32,667 results match your criteria Vagus Nerve

Cardiovascular responses to putative chemoreceptor stimulation of embryonic common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) chronically incubated in hypoxia (10% O).

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 May 10:110977. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #310559, Denton, TX 76203, United States of America. Electronic address:

Developmental hypoxia has been shown to result in significant changes in cardiovascular development of American alligators and common snapping turtles. These include similar effects on cardiac mass and aspects of cardiovascular function. However, given the distant phylogenetic relationship between crocodilians and chelonians, we hypothesized that snapping turtles would also exhibit differences in the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular regulation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neuromodulatory peptides: Orally active anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like peptides derived from dietary plant proteins.

Peptides 2021 May 10;142:170569. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, School of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, 350 Minemachi, Utsunomiya, Tochigi, 321-8505, Japan. Electronic address:

Mental disorders are a severe health problem, and the number of patients is growing worldwide. Increased anxiety and decreased motivation due to excessive mental stress further accelerated the severity of the problem. Enzymatic digestion of food proteins produces bioactive peptides with various physiological functions, some of which exhibit neuromodulatory effects with oral administration. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Early Stage of Acute Myocardial Infarction Prevent Ventricular Arrhythmias and Cardiac Remodeling.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 26;8:648910. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Arrhythmia Center, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

To evaluate whether low level left vagus nerve stimulation (LLVNS) in early stage of myocardial infarction (MI) could effectively prevent ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) and protect cardiac function, and explore the underlying mechanisms. After undergoing implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) and left cervical vagal stimulators implantation and MI creation, 16 dogs were randomly divided into three groups: the MI ( = 6), MI+LLVNS ( = 5), and sham operation ( = 5) groups. LLVNS was performed for 3 weeks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The 5-HT3 receptor affects rotavirus-induced motility.

J Virol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Molecular Virology, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

Rotavirus infection is highly prevalent in children, and the most severe effects are diarrhea and vomiting. It is well accepted that the enteric nervous system (ENS) is activated and plays an important role, but knowledge of how rotavirus activates nerves within ENS and to the vomiting center is lacking. Serotonin is released during rotavirus infection and antagonists to the serotonin receptor subtype 3 (5-HT receptor) can attenuate rotavirus-induced diarrhea. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mapping the peripheral nervous system in the whole mouse via compressed sensing tractography.

J Neural Eng 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 2167 CIEMAS, Duke Box 3382, 101 Science Drive, Durham, North Carolina, 27708, UNITED STATES.

Objective: The peripheral nervous system (PNS) connects the central nervous system (CNS) with the rest of the body to regulate many physiological functions and is therapeutically targeted to treat diseases such as epilepsy, depression, intestinal dysmotility, chronic pain, and more. However, we still lack understanding of PNS innervation in most organs because the large span, diffuse nature, and small terminal nerve bundle fibers have precluded whole-organism, high resolution mapping of the PNS. We sought to produce a comprehensive peripheral nerve atlas for use in future interrogation of neural circuitry and selection of targets for neuromodulation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Nerve of McKenzie With a Variant Communicating Branch Between the Vagus Nerve and Cranial Root of the Accessory Nerve: A Cadaveric Case Report.

Cureus 2021 Apr 7;13(4):e14343. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, USA.

Anatomical variations of the craniocervical junction including a nerve of McKenzie, a branch between the spinal accessory nerve (XI) and the ventral root of the first cervical nerve (C1), have been identified. During routine dissection, a nerve of McKenzie with an interneural connection between the cranial root of the accessory nerve and the vagus nerve was observed on the left side. To our knowledge, a case with these two anatomical variations in the same cadaver and on the same side has not previously been reported. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Human-relevant near-organ neuromodulation of the immune system via the splenic nerve.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

Clinical Sciences and Services, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield AL9 7TA, United Kingdom;

Neuromodulation of immune function by stimulating the autonomic connections to the spleen has been demonstrated in rodent models. Consequently, neuroimmune modulation has been proposed as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. However, demonstration of the translation of these immunomodulatory mechanisms in anatomically and physiologically relevant models is still lacking. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Perioperative safety and short-term efficacy of functional minimally invasive esophagectomy.

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211010081

Thoracic Surgery Department, Jining No. 1 People's Hospital, Jining, Shandong Province, China.

