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    Verner-Morrison syndrome. Literature review.
    Rom J Morphol Embryol 2017 ;58(2):371-376
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania; Department of Neonatology, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania;
    Chronic diarrhea in infants is a common condition for addressability to pediatric gastroenterologists. The causes are multiple and the delay in reaching the final diagnosis can lead to complications in the general condition of the child. The purpose of this review is to present the bio-clinical and histogenetic particularities of a rare clinical entity, characterized by tumoral causes of chronic diarrhea. Read More

    Percutaneous Irreversible Electroporation for Pancreatic VIPoma: A Case Report.
    Pancreas 2017 Jan;46(1):135-137
    From the *Fuda Cancer Hospital, Jinan University School of Medicine, Guangzhou and †Department of General Surgery, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China.
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of irreversible electroporation (IRE) for the management of unresectable pancreatic vasoactive intestinal peptide tumor (VIPoma) in a 34-year-old male patient. The initial symptom was watery diarrhea, which could not be stopped by fasting. Laboratory tests revealed high vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) hormone levels, hypokalemia, and metabolic acidosis. Read More

    Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Secreting Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide and Dopamine With Pulmonary Emboli: A Case Report.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 Oct 1;101(10):3564-3567. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Endocrine Oncology Branch (N.N., E.M.F., D.P., E.K.) and Laboratory of Pathology (M.M.Q.), Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.
    Context: The vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting neuroendocrine tumor (VIPoma) is a very rare pancreatic tumor. We report the first case of a patient with VIPoma that co-secreted dopamine and had pulmonary emboli.

    Case Description: A 67-year-old woman presented with 2 months of watery diarrhea, severe generalized weakness,6. Read More

    Emergency therapy for liver metastases from advanced VIPoma: surgery or transarterial chemoembolization?
    Ther Adv Med Oncol 2016 Sep 5;8(5):383-7. Epub 2016 Jul 5.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Endoscopy, Hôpital Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de Médecine, AP-HP, Paris, France.
    VIPoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with a high potential to develop hepatic metastases and poor prognosis. The primitive tumor is nonsymptomatic and usually localized within the pancreas. Liver metastasis drives the prognosis and induces profuse watery diarrhea or renal failure. Read More

    Primary Pancreatic Secretinoma: Further Evidence Supporting Secretin as a Diarrheogenic Hormone.
    Ann Surg 2017 Aug;266(2):346-352
    *Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH †Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH ‡Department of Surgery, Center for Regenerative Medicine and Cell Based Therapies, Comprehensive Wound Center, Laser Capture Molecular Core, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH §Division of Gastroenterology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI ¶Department of Surgery, University of California at Los Angeles, School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA ||Department of Surgery, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL **William and Sheila Konar Center for Digestive and Liver Diseases, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY.
    Objectives: To document the existence of primary pancreatic secretinoma in patients with watery diarrhea syndrome (WDS) and achlorhydria and establish secretin as a diarrheogenic hormone.

    Background: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been widely accepted as the main mediator of WDS. However, in 1968, Zollinger et al reported 2 female patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, WDS, and achlorhydria. Read More

    Medical management of secretory syndromes related to gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours.
    Endocr Relat Cancer 2016 Sep 26;23(9):R423-36. Epub 2016 Jul 26.
    Oxford Center for DiabetesEndocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Although recent epidemiological evidence indicates that the prevalence of non-functioning gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) is rising, a significant number of GEP-NETs still present with symptoms related to the secretion of biologically active substances leading to the development of distinct clinical syndromes. In the past, these syndromes were associated with substantial morbidity and mortality due to the lack of specific therapies; however, since the introduction of long-acting somatostatin analogues and medications such as proton pump inhibitors, their control has been greatly improved. As a result, nowadays, the main cause of morbidity and mortality in GEP-NETs is mostly directly related to tumour growth and the extent of metastatic disease. Read More

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: contemporary diagnosis and management.
    Hosp Pract (1995) 2016 Aug 18;44(3):109-19. Epub 2016 Jul 18.
    a Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology , University of Utah School of Medicine, Huntsman Cancer Center , Salt Lake City , Utah , USA.
    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are neoplasms that arise from the hormone producing cells of the islets of Langerhans, also known as pancreatic islet cells. PNETs are considered a subgroup of neuroendocrine tumors, and have unique biology, natural history and clinical management. These tumors are classified as 'functional' or 'non-functional' depending on whether they release peptide hormones that produce specific hormone- related symptoms, usually in established patterns based on tumor subtype. Read More

