16,417 results match your criteria Vaccinia

Development and Characterization of a Highly Sensitive NanoLuciferase-Based Immunoprecipitation System for the Detection of Anti-Influenza Virus HA Antibodies.

mSphere 2021 May 12;6(3). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan

Antibody detection is crucial for monitoring host immune responses to specific pathogen antigens (Ags) and evaluating vaccine efficacies. The luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) was developed for sensitive detection of Ag-specific antibodies in sera from various species. In this study, we describe NanoLIPS, an improved LIPS assay based on NanoLuciferase (NLuc), and employ the assay for monitoring antibody responses following influenza virus infection or vaccination. Read More

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Adjuvant oncolytic virotherapy for personalized anti-cancer vaccination.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2626. Epub 2021 May 11.

CRCHUM: "Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal" Research Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

By conferring systemic protection and durable benefits, cancer immunotherapies are emerging as long-term solutions for cancer treatment. One such approach that is currently undergoing clinical testing is a therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine that uses two different viruses expressing the same tumor antigen to prime and boost anti-tumor immunity. By providing the additional advantage of directly killing cancer cells, oncolytic viruses (OVs) constitute ideal platforms for such treatment strategy. Read More

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Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses in Mice Immunized with Vaccinia Virus Expressing the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein.

J Immunol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR;

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health emergency, and the development of a successful vaccine will ultimately be required to prevent the continued spread and seasonal recurrence of this disease within the human population. However, very little is known about either the quality of the adaptive immune response or the viral Ag targets that will be necessary to prevent the spread of the infection. In this study, we generated recombinant Vaccinia virus expressing the full-length spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 (VacV-S) to evaluate the cellular and humoral immune response mounted against this viral Ag in mice. Read More

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Adamantane derivatives as potential inhibitors of p37 major envelope protein and poxvirus reproduction. Design, synthesis and antiviral activity.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Apr 29;221:113485. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Samara State Technical University, 244 Molodogvardeyskaya St., Samara, Samara Region, 443100, Russia.

Currently, smallpox, caused by the variola virus belonging to the poxvirus family, has been completely eradicated according to the WHO. However, other representatives of poxviruses, such as vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, ectromelia virus, monkeypox virus, mousepox virus and others, remain in the natural environment and can infect both animals and humans. The pathogens of animal diseases, belonging to the category with a high epidemic risk, have already caused several outbreaks among humans, and can, in an unfavorable combination of circumstances, cause not only an epidemic, but also a pandemic. Read More

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Vaccine Inoculation Route Modulates Early Immunity and Consequently Antigen-Specific Immune Response.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:645210. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

UMR1184 IMVA-HB, IDMIT Department, Université Paris-Saclay - INSERM U1184 - CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France.

Vaccination is one of the most efficient public healthcare measures to fight infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the immune mechanisms induced by vaccination are still unclear. The route of administration, an important vaccination parameter, can substantially modify the quality of the response. Read More

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An oncolytic vaccinia virus armed with anti-human-PD-1 antibody and anti-human-4-1BB antibody double genes for cancer-targeted therapy.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 1;559:176-182. Epub 2021 May 1.

School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai, China; GeneSail Biotech (Shanghai) Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Oncolytic virus can selectively recognize cancer cells, target tumors, and stimulate an oncolytic and immune response. Recombinant armed oncolytic vaccinia virus has emerged as an attractive tool in oncolytic virotherapy because it has tumor-specific cytotoxicity and serves as a vector to express immune genes. A novel thymidine kinase (TK) gene-deleted oncolytic vaccinia virus (named ΔTK-Armed-VACV) armed with anti-human-programed cell death-1 protein (PD-1) antibody and anti-human-tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 9 (4-1BB) antibody genes was constructed based on Western Reserve in our previous study. Read More

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Oncolytic Virotherapy for Cancer: Clinical Experience.

Biomedicines 2021 Apr 13;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Surgery, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

Oncolytic viruses are a new class of therapeutics which are largely in the experimental stage, with just one virus approved by the FDA thus far. While the concept of oncolytic virotherapy is not new, advancements in the fields of molecular biology and virology have renewed the interest in using viruses as oncolytic agents. Backed by robust preclinical data, many oncolytic viruses have entered clinical trials. Read More

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Educational Approach to Prevent the Burden of Vaccinia Virus Infections in a Bovine Vaccinia Endemic Area in Brazil.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 23;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901, Brazil.

