15,824 results match your criteria Vaccinia


A poxvirus pseudokinase represses viral DNA replication via a pathway antagonized by its paralog kinase.

PLoS Pathog 2019 Feb 15;15(2):e1007608. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, United States of America.

Poxviruses employ sophisticated, but incompletely understood, signaling pathways that engage cellular defense mechanisms and simultaneously ensure viral factors are modulated properly. For example, the vaccinia B1 protein kinase plays a vital role in inactivating the cellular antiviral factor BAF, and likely orchestrates other pathways as well. In this study, we utilized experimental evolution of a B1 deletion virus to perform an unbiased search for suppressor mutations and identify novel pathways involving B1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007608DOI Listing
February 2019

Prime boost immunisations with DNA, MVA and protein-based vaccines elicit robust HIV-1, Tier 2 neutralizing antibodies against the CAP256 superinfecting virus.

J Virol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

A vaccine regimen that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is a major goal in HIV-1 vaccine research. Here we assessed the immunogenicity of the CAP256SU envelope protein delivered by modified vaccinia virus Ankara (M) and DNA (D) vaccines in different prime/boost combinations followed by a soluble protein (P) boost. The envelope protein (Env) contained a flexible, glycine linker and I559P mutation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02155-18DOI Listing
February 2019

Differential Response Following Infection of Mouse CNS with Virulent and Attenuated Vaccinia Virus Strains.

Vaccines (Basel) 2019 Feb 12;7(1). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Israel Institute of Biological Research (IIBR), Ness-Ziona, Israel.

Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) lead to a broad range of pathologies. CNS infections with Orthopox viruses have been mainly documented as an adverse reaction to smallpox vaccination with vaccinia virus. To date, there is insufficient data regarding the mechanisms underlying pathological viral replication or viral clearance. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/7/1/19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010019DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Synthesis of d-(+)-camphor-based -acylhydrazones and their antiviral activity.

Medchemcomm 2018 Dec 26;9(12):2072-2082. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry , Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences , Lavrentjev Ave. 9 , 630090 Novosibirsk , Russian Federation . Email:

The design and synthesis of a series of novel d-(+)-camphor -acylhydrazones exhibiting inhibitory activity against vaccinia and influenza viruses are presented. An easy pathway to camphor-based -acylhydrazones containing in their structure aliphatic, aromatic, and heterocyclic pharmacophore scaffolds has been developed. The conformation and configuration of the synthesized hydrazones were thoroughly characterized by a complete set of spectral characterization techniques, including 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8md00442kDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6335999PMC
December 2018

Novel genetically-modified chimpanzee adenovirus and MVA-vectored respiratory syncytial virus vaccine safely boosts humoral and cellular immunity in healthy older adults.

J Infect 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics and the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Objectives: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory infection across the world, with infants and the elderly at particular risk of developing severe disease and death. The replication-defective chimpanzee adenovirus (PanAd3-RSV) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA-RSV) vaccines were shown to be safe and immunogenic in young healthy adults. Here we report an extension to this first-in-man vaccine trial to include healthy older adults aged 60-75 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Axiom Microbiome Array, the next generation microarray for high-throughput pathogen and microbiome analysis.

PLoS One 2019 8;14(2):e0212045. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Physical & Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, United States of America.

Microarrays have proven to be useful in rapid detection of many viruses and bacteria. Pathogen detection microarrays have been used to diagnose viral and bacterial infections in clinical samples and to evaluate the safety of biological drug materials. In this study, the Axiom Microbiome Array was evaluated to determine its sensitivity, specificity and utility in microbiome analysis of veterinary clinical samples. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212045PLOS
February 2019

Viral vector and route of administration determine the ILC and DC profiles responsible for downstream vaccine-specific immune outcomes.

