15,776 results match your criteria Vaccinia


Vaccination with the Staphylococcus aureus secreted proteins EapH1 and EapH2 impacts both S. aureus carriage and invasive disease.

Vaccine 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Jenner Institute, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Physiology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: There is a need for an efficacious vaccine reducing infections due to Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of community and hospital infection. Infecting organisms originate from S. aureus populations colonising the nares and bowel. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

In vivo electroporation of a codon-optimized BER DNA vaccine protects mice from pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis aerosol challenge.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2018 Dec 10;113:65-75. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

AIDS Institute and Department of Microbiology, State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Hong Kong SAR, PR China; HKU AIDS Institute Shenzhen Research Laboratory and Guangdong Key Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Guangdong Medical College, Shenzhen, PR China. Electronic address:

DNA vaccines have been extensively studied as preventative and therapeutic interventions for various infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and influenza. Despite promising progresses made, improving the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine remains a technical challenge for clinical development. In this study, we investigated a tuberculosis DNA vaccine BER, which contained a codon-optimized fusion immunogen Ag85B-ESAT-6-Rv2660c for enhanced mammalian cell expression and immunogenicity. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

HIV-1 T cell epitopes targeted to Rhesus macaque CD40 and DCIR: A comparative study of prototype dendritic cell targeting therapeutic vaccine candidates.

PLoS One 2018 30;13(11):e0207794. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Vaccine Research Institute, Université Paris-Est, Faculté de Médecine, INSERM U955, Créteil, France.

HIV-1 infection can be controlled by anti-retroviral drug therapy, but this is a lifetime treatment and the virus remains latent and rapidly rebounds if therapy is stopped. HIV-1-infected individuals under this drug regimen have increased rates of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and autoimmunity due to compromised immunity. A therapeutic vaccine boosting cellular immunity against HIV-1 is therefore desirable and, possibly combined with other immune modulating agents, could obviate the need for long-term drug therapies. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Mr. Whyte, on Vaccinia.

Authors:
D Whyte

Med Phys J 1801 Mar;5(25):243-245

Pera of Constantinople.

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March 1801
1 Read

Optimizing the immunogenicity of HIV prime-boost DNA-MVA-rgp140/GLA vaccines in a phase II randomized factorial trial design.

PLoS One 2018 29;13(11):e0206838. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background: We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of (i) an intradermal HIV-DNA regimen given with/without intradermal electroporation (EP) as prime and (ii) the impact of boosting with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (HIV-MVA) administered with or without subtype C CN54rgp140 envelope protein adjuvanted with Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA-AF) in volunteers from Tanzania and Mozambique.

Methods: Healthy HIV-uninfected adults (N = 191) were randomized twice; first to one of three HIV-DNA intradermal priming regimens by needle-free ZetaJet device at weeks 0, 4 and 12 (Group I: 2x0.1mL [3mg/mL], Group II: 2x0. Read More

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November 2018

HNRNP Q suppresses polyglutamine huntingtin aggregation by post-transcriptional regulation of Vaccinia-related kinase 2.

J Neurochem 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH).

Misfolded proteins with abnormal polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion cause neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease (HD). Recently, it was found that polyQ aggregates accumulate due to vaccinia-related kinase 2 (VRK2)-mediated degradation of TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC)/Chaperonin-containing TCP-1 (CCT), which has an essential role in the prevention of polyQ protein aggregation and cytotoxicity. The levels of VRK2 are known to be much higher in actively proliferating cells but are maintained at a low level in the brain via an unknown mechanism. Read More

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November 2018

Identifying and Tracking Low-Frequency Virus-Specific TCR Clonotypes Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

Cell Rep 2018 Nov;25(9):2369-2378.e4

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104, USA. Electronic address:

Tracking antigen-specific T cell responses over time within individuals is difficult because of lack of knowledge of antigen-specific TCR sequences, limitations in sample size, and assay sensitivities. We hypothesized that analyses of high-throughput sequencing of TCR clonotypes could provide functional readouts of individuals' immunological histories. Using high-throughput TCR sequencing, we develop a database of TCRβ sequences from large cohorts of mice before (naive) and after smallpox vaccination. Read More

