15,874 results match your criteria Vaccinia


Recombinant Oncolytic Vaccinia Viruses Expressing Human β-Defensin 2 Enhance Anti-tumor Immunity.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2019 Jun 4;13:49-57. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Institute of Materia Medica, Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Hangzhou 310013, China.

Cancer is still a leading of cause of death worldwide. Among the bio-therapy strategies for cancer, vaccinia virus (VV) has been widely used as an expression vector because of its potent oncolytic activities in addition to its large capacity for insertion of foreign genes and excellent safety records. In the present study, a novel recombinant VV, VV-HBD2-lac, expressing human β-defensin 2 (HBD2), an anti-microbial peptide of the innate immune system, was constructed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2019.03.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463222PMC

lncRNA UCA1-Mediated Cdc42 Signaling Promotes Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Cell-to-Cell Spread in Ovarian Cancer.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2019 Jun 26;13:35-48. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 86 Nishi-cho, Yonago 683-8503, Japan.

Oncolytic vaccinia virus (OVV) has demonstrated appropriate safety profiles for clinical development. Although designed to kill cancer cells efficiently, OVV sensitivity varies in individual cancers, and predictive biomarkers of therapeutic responses have not been identified. Here we found that OVV was much more efficient in KFTX paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer cells compared to that in KFlow paclitaxel-sensitive cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2019.03.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463205PMC

Toward DNA-Based T-Cell Mediated Vaccines to Target HIV-1 and Hepatitis C Virus: Approaches to Elicit Localized Immunity for Protection.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 3;9:91. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Virology Laboratory, Basil Hetzel Institute for Translational Health Research, Discipline of Surgery, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major contributors to the global disease burden with many experts recognizing the requirement of an effective vaccine to bring a durable end to these viral epidemics. The most promising vaccine candidates that have advanced into pre-clinical models and the clinic to eliminate or provide protection against these chronic viruses are viral vectors [e.g. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00091
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456646PMC
April 2019
6 Reads

Asparagine is a critical limiting metabolite for vaccinia virus protein synthesis during glutamine deprivation.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA

Viruses actively interact with host metabolism because viral replication relies on host cells to provide nutrients and energy. Vaccinia virus (VACV; the prototype poxvirus) prefers glutamine to glucose for efficient replication to the extent that VACV replication is hindered in glutamine-free medium. Remarkably, our data show that VACV replication can be fully rescued from glutamine depletion by asparagine supplementation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01834-18DOI Listing

A genome-wide haploid genetic screen identifies heparan sulfate-associated genes and the macropinocytosis modulator TMED10 as factors supporting vaccinia virus infection.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Vaccinia virus is a promising viral vaccine and gene delivery candidate, and has historically been used as a model to study poxvirus-host cell interactions. We employed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis approach in human haploid cells to identify host factors crucial for vaccinia virus infection. A library of mutagenized HAP1 cells was exposed to Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02160-18DOI Listing

Poxviral E3L ortholog (Viral Interferon resistance gene) of orf viruses of sheep and goats indicates species-specific clustering with heterogeneity among parapoxviruses.

Cytokine 2019 Apr 13;120:15-21. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Division of Virology, ICAR-IVRI, Mukteswar 263 138, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. Electronic address:

Orf is a contagious disease posing a serious threat to animal and human health. E3L is one of the evolutionarily acquired immunomodulatory proteins present in orf virus (ORFV) and is responsible for conferring resistance to interferons among poxviruses. Genetic analysis of ORFV isolates of different geographical regions including Indian subcontinent targeting viral interferon resistance (VIR) gene (a homolog of vaccinia virus E3L gene) revealed a high percentage of identity among themselves and other ORFV isolates at both nt and aa levels as compared to low identity among parapoxviruses (PPVs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2019.04.001DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Are we there yet? The never-ending quest for an Epstein-Barr virus vaccine.

J Clin Invest 2019 Apr 15;130. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is estimated to infect a large part of the population and is associated with a variety of human tumors; therefore, EBV is an important target for vaccine development. In this issue of the JCI, Rühl et al. developed a promising heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy for EBV-associated malignancies and symptomatic primary infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI128370DOI Listing

Sublingual Immunization With an RSV G Glycoprotein Fragment Primes IL-17-Mediated Immunopathology Upon Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.