    Epidemiological features of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Chengdu city with a population of 14 million based on data from a single institution.
    Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2016 Sep 12;12(3):284-8. Epub 2016 May 12.
    Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital of SiChuan University, ChengDu, SiChuan Province, China.
    Aim: Recent studies on gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) in the United States as well as the European studies demonstrate an increasing GEP-NETs incidence. Most information on the epidemiology of neuroendocrine tumors comes from western countries. However, the epidemiological profile of GEP-NETs in West China is still unclear. Read More

    Ventricular fibrillation resulting from electrolyte imbalance reveals vipoma in MEN1 syndrome.
    Fam Cancer 2016 Oct;15(4):645-9
    Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, 50139, Florence, Italy.
    Sporadic VIPoma is an exceedingly rare tumor with an annual incidence of 1:10 million people worldwide, yet it is described in approximately 5 % of MEN1 patients. The majority of VIPomas are malignant and radical surgery is the best therapeutic option. A 58-year-old man presented with cardiocirculatory arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. Read More

    Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.
    Surg Oncol Clin N Am 2016 Apr 18;25(2):363-74. Epub 2016 Feb 18.
    Department of Surgery, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center, 4701 Ogletown-Stanton Road, S-4000, Newark, DE 19713, USA.
    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are a rare group of neoplasms that arise from multipotent stem cells in the pancreatic ductal epithelium. Although they comprise only 1% to 2% of pancreatic neoplasms, their incidence is increasing. Most pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are nonfunctioning, but they can secrete various hormones resulting in unique clinical syndromes. Read More

    Surgical resection of vasoactive intestinal peptideoma with hepatic metastasis aids symptom palliation: A case report.
    Exp Ther Med 2016 Mar 22;11(3):783-787. Epub 2016 Jan 22.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Beijing First Hospital of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Beijing 100026, P.R. China.
    Vasoactive intestinal peptideoma (VIPoma) is a rare pancreatic endocrine tumor associated with a well-defined clinical syndrome characterized by watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. In adults, VIPoma is most commonly found in the pancreas, with 80% of the tumors occurring in the body and tail and 20% occurring in the pancreatic head. VIPomas can represent a significant diagnostic challenge due to their nonspecific clinical presentation, which can result in the misdiagnosis of a VIPoma as another condition, such as laxative overdose or a carcinoid secreting tumor. Read More

    A short history of neuroendocrine tumours and their peptide hormones.
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 Jan 23;30(1):3-17. Epub 2015 Oct 23.
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    The discovery of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas started in 1870, when Rudolf Heidenhain discovered the neuroendocrine cells, which can lead to the development of these tumours. Siegfried Oberndorfer was the first to introduce the term carcinoid in 1907. The pancreatic islet cells were first described in 1869 by Paul Langerhans. Read More

    [VIPoma in retroperitoneum of elderly, cause of chronic diarrhea in uncommon location].
    Rev Gastroenterol Peru 2015 Oct-Dec;35(4):355-7
    Servicio de Endocrinología del Hospital Guillermo Almenara Irigoyen. EsSalud. Lima, Perú.
    Chronic secretory diarrhea is a frequent entity. Causes are multiple, that is why reaching final diagnosis can result in delay with complications that this causes in the general condition of the patient. We present the case of one older adult with chronic diarrhea, mild hypokalemia and metabolic hyperchloremic acidosis secondary to a VIPoma in retroperitoneum which is an unusual location of this type of tumor that was diagnosed by biopsy guided by tomography. Read More

    Malignant-functioning neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas: A survival analysis.
    Surgery 2016 May 15;159(5):1382-9. Epub 2015 Dec 15.
    Endocrine Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
    Background: Malignant-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (mFpNETs) are rare. Research analyzing the presentation, biological behavior, and patient outcomes of these tumors is limited.

    Methods: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database to identify patients with malignant insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, vasoactive intestinal peptide secreting tumors (VIPomas), somastatinomas, and mixed islet cell tumors (MICTs). Read More

    Metastatic VIPoma presenting as an ovarian mass.
    Int J Surg Case Rep 2015 23;17:167-9. Epub 2015 Nov 23.
    H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Pancreatic VIPomas are exceedingly rare, with an annual incidence of less than 1 per million. Most VIPomas are metastatic at diagnosis, with the liver being the most common site of spread.

