33,943 results match your criteria Vagus Nerve

Chronic recording of the vagus nerve to analyze modulations by the light-dark cycle.

J Neural Eng 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

BEAMS, Université Libre de Bruxelles Faculté des sciences appliquées/Ecole polytechnique, Avenue Franklin Roosevelt, 50, CP 165/56, Bruxelles, 1050, BELGIUM.

Objective: The vagus nerve is considered to play a key role in the circadian rhythm. Chronic continuous analysis of the vagus nerve activity could contribute to a better understanding of the role of the vagus nerve in light-dark modulations. This paper presents a continuous analysis of spontaneous vagus nerve activity performed in four rats. Read More

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Intraoperative recording of laryngeal adductor reflex and cortical motor evoked potentials during jugular foramen schwannoma surgery: a case report and literature review.

J Clin Monit Comput 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Neurochirurgie, Acıbadem Maslak Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: Schwannoma, a tumor originating from the peripheral nervous system, may arise from the vagus nerve, although it is not very often. Injury of the vagus nerve by surgical attempts may have consequences that will seriously affect the patient's quality of life. In recent years, continuous monitoring of the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) has become a promising methodology for evaluating vagus nerve function intraoperatively. Read More

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Intraoperative Management of the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Transected or Invaded by Thyroid Cancer.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 9;13:884866. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Surgery, Kuma Hospital Center for Excellence in Thyroid Care, Kobe, Japan.

Thyroid cancer often invades the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), causing vocal cord paralysis. In such patients, the invaded portion of the RLN usually needs to be resected through curative surgery. We attempt to preserve the nerve by performing sharp dissection in such cases. Read More

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Intraoperative Findings of Inferior Petrosal Vein During Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm: A Single-Surgeon Experience.

Front Surg 2022 10;9:921589. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the impact of the inferior petrosal veins (IPVs) on operational exploration and to analyze related anatomic features.

Methods: A total of 317 patients were retrospectively studied. Surgical outcomes and postoperative complications were analyzed, and patients were divided into two groups according to whether the IPV was sacrificed or preserved. Read More

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Effect of transcutaneous cervical vagus nerve stimulation on the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) response to stress: A randomized, sham controlled, double blind pilot study.

Compr Psychoneuroendocrinol 2020 Nov 27;4:100012. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide that plays a key role in the neurobiology of the stress response, and prior studies suggest that its function is dysregulated in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Transcutaneous cervical vagus nerve stimulation (tcVNS) acts through PACAP and other neurobiological systems to modulate stress responses and/or symptoms of PTSD. In this pilot study, we examined the effects of tcVNS on PACAP in a three day chronic stress laboratory paradigm involving serial traumatic and mental stress exposures in healthy individuals with a history of exposure to psychological trauma (n ​= ​18) and patients with PTSD (n ​= ​12). Read More

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November 2020

The Effects of Vagus Nerve Stimulation on Ventricular Electrophysiology and Nitric Oxide Release in the Rabbit Heart.

Front Physiol 2022 8;13:867705. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Glenfield Hospital, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Abnormal autonomic activity including impaired parasympathetic control is a known hallmark of heart failure (HF). Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been shown to reduce the susceptibility of the heart to ventricular fibrillation, however the precise underlying mechanisms are not well understood and the detailed stimulation parameters needed to improve patient outcomes clinically are currently inconclusive. To investigate NO release and cardiac electrophysiological effects of electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve at varying parameters using the isolated innervated rabbit heart preparation. Read More

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Clinical utility of a video/audio-based epilepsy monitoring system Nelli.

Epilepsy Behav 2022 Jun 23;133:108804. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland; Department of Neurosciences, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of a semi-automated hybrid video/audio-based epilepsy monitoring system (Nelli®) in a home setting.

Methods: In this retrospective study, 104 consecutive patients underwent Nelli-registration for an average of 29 days at their home. The seizure-related data obtained from the registration were assessed to investigate the utility of the Nelli-registration regarding clinical decision-making. Read More

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The microbiome-gut-brain axis in Parkinson disease - from basic research to the clinic.