Front Immunol 2019 28;10:567. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of serious respiratory tract disease but there is no licensed RSV vaccine. Immunopathological mechanisms have long been suspected as operating in the development of severe RSV disease and have hampered the development of safe and effective vaccines. Here, we show that unlike intranasal immunization, sublingual immunization with RSV glycoprotein fragment containing the central conserved region (Gcf) primes the host for severe disease upon RSV challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447673PMC

Preemptive Tecovirimat Use in an Active Duty Member Presenting with Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Smallpox Vaccination.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Infectious Disease Service, San Antonio Military Medical Center, Joint Base San Antonio-Fort Sam Houston, TX, USA.

Smallpox vaccine is contraindicated in immunosuppression due to increased risk for adverse reactions (e.g., progressive vaccinia). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz286DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Mucosal and systemic SIV-specific cytotoxic CD4 T cell hierarchy in protection following intranasal/intramuscular recombinant pox-viral vaccination of pigtail macaques.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 5;9(1):5661. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Molecular Mucosal Vaccine Immunology Group, Department of Immunology and Infectious Disease, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT, 2601, Australia.

A HIV vaccine that provides mucosal immunity is urgently needed. We evaluated an intranasal recombinant Fowlpox virus (rFPV) priming vaccine followed by intramuscular Modified Vaccinia Ankara (rMVA) booster vaccine, both expressing SIV antigens. The vaccination generated mucosal and systemic SIV-specific CD4 T cell mediated immunity and was associated with partial protection against high-dose intrarectal SIV challenge in outbred pigtail macaques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41506-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450945PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Keratinocyte-Mediated Activation of the Cytokine TGF-β Maintains Skin Recirculating Memory CD8 T Cells.

Immunity 2019 Mar 23. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Department of Dermatology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA; Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. Electronic address:

Regulated activation of the cytokine TGF-β by integrins αβ and αβ expressed on keratinocytes is required for residence of epidermal-resident memory T cells, but whether skin-derived signals also affect recirculating memory cells in the skin remains unclear. Here, we show that after resolution of skin vaccinia virus (VV) infection, antigen-specific circulating memory CD8 T cells migrated into skin. In mice lacking αβ and αβ integrins (Itgb6Itgb8-K14-cre), the absence of epidermal-activated TGF-β resulted in a gradual loss of E- or P-selectin-binding central and peripheral memory populations, which were rescued when skin entry was inhibited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2019.03.002DOI Listing

Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies for Ebola Virus Infection Derived from Vaccinated Humans.

Cell Rep 2019 Apr;27(1):172-186.e7

MRC Human Immunology Unit, MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK. Electronic address:

We describe therapeutic monoclonal antibodies isolated from human volunteers vaccinated with recombinant adenovirus expressing Ebola virus glycoprotein (EBOV GP) and boosted with modified vaccinia virus Ankara. Among 82 antibodies isolated from peripheral blood B cells, almost half neutralized GP pseudotyped influenza virus. The antibody response was diverse in gene usage and epitope recognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.020DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Poxvirus oncolytic virotherapy.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2019 Mar 28:1-13. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

a Biodesign Center for Immunotherapy, Vaccines and Virotherapy , Arizona State University , Tempe , AZ , USA.

Introduction: Over the last decade, advances in biological therapies have resulted in remarkable clinical responses for the treatment of some previously incurable cancers. Oncolytic virotherapy is one of these promising novel strategies for cancer therapy. A successful oncolytic virus promotes tumor cell oncolysis and elicits a robust long-term anti-tumor immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14712598.2019.1600669DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Identification of CP77 as the third orthopoxvirus SAMD9 and SAMD9L inhibitor with a unique specificity for a rodent SAMD9L.

J Virol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA

Orthopoxviruses (OPXVs) have a broad host range in mammalian cells, but Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are non-permissive for vaccinia virus (VACV). Here, we revealed a species-specific difference in host restriction factor SAMD9L as the cause for the restriction and identified orthopoxvirus CP77 as a unique inhibitor capable of antagonizing Chinese hamster SAMD9L (chSAMD9L). Two known VACV inhibitors of SAMD9 and SAMD9L (SAMD9&L);, K1 and C7, can bind human and mouse SAMD9&L;, but neither can bind chSAMD9L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00225-19DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

By binding CD80 and CD86, the vaccinia virus' M2 protein blocks their interactions with both CD28 and CTLA4 and potentiates CD80's binding to PD-L1.

J Virol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Transgene S. A., Boulevard Gonthier d'Andernach, 67405 Illkirch-Graffenstaden - France.