    Presentation Of Case: We describe a highly unusual case of a metastatic pancreatic VIPoma to an ovary in a 54 year-old patient. Read More

    Multiple-phase spiral CT findings of pancreatic vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting tumor: A case report.
    Oncol Lett 2015 Oct 17;10(4):2351-2354. Epub 2015 Aug 17.
    Department of Pathology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310009, P.R. China.
    The present study reports a case of pancreatic vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting tumor (VIPoma), of 2.2 cm in diameter, arising from the region of the uncus of the pancreas with liver metastases in a 50-year-old patient, which demonstrated unusual multiple-phase spiral computed tomography (MPSCT) results. The pancreatic lesion was isodense compared with the pancreatic parenchyma. Read More

    VIPoma with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 identified as an atypical gene mutation.
    BMJ Case Rep 2015 Nov 12;2015. Epub 2015 Nov 12.
    Department of Diabetology and Nephrology, Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Ogaki, Japan.
    A 47-year-old man presented with persistent diarrhoea and hypokalaemia. CT revealed 4 pancreatic tumours that appeared to be VIPomas, because the patient had an elevated plasma vasoactive intestinal polypeptide level. MRI showed a low-intensity area in the pituitary suggestive of a pituitary tumour, and a parathyroid tumour was detected by ultrasonography and 99Tc-MIBI scintigraphy. Read More

    A 25-Year Experience of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors and Somatostatin (Congeners) Analogs: From Symptom Control to Antineoplastic Therapy.
    Front Horm Res 2015 14;44:177-92. Epub 2015 Aug 14.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Holden NCI Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.
    Radioimmunoassay technology was utilized in the discovery of somatostatin and was quickly brought into therapeutics; however, it took the development of somatostatin congeners to solve its limitations of a short half-life. Therapeutic medical control of hyperhormonal states such as acromegaly, carcinoid syndrome and VIPoma significantly advanced from a nonspecific approach to one that specifically and effectively targeted the underlying pathophysiology. Clinical care was transformed from nonspecific symptom control to one of a significant improvement in not only quality of life, but also quantity of life. Read More

    Clinical features of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
    J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci 2015 Aug 17;22(8):578-85. Epub 2015 Feb 17.
    Neuroendocrine Tumor Unit, Endocrinology and Metabolism Service, Department of Medicine, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, P.O.B. 12000, Jerusalem, 91120, Israel.
    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs), also known as islet cell tumors, are rare neoplasms that arise in the endocrine tissues of the pancreas. Most of pancreatic NETs (50-75%) are nonfunctioning (not associated with a hormonal clinical syndrome); however, in up to one third they can secrete a variety of peptide hormones, including insulin, gastrin, glucagon, vasoactive intestinal peptide, somatostatin etc., resulting in rare but unique clinical syndromes. Read More

    Intractable and dramatic diarrhea in liver transplantation recipient with vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing tumor after split liver transplantation: a case report.
    Transplant Proc 2015 Jan-Feb;47(1):171-3. Epub 2015 Jan 14.
    Department of Liver Transplantation Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Sichuan Province, China. Electronic address:
    Diarrhea after liver transplantation is a common complication. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing tumor (VIPoma) is a rare cause of watery diarrhea; 80% of such tumors occur in the pancreas, but it is rare in liver. Hypersecretion of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide can stimulate intestinal water and electrolyte secretion, and patients with VIPoma present with watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and dehydration. Read More

    [Diagnosis and surgical treatment for pancreatic vasoactive intestine polypeptide tumor].
    Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2014 Oct;39(10):1045-8
    Department of Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.
    Objective: To explore the diagnosis and surgical treatment for pancreatic vasoactive intestine polypeptide tumor (VIPoma).

    Methods: Clinical data of 7 patients with VIPoma from Xiangya Hospital, Central South University between January 1990 and July 2011 were collected and analyzed retrospectively.

