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2020 May 25. Epub 2020 May 25.

Centre for Emotional Health, Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Marsfield, NSW, Australia.

The neuropeptide oxytocin has emerged as a promising pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine (METH) addiction, and clinical trials of intranasal oxytocin are underway. However, there is debate as to how peripherally administered oxytocin alters brain signalling to modulate addiction processes. Interestingly, there is evidence for functional interactions between peripheral oxytocin administration and the vagus nerve. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-0719-7DOI Listing

Study protocol for the antidepressant advisor (ADeSS): a decision support system for antidepressant treatment for depression in UK primary care: a feasibility study.

BMJ Open 2020 May 24;10(5):e035905. Epub 2020 May 24.

Centre for Affective Disorders, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK

Introduction: The Antidepressant Advisor Study is a feasibility trial of a computerised decision-support tool which uses an algorithm to provide antidepressant treatment guidance for general practitioners (GPs) in the UK primary care service. The tool is the first in the UK to implement national guidelines on antidepressant treatment guidance into a computerised decision-support tool.

Methods And Analysis: The study is a parallel group, cluster-randomised controlled feasibility trial where participants are blind to treatment allocation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-035905DOI Listing
May 2020
2.063 Impact Factor

Tragus Nerve Stimulation Suppresses Post-Infarction Ventricular Arrhythmia by Modulating Autonomic Activity and Heterogeneities of Cardiac Receptor Distribution.

Med Sci Monit 2020 May 24;26:e922277. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Cardiac Pacing and Electrophysiology, Heart Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Imbalanced cardiac autonomic control and cardiac receptors redistribution contribute to the arrhythmogenic substrate under the myocardial infarction (MI) condition. Stimulating the auricular branch of vagus nerve (AB-VNS) has been proven to reduce post-infarction ventricular arrhythmia (VAs), but its potential mechanisms were largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether long-term intermittent low-intensity AB-VNS could produce a protective effect on modulating autonomic activities and abnormal redistribution of autonomic nerve efferent receptors in a MI canine model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.922277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266086PMC

Acupuncture for cancer-related hiccups: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 May;99(20):e19973

Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, China.

Background: Hiccups are involuntary contractions of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, which lead to sudden contractions of the glottis. CAM, such as acupuncture is commonly used and stimulation of the vagus nerve and interference with phrenic nerve conduction are also used to treat hiccups. However, there is little evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture for cancer-related hiccups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019973DOI Listing
May 2020
5.723 Impact Factor

Ghrelin acts in the brain to block colonic hyperpermeability in response to lipopolysaccharide through the vagus nerve.

Neuropharmacology 2020 May 19;173:108116. Epub 2020 May 19.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Japan; Department of General Medicine, Asahikawa Medical University, Japan. Electronic address:

Brain ghrelin plays a role in gastrointestinal functions. Among them, ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate gastrointestinal motility and induce visceral antinociception. Intestinal barrier function, one of important gastrointestinal functions, is also controlled by the central nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2020.108116DOI Listing

Vagal Nerve Stimulation in Epilepsy: Experiences of Participants with Cognitive Deficits.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2020 8;16:1181-1188. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Neurology and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine patients' experiences of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) with a special interest in patients with cognitive deficit (CD).

Materials And Methods: An open, retrospective study was conducted on 82 patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, who were treated with VNS for at least 10 months. Based on the inability to live independently, they were divided into two groups: patients with cognitive deficit (CD group) and patients without cognitive deficit (non-CD group). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S241716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217302PMC

Autonomic Modulation of Cardiac Arrhythmias: Methods to Assess Treatment and Outcomes.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2020 May;6(5):467-483

Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

The autonomic nervous system plays a central role in the pathogenesis of multiple cardiac arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. As such, autonomic modulation represents an attractive therapeutic approach in these conditions. Notably, autonomic modulation exploits the plasticity of the neural tissue to induce neural remodeling and thus obtain therapeutic benefit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacep.2020.02.014DOI Listing

Airway obstruction during general anaesthesia in a patient with a vagal nerve stimulator.

Anaesth Rep 2020 Jan-Jun;8(1):32-35. Epub 2020 May 14.

Southmead Hospital Bristol UK.

For patients with epilepsy refractory to medical management, vagal nerve stimulator implantation may reduce the number of seizures and/or reduce their severity. A 34-year-old woman with epilepsy underwent a change in vagal nerve stimulator battery under general anaesthesia with a supraglottic airway device and total intravenous anaesthesia. During the procedure, she developed clinically significant airway obstruction, which resolved only when the device was disabled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anr3.12039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225518PMC

Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secreting L-Cells Coupled to Sensory Nerves Translate Microbial Signals to the Host Rat Nervous System.

Front Cell Neurosci 2020 30;14:95. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Physiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

An intact gut epithelium preserves the immunological exclusion of "non-self" entities in the external environment of the gut lumen. Nonetheless, information flows continuously across this interface, with the host immune, endocrine, and neural systems all involved in monitoring the luminal environment of the gut. Both pathogenic and commensal gastrointestinal (GI) bacteria can modulate centrally-regulated behaviors and brain neurochemistry and, although the vagus nerve has been implicated in the microbiota-gut-brain signaling axis, the cellular and molecular machinery that facilitates this communication is unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2020.00095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203556PMC

Targeted lung denervation in sheep: durability of denervation and long-term histologic effects on bronchial wall and peribronchial structures.

Respir Res 2020 May 18;21(1):117. Epub 2020 May 18.

Nuvaira, Inc, Suite 105 3750 Annapolis Lane North, Minneapolis, MN, 55447, USA.

Background: Targeted lung denervation (TLD), a novel bronchoscopic procedure which attenuates pulmonary nerve input to the lung to reduce the clinical consequences of neural hyperactivity, may be an important emerging treatment for COPD. While procedural safety and impact on clinical outcomes have recently been reported, the mechanism of action has not been reported. We explored the long-term pathologic and histopathologic effects in a sheep model of ablation of bronchial branches of the vagus nerve using a novel dual-cooled radiofrequency ablation catheter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-020-01383-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236341PMC

α7nAchR mediates transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation-induced neuroprotection in a rat model of ischemic stroke by enhancing axonal plasticity.

Neurosci Lett 2020 May 19;730:135031. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Axonal plasticity is important for neurofunctional recovery after stroke. This study aimed to explore the role of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (ta-VNS) on axonal plasticity and its underlying association with the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor(α7nAchR) after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated by intraperitoneal injection with either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or an α7nAchR antagonist and then subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and ta-VNS treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135031DOI Listing

Feasibility of Attachable Ring Stimulator for Intraoperative Neuromonitoring during Thyroid Surgery.

Int J Endocrinol 2020 30;2020:5280939. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 07061, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Stimulator-attached dissecting instruments are useful for intraoperative nerve monitoring during thyroidectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an attachable ring stimulator (ARS) by comparing the electromyography (EMG) amplitudes evoked by an ARS and a conventional stimulator.

Methods: Medical records of fourteen patients who underwent thyroidectomy using intraoperative neuromonitoring between June and August 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5280939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204267PMC
January 2020

Critical Review of Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Challenges for Translation to Clinical Practice.

Front Neurosci 2020 28;14:284. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, Australia.

Several studies have illustrated that transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) can elicit therapeutic effects that are similar to those produced by its invasive counterpart, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). VNS is an FDA-approved therapy for the treatment of both depression and epilepsy, but it is limited to the management of more severe, intervention-resistant cases as a second or third-line treatment option due to perioperative risks involved with device implantation. In contrast, tVNS is a non-invasive technique that involves the application of electrical currents through surface electrodes at select locations, most commonly targeting the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN) and the cervical branch of the vagus nerve in the neck. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199464PMC

Altered Autonomic Functions and Gut Microbiome in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Implications for Assisting ASD Screening and Diagnosis.

J Autism Dev Disord 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, 149 13th Street Charlestown, Boston, MA, 02129, USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurological and developmental disorder, and a growing body of literature suggests the presence of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in individuals with ASD. ANS is part of the "gut brain axis", which consists of an intricate interplay between the gut microbiome, mucosal immune system, enteric nervous system, ANS, and central processes receiving input from the vagus nerve. Measurements of the gut microbiome and the autonomic indices can serve as non-invasive markers of the status of the gut-brain axis in ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04524-1DOI Listing

The Association Between Vascular Inflammation and Depressive Disorder. Causality, Biomarkers and Targeted Treatment.

Authors:
Hans O Kalkman

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2020 May 12;13(5). Epub 2020 May 12.

Retired pharmacologist, Gänsbühlgartenweg 7, CH-4132 Muttenz, Switzerland.

Diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction are frequently co-morbid with major depressive disorder. In the current review, it is argued that vascular inflammation is a factor that is common to all disorders and that an endothelial dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier could be involved in the induction of depression symptoms. Biomarkers for vascular inflammation include a high plasma level of C-reactive protein, soluble cell-adhesion molecules, von Willebrand factor, aldosterone, and proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 or tumor necrosis factor α. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph13050092DOI Listing

Stimulation of the vagus nerve reduces learning in a go/no-go reinforcement learning task.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2020 Jun 11;35:17-29. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, Calwerstr. 14, 72076 Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

When facing decisions to approach rewards or to avoid punishments, we often figuratively go with our gut, and the impact of metabolic states such as hunger on motivation are well documented. However, whether and how vagal feedback signals from the gut influence instrumental actions is unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of non-invasive transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2020.03.023DOI Listing

Stereotactic laser anterior corpus callosotomy for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Epilepsia 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Objective: Corpus callosotomy is an effective palliative treatment for drug-resistant Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). Laser interstitial thermal therapy has been increasingly used in the treatment of epilepsy. Here, we assess the safety and effectiveness of minimally invasive stereotactic laser anterior corpus callosotomy (SLACC) for drop attacks in LGS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16535DOI Listing

Increased ACh-Associated Immunoreactivity in Autonomic Centers in PTZ Kindling Model of Epilepsy.

Biomedicines 2020 May 8;8(5). Epub 2020 May 8.

Neuropharmacology Research Strength, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway 47500, Selangor, Malaysia.

Experimental and clinical studies of cardiac pathology associated with epilepsy have demonstrated an impact on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). However, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Molecular investigation of the neurotransmitters related receptor and ion channel directing ANS might help in understanding the associated mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8050113DOI Listing

Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy and Toupet Fundoplication for Achalasia.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2020 Jun 11;30(6):630-634. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Surgery, Center for Esophageal and Gastric Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Achalasia manifests as failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter resulting in dysphagia. Although there are several medical and endoscopic treatment options, laparoscopic Heller myotomy has excellent short- and long-term outcomes. This article describes in detail our surgical approach to this operation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lap.2020.0158DOI Listing

Clinically-derived vagus nerve stimulation enhances cerebrospinal fluid penetrance.

Brain Stimul 2020 Mar 26;13(4):1024-1030. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1550 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI, 53706, USA; Department of Neurological Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an FDA-approved neuromodulatory treatment used in the clinic today for epilepsy, depression, and cluster headaches. Moreover, evidence in the literature has led to a growing list of possible clinical indications, with several small clinical trials applying VNS to treat conditions ranging from neurodegenerative diseases to arthritis, anxiety disorders, and obesity. Despite the growing list of therapeutic applications, the fundamental mechanisms by which VNS achieves its beneficial effects are poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.03.012DOI Listing

Peripheral Focused Ultrasound Neuromodulation (pFUS).

J Neurosci Methods 2020 May 6;341:108721. Epub 2020 May 6.

General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: A fundamental limit to the study of the peripheral nervous system and its effect on organ function is the lack of tools to selectively target and stimulate specific neurons. Traditional implant and electrode-based systems remain too large and invasive for use at the organ or sub-organ level (without stimulating or effecting neighboring organs and tissues). Recent progress in optical and genetic tools (such as optogenetics) has provided a new level of molecular specificity and selectivity to the neurons that are stimulated by bioelectronic devices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2020.108721DOI Listing