In this article we report that the M2 protein encoded by the vaccinia virus is secreted as a homo-oligomer by infected cells and binds two central co-stimulation molecules: CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2). These interactions block the ligation of the two B7 proteins to both soluble CD28 and soluble CTLA4, but favor the binding of soluble PD-L1 to soluble CD80. M2L gene orthologues are found in several other poxviruses and the B7/CD28-CTLA4 blocking activity has been identified for several culture supernatants of orthopoxvirus infected cells and for recombinant myxoma virus M2 protein homolog ( Gp120LP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00207-19DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Delivery of oncolytic vaccinia virus by matched allogeneic stem cells overcomes critical innate and adaptive immune barriers.

J Transl Med 2019 Mar 27;17(1):100. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Calidi Biotherapeutics, San Diego, CA, 92121, USA.

Background: Previous studies have identified IFNγ as an important early barrier to oncolytic viruses including vaccinia. The existing innate and adaptive immune barriers restricting oncolytic virotherapy, however, can be overcome using autologous or allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells as carrier cells with unique immunosuppressive properties.

Methods: To test the ability of mesenchymal stem cells to overcome innate and adaptive immune barriers and to successfully deliver oncolytic vaccinia virus to tumor cells, we performed flow cytometry and virus plaque assay analysis of ex vivo co-cultures of stem cells infected with vaccinia virus in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-019-1829-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437877PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Seminal Plasma Exposures Strengthen Vaccine Responses in the Female Reproductive Tract Mucosae.

Front Immunol 2019 12;10:430. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

IDMIT Department, U1184 ≪ Immunology of Viral Infections and Autoimmune Diseases ≫ (IMVA), CEA, IBFJ, Université Paris-Sud, Inserm, Fontenay-Aux-Roses, France.

HIV-1 sexual transmission occurs mainly via mucosal semen exposures. In the female reproductive tract (FRT), seminal plasma (SP) induces physiological modifications, including inflammation. An effective HIV-1 vaccine should elicit mucosal immunity, however, modifications of vaccine responses by the local environment remain to be characterized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423065PMC

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Genes (Basel) 2019 Mar 20;10(3). Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Section of Virology, Department of Medicine, St Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, UK.

The discovery of mammalian pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC) has revolutionised cell research and regenerative medicine. More recently discovered chicken ESC (cESC), though less intensively studied, are increasingly popular as vaccine substrates due to a dearth of avian cell lines. Information on the comparative performance of cESC with common vaccine viruses is limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes10030237DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Lymph node conduits transport virions for rapid T cell activation.

Nat Immunol 2019 05 18;20(5):602-612. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Viral Immunity and Pathogenesis Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Despite intense interest in antiviral T cell priming, the routes by which virions move in lymph nodes (LNs) are imperfectly understood. Current models fail to explain how virus-infected cells rapidly appear within the LN interior after viral infection. To better understand virion trafficking in the LN, we determined the locations of virions and infected cells after administration to mice of vaccinia virus or Zika virus. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41590-019-0342-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-019-0342-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6474694PMC
May 2019
8 Reads

PD-1 Blockade Following Isolated Limb Perfusion with Vaccinia Virus Prevents Local and Distant Relapse of Soft-tissue Sarcoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

The Sarcoma Unit, Department of Academic Surgery, The Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

The prevention and treatment of metastatic sarcoma are areas of significant unmet need. Immune checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy has shown little activity in sarcoma and there is great interest in identifying novel treatment combinations that may augment responses. and , we investigated the potential for an oncolytic vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68) delivered using isolated limb perfusion (ILP) to promote antitumor immune responses and augment response to PD-1 blockade in sarcoma. Read More

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http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.1158/107
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3767DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

The Perennial Use of the Green Fluorescent Protein Marker in a Live Vaccinia Virus Ankara Recombinant Platform Shows No Acute Adverse Effects in Mice.

Braz J Microbiol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Laboratory of Basic and Applied Virology, Departmento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Recombinant virus vectors represent a promising strategy for vaccine research. Among available viral vectors, members of the Poxviridae family-especially the modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-stand out as immunogenic and safe vaccine platforms. Because MVA usually does not produce plaques in cell culture, visible selection markers such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are frequently incorporated into the constructions in order to facilitate the recognition of recombinants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-019-00067-5DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Central memory CD8+ T cells become CD69+ tissue-residents during viral skin infection independent of CD62L-mediated lymph node surveillance.