Nat Rev Neurol 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Evidence for a close bidirectional link between the brain and the gut has led to a paradigm shift in neurology, especially in the case of Parkinson disease (PD), in which gastrointestinal dysfunction is a prominent feature. Over the past decade, numerous high-quality preclinical and clinical publications have shed light on the highly complex relationship between the gut and the brain in PD, providing potential for the development of new biomarkers and therapeutics. With the advent of high-throughput sequencing, the role of the gut microbiome has been specifically highlighted. Read More

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The cephalic phase of insulin release is modulated by IL-1β.

Cell Metab 2022 Jun 18. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

The initial cephalic phase of insulin secretion is mediated through the vagus nerve and is not due to glycemic stimulation of pancreatic β cells. Recently, IL-1β was shown to stimulate postprandial insulin secretion. Here, we describe that this incretin-like effect of IL-1β involves neuronal transmission. Read More

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A Rare Case of Cervical Vagus Nerve Schwannoma in an Adult Patient.

Cureus 2022 May 22;14(5):e25211. Epub 2022 May 22.

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Panarcadian General Hospital of Tripolis, Tripolis, GRC.

Schwannomas of the head and neck are relatively rare benign tumors that derive from the Schwann cells. Schwannomas are usually asymptomatic; however, tumors of bigger size may produce unspecific symptoms due to compression of the adjacent anatomic structures. Vagus nerve schwannomas may present as solitary neck masses, produce hoarseness of voice, or induce paroxysmal cough on palpation, which is also pathognomonic. Read More

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The controversial role of the vagus nerve in mediating ghrelin's actions: gut feelings and beyond.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2022 Jun 12;12:228-239. Epub 2022 Mar 12.

Laboratory of Neurophysiology of the Multidisciplinary Institute of Cell Biology [IMBICE, Argentine Research Council (CONICET) and Scientific Research Commission, Province of Buenos Aires (CIC-PBA), National University of La Plata], La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide hormone that acts via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) and displays a plethora of neuroendocrine, metabolic, autonomic and behavioral actions. It has been proposed that some actions of ghrelin are exerted via the vagus nerve, which provides a bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and peripheral systems. The vagus nerve comprises sensory fibers, which originate from neurons of the nodose and jugular ganglia, and motor fibers, which originate from neurons of the medulla. Read More

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The Future Is Noninvasive: A Brief Review of the Evolution and Clinical Utility of Vagus Nerve Stimulation.

Focus (Am Psychiatr Publ) 2022 Jan 25;20(1):3-7. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston.

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a form of neuromodulation that stimulates the vagus nerve. VNS had been suggested as an intervention in the late 1800s and was rediscovered in the late 1980s as a promising treatment for refractory epilepsy. Since then, VNS has been approved by the U. Read More

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January 2022

Ethical Issues in Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Deep Brain Stimulation.

Focus (Am Psychiatr Publ) 2022 Jan 25;20(1):71-75. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

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January 2022

Neurophysiologic Effects of Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation (taVNS) via Electrical Stimulation of the Tragus: A Concurrent taVNS/fMRI Study and Review.

Focus (Am Psychiatr Publ) 2022 Jan 25;20(1):80-89. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, United States; Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, United States; US Army Research Lab, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21005, United States; College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, 29403, United States; Center for Biomedical Imaging, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, United States; Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 29425, United States; Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC, 29401, United States.

(Appeared originally in Brain Stimulation 2018; 11:492-500) Reprinted with permission from Elsevier. Read More

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January 2022

Dietary Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Induces Satiation by Enhancing the Postprandial Activation of Vagal Afferent Nerves.

Nutrients 2022 Jun 16;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Laboratory of Animal Science, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5 Hangi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522, Japan.

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is present in the mammalian brain as the main inhibitory neurotransmitter and in foods. It is widely used as a supplement that regulates brain function through stress-reducing and sleep-enhancing effects. However, its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, as it is reportedly unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Read More

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Surgical Significance of Berry's Posterolateral Ligament and Frequency of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury into the Last 2 cm of Its Caudal Extralaryngeal Part(P1) during Thyroidectomy.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Jun 1;58(6). Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Third Department of General Surgery, Medical School, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54621 Thessaloniki, Greece.

: Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury is one of the major complications of thyroidectomy, with the lateral thyroid ligament (Berry's ligament) being the most frequent site of nerve injury. Neuromonitoring during thyroidectomy revealed three possible anatomical regions of the recurrent laryngeal nerve P1, P2, and P3. P1 represents the recurrent laryngeal nerve's caudal extralaryngeal part and is primarily associated with Berry's ligament. Read More

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How COVID-19 Hijacks the Cytoskeleton: Therapeutic Implications.

Life (Basel) 2022 May 30;12(6). Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1Z2, Canada.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus invades and replicates within host cells by "hijacking" biomolecular machinery, gaining control of the microtubule cytoskeleton. After attaching to membrane receptors and entering cells, the SARS-CoV-2 virus co-opts the dynamic intra-cellular cytoskeletal network of microtubules, actin, and the microtubule-organizing center, enabling three factors that lead to clinical pathology: (1) viral load due to intra-cellular trafficking, (2) cell-to-cell spread by filopodia, and (3) immune dysfunction, ranging from hyper-inflammatory cytokine storm to ineffective or absent response. These factors all depend directly on microtubules and the microtubule-organizing center, as do cell functions such as mitosis and immune cell movement. Read More

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Acute Heart Failure, 90-Day Mortality, and Gravitational Ischemia in the Brain.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Jun 15;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Anatomic Pathology, Lino Rossi Research Center, Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20122 Milan, Italy.

During the 90 days following hospitalization for acute heart failure, the ejection fraction and type of discharge medications have been shown in clinical trials to have little effect on mortality. We examined the recent literature addressing brain-related etiologies of sudden death following heart failure. Two mechanisms of sudden unexpected death have been suggested to possibly result from four significant influences on pathophysiology in the brain. Read More

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Non-invasive cervical vagus nerve stimulation effects on reaction time and valence image anticipation response.

Brain Stimul 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

VA Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, VA San Diego Healthcare System, La Jolla, CA, United States; Department of Psychiatry University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, United States.

Background: Norepinephrine (NE) driven noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS), which improves attention and reduces reaction time, augments learning. Equally important, endogenous NE mediated arousal is highly dependent on the valence (positive or negative) of the exogenous stimulus. But to date, no study has measured valence specific effects of nVNS on both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) anticipation task response and reaction time in healthy individuals. Read More

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Age-associated gut microbiota impairs hippocampus-dependent memory in a vagus-dependent manner.

JCI Insight 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Neurosciences, Institut Pasteur de Paris, Paris, France.

Aging is known to be associated with hippocampus-dependent memory decline, but the underlying causes of this age-related memory impairment remain yet highly debated. Here we showed that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from aged, but not young, animal donors in young mice is sufficient to trigger profound hippocampal alterations including astrogliosis, decreased adult neurogenesis, decreased novelty-induced neuronal activation and impairment in hippocampus-dependent memory. Furthermore, similar alterations were reported when mice were subjected to an FMT from aged human donors. Read More

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Assessment of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation Interventions for Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis.

JAMA Psychiatry 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Importance: Negative symptoms have a detrimental impact on functional outcomes and quality of life in people with schizophrenia, and few therapeutic options are considered effective for this symptomatic dimension. Studies have suggested that noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) interventions may be effective in treating negative symptoms. However, the comparative efficacy of different NIBS protocols for relieving negative symptoms remains unclear. Read More

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In-vivo peripheral nerve activation using sinusoidal low frequency alternating currents.

Artif Organs 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: The sinusoidal Low Frequency Alternating Current (LFAC) waveform was explored recently as a novel means to evoke nerve conduction block (1,2). In the present work, we explored whether increasing the amplitude of the LFAC waveform results in nerve fiber activation in autonomic nerves. In-silico methods and preliminary work in somatic nerves indicated a potential frequency dependency on the threshold of activation. Read More

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Prefrontal cortex oxygenation and autonomic nervous system activity under transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation in adolescents.