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November 2018

A Vaccine Based on a Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vector Expressing Zika Virus Structural Proteins Controls Zika Virus Replication in Mice.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 26;8(1):17385. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that affects humans and can cause severe neurological complications, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Since 2007 there have been three large outbreaks; the last and larger spread in the Americas in 2015. Actually, ZIKV is circulating in the Americas, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands, and represents a potential pandemic threat. Read More

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November 2018

Dynamic Transcriptome Profiling Dataset of Vaccinia Virus Obtained from Long-read Sequencing Techniques.

Gigascience 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Somogyi B. u. 4., 6720 Szeged, Hungary.

Background: Poxviruses are large DNA viruses infecting humans and animals. Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been applied as a live vaccine for immunization against smallpox, which was eradicated by 1980 as a result of worldwide vaccination. VACV is the prototype of poxviruses in the investigation of the molecular pathogenesis of the virus. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Cell-to-cell transmission of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus MX strain during persistent infection and its influence on cell migration.

Acta Virol 2018 ;62(4):424-434

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can establish in its host a persistent infection, without any prominent symptoms. Even during this infection, when the infectious virions are not released, the virus still disseminates effectively. A very effective and fast way of infection of neighboring cells utilized by many viruses is cell-to-cell transmission. Read More

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January 2018
4 Reads

JNK2 modulates the CD1d-dependent and -independent activation of iNKT cells.

Eur J Immunol 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells play critical roles in autoimmune, anti-tumor and anti-microbial immune responses, and are activated by glycolipids presented by the MHC class I-like molecule, CD1d. How the activation of signaling pathways impacts antigen (Ag)-dependent iNKT cell activation is not well-known. In the current study, we found that the MAPK JNK2 not only negatively regulates CD1d-mediated Ag presentation in APCs, but also contributes to CD1d-independent iNKT cell activation. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

The Ectodomain of the Vaccinia Virus Glycoprotein A34 is Required for Cell Binding by Extracellular Virions and Contains a Large Region Capable of Interaction with the Glycoprotein B5.

J Virol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

An interaction between the orthopoxvirus glycoproteins A34 and B5 has been reported. The transmembrane and ectodomain of A34 is sufficient for interaction with B5, localization of B5 to the site of intracellular wrapping, and subsequent incorporation into the envelope of released extracellular virions. Several mutagenic approaches were undertaken to better define the B5 interaction domain on A34. Read More

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November 2018

Label-Free Digital Holo-tomographic Microscopy Reveals Virus-Induced Cytopathic Effects in Live Cells.

mSphere 2018 Nov 21;3(6). Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Molecular Life Sciences, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Cytopathic effects (CPEs) are a hallmark of infections. CPEs are difficult to observe due to phototoxicity from classical light microscopy. We report distinct patterns of virus infections in live cells using digital holo-tomographic microscopy (DHTM). Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Oncolytic virus therapy in Japan: progress in clinical trials and future perspectives.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Division of Innovative Cancer Therapy, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Oncolytic virus therapy is a promising new option for cancer. It utilizes genetically engineered or naturally occurring viruses that selectively replicate in and kill cancer cells without harming normal cells. T-VEC (talimogene laherparepvec), a second-generation oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of inoperable melanoma in 2015 and subsequently approved in Europe in 2016. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Crystal structure of human Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) in complex with AMP-PNP, a non-hydrolysable ATP analog.

Protein Sci 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore, 637551.

Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1), a serine/threonine mitotic kinase, is widely over-expressed in dividing cells and regarded as a cancer drug target primarily due to its function as an early response gene in cell proliferation. However, the mechanism of VRK1 phosphorylation and substrate activation is not well understood. More importantly even the molecular basis of VRK1 interaction with its cofactor, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), is unavailable to-date. Read More

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November 2018

Vaccinia Virus among Domestic Dogs and Wild Coatis, Brazil, 2013-2015.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Dec;24(12):2338-2342

To determine their potential role as a source of human infection, we tested domestic dogs (urban) and wild coatis (wild) in Brazil for vaccinia virus. Our findings of positive neutralizing antibodies and quantitative PCR results for 35/184 dogs and 13/90 coatis highlight a potential public health risk. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Carbenoxolone-mediated cytotoxicity inhibits Vaccinia virus replication in a human keratinocyte cell line.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 16;8(1):16956. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, United Kingdom.