PLoS Pathog 2019 03 15;15(3):e1007633. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States of America.

Memory CD8+ T cells in the circulation rapidly infiltrate non-lymphoid tissues following infection and provide protective immunity in an antigen-specific manner. However, the subsequent fate of memory CD8+ T cells after entering non-lymphoid tissues such as the skin during a secondary infection is largely unknown. Furthermore, because expression of CD62L is often used to identify the central memory (TCM) CD8+ T cell subset, uncoupling the physical requirement for CD62L-mediated lymph node homing versus other functional attributes of TCM CD8+ T cells remains unresolved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007633DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6420010PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Heterologous prime-boost vaccination protects from EBV antigen expressing lymphomas.

J Clin Invest 2019 Mar 12;130. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

The Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is one of the predominant tumor viruses in humans, but so far no therapeutic or prophylactic vaccination against this transforming pathogen is available. We demonstrated that heterologous prime-boost vaccination with the nuclear antigen 1 of EBV (EBNA1) either targeted to the DEC205 receptor on dendritic cells or expressed from a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector improved priming of antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell help. This help supported the expansion and maintenance of EBNA1 specific CD8+ T cells that are most efficiently primed by recombinant adenoviruses that encode EBNA1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI125364DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

MTBVAC-Based TB-HIV Vaccine Is Safe, Elicits HIV-T Cell Responses, and Protects against in Mice.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2019 Jun 7;13:253-264. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

AIDS Research Group, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona/IDIBAPS-HIVACAT, School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

The tuberculosis (TB) vaccine MTBVAC is the only live-attenuated ()-based vaccine in clinical development, and it confers superior protection in different animal models compared to the current vaccine, BCG ( bacillus Calmette-Guérin). With the aim of using MTBVAC as a vector for a dual TB-HIV vaccine, we constructed the recombinant MTBVAC.HIVA strain. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S23290501193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2019.01.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395831PMC
June 2019
5 Reads

Selection of vaccinia virus-neutralizing antibody from a phage-display human-antibody library.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Division of Biomedical Convergence, College of Biomedical Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Republic of Korea.

Although smallpox was eradicated in 1980, it is still considered a potential agent of biowarfare and bioterrorism. Smallpox has the potential for high mortality rates along with a major public health impact, eventually causing public panic and social disruption. Passive administration of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is an effective intervention for various adverse reactions caused by vaccination and the unpredictable nature of emerging and bioterrorist-related infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1812.12024DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

Humoral and cellular immunity against both ZIKV and poxvirus is elicited by a two-dose regimen using DNA and non-replicating vaccinia virus-based vaccine candidates.

Vaccine 2019 Apr 6;37(15):2122-2130. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine, Ministry of Education, and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Institute of Medical Virology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Zhejiang, China; National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The Zika virus (ZIKV) and poxvirus infection are considered as public health emergencies, necessitating the development of effective vaccines. Here, we report novel recombinant DNA-based and non-replicating vaccinia virus (NTV)-based vaccine candidates that express the precursor membrane-envelope (prME) or envelope (E) glycoproteins of ZIKV. After immunization of BABL/c mice with the vaccines using a homologous protocol (DNA/DNA, NTV/NTV) or heterogeneous (DNA/NTV) protocol, a similar level of anti-E IgG and neutralizing antibodies (microneutralization test) were detected in the mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.02.063DOI Listing
April 2019
3.624 Impact Factor

A novel mutation associated with recessive distal hereditary motor neuropathy.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2019 Feb 3;6(2):401-405. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurology Fujian Medical University Union Hospital Fuzhou 350001 China.

Vaccinia-related kinase 1 () mutations can cause motor phenotypes including axonal sensorimotor neuropathy, distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN), spinal muscular atrophy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we identify a novel homozygous p.W375X mutation causing recessive dHMN. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6389749PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Vaccine induction of antibodies and tissue-resident CD8+ T cells enhances protection against mucosal SHIV-infection in young macaques.

