16,169 results match your criteria Vaccinia


Genes that Control Vaccinia Virus Immunogenicity.

Acta Naturae 2020 Jan-Mar;12(1):33-41

State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector", Rospotrebnadzor, Novosibirsk region, Koltsovo, 630559 Russia.

The live smallpox vaccine was a historical first and highly effective vaccine. However, along with high immunogenicity, the vaccinia virus (VACV) caused serious side effects in vaccinees, sometimes with lethal outcomes. Therefore, after global eradication of smallpox, VACV vaccination was stopped. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.32607/actanaturae.10935DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245956PMC

Early smallpox vaccine manufacturing in the United States: Introduction of the "animal vaccine" in 1870, establishment of "vaccine farms", and the beginnings of the vaccine industry.

Vaccine 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

For the first 80-90 years after Jenner's discovery of vaccination in 1796, the main strategy used to disseminate and maintain the smallpox vaccine was arm-to-arm vaccination, also known as Jennerian or humanized vaccination. A major advance occurred after 1860 with the development of what was known as "animal vaccine", which referred to growing vaccine material from serial propagation in calves before use in humans. The use of "animal vaccine" had several advantages over arm-to-arm vaccination: it would not transmit syphilis or other human diseases, it ensured a supply of vaccine even in the absence of the spontaneous occurrence of cases of cowpox or horsepox, and it allowed the production of large amounts of vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.037DOI Listing

Dual but not single PD-1 or TIM-3 blockade enhances oncolytic virotherapy in refractory lung cancer.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 May;8(1)

UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA

Background: Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade therapy fails in the majority of patients with cancer. Oncolytic viruses represent a new class of therapeutic agents, yet the therapeutic efficacy is still disappointing. Moreover, intratumoral injection of viruses is the main approach and preclinical studies mainly employ syngeneic or xenograft models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2019-000294DOI Listing

Myxoma Virus-Encoded Host Range Protein M029: A Multifunctional Antagonist Targeting Multiple Host Antiviral and Innate Immune Pathways.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 May 23;8(2). Epub 2020 May 23.

Center for Immunotherapy, Vaccines and Virotherapy, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.

Myxoma virus (MYXV) is the prototypic member of the genus of the family of viruses. In nature, MYXV is highly restricted to leporids and causes a lethal disease called myxomatosis only in European rabbits (). However, MYXV has been shown to also productively infect various types of nonrabbit transformed and cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, whereas their normal somatic cell counterparts undergo abortive infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020244DOI Listing

Vaccinia Virus as a Master of Host Shutoff Induction: Targeting Processes of the Central Dogma and Beyond.

Pathogens 2020 May 21;9(5). Epub 2020 May 21.

Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.

The synthesis of host cell proteins is adversely inhibited in many virus infections, whereas viral proteins are efficiently synthesized. This phenomenon leads to the accumulation of viral proteins concurrently with a profound decline in global host protein synthesis, a phenomenon often termed "host shutoff." To induce host shutoff, a virus may target various steps of gene expression, as well as pre- and post-gene expression processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050400DOI Listing

Benchmarking predictions of MHC class I restricted T cell epitopes in a comprehensively studied model system.

PLoS Comput Biol 2020 May 26;16(5):e1007757. Epub 2020 May 26.

Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Immunology, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

T cell epitope candidates are commonly identified using computational prediction tools in order to enable applications such as vaccine design, cancer neoantigen identification, development of diagnostics and removal of unwanted immune responses against protein therapeutics. Most T cell epitope prediction tools are based on machine learning algorithms trained on MHC binding or naturally processed MHC ligand elution data. The ability of currently available tools to predict T cell epitopes has not been comprehensively evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007757DOI Listing

A Pool of Eight Virally Vectored African Swine Fever Antigens Protect Pigs Against Fatal Disease.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 May 18;8(2). Epub 2020 May 18.

The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK.

Classical approaches to African swine fever virus (ASFV) vaccine development have not been successful; inactivated virus does not provide protection and use of live attenuated viruses generated by passage in tissue culture had a poor safety profile. Current African swine fever (ASF) vaccine research focuses on the development of modified live viruses by targeted gene deletion or subunit vaccines. The latter approach would be differentiation of vaccinated from infected animals (DIVA)-compliant, but information on which viral proteins to include in a subunit vaccine is lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020234DOI Listing

Serological Immunity to Smallpox in New South Wales, Australia.