The re-emergence of poxviral zoonotic infections and the threat of bioterrorism emphasise the demand for effective antipoxvirus therapies. Here, we show that carbenoxolone, a pharmacological inhibitor of gap junction function and a compound widely used in cell culture, is capable of hindering the replication of Vaccinia virus, the prototypical poxvirus, in a gap junction-independent manner in a human keratinocyte cell line. Viral protein synthesis occurs in the presence of carbenoxolone but infectious virion formation is minimal, indicating that carbenoxolone blocks viral morphogenesis. Read More

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November 2018

Synthesis and antiviral activity of camphor-based 1,3-thiazolidin-4-one and thiazole derivatives as -reproduction inhibitors.

Medchemcomm 2018 Oct 19;9(10):1746-1753. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry , Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences , Lavrentjev Avenue 9 , 630090 Novosibirsk , Russia . Email:

The genus belongs to the Poxviridae family and includes variola virus (smallpox), cowpox virus, monkeypox virus and vaccinia virus (VV). Smallpox is considered one of the great epidemic disease scourges in human history. It has currently been eradicated; however, it remains a considerable threat as a biowarfare or bioterrorist weapon. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

The 2.1 Å structure of protein F9 and its comparison to L1, two components of the conserved poxvirus entry-fusion complex.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 14;8(1):16807. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

The poxvirus F9 protein is a component of the vaccinia virus entry fusion complex (EFC) which consists of 11 proteins. The EFC forms a unique apparatus among viral fusion proteins and complexes. We solved the atomic structure of the F9 ectodomain at 2. Read More

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November 2018

Cell and fluid sampling microneedle patches for monitoring skin-resident immunity.

Sci Transl Med 2018 Nov;10(467)

Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Important cell populations reside within tissues and are not accessed by traditional blood draws used to monitor the immune system. To address this issue at an essential barrier tissue, the skin, we created a microneedle-based technology for longitudinal sampling of cells and interstitial fluid, enabling minimally invasive parallel monitoring of immune responses. Solid microneedle projections were coated by a cross-linked biocompatible polymer, which swells upon skin insertion, forming a porous matrix for local leukocyte infiltration. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Priming with a potent HIV-1 DNA vaccine frames the quality of immune responses prior to a poxvirus and protein boost.

J Virol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany

The use of heterologous immunization regimens and improved vector systems has led to increases in immunogenicity of HIV-1 vaccine candidates in non-human primates. In order to resolve interrelations between different delivery modalities, three different poxvirus boost regimens were compared. Three groups of rhesus macaques were each primed with the same DNA vaccine encoding for Gag, PolNef, and gp140. Read More

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November 2018
10 Reads

Replication-competent NYVAC-KC yields improved immunogenicity to HIV-1 antigens in rhesus macaques, compared to non-replicating NYVAC.

J Virol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA.

As part of the continuing effort to develop an effective HIV vaccine, we generated a poxviral vaccine vector (previously described) designed to improve on the results of the RV144 Phase III clinical trial. The construct, NYVAC-KC, is a replication-competent, attenuated recombinant of the vaccinia virus strain, NYVAC. NYVAC is a vector that has been used in many previous clinical studies but is replication deficient. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

DNA-PK Is Targeted by Multiple Vaccinia Virus Proteins to Inhibit DNA Sensing.

Cell Rep 2018 Nov;25(7):1953-1965.e4

Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK. Electronic address:

Virus infection is sensed by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) detecting virus nucleic acids and initiating an innate immune response. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a PRR that binds cytosolic DNA and is antagonized by vaccinia virus (VACV) protein C16. Here, VACV protein C4 is also shown to antagonize DNA-PK by binding to Ku and blocking Ku binding to DNA, leading to a reduced production of cytokines and chemokines in vivo and a diminished recruitment of inflammatory cells. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Oncolytic viruses and checkpoint inhibitors: combination therapy in clinical trials.