Vaccine 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Molecular Mucosal Vaccine Immunology Group, Department of Immunology and infectious Disease, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Electronic address:

This study demonstrates that route and viral vector can significantly influence the innate lymphoid cells (ILC) and dendritic cells (DC) recruited to the vaccination site, 24 h post delivery. Intranasal (i.n. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.045DOI Listing
February 2019

Viral and metazoan poxins are cGAMP-specific nucleases that restrict cGAS-STING signalling.

Nature 2019 Feb 6;566(7743):259-263. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Cytosolic DNA triggers innate immune responses through the activation of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and production of the cyclic dinucleotide second messenger 2',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). 2',3'-cGAMP is a potent inducer of immune signalling; however, no intracellular nucleases are known to cleave 2',3'-cGAMP and prevent the activation of the receptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Here we develop a biochemical screen to analyse 24 mammalian viruses, and identify poxvirus immune nucleases (poxins) as a family of 2',3'-cGAMP-degrading enzymes. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-0928-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-0928-6DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

An Update on the Known Host Range of the Brazilian Vaccinia Virus: An Outbreak in Buffalo Calves.

Front Microbiol 2018 22;9:3327. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Even nearly forty years after the eradication of smallpox, members of the family continue to be the focus of an increasing number of studies. Among these studies, prominently stands vaccinia virus, an orthopoxvirus that is associated with bovine vaccinia outbreaks. Although more frequently associated with infections in cattle and humans, the host range of vaccinia virus is not restricted only to these hosts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350457PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Opposite effects of Vaccinia and modified Vaccinia Ankara on trained immunity.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Mar 5;38(3):449-456. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein-Zuid 10, 6525GA, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Vaccines such as Vaccinia or BCG have non-specific effects conferring protection against other diseases than their target infection, which are likely partly mediated through induction of innate immune memory (trained immunity). MVA85A, a recombinant strain of modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA), has been suggested as an alternative vaccine against tuberculosis, but its capacity to induce positive or negative non-specific immune effects has not been studied. This study assesses whether Vaccinia and MVA are able to induce trained innate immunity in monocytes. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10096-018-03449-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-018-03449-zDOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Cancer stem cell mobilization and therapeutic targeting of the 5T4 oncofetal antigen.

Ther Adv Vaccines Immunother 2019 25;7:2515135518821623. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Division of Molecular & Clinical Cancer Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) can act as the cellular drivers of tumors harnessing stem cell properties that contribute to tumorigenesis either as founder elements or by the gain of stem cell traits by the malignant cells. Thus, CSCs can self-renew and generate the cellular heterogeneity of tumors including a hierarchical organization similar to the normal tissue. While the principle tumor growth contribution is often from the non-CSC components, it is the ability of small numbers of CSCs to avoid the effects of therapeutic strategies that can contribute to recurrence after treatment. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2515135518821623
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2515135518821623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6348545PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

Most viral peptides displayed by class I MHC on infected cells are immunogenic.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia;

CD8 T cells are essential effectors in antiviral immunity, recognizing short virus-derived peptides presented by MHC class I (pMHCI) on the surface of infected cells. However, the fraction of viral pMHCI on infected cells that are immunogenic has not been shown for any virus. To approach this fundamental question, we used peptide sequencing by high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify more than 170 vaccinia virus pMHCI presented on infected mouse cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1815239116DOI Listing
February 2019

A Novel Vaccine Strategy Employing Serologically Different Chimpanzee Adenoviral Vectors for the Prevention of HIV-1 and HCV Coinfection.

Front Immunol 2018 18;9:3175. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Nearly 3 million people worldwide are coinfected with HIV and HCV. Affordable strategies for prevention are needed. We developed a novel vaccination regimen involving replication-defective and serologically distinct chimpanzee adenovirus (ChAd3, ChAd63) vector priming followed by modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boosts, for simultaneous delivery of HCV non-structural (NSmut) and HIV-1 conserved (HIVconsv) region immunogens. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2018.03175
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.03175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346592PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Poxviruses as Gene Therapy Vectors: Generating Poxviral Vectors Expressing Therapeutic Transgenes.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1937:189-209

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), Little Rock, AR, USA.