Viruses 2020 May 18;12(5). Epub 2020 May 18.

Biosecurity Program, Kirby Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

The re-emergence of smallpox is an increasing and legitimate concern due to advances in synthetic biology. Vaccination programs against smallpox using the vaccinia virus vaccine ceased with the eradication of smallpox and, unlike many other countries, Australia did not use mass vaccinations. However, vaccinated migrants contribute to population immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050554DOI Listing

Evaluation of heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategies using chimpanzee adenovirus and modified vaccinia virus for TB subunit vaccination in rhesus macaques.

NPJ Vaccines 2020 14;5:39. Epub 2020 May 14.

1Department of Parasitology, Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Rijswijk, The Netherlands.

Tuberculosis (TB) still is the principal cause of death from infectious disease and improved vaccination strategies are required to reduce the disease burden and break TB transmission. Here, we investigated different routes of administration of vectored subunit vaccines based on chimpanzee-derived adenovirus serotype-3 (ChAd3) for homologous prime-boosting and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) for heterologous boosting with both vaccine vectors expressing the same antigens from (Ag85B, ESAT6, Rv2626, Rv1733, RpfD). Prime-boost strategies were evaluated for immunogenicity and protective efficacy in highly susceptible rhesus macaques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41541-020-0189-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7224290PMC

Preceding Viral Infections Do Not Imprint Long-Term Changes in Regulatory T Cell Function.

Sci Rep 2020 May 20;10(1):8350. Epub 2020 May 20.

University of Zurich, Institute of Experimental Immunology, Zurich, 8057, Switzerland.

Regulatory T cells (T) maintain peripheral self-tolerance and limit immune mediated pathology. Like effector T cells, T can specialize in T1-dominated immune responses and co-express T-bet together with Foxp3. This allows for expression of CXCR3 and efficient homing to sites of T1 responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65212-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239864PMC

An Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Armed with GM-CSF and IL-24 Double Genes for Cancer Targeted Therapy.

Onco Targets Ther 2020 28;13:3535-3544. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Wuxi Children's Hospital, Wuxi People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi 214023, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Targeted oncolytic vaccinia virus is an attractive candidate for cancer therapy due to its replication causing lysis of infected tumor cells as well as a delivery vector to overexpress therapeutic transgenes. This study constructed a novel oncolytic vaccinia virus carrying granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-24 (IL-24) double genes to improve efficacy for cancer therapy.

Methods: Vaccinia virus co-expressing GM-CSF and IL-24 based on Chinese Guang9 strain (VG9-GMCSF-IL24) was constructed with disruption of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S249816DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7196195PMC

Curcumin Enhances the Antitumoral Effect Induced by the Recombinant Vaccinia Neu Vaccine (rV-T) in Mice with Transplanted Salivary Gland Carcinoma Cells.

Nutrients 2020 May 14;12(5). Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy.

The survival rate for head and neck cancer patients has not substantially changed in the last two decades. We previously showed that two rV-T intratumoral injections induced an efficient antitumor response and rejection of transplanted Neu (rat oncogene-encoded protein)-overexpressing salivary gland tumor cells in BALB-T mice (BALB/c mice transgenic for the rat oncogene). However, reiterated poxviral vaccinations increase neutralizing antibodies to viral proteins in humans that prevent immune response against the recombinant antigen expressed by the virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12051417DOI Listing

Molecular Modelling and Insilico Engineering of PapMV-CP Towards Display and Development of Capripox Viral Like Particles Based on Immunogenic P32 Envelop Protein is the Homologous of the Vaccinia-Viral H3L Gene: An Insilico Approach.

Int J Pept Res Ther 2020 Jan 6:1-13. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

1Department of Biotechnology, REVA University, Bengaluru, 560064 India.

Viral-like particles are assembled from capsid protein structural subunits of different viruses and have ability to establish research in biomedicals, like construction of novel safety vaccines, gene therapy vectors by delivering systems for nucleic acids, small biomolecules and diagnostics. Papaya Mosaic Viral nanoparticals can provide as a vaccine candidate helps to increase the immunity by fusing the epitope based peptide antigen. Capripox viruses are the genus comprises Lymphy skin-disease, Sheep and Goat pox Viruses are notified by The World Animal Health Organization (OIE) based on their economic impotence act as a transboundary animal diseases viruses of sheep, goat, and cattle's respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10989-019-10007-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222904PMC
January 2020

Reduced Ebola vaccine responses in CMV+ young adults is associated with expansion of CD57+KLRG1+ T cells.

J Exp Med 2020 Jul;217(7)

The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

CMV is associated with immunosenescence and reduced vaccine responses in the elderly (>70 yr). However, the impact of CMV in young adults is less clear. In this study, healthy UK and Senegalese adults aged 18-50 yr (average, 29 yr) were vaccinated with the Ebola vaccine candidate chimpanzee adenovirus type 3-vectored Ebola Zaire vaccine (ChAd3-EBO-Z) and boosted with modified vaccinia Ankara Ebola Zaire-vectored (MVA-EBO-Z) vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20200004DOI Listing

Induction of Identical IgG HIV-1 Envelope Epitope Recognition Patterns After Initial HIVIS-DNA/MVA-CMDR Immunization and a Late MVA-CMDR Boost.

Front Immunol 2020 28;11:719. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

In the RV144 trial, to date the only HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial demonstrating a modestly reduced risk of HIV-1 acquisition, antibody responses toward the HIV Envelope protein (Env) variable (V) 2 and V3 regions were shown to be correlated with a reduced risk of infection. These potentially protective antibody responses, in parallel with the vaccine efficacy, however, waned quickly. Dissecting vaccine-induced IgG recognition of antigenic regions and their variants within the HIV-1 Env from different vaccine trials will aid in designing future HIV-1 immunogens and vaccination schedules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198863PMC

Therapeutic Cancer Vaccination with an Oncolytic Virus Expressing Membrane-Tethered IL-2.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2020 Jun 21;17:350-360. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Successful therapeutic vaccination would allow locally delivered oncolytic virus (OV) to exert systemic immunologic effects on metastases and improve survival. We have utilized bilateral flank tumor models to determine the most efficacious regimens of vaccination. Intratumoral injection with membrane-tethered interleukin -2-armed OV (vvDD-mIL2) plus a Toll-like receptor 9 ligand (CpG) yielded systemic immunization and decreased tumor growth in a contralateral, noninjected tumor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2020.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7210382PMC

Investigating Viruses During the Transformation of Molecular Biology: Part II.

Authors:
Bernard Moss

Annu Rev Virol 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA; email:

My scientific career started at an extraordinary time, shortly after the discoveries of the helical structure of DNA, the central dogma of DNA to RNA to protein, and the genetic code. Part I of this series emphasizes my education and early studies highlighted by the isolation and characterization of numerous vaccinia virus enzymes, determination of the cap structure of messenger RNA, and development of poxviruses as gene expression vectors for use as recombinant vaccines. Here I describe a shift in my research focus to combine molecular biology and genetics for a comprehensive understanding of poxvirus biology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-virology-021020-100558DOI Listing

Influence of the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) superoxide dismutase homologue on host transcriptional activity, apoptosis and histopathology.

J Gen Virol 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925, Cape Town, South Africa.

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), a Capripoxvirus, is of economic importance in the cattle industry and is controlled by vaccination. A comparison was made of the host response to the two LSDV vaccines Neethling and Herbivac LS, with reference to the well-studied Orthopoxvirus, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), in a mouse model. Because the vaccines differ at the superoxide dismutase homologue (SOD) gene locus, recombinant SOD knock-out and knock-in nLSDV vaccines were constructed and all four vaccines were tested for the induction and inhibition of apoptosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001423DOI Listing

Degradation of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Viral miRNA H11 by Vaccinia Virus Protein VP55 Attenuates Viral Replication.

Front Microbiol 2020 23;11:717. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Shenzhen International Institute for Biomedical Research, Shenzhen, China.

Among 29 distinct miRNAs expressed by the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) during lytic infection, miR-H11, together with miR-H1 to miR-H8 are reported to locate in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). miR-H11 is encoded within viral origins of replication and lies entirely within the origins of replication. However, the roles of this miRNA derived from lytic infection with HSV-1 remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191008PMC

Discovery of Retro-1 Analogs Exhibiting Enhanced Anti-vaccinia Virus Activity.

Front Microbiol 2020 23;11:603. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Orthopoxviruses (OPXVs) are an increasing threat to human health due to the growing population of OPXV-naive individuals after the discontinuation of routine smallpox vaccination. Antiviral drugs that are effective as postexposure treatments against variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox) or other OPXVs are critical in the event of an OPXV outbreak or exposure. The only US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug to treat smallpox, Tecovirimat (ST-246), exerts its antiviral effect by inhibiting extracellular virus (EV) formation, thereby preventing cell-cell and long-distance spread. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190985PMC

Stable Isotope-Triggered Offset Fragmentation Allows Massively Multiplexed Target Profiling on Quadrupole-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometers.

J Proteome Res 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Parallel-reaction monitoring (PRM) using high resolution, accurate mass (HR/AM) analysis on quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometers, like the Q Exactive, is one of the most promising approaches for targeted protein analysis. However, PRM has a limited multiplexing capacity, which depends heavily on the reproducibility of peptide retention times. To overcome these limitations, we aimed to establish an easily applicable data acquisition mode that allows retention-time-independent massive multiplexing on Q Exactive mass spectrometers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.0c00065DOI Listing
May 2020
4.245 Impact Factor

Administration with Vaccinia Virus Encoding Canine Parvovirus 2 Elicits Systemic Immune Responses in Mice and Dogs.

Viral Immunol 2020 May 4. Epub 2020 May 4.

Hubei Engineering Research Center of Viral Vector, Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Wuhan University of Bioengineering, Wuhan, China.

Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2) is a highly contagious cause of serious and often fatal disease in young dogs. Despite the widespread availability of attenuated vaccines, safer, more stable, and more effective CPV2 vaccine candidates are still under exploration. Vaccinia virus (VV) has already been proved to be a safe, stable, and effective vaccine vector. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2019.0164DOI Listing

The many faces of the anti-COVID immune response.

J Exp Med 2020 06;217(6)

Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, San Francisco, CA.

The novel 2019 strain of coronavirus is a source of profound morbidity and mortality worldwide. Compared with recent viral outbreaks, COVID-19 infection has a relatively high mortality rate, the reasons for which are not entirely clear. Furthermore, treatment options for COVID-19 infection are currently limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20200678DOI Listing

Reduced cellular binding affinity has profoundly different impacts on the spread of distinct poxviruses.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(4):e0231977. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Division of Molecular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM, United States of America.

Poxviruses are large enveloped viruses that replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm. Like all viruses, their replication cycle begins with virion adsorption to the cell surface. Unlike most other viral families, however, no unique poxviral receptor has ever been identified. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231977PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7192435PMC

Allosteric Impact of the Variable Insert Loop in H1-Related (VHR) Phosphatase.

Biochemistry 2020 May 6;59(20):1896-1908. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225 Prospect Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, United States.

Dynamics and conformational motions are important to the activity of enzymes, including protein tyrosine phosphatases. These motions often extend to regions outside the active site, called allosteric regions. In the tyrosine phosphatase H1-related (VHR) enzyme, we demonstrate the importance of the allosteric interaction between the variable insert region and the active-site loops in VHR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.0c00245DOI Listing

Viral Delivery of CAR Targets to Solid Tumors Enables Effective Cell Therapy.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2020 Jun 7;17:232-240. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has had limited efficacy for solid tumors, largely due to a lack of selectively and highly expressed surface antigens. To avoid reliance on a tumor's endogenous antigens, here we describe a method of tumor-selective delivery of surface antigens using an oncolytic virus to enable a generalizable CAR T cell therapy. Using CD19 as our proof of concept, we engineered a thymidine kinase-disrupted vaccinia virus to selectively deliver CD19 to malignant cells, and thus demonstrated potentiation of CD19 CAR T cell activity against two tumor types . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2020.03.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183102PMC

EPPIC (Efficient Purification by Parental Inducer Constraint) Platform for Rapid Generation of Recombinant Vaccinia Viruses.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2020 Jun 30;17:731-738. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science and Center of Excellence for Vaccine Research, College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.

Vaccinia virus (VACV) was successfully used as a vaccine in the smallpox eradication campaign. Since then, it has been widely used in the development of vaccine and therapeutic vectors. However, methods of generating and purifying recombinant VACVs (rVACVs) are often time-consuming, cumbersome, and in some cases require specialized cell lines or equipment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2020.03.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7177189PMC

Investigating the Effect of Encapsulation Processing Parameters on the Viability of Therapeutic Viruses in Electrospraying.

Pharmaceutics 2020 Apr 24;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Engineering Science, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Headington OX3 7DQ, UK.

The ability of viruses to introduce genetic material into cells can be usefully exploited in a variety of therapies and also vaccination. Encapsulating viruses to limit inactivation by the immune system before reaching the desired target and allowing for controlled release is a promising strategy of delivery. Conventional encapsulation methods, however, can significantly reduce infectivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12040388DOI Listing

Another case of mistaken identity? Vaccinia virus in another live Camelpox vaccine.

Biologicals 2020 May 22;65:39-41. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.

Camelpox virus is the causative agent of Camelpox, a highly contagious disease of camels. A high passage Camelpox virus strain has previously been reported to contain several genes which more closely resemble Vaccinia, a virus species with no known natural host, encompassing various strains that show high inter-strain genomic variation. In this study, we demonstrate that yet another high passage, live attenuated vaccine, comprising a different strain of Camelpox virus, contains genomic sequences that match a differing strain of Vaccinia virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biologicals.2020.04.002DOI Listing

Safety and immunogenicity of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector vaccine candidate for Middle East respiratory syndrome: an open-label, phase 1 trial.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 Apr 20. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

First Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Department for Clinical Immunology of Infectious Diseases, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany; German Center for Infection Research, Hamburg-Lubeck-Borstel-Riems, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a respiratory disease with a case fatality rate of up to 35%. Given its potential to cause a public health emergency and the absence of efficacious drugs or vaccines, MERS is one of the WHO priority diseases warranting urgent research and development of countermeasures. We aimed to assess safety and tolerability of an anti-MERS-CoV modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vaccine candidate that expresses the MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein, MVA-MERS-S, in healthy adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30248-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7172913PMC
April 2020
22.433 Impact Factor

Comparison of Clinically Relevant Oncolytic Virus Platforms for Enhancing T Cell Therapy of Solid Tumors.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2020 Jun 19;17:47-60. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Cancer Gene Therapy Group, Translational Immunology Research Program, University of Helsinki, 00290 Helsinki, Finland.

Despite some promising results, the majority of patients do not benefit from T cell therapies, as tumors prevent T cells from entering the tumor, shut down their activity, or downregulate key antigens. Due to their nature and mechanism of action, oncolytic viruses have features that can help overcome many of the barriers currently facing T cell therapies of solid tumors. This study aims to understand how four different oncolytic viruses (adenovirus, vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and reovirus) perform in that task. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2020.03.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7163046PMC

Natural killer cells expanded in vivo or ex vivo with IL-15 overcomes the inherent susceptibility of CAST mice to lethal infection with orthopoxviruses.

PLoS Pathog 2020 Apr 22;16(4):e1008505. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

The wild-derived inbred CAST/EiJ mouse, one of eight founder strains in the Collaborative Cross panel, is an exceptional model for studying monkeypox virus (MPXV), an emerging human pathogen, and other orthopoxviruses including vaccinia virus (VACV). Previous studies suggested that the extreme susceptibility of the CAST mouse to orthopoxviruses is due to an insufficient innate immune response. Here, we focused on the low number of natural killer (NK) cells in the naïve CAST mouse as a contributing factor to this condition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197867PMC

Ebola virus glycoprotein stimulates IL-18 dependent natural killer cell responses.

J Clin Invest 2020 Apr 21. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Infection Biology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

BackgrounNK cells are activated by innate cytokines and viral ligands to kill virus-infected cells; these functions are enhanced during secondary immune responses and after vaccination by synergy with effector T cells and virus-specific antibodies. In human Ebola virus infection, clinical outcome is strongly associated with the initial innate cytokine response, but the role of NK cells has not been thoroughly examined.MethodsThe novel 2-dose heterologous Adenovirus type 26. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI132438DOI Listing

Comparative sequence and structural analysis of the ORF095 gene, a vaccinia virus A4L homolog of capripoxvirus in sheep and goats.

Arch Virol 2020 Jun 19;165(6):1419-1431. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Division of Virology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar 263 138, Nainital District, Uttarakhand, India.

Sheeppox and goatpox are important transboundary animal viral diseases of sheep and goats caused by sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV), respectively, of the genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae. Among the proteins encoded by the capripoxvirus (CaPV) genome, ORF095 (vaccinia virus A4L homolog) is an immunodominant virion core protein that plays a pivotal role in virus assembly and morphogenesis. In the present study, sequence analysis of the ORF095 genes of 27 SPPV and GTPV isolates or field samples from different geographical regions of India was performed, and structure was prediction was done by homology modeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04623-5DOI Listing
June 2020
2.282 Impact Factor

Correction: .

Authors:

J Immunother Cancer 2020 Apr;8(1)

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2019-000415corr1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204616PMC

Engineering vaccinia virus as an immunotherapeutic battleship to overcome tumor heterogeneity.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2020 May 6:1-15. Epub 2020 May 6.

Centre for Innovative Cancer Research, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Immunotherapy is a rapidly evolving area of cancer therapeutics aimed at driving a systemic immune response to fight cancer. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are at the cutting-edge of innovation in the immunotherapy field. Successful OV platforms must be effective in reshaping the tumor microenvironment and controlling tumor burden, but also be highly specific to avoid off-target side effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14712598.2020.1757066DOI Listing

Virus-Induced T Cell-Mediated Heterologous Immunity and Vaccine Development.

Front Immunol 2020 31;11:513. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC), Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Heterologous immunity (H.I.) is a consequence of an encounter with a specific antigen, which can alter the subsequent immune response to a different antigen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7137989PMC

The Design and Development of a Multi-HBV Antigen Encoded in Chimpanzee Adenoviral and Modified Vaccinia Ankara Viral Vectors; A Novel Therapeutic Vaccine Strategy against HBV.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Apr 14;8(2). Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Peter Medawar Building, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3SY, UK.

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects 257 million people globally. Current therapies suppress HBV but viral rebound occurs on cessation of therapy; novel therapeutic strategies are urgently required. To develop a therapeutic HBV vaccine that can induce high magnitude T cells to all major HBV antigens, we have developed a novel HBV vaccine using chimpanzee adenovirus (ChAd) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viral vectors encoding multiple HBV antigens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020184DOI Listing

A Prime-Boost Immunization Strategy with Vaccinia Virus Expressing Novel gp120 Envelope Glycoprotein from a CRF02_AG Isolate Elicits Cross-Clade Tier 2 HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Apr 7;8(2). Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Instituto de Investigação do Medicamento (iMed.ULisboa), Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisboa, Portugal.

Development of new immunogens eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is a main priority for the HIV-1 vaccine field. Envelope glycoproteins from non-B-non-C HIV-1clades have not been fully explored as components of a vaccine. We produced Vaccinia viruses expressing a truncated version of gp120 (gp120t) from HIV-1 clades CRF02_AG, H, J, B, and C and examined their immunogenicity in mice and rabbits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020171DOI Listing

Complement-Independent Modulation of Influenza A Virus Infection by Factor H.

Front Immunol 2020 25;11:355. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Biosciences, College of Health and Life Sciences, Brunel University London, Uxbridge, United Kingdom.

The complement system is an ancient innate immune defense mechanism that can recognize molecular patterns on the invading pathogens. Factor H, as an inhibitor of the alternative pathway, down-regulates complement activation on the host cell surface. Locally synthesized factor H at the site of infection/injury, including lungs, can act as a pattern recognition molecule without involving complement activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7109256PMC

Phosphorylation of vaccinia-related kinase 1 at threonine 386 transduces glucose stress signal in human liver cells.

Biosci Rep 2020 Apr;40(4)

Pharmacogenetics section, Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, U.S.A.

Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) is a chromatin-associated Ser-Thr kinase that regulates numerous downstream factors including DNA repair as well as stress factors c-Jun and p53. Both c-Jun and p53 are phosphorylated at Ser63 and Thr18, respectively, in response to low glucose (40 mg/dl of medium) but not high glucose (140 mg/dl of medium) in human hepatoma-derived Huh-7 cells. Here, we have determined the molecular mechanism by which VRK1 phosphorylates these residues in response to glucose in Huh-7 cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20200498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198045PMC

Non-replicating Vaccinia Virus TianTan Strain (NTV) Translation Arrest of Viral Late Protein Synthesis Associated With Anti-viral Host Factor SAMD9.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 20;10:116. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

NHC Key Laboratory of Medical Virology and Viral Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

NTV is a highly attenuated virus that was created by genetically deleting 26 genes related to host range and virulence from TianTan strain. Since NTV is highly attenuated, it has been used widely as an optimizing viral vector. In this study, we explored the biological characteristics and the host restriction mechanism of NTV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7098914PMC

Replication-inducible vaccinia virus vectors with enhanced safety in vivo.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(4):e0230711. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science and Center of Excellence for Vaccine Research, College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, United States of America.

Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been used extensively as the vaccine against smallpox and as a viral vector for the development of recombinant vaccines and cancer therapies. Replication-competent, non-attenuated VACVs induce strong, long-lived humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and can be effective oncolytic vectors. However, complications from uncontrolled VACV replication in vaccinees and their close contacts can be severe, particularly in individuals with predisposing conditions. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230711PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7117657PMC

Cell-to-cell spread of vaccinia virus is promoted by TGF-β-independent Smad4 signalling.

Cell Microbiol 2020 Mar 31:e13206. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

The induction of Smad signalling by the extracellular ligand TGF-β promotes tissue plasticity and cell migration in developmental and pathological contexts. Here, we show that vaccinia virus (VACV) stimulates the activity of Smad transcription factors and expression of TGF-β/Smad-responsive genes at the transcript and protein levels. Accordingly, infected cells share characteristics to those undergoing TGF-β/Smad-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cmi.13206DOI Listing

Safety and immunogenicity of Ad26 and MVA vaccines in acutely treated HIV and effect on viral rebound after antiretroviral therapy interruption.

Nat Med 2020 Apr 23;26(4):498-501. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

SEARCH, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok, Thailand.

We administered Ad26, modified vaccinia Ankara vectors containing mosaic HIV-1 antigens or placebo in 26 individuals who initiated antiretroviral therapy during acute human immunodeficiency virus infection as an exploratory study to determine the safety and duration of viremic control after treatment interruption. The vaccine was safe and generated robust immune responses, but delayed time to viral rebound compared to that in placebo recipients by only several days and did not lead to viremic control after treatment interruption (clinical trial NCT02919306). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0774-yDOI Listing
April 2020
27.363 Impact Factor

Innate and secondary humoral responses are improved by increasing the time between MVA vaccine immunizations.

NPJ Vaccines 2020 19;5:24. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

1CEA-Université Paris Sud 11-INSERM U1184, Immunology of Viral Infections and Autoimmune Diseases, IDMIT Department, IBFJ, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses, France.

Comprehending the mechanisms behind the impact of vaccine regimens on immunity is critical for improving vaccines. Indeed, the time-interval between immunizations may influence B and T cells, as well as innate responses. We compared two vaccine schedules using cynomolgus macaques immunized with an attenuated vaccinia virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41541-020-0175-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7081268PMC

A new oncolytic augments antitumor immune responses to prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis after surgery.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 Mar;8(1)

Centre for Biomarkers & Biotherapeutics, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

Background: Local recurrence and remote metastasis are major challenges to overcome in order to improve the survival of patients with cancer after surgery. Oncolytic viruses are a particularly attractive option for prevention of postsurgical disease as they offer a non-toxic treatment option that can directly target residual tumor deposits and beneficially modulate the systemic immune environment that is suppressed post surgery and allows residual disease escape from control. Here, we report that a novel (VV), VVΔTKΔN1L (with deletion of both thymidine kinase (TK) and N1L genes) armed with interleukin 12 (IL-12), can prolong postoperative survival when used as a neoadjuvant treatment in different murine and hamster surgical models of cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2019-000415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206973PMC

HIV Env-Specific IgG Antibodies Induced by Vaccination of Neonatal Rhesus Macaques Persist and Can Be Augmented by a Late Booster Immunization in Infancy.

mSphere 2020 Mar 25;5(2). Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for AIDS Research, and Children's Research Institute, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

The HIV epidemics in infants and adolescent women are linked. Young women of childbearing age are at high risk for HIV infection and, due to poor HIV testing rates and low adherence to antiretroviral therapy, are at high risk for mother-to-infant transmission. We hypothesize that HIV vaccine regimens initiated in early life would provide the necessary time frame to induce mature and highly functional Env-specific antibody responses that could potentially also protect against HIV acquisition later in life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00162-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7096624PMC

A Modified Vaccine against Smallpox.

N Engl J Med 2020 03;382(13):1285

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2001156DOI Listing