Clin Transl Med 2018 Nov 14;7(1):35. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 E Duarte Road, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.

Advances in the understanding of cancer immunotherapy and the development of multiple checkpoint inhibitors have dramatically changed the current landscape of cancer treatment. Recent large-scale phase III trials (e.g. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Vaccinia virus hijacks EGFR signalling to enhance virus spread through rapid and directed infected cell motility.

Nat Microbiol 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London, UK.

Cell motility is essential for viral dissemination. Vaccinia virus (VACV), a close relative of smallpox virus, is thought to exploit cell motility as a means to enhance the spread of infection. A single viral protein, F11L, contributes to this by blocking RhoA signalling to facilitate cell retraction. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Synergistic suppression effect on tumor growth of acute myeloid leukemia by combining cytarabine with an engineered oncolytic vaccinia virus.

Onco Targets Ther 2018 15;11:6887-6900. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

The Second Clinical Medical College, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, China,

Background: In consideration of the drug resistance and side effects associated with cytarabine, one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), there is a need for safer and effective strategies.

Methods: In the present investigation, we fabricated a new oncolytic vaccinia virus (oVV-), which expresses the inhibitor of growth family member 4 () and explored its antitumor activity individually and in combination with cytarabine in AML cells.

Results: The experiments confirmed that oVV can efficiently and specifically infect leukemia cells, and augment the gene expression. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Modifying the cancer-immune set point using vaccinia virus expressing re-designed interleukin-2.

Nat Commun 2018 Nov 8;9(1):4682. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA.

The complex immune tumour microenvironment requires an equally complex immunotherapy approach, especially when the cancer-immune set point is non-inflamed. Oncolytic viruses expressing immune activating cytokines might optimally modify the immune microenvironment and improve the antitumour effects. In this study, we have explored a variety of IL-2 constructs expressed by a tumour-selective oncolytic vaccinia virus, designed to maintain IL-2 in the tumour microenvironment to reduce systemic toxicity. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Human monocyte-derived macrophages inhibit HCMV spread independent of classical antiviral cytokines.

Virulence 2018 ;9(1):1669-1684

a Institute for Experimental Infection Research, TWINCORE, Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research, a joint venture between the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research and the Hannover Medical School , Hannover , Germany.

Infection of healthy individuals with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is usually unnoticed and results in life-long latency, whereas HCMV reactivation as well as infection of newborns or immunocompromised patients can cause life-threatening disease. To better understand HCMV pathogenesis we studied mechanisms that restrict HCMV spread. We discovered that HCMV-infected cells can directly trigger plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) to mount antiviral type I interferon (IFN-I) responses, even in the absence of cell-free virus. Read More

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January 2018
4 Reads

Herpes Zoster DNA Vaccines with IL-7 and IL-33 Molecular Adjuvants Elicit Protective T Cell Immunity.

Immune Netw 2018 Oct 31;18(5):e38. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Biomedical Science and Engineering Interdisciplinary Program, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, Korea.

Herpes zoster (HZ), or shingles, is caused by the reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) from the sensory ganglia when VZV-specific T-cell immunity is decreased because of aging or immunosuppression. In the present study, we developed HZ DNA vaccine candidates encoding VZV proteins and cytokine adjuvants, such as IL-7 and IL-33. We immunized C57BL/6 mice with DNA plasmids encoding VZV glycoprotein E (gE), immediate early (IE) 63, or IE62 proteins and found that robust VZV protein-specific T-cell responses were elicited by HZ DNA vaccination. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Antiviral activity of metal chelates of caffeic acid and similar compounds towards herpes simplex, VSV-Ebola pseudotyped and vaccinia viruses.