Treatments with poxvirus vectors can have long-lasting immunological impact in the host, and thus they have been extensively studied to treat diseases and for vaccine development. More importantly, the oncolytic properties of poxviruses have led to their development as cancer therapeutics. Two poxviruses, vaccinia virus (VACV) and myxoma virus (MYXV), have been extensively studied as virotherapeutics with promising results. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-1-4939-9065-8_11
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9065-8_11DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Continued poxvirus research: From foe to friend.

PLoS Biol 2019 Jan 30;17(1):e3000124. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

The eradication of smallpox is one of the greatest medical successes in history. Vaccinia virus was made famous by being the virus used in the live vaccine that enabled this feat. Nearly 40 years on from that success, this prototypical poxvirus continues to empower the exploration of fundamental biology and the potential to develop therapeutics against some of the major causes of death and disease in the modern world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000124DOI Listing
January 2019

Lessons from the first clinical trial of a non-licensed vaccine among Ugandan adolescents: a phase II field trial of the tuberculosis candidate vaccine, MVA85A.

Wellcome Open Res 2018 19;3:121. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

MRC/UVRI and LSHTM Uganda Research Unit, Entebbe, Uganda.

A more effective vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health priority. Vaccines under development will always need evaluation in endemic settings, most of which have limited resources. Adolescents are an important target population for a new TB vaccine and for other vaccines which are relevant at school-age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.14736.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338128PMC
September 2018

Class A Scavenger Receptors Are Used by Frog Virus 3 During Its Cellular Entry.

Viruses 2019 Jan 23;11(2). Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Health Sciences, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5, Canada.

Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the type species of the genus (family Iridoviridae). FV3 and FV3-like viruses are globally distributed infectious agents with the capacity to replicate in three vertebrate classes (teleosts, amphibians, and reptiles). At the cellular level, FV3 and FV3-like viruses can infect cells from virtually all vertebrate classes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11020093DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Potent Anti-Hepatitis C (HCV) T Cell Immune Responses Induced in Mice Vaccinated with DNA-launched RNA Replicons and MVA-HCV.

J Virol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affecting 71 million people worldwide with no licensed vaccines that prevent infection. Here, we have generated four novel alphavirus-based DNA-launched self-amplifying RNA replicon (DREP) vaccines expressing either structural Core-E1-E2 or nonstructural p7-NS2-NS3 HCV proteins of genotype 1a placed under the control of an alphavirus promoter, with or without an alphaviral translational enhancer (grouped as DREP-HCV and DREP-e-HCV, respectively). DREP vectors are known to induce cross-priming and further stimulation of immune responses through apoptosis, and here we demonstrate that they efficiently trigger apoptosis-related proteins in transfected cells. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.00055-19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00055-19DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Clade C HIV-1 envelope vaccination regimens differ in their ability to elicit antibodies with moderate neutralization breadth against genetically diverse tier 2 HIV-1 envelope variants.

J Virol 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA USA

The goals of pre-clinical HIV vaccine studies in nonhuman primates are to develop and test different approaches for their ability to generate protective immunity. Here, we compared the impact of 7 different vaccine modalities all expressing the HIV-1 1086.C clade C envelope (Env) on (i) the magnitude and durability of antigen-specific serum antibody responses, and (ii) autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibody capacity. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.01846-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01846-18DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads
4.439 Impact Factor

Species-specific inhibition of antiviral protein kinase R by capripoxviruses and vaccinia virus.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

School of Medicine, Department of Medial Microbiology and Immunology, University of California Davis, Davis, California.

Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR) is an important and rapidly evolving antiviral kinase. Most poxviruses contain two distinct PKR inhibitors, called E3 and K3 in vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic orthopoxvirus. E3 prevents PKR homodimerization by binding double-stranded RNA, while K3 acts as a pseudosubstrate inhibitor by binding directly to activated PKR and thereby inhibiting interaction with its substrate eIF2α. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/nyas.14000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14000DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

, a Candidate Gene for Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders.

Authors:
Ming Li Weihua Yue

Mol Neuropsychiatry 2018 Dec 7;4(3):119-133. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Peking University Sixth Hospital/Institute of Mental Health, Beijing, China.

Recent large-scale genetic approaches, such as genome-wide association studies, have identified multiple genetic variations that contribute to the risk of mental illnesses, among which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within or near the vaccinia related kinase 2 () gene have gained consistent support for their correlations with multiple psychiatric and neurological disorders including schizophrenia (SCZ), major depressive disorder (MDD), and genetic generalized epilepsy. For instance, the genetic variant rs1518395 in showed genome-wide significant associations with SCZ (35,476 cases and 46,839 controls, = 3.43 × 10) and MDD (130,620 cases and 347,620 controls, = 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000493941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323383PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

RNA granules associated with SAMD9-mediated poxvirus restriction are similar to antiviral granules in composition but do not require TIA1 for poxvirus restriction.

Virology 2019 Jan 8;529:16-22. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Long School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Stress granule (SG)-like antiviral granules (AVG) had been found in some vaccinia virus infection conditions and shown to repress translation. Similar RNA granules are also associated with translational inhibition and poxvirus restriction mediated by the host restriction factor SAMD9, but their function is less clear. We studied the composition of these RNA granules by immunofluorescence and found them enriched with SG component TIA1 and viral dsRNA binding protein E3. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00426822193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.01.007DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

A Prime-Pull-Amplify Vaccination Strategy To Maximize Induction of Circulating and Genital-Resident Intraepithelial CD8 Memory T Cells.

J Immunol 2019 Feb 11;202(4):1250-1264. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892;

Recent insight into the mechanisms of induction of tissue-resident memory (T) CD8 T cells (CD8 T) enables the development of novel vaccine strategies against sexually transmitted infections. To maximize both systemic and genital intraepithelial CD8 T cells against vaccine Ags, we assessed combinations of i.m. Read More

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http://www.jimmunol.org/lookup/doi/10.4049/jimmunol.1800219
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1800219DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Oligoadenylate-Synthetase-Family Protein OASL Inhibits Activity of the DNA Sensor cGAS during DNA Virus Infection to Limit Interferon Production.

Immunity 2019 Jan 8;50(1):51-63.e5. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Cancer Virology Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA. Electronic address:

Interferon-inducible human oligoadenylate synthetase-like (OASL) and its mouse ortholog, Oasl2, enhance RNA-sensor RIG-I-mediated type I interferon (IFN) induction and inhibit RNA virus replication. Here, we show that OASL and Oasl2 have the opposite effect in the context of DNA virus infection. In Oasl2 mice and OASL-deficient human cells, DNA viruses such as vaccinia, herpes simplex, and adenovirus induced increased IFN production, which resulted in reduced virus replication and pathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2018.12.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6342484PMC
January 2019
1 Read
21.561 Impact Factor

Proteomics analysis reveals that structural proteins of the virion core and involved in gene expression are the main source for HLA class II ligands in vaccinia virus-infected cells.

J Proteome Res 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Protective cellular and humoral immune responses require previous recognition of viral antigenic peptides complexed with HLA class II molecules on the surface of the antigen presenting cells. The HLA class II-restricted immune response is important for the control and the clearance of poxvirus infection including vaccinia virus (VACV), the vaccine used in the worldwide eradication of smallpox. In this study, a mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify VACV ligands bound to HLA-DR and -DP class II molecules present on the surface of VACV-infected cells. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jproteome.8b00595
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.8b00595DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads
4.245 Impact Factor

Vaccinia virus-mediated cancer immunotherapy: cancer vaccines and oncolytics.