    Results: The different operation modes were selected according to the location of VIPomas, and the postoperative symptoms of all 7 patients were gradually relieved and cured. Read More

    Contrast enhanced multi-detector CT and MR findings of a well-differentiated pancreatic vipoma.
    World J Radiol 2014 Oct;6(10):840-5
    Luigi Camera, Rosa Severino, Simone Maurea, Marco Salvatore, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Diagnostic Imaging Section, University "Federico II", 80131 Naples, Italy.
    Pancreatic vipoma is an extremely rare tumor accounting for less than 2% of endocrine pancreatic neoplasms with a reported incidence of 0.1-0.6 per million. Read More

    A tale of two tumors: treating pancreatic and extrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
    Annu Rev Med 2015 17;66:1-16. Epub 2014 Oct 17.
    Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030; email: ,
    Despite their perceived rarity, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are rising in incidence and prevalence. The biology, natural history, and therapeutic options for GEP-NETs are heterogeneous: NETs arising in the pancreas can be distinguished from those arising elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract, and therapy is dichotomized between these two groups. Somatostatin analogues are the mainstay of oncologic management of bowel NETs; everolimus, streptozocin, and sunitinib are approved to treat pancreatic NETs. Read More

    A ten-year retrospective analysis of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) in Malaysia.
    Med J Malaysia 2014 Jun;69(3):133-7
    Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Department of Medicine, Endocrine Unit, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP- nETs) are rare neoplasms with a complex spectrum of presentation. The study cohort (n=64) included the diagnoses of carcinoid, (n=26, 41%), insulinoma, (n=25, 39%), undetermined (n=10, 16%), VIPoma, glucagonoma and multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEn-1) (n= 3). Almost half of the patients (n=31) had distant metastasis at diagnosis, the commonest being carcinoid tumours. Read More

    Sunitinib achieved fast and sustained control of VIPoma symptoms.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2015 Jan 10;172(1):K1-3. Epub 2014 Oct 10.
    Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology and Digestive OncologyHôpital Robert Debré, Boulevard du Général Koenig, 51100 Reims Cedex, FranceDepartment of Gastroenterology and Digestive OncologyHospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France
    VIPomas are rare-functioning neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Overproduction of vasointestinal peptide (VIP) leads to the Verner-Morrison syndrome, whose management is challenging when refractory to somatostatin analogs. Two patients with progressive metastatic pancreatic NETs and refractory VIPoma symptoms were treated with sunitinib. Read More

    Sporadic pancreatic vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing tumor (VIPoma) in a 47-year-old male.
    Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2014 Sep 29;7(3):109-15. Epub 2014 Apr 29.
    Oncology Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    VIPoma is an exceedingly unusual neuroendocrine neoplasm that autonomously secretes vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Its reported incidence is approximately 1 per 10 million individuals per year. Herein, we report the case of sporadic pancreatic VIPoma in a 47-year-old male who presented with a six-month history of chronic, plentiful, watery diarrhea. Read More

    Octreotide long-acting repeatable use among elderly patients with carcinoid syndrome and survival outcomes: a population-based analysis.
    Cancer 2014 Jul 26;120(13):2039-49. Epub 2014 Mar 26.
    Department of Health Services Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas; Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.
    Background: Octreotide long-acting repeatable (LAR) is indicated for the treatment of carcinoid syndrome and diarrhea related to VIPoma, and may delay tumor growth in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). To the authors' knowledge, the pattern of octreotide LAR use in clinical practice and its impact on survival outcomes has not been well documented.

    Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, the authors identified patients with NET aged ≥ 65 years who were diagnosed between July 1999 and December 2007. Read More

    Ischemic stroke as a presenting feature of VIPoma due to MEN 1 syndrome.
    Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2013 Oct;17(Suppl 1):S215-8
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Narayana Medical College and Hospital, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India.
    Introduction: Presentation of the ischemic stroke due to vasoactive intestinal peptide producing tumor (VIPoma) or Verner Morrison syndrome is rare. This is first of its kind case which we are reporting here which was later turned out to be multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) syndrome with diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism in the same patient in follow-up.

    Description Of The Case: A 13-year-old girl presented to our emergency department with features of disorientation, weakness of left sided extremities. Read More

    Enucleation of pancreatic lesions: indications, outcomes, and risk factors for clinical pancreatic fistula.
    J Gastrointest Surg 2013 Dec 8;17(12):2099-104. Epub 2013 Oct 8.
    Department of General Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan, Wangfujing Street, Beijing, 100730, China.
    Background: There are few large samples and single-center series that focus on the outcomes of pancreatic enucleation and risk factors for clinical pancreatic fistula (PF). This study aimed to evaluate the indications, short- and long-term results, and risk factors for clinical PF after pancreatic enucleation.