Bovine vaccinia (BV), caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), is a zoonotic disease characterized by exanthematous lesions on the teats of dairy cows and the hands of milkers, and is an important public health issue in Brazil and South America. BV also results in economic losses to the dairy industry, being a burden to the regions involved in milk production. In the past 20 years, much effort has been made to increase the knowledge regarding BV epidemiology, etiologic agents, and interactions with the hosts and the environment. Read More

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Anti-Tumor Effects of MAPK-Dependent Tumor-Selective Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Armed with CD/UPRT against Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma in Mice.

Cells 2021 Apr 23;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Genomic Medicine and Regenerative Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8503, Japan.

Engineered vaccinia virus serves as an oncolytic virus for cancer virotherapy. We evaluated the oncolytic characteristics of - and -deleted recombinant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent vaccinia virus (MDRVV). We found that compared with viruses with the deletion of either gene alone, MDRVV is more attenuated in normal cells and can replicate in cancer cells that exhibit constitutive ERK1/2 activation in the MAPK pathway. Read More

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Ribosome quality control activity potentiates vaccinia virus protein synthesis during infection.

J Cell Sci 2021 Apr 28;134(8). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Viral infection both activates stress signaling pathways and redistributes ribosomes away from host mRNAs to translate viral mRNAs. The intricacies of this ribosome shuffle from host to viral mRNAs are poorly understood. Here, we uncover a role for the ribosome-associated quality control (RQC) factor ZNF598 during vaccinia virus mRNA translation. Read More

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Vaccinia virus gene acquisition through non-homologous recombination.

J Virol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Many of the genes encoded by poxviruses are orthologs of cellular genes. These virus genes serve different purposes, but perhaps of most interest is the way some have been repurposed to inhibit the antiviral pathways that their cellular homologs still regulate. What is unclear is how these virus genes were acquired although it is presumed to have been catalyzed by some form(s) of non-homologous recombination (NHR). Read More

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Solution Structure of the C-terminal Domain of A20, the Missing Brick for the Characterization of the Interface between Vaccinia Virus DNA Polymerase and its Processivity Factor.

J Mol Biol 2021 Apr 24;433(13):167009. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Unité de Virologie, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, BP73, F-91223 Brétigny-sur-Orge Cedex, France.

Poxviruses are enveloped viruses with a linear, double-stranded DNA genome. Viral DNA synthesis is achieved by a functional DNA polymerase holoenzyme composed of three essential proteins. For vaccinia virus (VACV) these are E9, the catalytic subunit, a family B DNA polymerase, and the heterodimeric processivity factor formed by D4 and A20. Read More

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Type I interferon mediated induction of somatostatin leads to suppression of ghrelin and appetite thereby promoting viral immunity in mice.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Institute for Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, LMU Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Loss of appetite (anorexia) is a typical behavioral response to infectious diseases that often reduces body weight. Also, anorexia can be observed in cancer and trauma patients, causing poor quality of life and reduced prospects of positive therapeutic outcomes. Although anorexia is an acute symptom, its initiation and endocrine regulation during antiviral immune responses are poorly understood. Read More

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Vaccinia-related kinase 2 blunts sorafenib's efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma by disturbing the apoptosis-autophagy balance.

Oncogene 2021 May 19;40(19):3378-3393. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of General Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal malignancy with limited treatment options. Sorafenib is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved first-line targeted drug for the treatment of advanced HCC. However, its effect on patient survival is limited. Read More

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Polymer stealthing and mucin-1 retargeting for enhanced pharmacokinetics of an oncolytic vaccinia virus.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2021 Jun 17;21:47-61. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK.