J Immunother Cancer 2019 Jan 9;7(1). Epub 2019 Jan 9.

UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Cancer vaccines and oncolytic immunotherapy are promising treatment strategies with potential to provide greater clinical benefit to patients with advanced-stage cancer. In particular, recombinant vaccinia viruses (VV) hold great promise as interventional agents. In this article, we first summarize the current understanding of virus biology and viral genes involved in host-virus interactions to further improve the utility of these agents in therapeutic applications. Read More

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https://jitc.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40425-018-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40425-018-0495-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325819PMC
January 2019
9 Reads

Is host heparanase required for the rapid spread of heparan sulfate binding viruses?

Virology 2019 Jan 3;529:1-6. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Cancer & Vascular Biology Group, ACRF Department of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Vaccinia virus (VACV), like many other viruses, binds to cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) prior to infecting cells. Since HS is ubiquitously expressed extracellularly, it seemed likely that VACV-HS interaction may impede virus spread, with host heparanase, the only known mammalian endoglycosidase that can degrade HS, potentially overcoming this problem. In support of this hypothesis, we found that, compared to wild type, mice deficient in heparanase showed a 1-3 days delay in the spread of VACV to distant organs, such as ovaries, following intranasal inoculation, or to ovaries and spleen following intramuscular inoculation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.01.001DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

A novel mutation in VRK1 associated with distal spinal muscular atrophy.

J Hum Genet 2019 Mar 7;64(3):215-219. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Distal spinal muscular atrophy (dSMA) is a rare clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by progressive distal muscle weakness and wasting. So far, more than 65% of patients with dSMA have undiscovered genetic mutations. Recently, compound heterozygous mutations in the vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) gene have been identified for the first time in two siblings with adult-onset dSMA from an Ashkenazi Jewish family. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s10038-018-0553-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-018-0553-5DOI Listing
March 2019
13 Reads

Recovery of recombinant infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus strain Sn1203 using the mammalian cell line BHK-21.

J Virol Methods 2019 Mar 4;265:84-90. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Heilongjiang River Fishery Research Institute Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Harbin 150070, China. Electronic address:

Reverse genetics systems are powerful tools for understanding the virulence mechanisms and gene functions of negative-sense RNA viruses. The reverse genetics systems commonly used for recombinant infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) are based on vaccinia virus infection. To avoid the potential biological safety risks associated with vaccinia virus, a recombinant IHNV virus strain Sn1203 (rIHNV-Sn1203) was rescued in this study using a mammalian cell line, BHK-21. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2019.01.002DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The Vaccinia virion: Filling the gap between atomic and ultrastructure.

PLoS Pathog 2019 Jan 7;15(1):e1007508. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, UC-Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America.

We have investigated the molecular-level structure of the Vaccinia virion in situ by protein-protein chemical crosslinking, identifying 4609 unique-mass crosslink ions at an effective FDR of 0.33%, covering 2534 unique pairs of crosslinked protein positions, 625 of which were inter-protein. The data were statistically non-random and rational in the context of known structures, and showed biological rationality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336343PMC
January 2019
1 Read

MVA E2 therapeutic vaccine for marked reduction in likelihood of recurrence of respiratory papillomatosis.

Head Neck 2019 Jan 3. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Virolab, S de RL de CV, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.

Background: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) or laryngeal papillomatosis is a disease caused by papillomavirus infection.

Methods: In this phase I/II clinical trial, we evaluated the efficacy of the modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) E2 virus in the treatment of RRP. Twenty-nine patients (18 female and 11 male) underwent injection of MVA E2 directly into the borders of the vocal cords where lesions were seen and were monitored by direct laryngoscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.25477DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Mutation and structure guided discovery of an antiviral small molecule that mimics an essential C-Terminal tripeptide of the vaccinia D4 processivity factor.