JCI Insight 2019 Feb 21;4(4). Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Departments of Pathology, and Microbiology & Immunology, Institute for Immunity, Transplantation and Infection, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Antibodies and cytotoxic T cells represent 2 arms of host defense against pathogens. We hypothesized that vaccines that induce both high-magnitude CD8+ T cell responses and antibody responses might confer enhanced protection against HIV. To test this hypothesis, we immunized 3 groups of nonhuman primates: (a) Group 1, which includes sequential immunization regimen involving heterologous viral vectors (HVVs) comprising vesicular stomatitis virus, vaccinia virus, and adenovirus serotype 5-expressing SIVmac239 Gag; (b) Group 2, which includes immunization with a clade C HIV-1 envelope (Env) gp140 protein adjuvanted with nanoparticles containing a TLR7/8 agonist (3M-052); and (c) Group 3, which includes a combination of both regimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.126047DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO ORTHOPOXVIRUS IN WILD CARNIVORES OF NORTHWESTERN CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO.

J Wildl Dis 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

1   Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.

The distribution of orthopoxviruses (OPXVs) across the North American continent is suggested to be widespread in a wide range of mammalian hosts on the basis of serosurveillance studies. To address the question of whether carnivores in northwestern Mexico are exposed to naturally circulating OPXVs, wild carnivores were collected by live trapping within four different habitat types during fall of 2013 and spring of 2014 within the Janos Biosphere Reserve in northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. A total of 51 blood samples was collected for testing. Read More

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March 2019
3 Reads

NF-κB activation is a turn on for vaccinia virus phosphoprotein A49 to turn off NF-κB activation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Mar 28;116(12):5699-5704. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QP, United Kingdom

Vaccinia virus protein A49 inhibits NF-κB activation by molecular mimicry and has a motif near the N terminus that is conserved in IκBα, β-catenin, HIV Vpu, and some other proteins. This motif contains two serines, and for IκBα and β-catenin, phosphorylation of these serines enables recognition by the E3 ubiquitin ligase β-TrCP. Binding of IκBα and β-catenin by β-TrCP causes their ubiquitylation and thereafter proteasome-mediated degradation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1813504116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431142PMC

Molecular basis of cullin-3 (Cul3) ubiquitin ligase subversion by vaccinia virus protein A55.

J Biol Chem 2019 Apr 28;294(16):6416-6429. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

From the Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP and

BTB-Kelch proteins are substrate-specific adaptors for cullin-3 (Cul3) RING-box-based E3 ubiquitin ligases, mediating protein ubiquitylation for subsequent proteasomal degradation. Vaccinia virus encodes three BTB-Kelch proteins: A55, C2, and F3. Viruses lacking A55 or C2 have altered cytopathic effects in cultured cells and altered pathology Previous studies have shown that the ectromelia virus orthologue of A55 interacts with Cul3 in cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.006561DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Vaccinia virus BBK E3 ligase adaptor A55 targets importin-dependent NF-κB activation and inhibits CD8 T-cell memory.

J Virol 2019 02 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Viral infection of cells is sensed by pathogen recognition receptors that trigger an anti-viral innate immune response and consequently viruses have evolved countermeasures. Vaccinia virus (VACV) evades the host immune response by expressing scores of immunomodulatory proteins. One family of VACV proteins are the BTB-BACK domain containing, Kelch-like (BBK) family of predicted cullin-3 E3 ligase adaptors: A55, C2 and F3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00051-19DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

A cautionary note on the selectivity of oncolytic poxviruses.

Oncolytic Virother 2019 11;8:3-8. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA,

Background: Oncolytic viruses selectively infect cancer cells while avoiding infection of normal cells. Usually, selectivity is demonstrated by injecting a virus into tumor-bearing mice and observing infection and lysis of tumor cells without infection of other tissues. The general view is that this selectivity is due to tropisms of the virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OV.S189832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375109PMC
February 2019
1 Read

High titer MVA and influenza A virus production using a hybrid fed-batch/perfusion strategy with an ATF system.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2019 Apr 23;103(7):3025-3035. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Sandtorstr. 1, 39106, Magdeburg, Germany.

A cultivation strategy to increase the productivity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus in high-cell density processes is presented. Based on an approach developed in shake flask cultures, this strategy was established in benchtop bioreactors, comprising the growth of suspension AGE1.CR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-019-09694-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447503PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Comparative purification and characterization of hepatitis B virus-like particles produced by recombinant vaccinia viruses in human hepatoma cells and human primary hepatocytes.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212800. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany.

This study describes the comparative expression and purification of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) particles produced upon infection of human primary hepatocytes and human hepatoma cell lines (HuH-7 and HepG2) with recombinant vaccinia viruses. The highest levels of HBsAg expression were found in HuH-7 hepatoma cells following infection with recombinant vaccinia viruses, which contain the S gene under control of a 7.5 k-promoter. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212800PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386438PMC
February 2019

IL12 p35 and p40 subunit genes administered as pPAL plasmid constructs do not improve protection of pPAL-LACK vaccine against canine leishmaniasis.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212136. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain.