Vaccinia virus (VV) is a powerful tool for cancer treatment with the potential for tumor tropism, efficient cell-to-cell spread, rapid replication in cancer cells, and stimulation of anti-tumor immunity. It has a well-defined safety profile and is being assessed in late-stage clinical trials. However, VV clinical utility is limited by rapid bloodstream neutralization and poor penetration into tumors. Read More

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Oncolytic viruses encoding bispecific T cell engagers: a blueprint for emerging immunovirotherapies.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 Apr 16;14(1):63. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Research Group Mechanisms of Oncolytic Immunotherapy, Clinical Cooperation Unit Virotherapy, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Bispecific T cell engagers (BiTEs) are an innovative class of immunotherapeutics that redirect T cells to tumor surface antigens. While efficacious against certain hematological malignancies, limited bioavailability and severe toxicities have so far hampered broader clinical application, especially against solid tumors. Another emerging cancer immunotherapy are oncolytic viruses (OVs) which selectively infect and replicate in malignant cells, thereby mediating tumor vaccination effects. Read More

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Golgi apparatus-synthesized sulfated glycosaminoglycans mediate polymerization and activation of the cGAMP sensor STING.

Immunity 2021 May 14;54(5):962-975.e8. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Key Laboratory of Cell Proliferation and Differentiation of the Ministry of Education, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

Activation of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP)-AMP (cGAMP) sensor STING requires its translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus and subsequent polymerization. Using a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen to define factors critical for STING activation in cells, we identified proteins critical for biosynthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) in the Golgi apparatus. Binding of sGAGs promoted STING polymerization through luminal, positively charged, polar residues. Read More

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Neutrophil subtypes shape HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses after vaccinia virus infection.

NPJ Vaccines 2021 Apr 12;6(1):52. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Università della Svizzera Italiana, Bellinzona, Switzerland.

Neutrophils are innate immune cells involved in the elimination of pathogens and can also induce adaptive immune responses. Nα and Nβ neutrophils have been described with distinct in vitro capacity to generate antigen-specific CD8 T-cell responses. However, how these cell types exert their role in vivo and how manipulation of Nβ/Nα ratio influences vaccine-mediated immune responses are not known. Read More

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Anaphylactic reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines: A call for further study.

Vaccine 2021 05 6;39(19):2605-2607. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Microbiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

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Viral reduction of human blood by UVA photosensitized vitamin K5.

J Med Virol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Division of Blood Components and Devices, OBRR, CBER, FDA, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Blood product transfusion can transmit viral pathogens. Pathogen reduction methods for blood products have been developed but, so far, are not available for whole blood. We evaluated if Vitamin K5 (VK5) and ultraviolet light A (UVA) irradiation could be used for virus inactivation in plasma and whole blood. Read More

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Engineering Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus to redirect Macrophages to Tumor Cells.

Adv Cell Gene Ther 2021 Apr 3;4(2). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston Methodist Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Oncolytic virotherapy has been tested in numerous early phase clinical studies. However, the antitumor activity of oncolytic viruses thus far has been limited. Numerous strategies are being explored to enhance their antitumor activity by activating the adaptive arm of the immune system. Read More

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Role of Electrostatic Hotspots in the Selectivity of Complement Control Proteins Toward Human and Bovine Complement Inhibition.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 16;8:618068. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Riverside, CA.

Poxviruses are dangerous pathogens, which can cause fatal infection in unvaccinated individuals. The causative agent of smallpox in humans, , is closely related to the bovine , yet the molecular basis of their selectivity is currently incompletely understood. Here, we examine the role of the electrostatics in the selectivity of the smallpox protein SPICE and vaccinia protein VCP toward the human and bovine complement protein C3b, a key component of the complement immune response. Read More

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Safety and Immunogenicity of Adenovirus and Poxvirus Vectored Vaccines against a Mycobacterium Avium Complex Subspecies.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK.

Heterologous prime-boost strategies are known to substantially increase immune responses in viral vectored vaccines. Here we report on safety and immunogenicity of the poxvirus Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vectored vaccine expressing four Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis antigens as a single dose or as a booster vaccine following a simian adenovirus (ChAdOx2) prime. We demonstrate that a heterologous prime-boost schedule is well tolerated and induced T-cell immune responses. Read More

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Twenty Years after Bovine Vaccinia in Brazil: Where We Are and Where Are We Going?

Pathogens 2021 Mar 31;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901, Brazil.

Orthopoxvirus (OPV) infections have been present in human life for hundreds of years. It is known that Variola virus (VARV) killed over 300 million people in the past; however, it had an end thanks to the physician Edward Jenner (who developed the first vaccine in history) and also thanks to a massive vaccination program in the 20th century all over the world. Although the first vaccine was created using the Cowpox virus (CPXV), it turned out later that the Vaccinia virus was the one used during the vaccination program. Read More

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Septins in Infections: Focus on Viruses.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 2;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Anatomy Unit, Department of Oncology, Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Science and Medicine, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland.

Human septins comprise a family of 13 genes that encode conserved GTP-binding proteins. They form nonpolar complexes, which assemble into higher-order structures, such as bundles, scaffolding structures, or rings. Septins are counted among the cytoskeletal elements. Read More

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Enhancing the Protective Immune Response to Administration of a LIVP-GFP Live Attenuated Vaccinia Virus to Mice.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 21;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo, Novosibirsk 630559, Russia.

Following the WHO announcement of smallpox eradication, discontinuation of smallpox vaccination with vaccinia virus (VACV) was recommended. However, interest in VACV was soon renewed due to the opportunity of genetic engineering of the viral genome by directed insertion of foreign genes or introduction of mutations or deletions into selected viral genes. This genomic technology enabled production of stable attenuated VACV strains producing antigens of various infectious agents. Read More

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Acrylamide inhibits vaccinia virus through vimentin-independent anti-viral granule formation.

Cell Microbiol 2021 Mar 31:e13334. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London, UK.

The replication and assembly of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic poxvirus, occurs exclusively in the cytoplasm of host cells. While the role of cellular cytoskeletal components in these processes remains poorly understood, vimentin-a type III intermediate filament-has been shown to associate with viral replication sites and to be incorporated into mature VACV virions. Here, we employed chemical and genetic approaches to further investigate the role of vimentin during the VACV lifecycle. Read More

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VRK2 is involved in the innate antiviral response by promoting mitostress-induced mtDNA release.

Cell Mol Immunol 2021 May 30;18(5):1186-1196. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Frontier Science Center for Immunology and Metabolism, Medical Research Institute, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Mitochondrial stress (mitostress) triggered by viral infection or mitochondrial dysfunction causes the release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the cytosol and activates the cGAS-mediated innate immune response. The regulation of mtDNA release upon mitostress remains uncharacterized. Here, we identified mitochondria-associated vaccinia virus-related kinase 2 (VRK2) as a key regulator of this process. Read More

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Discovery of a Novel Respiratory Syncytial Virus Replication Inhibitor.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Infectious Disease Discovery, Medicinal Chemistry, and Lead Discovery Roche Pharmaceutical Research and Early Development, Roche Innovation Center Shanghai, Add: Building 5, Lane 371, Li Shizhen Road, Shanghai 201203, China

A high-throughput screen of a Roche internal chemical library based on inhibition of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) on HEp-2 cells was performed to identify RSV inhibitors. Over 2000 hits were identified and confirmed to be efficacious against RSV infection Herein, we report the discovery of a Triazole-oxadiazole derivative, designated Triazole-1, as an RSV replication inhibitor and the characterization of its mechanism of action. Triazole-1 inhibited the replication of both RSV A and B subtypes with IC values of approximately 1 μM but was not effective against other viruses, including influenza virus A, human enterovirus 71, and vaccinia virus. Read More

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Virucidal efficacy of different formulations for hand and surface disinfection targeting SARS CoV-2.

J Hosp Infect 2021 Mar 23;112:27-30. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Molecular and Medical Virology, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

In the ongoing SARS CoV-2 pandemic, effective disinfection measures are needed, and guidance based on the methodological framework of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) may enable the choice of effective disinfectants on an immediate basis. This study aimed to elucidate whether disinfectants claiming 'virucidal activity against enveloped viruses' as specified in the European Standard EN 14476 as well as in the German Association for the Control of Viral Diseases/Robert Koch Institute (DVV/RKI) guideline are effectively inactivating SARS-CoV-2. Two commercially available formulations for surface disinfection and one formulation for hand disinfection were studied regarding their virucidal activity. Read More

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