Antiviral Res 2019 Feb 20;162:178-185. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Microbiology, School of Dental Medicine and the Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

The smallpox virus (variola) remains a bioterrorism threat since a majority of the human population has never been vaccinated. In the event of an outbreak, at least two drugs against different targets of variola are critical to circumvent potential viral mutants that acquire resistance. Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the model virus used in the laboratory for studying smallpox. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.12.011DOI Listing
February 2019
11 Reads
3.938 Impact Factor

A virus-encoded type I interferon decoy receptor enables evasion of host immunity through cell-surface binding.

Nat Commun 2018 12 21;9(1):5440. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)-Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049, Madrid, Spain.

Soluble cytokine decoy receptors are potent immune modulatory reagents with therapeutic applications. Some virus-encoded secreted cytokine receptors interact with glycosaminoglycans expressed at the cell surface, but the biological significance of this activity in vivo is poorly understood. Here, we show the type I interferon binding protein (IFNα/βBP) encoded by vaccinia and ectromelia viruses requires of this cell binding activity to confer full virulence to these viruses and to retain immunomodulatory activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07772-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303335PMC
December 2018
1 Read

The virulence of different strains is directly proportional to their ability in down modulating specific cell-mediated immune compartments .

J Virol 2018 Dec 19. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Laboratório de Virologia Básica e Aplicada (Laboratory of Basic and Applied Virology), Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

is a notorious virus for a number of scientific reasons; however, most of its notoriety comes from the fact it was used as vaccine against smallpox, being ultimately responsible for the eradication of that disease. Nonetheless, many different ' strains have been obtained over the years, some suitable to be used as vaccines whereas others are virulent and unsuitable for this purpose. Interestingly, different vaccinia strains elicit different immune responses and this is a direct result of the genomic differences amongst strains. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.02191-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02191-18DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

A System Based-Approach to Examine Cytokine Response in Poxvirus-Infected Macrophages.

Viruses 2018 12 5;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Defence Medical and Environmental Research Institute, DSO National Labs, Singapore 117510, Singapore.

The poxviruses are large, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses about 130 to 230 kbp, that have an animal origin and evolved to infect a wide host range. Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, is a poxvirus that infects only humans, but other poxviruses such as monkey poxvirus and cowpox virus (CPXV) have crossed over from animals to infect humans. Therefore understanding the biology of poxviruses can devise antiviral strategies to prevent these human infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10120692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316232PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

CD8+ T Cells Responding to the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Protein Delivered by Vaccinia Virus MVA in Mice.

Viruses 2018 12 16;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, LMU Munich, 80539 Munich, Germany.

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), a novel infectious agent causing severe respiratory disease and death in humans, was first described in 2012. Antibodies directed against the MERS-CoV spike (S) protein are thought to play a major role in controlling MERS-CoV infection and in mediating vaccine-induced protective immunity. In contrast, relatively little is known about the role of T cell responses and the antigenic targets of MERS-CoV that are recognized by CD8+ T cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10120718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316859PMC
December 2018

Virotherapy-recruited PMN-MDSC infiltration of mesothelioma blocks antitumor CTL by IL-10-mediated dendritic cell suppression.

Oncoimmunology 2019 16;8(1):e1518672. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

AIDS Institute and Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, PR China.

Antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are essential for immune surveillance, yet the blockade of eliciting such CTLs during oncolytic virotherapy remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that oncolysis of mesothelioma by modified vaccinia Tiantan (MVTT) induces damage-associated molecular patterns exposure. Although MVTT leads to regression of established mesothelioma dose-dependently, antitumor CTLs are rarely induced. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/2162402X.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2018.1518672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6287797PMC
October 2018
13 Reads

Oncolytic properties of non-vaccinia poxviruses.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 13;9(89):35891-35906. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Transgene SA, Illkirch-Graffenstaden 67405, France.