Antiviral Res 2018 Dec 28;160:143-150. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Arizona State University West Campus, Phoenix, AZ, United States. Electronic address:

Organic compounds with a caffeoyl moiety (e.g. caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, etc. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Oncolytic Viruses for Canine Cancer Treatment.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Oct 27;10(11). Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología-Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City 14080, Mexico.

Oncolytic virotherapy has been investigated for several decades and is emerging as a plausible biological therapy with several ongoing clinical trials and two viruses are now approved for cancer treatment in humans. The direct cytotoxicity and immune-stimulatory effects make oncolytic viruses an interesting strategy for cancer treatment. In this review, we summarize the results of in vitro and in vivo published studies of oncolytic viruses in different phases of evaluation in dogs, using PubMed and Google scholar as search platforms, without time restrictions (to date). Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Gemcitabine combined with an engineered oncolytic vaccinia virus exhibits a synergistic suppressive effect on the tumor growth of pancreatic cancer.

Oncol Rep 2019 Jan 24;41(1):67-76. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Clinical Research Institute, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310014, P.R. China.

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a lethal solid malignancy with resistance to traditional chemotherapy. Recently, considerable studies have demonstrated the ubiquitous antitumor properties of gene therapy mediated by the oncolytic vaccinia virus. The second mitochondrial‑derived activator of caspase (Smac) has been identified as an innovative tumor suppressor that augments the chemosensitivity of cancer cells. Read More

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January 2019
3 Reads

Oncolytic cancer therapy with a vaccinia virus strain.

Oncol Rep 2019 Jan 16;41(1):686-692. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Clinical Laboratory, Wuxi People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214023, P.R China.

Oncolytic vaccinia virus is currently undergoing evaluation as a biological anticancer agent in clinical trials. This treatment exploits the lytic nature of a viral infection to eradicate the tumor mass in a cancer cell‑specific manner. So far, various vaccinia strains have been used as backbones in the design of oncolytic agents. Read More

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January 2019
3 Reads
2.190 Impact Factor

Ionization of Submicrometer-Sized Particles by Laser-Induced Radiofrequency Plasma for Mass Spectrometric Analysis.

Anal Chem 2018 Nov 5;90(22):13236-13242. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Physics , National Dong Hwa University , Shoufeng , Hualien , Taiwan 97401.

A laser-induced rf plasma (LIRFP) ion source was developed to ionize submicrometer-sized particles for the first time. The LIRFP ion source can increase the charge of those particles to several thousand charges via charge exchange reactions so that those particles can be trapped and analyzed with a charge detection quadrupole ion trap-mass spectrometer (CD QIT-MS). Different reagent gases for charge exchange reaction were investigated, viz. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Safety and efficacy of novel malaria vaccine regimens of RTS,S/AS01B alone, or with concomitant ChAd63-MVA-vectored vaccines expressing ME-TRAP.

NPJ Vaccines 2018 9;3:49. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

1The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7DQ UK.

We assessed a combination multi-stage malaria vaccine schedule in which RTS,S/AS01B was given concomitantly with viral vectors expressing multiple-epitope thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (ME-TRAP) in a 0-month, 1-month, and 2-month schedule. RTS,S/AS01B was given as either three full doses or with a fractional (1/5th) third dose. Efficacy was assessed by controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). Read More

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October 2018
9 Reads

Generation of therapeutic antisera for emerging viral infections.

NPJ Vaccines 2018 5;3:42. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

1Veterinary Medicine Division, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Langen, Germany.

The recent Ebola virus outbreak has highlighted the therapeutic potential of antisera and renewed interest in this treatment approach. While human convalescent sera may not be readily available in the early stages of an outbreak, antisera of animal origin can be produced in a short time frame. Here, we compared adjuvanted virus-like particles (VLP) with recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), both expressing the Ebola virus antigens. Read More

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October 2018
10 Reads

A single dose of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) VP2 based vaccines provides complete clinical protection in a mouse model.