    Methods: Patients who underwent pancreatic enucleation from January 2005 to April 2011 at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital in China were included. Read More

    [Causes and differential diagnosis of flush].
    Rev Med Interne 2014 May 27;35(5):303-9. Epub 2013 Sep 27.
    Service de médecine interne, hôpital européen Georges-Pompidou, université Paris Descartes, Paris Sorbonne Cité, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 20, rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris, France; Centre de référence des mastocytoses, faculté de médecine, AP-HP Necker-Enfants-Malades, 156, rue de Vaugirard, 75743 Paris cedex 15, France. Electronic address:
    The flush is a transient and recurrent erythema of the upper region of the body, due to a sudden arterial dilatation. First, physicians should confirm the flush and ascertain the location and timing of skin manifestations. The rapid onset and location of the skin rash to the face and anterior chest are the main characteristics of flush. Read More

    [New considerations in the surgical treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours].
    Orv Hetil 2013 Sep;154(39):1565-8
    Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Sebészeti Klinika Szeged Szőkefalvi-Nagy B. u. 6. 6720.
    Except insulinomas, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are malignant in more than 50% of cases. Treatment of these tumours should be directed against the tumours and the excess of hormones produced by the tumours. Surgical treatment may reduce the mortality and morbidity of patients and, in case of localized lesions, may result in a definitive cure. Read More

    Emerging therapies for pancreas neuroendocrine cancers.
    Chin Clin Oncol 2013 Sep;2(3):23
    Gastrointestinal Oncology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.
    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are rare malignancies, with the most common site of origin being from the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the pancreas, small bowel and appendix. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors can be functional, i.e. Read More

    Biochemical markers for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs).
    Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2012 Dec;26(6):791-802
    University of Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece.
    Biochemical markers are applied in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NETs) for diagnostic, prognostic or predictive purposes. Chromogranin A is the most important general marker and it is recommended to be measured in every patient with a suspected NET, whereas Neuron Specific Enolase is elevated mainly in poorly differentiated NETs. Pancreatic Polypeptide is used in the diagnosis of pancreatic non-functioning NETs, whereas Chorionic Gonadotrophin has an adjunctive role. Read More

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: clinical features, diagnosis and medical treatment: advances.
    Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2012 Dec;26(6):737-53
    Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.
    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) comprise with gastrointestinal carcinoids, the main groups of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs). Although these two groups of GI-NETs share many features including histological aspects; over-/ectopic expression of somatostatin receptors; the ability to ectopically secrete hormones/peptides/amines which can result in distinct functional syndromes; similar approaches used for tumor localization and some aspects of treatment, it is now generally agreed they should be considered separate. They differ in their pathogenesis, hormonal syndromes produced, many aspects of biological behaviour and most important, in their response to certain anti-tumour treatment (chemotherapy, molecular targeted therapies). Read More

    Sunitinib for the treatment of metastatic paraganglioma and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-producing tumor (VIPoma).
    Pancreas 2013 Mar;42(2):348-52
    Strelitz Diabetes Center and Neuroendocrine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA.
    Objectives: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare tumors of the endocrine and nervous systems. Whereas early surgical resection can significantly reduce tumor mass, there are few data available concerning the control of hormonal secretion and associated symptoms. Studies have shown that the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib significantly prolongs progression-free survival in patients with pancreatic NETs. Read More

    Diarrhoea due to pancreatic diseases.
    Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2012 Oct;26(5):623-31
    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Maimonides Medical Center, State University of New York, 2211 Emmons Ave, Brooklyn, NY 11235, USA.
    The exocrine pancreas provides essential digestive enzymes necessary for the proper breakdown and absorption of ingested food in humans. Any disruption of this process can lead to malabsorption and resultant diarrhoea. Typically, disruption of over 90 percent of the pancreatic parenchyma is needed to result in diarrhoea. Read More

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: biology, diagnosis,and treatment.
    Chin J Cancer 2013 Jun 14;32(6):312-24. Epub 2012 Dec 14.
    Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.
    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs), a group of endocrine tumors arising in the pancreas, are among the most common neuroendocrine tumors. The genetic causes of familial and sporadic PNETs are somewhat understood, but their molecular pathogenesis remains unknown. Most PNETs are indolent but have malignant potential. Read More

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