Vaccinia virus, a member of the family, has been extensively used as an oncolytic agent and has entered late stage clinical development. In this study, we evaluated the potential oncolytic properties of other members of the family. Numerous tumor cell lines were infected with ten non-vaccinia poxviruses to identify which virus displayed the most potential as an oncolytic agent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267605PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Novel MVA Vector Expressing Anti-apoptotic Gene B13R Delays Apoptosis and Enhances Humoral Responses.

J Virol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA

Modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), an attenuated poxvirus, has been developed as a potential vaccine vector for use against cancer and multiple infectious diseases including HIV. MVA is highly immunogenic and elicits strong cellular and humoral responses in pre-clinical models and humans. However, there is potential to further enhance the immunogenicity of MVA as MVA-infected cells undergo rapid apoptosis leading to faster clearance of recombinant antigens and potentially blunting a greater response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01648-18DOI Listing
December 2018

Engineering oncolytic vaccinia virus with functional peptides through mild and universal strategy.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2019 Feb 7;411(4):925-933. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.

Oncolytic virotherapy is one of promising tumor therapy modalities. However, its therapeutic efficacy is still limited due to the immunogenicity and poor tumor-targeting capability. In this report, an engineered oncolytic vaccinia virus (OVV) was constructed by site-specifically introducing azide groups to the envelope of OVV during the in situ assembling process of virions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-018-1519-3DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

First field efficacy trial of the ChAd63 MVA ME-TRAP vectored malaria vaccine candidate in 5-17 months old infants and children.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208328. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre National de Recherche et de Formation sur le Paludisme, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Background: Heterologous prime boost immunization with chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) vectored vaccines is a strategy previously shown to provide substantial protective efficacy against P. falciparum infection in United Kingdom adult Phase IIa sporozoite challenge studies (approximately 20-25% sterile protection with similar numbers showing clear delay in time to patency), and greater point efficacy in a trial in Kenyan adults.

Methodology: We conducted the first Phase IIb clinical trial assessing the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of ChAd63 MVA ME-TRAP in 700 healthy malaria exposed children aged 5-17 months in a highly endemic malaria transmission area of Burkina Faso. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208328PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291132PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Tumor Microenvironment Remodeling by Intratumoral Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Enhances the Efficacy of Immune-Checkpoint Blockade.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Medical Oncology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Republic of Korea.

Cancer immunotherapy is a potent treatment modality, but its clinical benefit depends on the tumor's immune profile. Here, we used mJX-594 (JX), a targeted and GM-CSF-armed oncolytic vaccinia virus, as a strategy to remodel the tumor microenvironment (TME) and subsequently increase sensitivity to αPD-1 and/or αCTLA-4 immunotherapy. The remodeling of the TME was determined using histologic, flow-cytometric, and NanoString immune profiling analyses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-1932DOI Listing
December 2018
8.722 Impact Factor

The antibiotic resistance-free mammalian expression plasmid vector pPAL for development of third generation vaccines.

Plasmid 2019 01 6;101:35-42. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas). Calle Ramiro de Maeztu, 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

DNA vaccines require a vector to replicate genes and express encoding antigens. Antibiotic resistance genes are often used as selection markers, which must not be released to the environment upon final product commercialization. For this reason, generation of antibiotic resistance-free vectors is imperative. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plasmid.2018.12.002DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Vaccination with the Staphylococcus aureus secreted proteins EapH1 and EapH2 impacts both S. aureus carriage and invasive disease.

Vaccine 2019 Jan 28;37(3):502-509. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Jenner Institute, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Physiology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: There is a need for an efficacious vaccine reducing infections due to Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of community and hospital infection. Infecting organisms originate from S. aureus populations colonising the nares and bowel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.11.036DOI Listing
January 2019
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In vivo electroporation of a codon-optimized BER DNA vaccine protects mice from pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis aerosol challenge.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2018 12 10;113:65-75. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

AIDS Institute and Department of Microbiology, State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong SAR, PR China; HKU AIDS Institute Shenzhen Research Laboratory and Guangdong Key Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Guangdong Medical College, Shenzhen, PR China. Electronic address:

DNA vaccines have been extensively studied as preventative and therapeutic interventions for various infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and influenza. Despite promising progresses made, improving the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine remains a technical challenge for clinical development. In this study, we investigated a tuberculosis DNA vaccine BER, which contained a codon-optimized fusion immunogen Ag85B-ESAT-6-Rv2660c for enhanced mammalian cell expression and immunogenicity. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14729792173048
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tube.2018.07.003DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

HIV-1 T cell epitopes targeted to Rhesus macaque CD40 and DCIR: A comparative study of prototype dendritic cell targeting therapeutic vaccine candidates.

PLoS One 2018 30;13(11):e0207794. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Vaccine Research Institute, Université Paris-Est, Faculté de Médecine, INSERM U955, Créteil, France.

HIV-1 infection can be controlled by anti-retroviral drug therapy, but this is a lifetime treatment and the virus remains latent and rapidly rebounds if therapy is stopped. HIV-1-infected individuals under this drug regimen have increased rates of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmunity due to compromised immunity. A therapeutic vaccine boosting cellular immunity against HIV-1 is therefore desirable and, possibly combined with other immune modulating agents, could obviate the need for long-term drug therapies. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207794PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267996PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Optimizing the immunogenicity of HIV prime-boost DNA-MVA-rgp140/GLA vaccines in a phase II randomized factorial trial design.

PLoS One 2018 29;13(11):e0206838. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background: We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of (i) an intradermal HIV-DNA regimen given with/without intradermal electroporation (EP) as prime and (ii) the impact of boosting with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (HIV-MVA) administered with or without subtype C CN54rgp140 envelope protein adjuvanted with Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA-AF) in volunteers from Tanzania and Mozambique.

Methods: Healthy HIV-uninfected adults (N = 191) were randomized twice; first to one of three HIV-DNA intradermal priming regimens by needle-free ZetaJet device at weeks 0, 4 and 12 (Group I: 2x0.1mL [3mg/mL], Group II: 2x0. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206838PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6264478PMC
November 2018
1 Read

HNRNP Q suppresses polyglutamine huntingtin aggregation by post-transcriptional regulation of vaccinia-related kinase 2.

J Neurochem 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Korea.

Misfolded proteins with abnormal polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion cause neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease. Recently, it was found that polyQ aggregates accumulate as a result of vaccinia-related kinase 2 (VRK2)-mediated degradation of TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC)/chaperonin-containing TCP-1 (CCT), which has an essential role in the prevention of polyQ protein aggregation and cytotoxicity. The levels of VRK2 are known to be much higher in actively proliferating cells but are maintained at a low level in the brain via an unknown mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.14638DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Identifying and Tracking Low-Frequency Virus-Specific TCR Clonotypes Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

Cell Rep 2018 Nov;25(9):2369-2378.e4

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104, USA. Electronic address:

Tracking antigen-specific T cell responses over time within individuals is difficult because of lack of knowledge of antigen-specific TCR sequences, limitations in sample size, and assay sensitivities. We hypothesized that analyses of high-throughput sequencing of TCR clonotypes could provide functional readouts of individuals' immunological histories. Using high-throughput TCR sequencing, we develop a database of TCRβ sequences from large cohorts of mice before (naive) and after smallpox vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.009DOI Listing
November 2018

A Vaccine Based on a Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vector Expressing Zika Virus Structural Proteins Controls Zika Virus Replication in Mice.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 26;8(1):17385. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that affects humans and can cause severe neurological complications, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Since 2007 there have been three large outbreaks; the last and larger spread in the Americas in 2015. Actually, ZIKV is circulating in the Americas, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands, and represents a potential pandemic threat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-35724-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6255889PMC
November 2018
2 Reads