Leishmania infantum causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) in the Mediterranean basin and South America. The parasite has been shown to co-infect HIV patients and an outbreak in central Spain was reported in the last decade. Therfore, ZVL is a public health problem, dogs being the parasite's reservoir. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212136PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386296PMC
February 2019
1 Read

NK cell immune responses differ after prime and boost vaccination.

J Leukoc Biol 2019 May 22;105(5):1055-1073. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

CEA, Université Paris Sud 11, INSERM U1184, Immunology of Viral Infections and Autoimmune Diseases, IDMIT, IBFJ, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France.

A better understanding of innate responses induced by vaccination is critical for designing optimal vaccines. Here, we studied the diversity and dynamics of the NK cell compartment after prime-boost immunization with the modified vaccinia virus Ankara using cynomolgus macaques as a model. Mass cytometry was used to deeply characterize blood NK cells. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/JLB.4A1018-391RR
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.4A1018-391RRDOI Listing
May 2019
12 Reads

A Novel MVA-Based HIV Vaccine Candidate (MVA-gp145-GPN) Co-Expressing Clade C Membrane-Bound Trimeric gp145 Env and Gag-Induced Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) Triggered Broad and Multifunctional HIV-1-Specific T Cell and Antibody Responses.

Viruses 2019 Feb 16;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CNB-CSIC), Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

The development of an effective Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) vaccine that is able to stimulate both the humoral and cellular HIV-1-specific immune responses remains a major priority challenge. In this study, we described the generation and preclinical evaluation of single and double modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based candidates expressing the HIV-1 clade C membrane-bound gp145(ZM96) trimeric protein and/or the Gag(ZM96)-Pol-Nef(CN54) (GPN) polyprotein that was processed to form Gag-induced virus-like particles (VLPs). In vitro characterization of MVA recombinants revealed the stable integration of HIV-1 genes without affecting its replication capacity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11020160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410222PMC
February 2019
2 Reads
3.279 Impact Factor

Prokaryotic expression, purification and evaluation of goatpox virus ORF117 protein as a diagnostic antigen in indirect ELISA to detect goatpox.

Arch Virol 2019 Apr 18;164(4):1049-1058. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Division of Virology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, Nainital, Uttarakhand, 263 138, India.

Goatpox is an economically significant transboundary viral disease of goats that is caused by goatpox virus (GTPV). This study describes the prokaryotic expression of the GTPV ORF117 protein, a homologue of vaccinia virus A27L, and evaluation of its diagnostic potential in ELISA. The GTPV ORF117 gene was cloned into the pET32a vector to express recombinant ORF117 protein (rA27L) in E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04170-8DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
2.282 Impact Factor

Aurora A controls CD8 T cell cytotoxic activity and antiviral response.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 18;9(1):2211. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Servicio de Inmunología, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IIS-IP), Madrid, Spain.

Aurora A is a serine/threonine kinase whose role in cell cycle progression and tumour generation has been widely studied. Recent work has revealed an unexpected function for Aurora A during CD4 T cell activation and, also, in graft versus host disease development. However, it remains unknown whether Aurora A is involved in CD8 T cell effector function and in cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated antiviral response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38647-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379542PMC
February 2019

HIV-1 vaccination by needle-free oral injection induces strong mucosal immunity and protects against SHIV challenge.

Nat Commun 2019 02 18;10(1):798. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.

The oral mucosa is an attractive site for mucosal vaccination, however the thick squamous epithelium limits antigen uptake. Here we utilize a modified needle-free injector to deliver immunizations to the sublingual and buccal (SL/B) tissue of rhesus macaques. Needle-free SL/B vaccination with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and a recombinant trimeric gp120 protein generates strong vaccine-specific IgG responses in serum as well as vaginal, rectal and salivary secretions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08739-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379385PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Stem cell-derived tissue-associated regulatory T cells suppress the activity of pathogenic cells in autoimmune diabetes.

JCI Insight 2019 Apr 4;4(7). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, College Station, Texas, USA.

The autoantigen-specific Tregs from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), i.e., PSC-Tregs, have the ability to suppress autoimmunity. Read More

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http://insight.jci.org/articles/view/126471
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.126471DOI Listing
April 2019
8 Reads

Mucosal vaccine efficacy against intrarectal SHIV is independent of anti-Env antibody response.