Auton Neurosci 2022 Jun 13;241:103008. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Centre for Psychosocial Medicine, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany; University Hospital of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; University of Cologne, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Cologne, Germany. Electronic address:

Introduction: The Neurovisceral Integration Model (NIM) proposes a complex interplay of visceral and neural structures that are crucial for adaptive responses to environmental demands. The aim of the present study was to investigate this circuitry using experimental manipulation via transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), measures of peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation, quantified using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).

Methods: In a sample of n = 30 adolescents (age 14-17 years), tVNS versus sham stimulation was applied each during a 15-minute stimulation phase in a within-subject-cross-randomized-design. Read More

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Robotic resection of mediastinal left vagus neurofibroma.

Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna .

Neurogenic tumors represent 10 to 34% of all mediastinal tumors and among them, neurofibroma originating from the vagus nerve are rare entities. We present a case of a neurofibroma with cystic degeneration originating from the left branch of the vagus nerve in a 27-years-old man without von Recklinghausen disease. A complete robotic resection of the mediastinal mass has been performed, with amputation of the vagus nerve enclosed in the mass. Read More

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Data Driven Control of Vagus Nerve Stimulation for the Cardiovascular System: An Computational Study.

Front Physiol 2022 3;13:798157. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, San José State University, San José, CA, United States.

Vagus nerve stimulation is an emerging therapy that seeks to offset pathological conditions by electrically stimulating the vagus nerve through cuff electrodes, where an electrical pulse is defined by several parameters such as pulse amplitude, pulse width, and pulse frequency. Currently, vagus nerve stimulation is under investigation for the treatment of heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia and hypertension. Through several clinical trials that sought to assess vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of heart failure, stimulation parameters were determined heuristically and the results were inconclusive, which has led to the suggestion of using a closed-loop approach to optimize the stimulation parameters. Read More

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Editorial: Horizon 2030: Innovative Applications of Heart Rate Variability.

Front Neurosci 2022 3;16:937086. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Psychological Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States.

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Nutrient-Based Appetite Regulation.

J Obes Metab Syndr 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Health, Human Performance, and Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA.

Regulation of appetite is dependent on crosstalk between the gut and the brain, which is a pathway described as the gut-brain axis (GBA). Three primary appetite-regulating hormones that are secreted in the gut as a response to eating a meal are glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), and peptide YY (PYY). When these hormones are secreted, the GBA responds to reduce appetite. Read More

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Electrical stimulation of the splenic nerve bundle ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

J Neuroinflammation 2022 Jun 17;19(1):155. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Tytgat Institute for Liver and Intestinal Research, Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam Gastroenterology Endocrinology Metabolism, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Room S2-162, Meibergdreef 69, 1105 BK, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Vagus nerve stimulation has been suggested to affect immune responses, partly through a neuronal circuit requiring sympathetic innervation of the splenic nerve bundle and norepinephrine (NE) release. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of action remain elusive. Here, we investigated the therapeutic value of this neuromodulation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by applying electrical splenic nerve bundle stimulation (SpNS) in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Read More

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Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation in epilepsy patients enhances cooperative behavior in the prisoner's dilemma task.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 17;12(1):10255. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Neurology, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

The vagus nerve constitutes a key link between the autonomic and the central nervous system. Previous studies provide evidence for the impact of vagal activity on distinct cognitive processes including functions related to social cognition. Recent studies in animals and humans show that vagus nerve stimulation is associated with enhanced reward-seeking and dopamine-release in the brain. Read More

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Brain stimulation and other biological non-pharmacological interventions in mental disorders: an umbrella review.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2022 Jun 14:104743. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Department of Mental Health, The Ottawa Hospital, Ontario, Canada; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (OHRI) Clinical Epidemiology Program University of Ottawa Ottawa Ontario; Centre for Innovation in Mental Health, School of Psychology, University of Southampton Southampton, UK. Electronic address:

Background: The degree of efficacy, safety, quality, and certainty of meta-analytic evidence of biological non-pharmacological treatments in mental disorders is unclear.

Methods: We conducted an umbrella review (PubMed/Cochrane Library/PsycINFO-04-Jul-2021, PROSPERO/CRD42020158827) for meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), electro-convulsive therapy (ECT), and others. Co-primary outcomes were standardized mean differences (SMD) of disease-specific symptoms, and acceptability (for all-cause discontinuation). Read More

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