Vaccine 2018 Nov 8;36(46):7003-7010. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Biological & Medical Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK; The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NB, UK; Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, CB3 0ES Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

African horse sickness is a severe, often fatal, arboviral disease of equids. The control of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) in endemic countries is based currently on the use of live attenuated vaccines despite some biosafety concerns derived from its biological properties. Thus, experimental vaccination platforms have been developed over the years in order to avoid the biosafety concerns associated with the use of attenuated vaccines. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Local delivery of a cancer-favoring oncolytic vaccinia virus via poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofiber for theranostic purposes.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 9;552(1-2):437-442. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan 50612, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea; BIO-IT Foundry Technology Institute, Pusan National University, Gumjeong-gu, Busan 46241, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Local delivery of viruses via nanomaterials has been demonstrated in the treatment of colon cancer. A cancer-favoring oncolytic vaccinia virus (CVV), which is an evolutionary cancer-favoring engineered vaccinia virus carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, has antitumor efficacy in drug-resistant colon cancer and metastatic liver cells. Here, we present the antitumor efficacy of a CVV coated a poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanofiber for local drug delivery in theranostic approaches. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Oral Coadministration of an Intramuscular DNA/Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccine for Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Is Associated with Better Control of Infection in Orally Exposed Infant Macaques.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

1 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

The majority of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infections in infants are acquired orally through breastfeeding. Toward development of a pediatric HIV vaccine to prevent breastmilk transmission, we tested the efficacy of a simultaneous oral and intramuscular (IM) vaccination regimen for preventing oral simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) transmission in infant rhesus macaques. Two groups of neonatal macaques were immunized with DNA encoding SIV virus-like particles (DNA-SIV) on weeks 0 and 3, then boosted with modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus expressing SIV antigens (MVA-SIV) on weeks 6 and 9. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Whole Genome Characterization of (OPV) Abatino, a Zoonotic Virus Representing a Putative Novel Clade of Old World Orthopoxviruses.

Viruses 2018 10 6;10(10). Epub 2018 Oct 6.

National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani IRCCS, via Portuense 292, 00149 Rome, Italy.

(OPVs) are diffused over the complete Eurasian continent, but previously described strains are mostly from northern Europe, and few infections have been reported from Italy. Here we present the extended genomic characterization of OPV Abatino, a novel OPV isolated in Italy from an infected Tonkean macaque, with zoonotic potential. Phylogenetic analysis based on 102 conserved genes (core gene set) showed that OPV Abatino is most closely related to the Ectromelia virus species (ECTV), although placed on a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree, bringing substantial support to the hypothesis that this strain may be part of a novel OPV clade. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Poxvirus-based vector systems and the potential for multi-valent and multi-pathogen vaccines.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2018 Oct 9;17(10):925-934. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

a Inflammation Biology , QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute , Brisbane , Australia.

Introduction: With the increasing number of vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases, the pressure to generate multi-valent and multi-pathogen vaccines grows. Combining individual established vaccines to generate single-shot formulations represents an established path, with significant ensuing public health and cost benefits. Poxvirus-based vector systems have the capacity for large recombinant payloads and have been widely used as platforms for the development of recombinant vaccines encoding multiple antigens, with considerable clinical trials activity and a number of registered and licensed products. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Epithelial boost enhances antigen expression by vaccinia virus for the generation of potent CD8+ T cell-mediated antitumor immunity following DNA priming vaccination.

Virology 2018 Dec 5;525:205-215. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Pathology and Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, United States. Electronic address:

While both pNGVL4a-Sig/E7(detox)/HSP70 DNA vaccine and TA-HPV recombinant vaccinia viral vector-based vaccines have elicited HPV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in HPV16/E7-expressing tumor models, and been used as prime-boost regimen to enhance HPV-specific immune responses in humans (NCT00788164), the optimal route of administration for TA-HPV remains unclear. In a preclinical model, we examined the immunogenicity of priming with intramuscular pNGVL4a-Sig/E7(detox)/HSP70 followed by TA-HPV boost through different administration routes. We observed that priming twice with a pNGVL4a-Sig/E7(detox)/HSP70 followed by a single TA-HPV immunization boost through skin scarification generated the strongest antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response in C57BL/6 mice. Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