Background: Standard minimally invasive McKeown three-field esophagectomy (SMIE) results in high perioperative risk and poor postoperative quality of life owing to considerable surgical damage and numerous postoperative complications. We created a modified procedure, functional minimally invasive esophagectomy (FMIE), which preserves the azygos arch, bronchial artery, pulmonary branch of the vagus nerve, and the mediastinal pleura. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FMIE and to determine whether it has limited invasiveness. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with mediastinal bulky mass associated with complication of repeated sinus arrest].

Rinsho Ketsueki 2021 ;62(4):262-266

Department of Internal Medicine, Kohsei Chuo General Hospital.

A 71-year-old woman presented to a clinic with the chief complaint of facial edema and dyspnea; chest radiography showed mediastinal mass shadow and right pleural effusion. Computed tomography guided biopsy of the mediastinal mass had been performed by her previous doctor, and she was diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. She was referred to our hospital for chemotherapy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical Efficacy of the Preservation of the Hepatic Branch of the Vagus Nerve on Delayed Gastric Emptying After Laparoscopic Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

J Gastrointest Surg 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Affiliated Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Ave., Wuhan, 430030, Hubei, China.

Background: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is a common complication following laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD), although it remains incompletely understood, and only few studies have investigated the clinical benefits of hepatic branch of the vagus nerve (HBVN) preservation on DGE after LPD until now. We intended to evaluate the effect of preservation of the HBVN during LPD on the incidence of DGE.

Methods: A total of 274 consecutive LPDs performed at a single center between July 2014 and December 2019 with available videos were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vagotomy and Splenectomy Reduce Insulin Secretion and Interleukin-1β.

Pancreas 2021 Apr;50(4):607-616

From the Laboratory of Endocrine Physiology and Metabolism (LAFEM), Western Paraná State University (UNIOESTE).

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vagotomy, when associated with splenectomy, on adiposity and glucose homeostasis in Wistar rats.

Methods: Rats were divided into 4 groups: vagotomized (VAG), splenectomized (SPL), VAG + SPL, and SHAM. Glucose tolerance tests were performed, and physical and biochemical parameters evaluated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

3D Reconstruction of the Morpho-Functional Topography of the Human Vagal Trigone.

Front Neuroanat 2021 16;15:663399. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Human Anatomy, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

The Vagal Trigone, often referred to as Ala Cinerea, is a triangular-shaped area of the floor of the fourth ventricle that is strictly involved in the network of chardiochronotropic, baroceptive, respiratory, and gastrointestinal control systems of the medulla oblongata. While it is frequently identified as the superficial landmark for the underlying Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the Vagus, this correspondence is not univocal in anatomical literature and is often oversimplified in neuroanatomy textbooks and neurosurgical atlases. As the structure represents an important landmark for neurosurgical procedures involving the floor of the fourth ventricle, accurate morphological characterization is required to avoid unwanted side effects (e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Effect characteristics and mechanism of acupuncture in autonomic nerve regulation].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2021 Apr;46(4):335-41

Key Laboratory of Acupuncture and Medicine Research of Ministry of Education; School of Acupuncture and Tuina, School of Regimen and Rehabilitation, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect characteristics and mechanism of acupuncture in autonomic nerve regulation through a comprehensive literature analysis.

Methods: CNKI and PubMed databases were searched for the studies on acupuncture in autonomic nerve regulation in the past 30 years, and Excel was used to perform a descriptive analysis of research subjects, intervention methods, intervention sites (acupoint selection), intervention parameters, and effect mechanism of acupuncture.

Results: A total of 202 studies were included, among which there were 51 clinical studies, mostly on the nervous system and the circulatory system; Neiguan (PC6), Zusanli (ST36), Fengchi (GB20), and Hegu (LI4) were the most frequently used acupoints, manual acupuncture was the most common intervention method, most of the acupoints selected were in the extremities, head, face, and neck, and heart rate variability was the main parameter for evaluation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Alzheimer's disease: An evolving understanding of noradrenergic involvement and the promising future of electroceutical therapies.

Cody Slater Qi Wang

Clin Transl Med 2021 Apr;11(4):e397

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) poses a significant global health concern over the next several decades. Multiple hypotheses have been put forth that attempt to explain the underlying pathophysiology of AD. Many of these are briefly reviewed here, but to-date no disease-altering therapy has been achieved. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vagus nerve stimulation for tinnitus: A review and perspective.