J Clin Invest 2019 Mar 18;129(3):1314-1328. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Vaccine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute (NCI), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

It is widely believed that protection against acquisition of HIV or SIV infection requires anti-envelope (anti-Env) antibodies, and that cellular immunity may affect viral loads but not acquisition, except in special cases. Here we provide evidence to the contrary. Mucosal immunization may enhance HIV vaccine efficacy by eliciting protective responses at portals of exposure. Read More

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https://www.jci.org/articles/view/122110
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI122110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391089PMC
March 2019
6 Reads

A poxvirus pseudokinase represses viral DNA replication via a pathway antagonized by its paralog kinase.

PLoS Pathog 2019 02 15;15(2):e1007608. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, United States of America.

Poxviruses employ sophisticated, but incompletely understood, signaling pathways that engage cellular defense mechanisms and simultaneously ensure viral factors are modulated properly. For example, the vaccinia B1 protein kinase plays a vital role in inactivating the cellular antiviral factor BAF, and likely orchestrates other pathways as well. In this study, we utilized experimental evolution of a B1 deletion virus to perform an unbiased search for suppressor mutations and identify novel pathways involving B1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395007PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Prime-Boost Immunizations with DNA, Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara, and Protein-Based Vaccines Elicit Robust HIV-1 Tier 2 Neutralizing Antibodies against the CAP256 Superinfecting Virus.

J Virol 2019 Apr 3;93(8). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

A vaccine regimen that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is a major goal in HIV-1 vaccine research. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity of the CAP256 superinfecting viral envelope (CAP256 SU) protein delivered by modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and DNA vaccines in different prime-boost combinations followed by a soluble protein (P) boost. The envelope protein (Env) contained a flexible glycine linker and I559P mutation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02155-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450106PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Differential Response Following Infection of Mouse CNS with Virulent and Attenuated Vaccinia Virus Strains.

Vaccines (Basel) 2019 Feb 12;7(1). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Israel Institute of Biological Research (IIBR), Ness-Ziona, Israel.

Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) lead to a broad range of pathologies. CNS infections with Orthopox viruses have been mainly documented as an adverse reaction to smallpox vaccination with vaccinia virus. To date, there is insufficient data regarding the mechanisms underlying pathological viral replication or viral clearance. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/7/1/19
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466266PMC
February 2019
6 Reads

Synthesis of d-(+)-camphor-based -acylhydrazones and their antiviral activity.

Medchemcomm 2018 Dec 26;9(12):2072-2082. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry , Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences , Lavrentjev Ave. 9 , 630090 Novosibirsk , Russian Federation . Email:

The design and synthesis of a series of novel d-(+)-camphor -acylhydrazones exhibiting inhibitory activity against vaccinia and influenza viruses are presented. An easy pathway to camphor-based -acylhydrazones containing in their structure aliphatic, aromatic, and heterocyclic pharmacophore scaffolds has been developed. The conformation and configuration of the synthesized hydrazones were thoroughly characterized by a complete set of spectral characterization techniques, including 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8md00442kDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6335999PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Novel genetically-modified chimpanzee adenovirus and MVA-vectored respiratory syncytial virus vaccine safely boosts humoral and cellular immunity in healthy older adults.

J Infect 2019 May 8;78(5):382-392. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics and the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Objectives: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory infection across the world, with infants and the elderly at particular risk of developing severe disease and death. The replication-defective chimpanzee adenovirus (PanAd3-RSV) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA-RSV) vaccines were shown to be safe and immunogenic in young healthy adults. Here we report an extension to this first-in-man vaccine trial to include healthy older adults aged 60-75 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2019.02.003DOI Listing
May 2019
7 Reads

Axiom Microbiome Array, the next generation microarray for high-throughput pathogen and microbiome analysis.

PLoS One 2019 8;14(2):e0212045. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Physical & Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, United States of America.

Microarrays have proven to be useful in rapid detection of many viruses and bacteria. Pathogen detection microarrays have been used to diagnose viral and bacterial infections in clinical samples and to evaluate the safety of biological drug materials. In this study, the Axiom Microbiome Array was evaluated to determine its sensitivity, specificity and utility in microbiome analysis of veterinary clinical samples. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212045PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368325PMC
February 2019
5 Reads