Progress in gene therapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus as vectors.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 6;144(12):2433-2440. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Affiliated Wuxi People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi Children's Hospital, Wuxi, 214023, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Vaccinia virus was widely used in the World Health Organization's smallpox eradication campaign and is currently a promising vector for gene therapy owing to its unique characteristics. Vaccinia virus can selectively replicate and propagate productively in tumor cells, resulting in oncolysis. In addition, rapid viral particle production, wide host range, large genome size (approximately 200 kb), and safe handling render vaccinia virus a suitable vector for gene therapy. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

A standardized approach to the evaluation of antivirals against DNA viruses: Orthopox-, adeno-, and herpesviruses.

Antiviral Res 2018 Nov 1;159:104-112. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, 35233, United States. Electronic address:

The search for new compounds with a broad spectrum of antiviral activity is important and requires the evaluation of many compounds against several distinct viruses. Researchers attempting to develop new antiviral therapies for DNA virus infections currently use a variety of cell lines, assay conditions and measurement methods to determine in vitro drug efficacy, making it difficult to compare results from within the same laboratory as well as between laboratories. In this paper we describe a common assay platform designed to facilitate the parallel evaluation of antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, and adenovirus. Read More

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November 2018
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Propagation and Purification of Ectromelia Virus.

Curr Protoc Microbiol 2018 Nov 3;51(1):e65. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

School of Medicine, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an orthopoxvirus that causes mousepox in mice. Members of the genus orthopoxvirus are closely related and include variola (the causative agent of smallpox in humans), monkeypox, and vaccinia. Common features of variola virus and ECTV further include a restricted host range and similar disease progression in their respective hosts. Read More

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November 2018
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Immunogenic cell death of dendritic cells following modified vaccinia virus Ankara infection enhances CD8 T cell proliferation.

Eur J Immunol 2018 Dec 10;48(12):2042-2054. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department for Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Hanover Medical School, Hanover, Germany.

"Immunogenic cell death" (ICD) is associated with the emission of so-called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) which trigger the immune response against dead-cell associated antigens. The secretion of the DAMP, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been shown to be autophagy-dependent. Here, we demonstrate that Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a highly attenuated strain of vaccinia virus, induces both cell death and autophagy in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), which in turn confer the (cross-)priming of OVA-specific cytotoxic T cells (OT-I cells). Read More

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December 2018
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Combined use of live-attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines to enhance heterosubtypic protection.

Virology 2018 Dec 21;525:73-82. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Centre of Influenza Research, School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

The limited protection of current commerical vaccines necessitates the investigation of novel vaccine strategies for unpredictable outbreaks. To investigate the feasibility of using vaccines derived from Group 1 influenza A virus to induce broadly cross-reactive immune responses against multiple influenza subtypes, we tested a panel of sequential 4-dose immunization regimens in mice. Mice were treated with inactivated (seasonal H1N1, pandemic H1N1 and H5N1) and vaccinia virus-based H5N1 live-attenuated vaccines in different combinations. Read More

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December 2018
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3.320 Impact Factor

An Ad/MVA vectored antigen induces schizont-specific CD8 central memory T cells and confers partial protection against a lethal challenge.

NPJ Vaccines 2018 11;3:35. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

1International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), P.O. Box 30709, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya.

The parasite is the causative agent of East Coast fever (ECF), one of the most serious cattle diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, and directly impacts smallholder farmers' livelihoods. There is an efficient live-parasite vaccine, but issues with transmission of vaccine strains, need of a cold chain, and antibiotics limit its utilization. This has fostered research towards subunit vaccination. Read More

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September 2018
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Respiratory infection due to direct contact with rabbit-skin powder contaminated by vaccinia virus.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Nov 12;76:70-72. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Affiliated Wuxi People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, China. Electronic address:

Vaccinia virus infection was diagnosed in five male workers directly exposed to rabbit-skin powder contaminated by vaccinia virus via skin contact and inhalation. Four of the workers had been vaccinated against smallpox. Their clinical symptoms were severe, especially in the lungs; however, all symptoms improved after treatment. Read More

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November 2018
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