Prog Brain Res 2021 1;262:451-467. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Lab for Clinical and Integrative Neuroscience, School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, United States; Global Brain Health Institute & Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Vagus nerve stimulation is a promising new tool in the treatment of chronic tinnitus. Current protocols involve pairing sounds, which exclude the tinnitus frequency, with simultaneous vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). This is based on extensive preclinical animal studies that demonstrate that pairing non-tinnitus sounds with VNS results in a tonotopic map plasticity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2020

Selective Vagus Nerve Stimulation as a Therapeutic Approach for the Treatment of ARDS: A Rationale for Neuro-Immunomodulation in COVID-19 Disease.

Front Neurosci 2021 13;15:667036. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most severe form of acute lung injury. It is induced by sepsis, aspiration, and pneumonia, including that caused by SARS coronavirus and human influenza viruses. The main pathophysiological mechanism of ARDS is a systemic inflammatory response. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vagus Nerve Stimulation Protects Enterocyte Glycocalyx After Hemorrhagic Shock Via The Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway.

Shock 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Anesthesiology, General Hospital of Central Theater Command of PLA, Wuhan, China, 430070 The First School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China, 510006.

Introduction: Electrical vagal nerve stimulation is known to decrease gut permeability and alleviate gut injury caused by traumatic hemorrhagic shock. However, the specific mechanism of action remains unclear. Glycocalyx, located on the surface of the intestinal epithelium, is associated with the buildup of the intestinal barrier. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Essential Oil of Prevents Conduction Alterations Produced by Diabetes Mellitus on Vagus Nerve.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 28;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Laboratory of Electrophysiology, Superior Institute of Biomedical Science, State University of Ceará, Fortaleza CEP 60.740-000, Brazil.

Autonomic diabetic neuropathy (ADN) is a complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), to which there is no specific treatment. In this study, the efficacy of the essential oil of (EOCz) in preventing ADN was evaluated in the rat vagus nerve. For the two fastest conducting myelinated types of axons of the vagus nerve, the conduction velocities and rheobase decreased, whilst the duration of the components of the compound action potential of these fibers increased. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Experimental Injury Rodent Models for Oropharyngeal Dysphagia.

Ji-Youn Kim

Biology (Basel) 2021 Apr 23;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Gachon University, Incheon 21936, Korea.

Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a disorder that can make swallowing difficult and reduce the quality of life. Recently, the number of patients with swallowing difficulty has been increasing; however, no comprehensive treatment for such patients has been developed. Various experimental animal models that mimic oropharyngeal dysphagia have been developed to identify appropriate treatments. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Item Reduction, Psychometric and Biometric Properties of the Italian Version of the Body Perception Questionnaire-Short Form (BPQ-SF): The BPQ-22.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 6;18(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy.

Body awareness disorders and reactivity are mentioned across a range of clinical problems. Constitutional differences in the control of the bodily state are thought to generate a vulnerability to psychological symptoms. Autonomic nervous system dysfunctions have been associated with anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Endocannabinoids and the Gut-Brain Control of Food Intake and Obesity.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 7;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

Gut-brain signaling controls food intake and energy homeostasis, and its activity is thought to be dysregulated in obesity. We will explore new studies that suggest the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in the upper gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in controlling gut-brain neurotransmission carried by the vagus nerve and the intake of palatable food and other reinforcers. A focus will be on studies that reveal both indirect and direct interactions between eCB signaling and vagal afferent neurons. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The brain-gut axis, inflammatory bowel disease, and bioelectronic medicine.

Int Immunol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Medicine, Center for Bioelectronic Medicine, Bioclinicum, Karolinska Institutet, 171 64 Stockholm, Sweden.

The hallmark of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is chronic intestinal inflammation with typical onset in adolescents and young adults. An abundance of neutrophils are seen in the inflammatory lesions, but adaptive immunity is also an important player in the chronicity of the disease. There is an unmet need for new treatment options since modern medicines such as biological therapy with anti-cytokine antibodies still leave a substantial number of patients with persisting disease activity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Surgical revision after Vagus Nerve Stimulation. A case series.

Epilepsy Behav Rep 2021 26;15:100437. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany.

With increasing use of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) as an adjunct treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy, revision surgery of VNS grows in importance. Indications for revision surgery are diverse and extend of surgery varies. We report a retrospective review on indications and complications of VNS revision surgery at our center. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hypoglossal Nerve Paraganglioma Depicting as Glomus Tumor of Neck.

Iran J Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Mar;33(115):113-117

Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan .

Introduction: Paraganglioma are infrequent neuroendocrine tumors that are most commonly found in the carotid body, ganglia of the vagus, jugular and tympanic nerve. Very rarely they can involve other cranial nerves outside the cranial cavity, we present one such case of hypoglossal nerve paraganglioma in neck.

Case Report: A 48 years old male presented with 1-month history of right sided stroke and aphasia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Specific vagus nerve stimulation parameters alter serum cytokine levels in the absence of inflammation.

Bioelectron Med 2020 Apr 10;6(1). Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Biomedical Science, Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research, Northwell Health, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY, 11030, USA.

Background: Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves is a widely used technique to treat a variety of conditions including chronic pain, motor impairment, headaches, and epilepsy. Nerve stimulation to achieve efficacious symptomatic relief depends on the proper selection of electrical stimulation parameters to recruit the appropriate fibers within a nerve. Recently, electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve has shown promise for controlling inflammation and clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neuromonitoring of recurrent laryngeal nerves in thyroid surgery comparative study of visualisation and electrophysiology methods.

Rozhl Chir 2021 ;100(3):113-117

Úvod: Poranění zvratného nervu je jedna z nejzávažnějších komplikací chirurgie štítné žlázy, chirurgie příštítných tělísek a chirurgie krčních obratlů. V literatuře se popisuje poranění zevní větve hrtanových nervů jako méně časté. Tato komplikace je natolik vážná, že může vést k invalidizaci hlasových profesionálů (učitelů, herců, zpěváků, profesionálních řečníků a manažerů). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The tubercle of Zuckerkandl, the ligament of Berry - importance for thyroid surgery.

Rozhl Chir 2021 ;100(3):105-109

The anatomical structures of the tubercle of Zuckerkandl (TZ) and the ligament of Berry (LB) have been known since the turn of the 20th century. The importance of the relationship between these structures and the thyroid gland was pointed out in the first half of the last century; nevertheless, it was neglected by most of the then surgeons. An increased interest of surgeons in detailed knowledge of these structures could only be observed from the 80´s of the last century in connection with guidelines for radical surgical treatments of the gland (both for benign and malignant diseases) and with the need to enhance the safety of these treatments. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ti.: "High" vagus nerve lesions in varicella Zoster infection.

eNeurologicalSci 2021 Jun 3;23:100337. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Rudolfinerhaus Privatklinik, Billrothstraße 78, A-1190 Vienna, Vienna and Dept. Dermatology, Krankenhaus Hietzing, Billrothstraße 78, A 1130 Vienna, Austria.

"High" vagus nerve lesions are rare and refer to the region of the nerve from the jugular foramen through the branching of the auricular (Arnold's branch) and the pharyngeal branch. Rapid onset of vagus nerve palsy is observed predominantly in trauma, and rarely in inflammation. An insidious onset points to a neoplastic cause. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Long-Term Effects of Ivabradine on Cardiac Vagal Parasympathetic Function in Normal Rats.

Front Pharmacol 2021 8;12:596956. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Emergency Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases and Transplantation Târgu Mureş, Târgu Mureş, Romania.

The complex interactions that exist between the pacemaker current, , and the parasympathetic nervous system could significantly influence the course of patients undergoing chronic therapy with the blocker ivabradine. We thus aimed to assess the effects of chronic ivabradine therapy on autonomic modulation and on the cardiovascular response to and parasympathetic stimulation. The right atrial expression of HCN genes, encoding proteins for , was also evaluated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vagus nerve stimulation paired with rehabilitation for upper limb motor function after ischaemic stroke (VNS-REHAB): a randomised, blinded, pivotal, device trial.

Lancet 2021 Apr;397(10284):1545-1553

Department of Neurology, Center for Neurotechnology and Neurorecovery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Physical Therapy, MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Long-term loss of arm function after ischaemic stroke is common and might be improved by vagus nerve stimulation paired with rehabilitation. We aimed to determine whether this strategy is a safe and effective treatment for improving arm function after stroke.

Methods: In this pivotal, randomised, triple-blind, sham-controlled trial, done in 19 stroke rehabilitation services in the UK and the USA, participants with moderate-to-severe arm weakness, at least 9 months after ischaemic stroke, were randomly assigned (1:1) to either rehabilitation paired with active vagus nerve stimulation (VNS group) or rehabilitation paired with sham stimulation (control group). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF