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The Effects of Additional Local-Mixing Compartments in the DISST Model-Based Assessment of Insulin Sensitivity.

J Diabetes Sci Technol 2021 Jun 11:19322968211021602. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Background: The identification of insulin sensitivity in glycemic modelling can be heavily obstructed by the presence of outlying data or unmodelled effects. The effect of data indicative of local mixing is especially problematic with models assuming rapid mixing of compartments. Methods such as manual removal of data and outlier detection methods have been used to improve parameter ID in these cases, but modelling data with more compartments is another potential approach. Read More

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The Continuum of Recovery from Alcohol Dependence: From Addiction Remission to Complete Mental Health.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 Jun 11:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Institute for Life Course & Aging, Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, Cross-appointed to the Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Few representative studies have examined optimal mental health among those with a history of alcohol dependence (AD).

Objectives: In a representative sample of Canadians with a history of AD, to determine prevalence of, and factors associated with 1) remission from AD, 2) the absence of Substance Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders (SDPD) in the past year, and 3) complete mental health (CMH).

Method: Secondary analysis of a publicly available Statistics Canada database, the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (820 adults with AD history; 19,945 without AD). Read More

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Stigma Surrounding the Use of Medically Assisted Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 Jun 11:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA.

Purpose: This study sought to determine whether certain factors influenced public stigma toward the use of medication to treat opioid use disorders (MOUD). : In a series of 3 studies using between-subjects designs, hypothetical MOUD patients matched in age and educational status with the participants were varied in systematic ways to determine whether certain factors influenced stigmatizing views of the patients. : Study 1 ( = 142) determined that stigma levels were elevated for hypothetical patients receiving medication for OUD compared to other medications or no medication at all. Read More

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A tractable Bayesian joint model for longitudinal and survival data.

Stat Med 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Statistical Science, University College London, London, UK.

We introduce a numerically tractable formulation of Bayesian joint models for longitudinal and survival data. The longitudinal process is modeled using generalized linear mixed models, while the survival process is modeled using a parametric general hazard structure. The two processes are linked by sharing fixed and random effects, separating the effects that play a role at the time scale from those that affect the hazard scale. Read More

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Post-Transformation IGHV-IGHD-IGHJ Mutations in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells: Implications for Mutational Mechanisms and Impact on Clinical Course.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:640731. Epub 2021 May 25.

The Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research, Institute for Molecular Medicine, Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY, United States.

Analyses of IGHV gene mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have had a major impact on the prognostication and treatment of this disease. A hallmark of IGHV-mutation status is that it very rarely changes clonally over time. Nevertheless, targeted and deep DNA sequencing of IGHV-IGHD-IGHJ regions has revealed intraclonal heterogeneity. Read More

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SPATIAL DISTRIBUTED LAG DATA FUSION FOR ESTIMATING AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION.

Ann Appl Stat 2021 Mar 18;15(1):323-342. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Yale University.

We introduce spatial (DLfuse) and spatiotemporal (DLfuseST) distributed lag data fusion methods for predicting point-level ambient air pollution concentrations, using, as input, gridded average pollution estimates from a deterministic numerical air quality model. The methods incorporate predictive information from grid cells surrounding the prediction location of interest and are shown to collapse to existing downscaling approaches when this information adds no benefit. The spatial lagged parameters are allowed to vary spatially/spatiotemporally to accommodate the setting where surrounding geographic information is useful in one area/time but not in another. Read More

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Separable Nonlinear Least-Squares Parameter Estimation for Complex Dynamic Systems.

Complexity 2020 Apr;2020

The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, 950 Atlantic Drive, Atslanta, GA 30332-2000, USA.

Nonlinear dynamic models are widely used for characterizing processes that govern complex biological pathway systems. Over the past decade, validation and further development of these models became possible due to data collected via high-throughput experiments using methods from molecular biology. While these data are very beneficial, they are typically incomplete and noisy, which renders the inference of parameter values for complex dynamic models challenging. Read More

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Hospitalization of Adolescents Aged 12-17 Years with Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 - COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1, 2020-April 24, 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Jun 11;70(23):851-857. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Most COVID-19-associated hospitalizations occur in older adults, but severe disease that requires hospitalization occurs in all age groups, including adolescents aged 12-17 years (1). On May 10, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration expanded the Emergency Use Authorization for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine to include persons aged 12-15 years, and CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended it for this age group on May 12, 2021.* Before that time, COVID-19 vaccines had been available only to persons aged ≥16 years. Read More

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Genomic Surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 Variants Circulating in the United States, December 2020-May 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Jun 11;70(23):846-850. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is constantly mutating, leading to new variants (1). Variants have the potential to affect transmission, disease severity, diagnostics, therapeutics, and natural and vaccine-induced immunity. In November 2020, CDC established national surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 variants using genomic sequencing. Read More

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Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Administration of Selected Routine Childhood and Adolescent Vaccinations - 10 U.S. Jurisdictions, March-September 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Jun 11;70(23):840-845. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

After the March 2020 declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, an analysis of provider ordering data from the federally funded Vaccines for Children program found a substantial decrease in routine pediatric vaccine ordering (1), and data from New York City and Michigan indicated sharp declines in routine childhood vaccine administration in these areas (2,3). In November 2020, CDC interim guidance stated that routine vaccination of children and adolescents should remain an essential preventive service during the COVID-19 pandemic (4,5). To further understand the impact of the pandemic on routine childhood and adolescent vaccination, vaccine administration data during March-September 2020 from 10 U. Read More

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Progress Toward Rubella Elimination - World Health Organization European Region, 2005-2019.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 06 11;70(23):833-839. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

In 2005, the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region (EUR) passed a resolution calling for the regional elimination of measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) (1). In 2010, all 53 countries in EUR* reaffirmed their commitment to eliminating measles, rubella, and CRS (2); this goal was included in the European Vaccine Action Plan 2015-2020 (3,4). Rubella, which typically manifests as a mild febrile rash illness, is the leading vaccine-preventable cause of birth defects. Read More

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Estimating E-Cigarette Use Prevalence among US Adolescents UsingVaping-Related Online Search Trends.

Authors:
Floe Foxon

Subst Use Misuse 2021 Jun 10:1-5. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Pinney Associates, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Adolescent e-cigarette use is a developing phenomenon. Greater surveillance of underage use is necessary to inform e-cigarette policy and mitigate adolescent e-cigarette use. Accurate prevalence estimates for adolescent e-cigarette use are provided by large national surveys. Read More

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[Effect of malocclusion on self-esteem of children aging 8 to 10 years in Chongqing].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2021 Apr;30(2):182-186

Department Paediatric Dentistry, Stomatological Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Chongqing 400015, China.

PURPOSE:This study was aimed to investigate the effect of malocclusion on self-esteem of children aging 8 to 10 years in Chongqing. METHODS:According to the standards of the Fourth National Oral Health Epidemiological sampling survey,a multistage, stratified, cluster, and random sampling method was used to select 1 588 children from 12 schools in 3 districts and 3 counties in Chongqing. The part of tooth health of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) was used to evaluate malocclusion. Read More

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[Cognitive investigation and analysis of space loss in children].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2021 Apr;30(2):177-181

Department of Stomatology, First Affiliated Hospital ,School of Medicine, Shihezi University. Shihezi 832008, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China.

Purpose: To investigate the difference of parent's cognition of children's space loss and its influencing factors, to provide reference for children's oral health education, in order to reduce the incidence of malocclusion.

Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the basic information and related problems of 36 parents whose children received space loss treatment. SPSS 22. Read More

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Impact of surgical site infection on patients' outcome after fixation of tibial plateau fractures: a retrospective multicenter study.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jun 9;22(1):531. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Orthopedics, Trauma and Plastic Surgery, University of Leipzig, Liebigstraße 20, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) occurs in 3-10 % of patients with surgically treated tibial plateau fractures. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of SSI on patients' outcome after fixation of tibial plateau fractures.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective multicenter study in seven participating level I trauma centers between January 2005 and December 2014. Read More

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Novel therapeutic interventions towards improved management of septic arthritis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jun 9;22(1):530. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Hand and Foot Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan, 250000, China.

Septic arthritis (SA) represents a medical emergency that needs immediate diagnosis and urgent treatment. Despite aggressive treatment and rapid diagnosis of the causative agent, the mortality and lifelong disability, associated with septic arthritis remain high as close to 11%. Moreover, with the rise in drug resistance, the rates of failure of conventional antibiotic therapy have also increased. Read More

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The societal cost and economic impact of surgical care on patients' households in rural Uganda; a mixed method study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Jun 9;21(1):568. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Program for the Advancement of Surgical Equity, Department of Surgery, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Background: The epidemiology and cost of surgical care delivery in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) is poorly understood. This study characterizes the cost of surgical care, rate of catastrophic medical expenditure and medical impoverishment, and impact of surgical hospitalization on patients' households at Soroti Regional Referral Hospital (SRRH), Uganda.

Methods: We prospectively collected demographic, clinical, and cost data from all surgical inpatients and caregivers at SRRH between February 2018 and January 2019. Read More

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Risk analysis of pulmonary metastasis of chondrosarcoma by establishing and validating a new clinical prediction model: a clinical study based on SEER database.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jun 9;22(1):529. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Faculty of Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, 999078, China.

Background: The prognosis of lung metastasis (LM) in patients with chondrosarcoma was poor. The aim of this study was to construct a prognostic nomogram to predict the risk of LM, which was imperative and helpful for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

Methods: Data of all chondrosarcoma patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2016 was queried from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Read More

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Distance education during COVID 19: an Italian survey on the university teachers' perspectives and their emotional conditions.

BMC Med Educ 2021 Jun 9;21(1):335. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Life, Health and Environmental Science, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.

Background: Following the COVID-19 pandemic, distance education (DE) replaced traditional "face-to-face" teaching and has become the main method of teaching. The aim of this study was to 1) evaluate the impact of DE by teachers in our department during the second semester of the 2019-20 academic year following the March-May 2020 Italian national lockdown and 2) evaluate the relationship between DE and the emotional well-being of teachers during the period of home confinement.

Methods: Ninety-seven university teachers (51. Read More

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[CME/Answers: New-Onset Headache in Adults: Evidence-Based Assessment in the Primary Care Setting].

Praxis (Bern 1994) 2021 Jun;110(8):469-470

Klinik für Neurologie, Universitätsspital Zürich und Universität Zürich.

CME/Answers: New-Onset Headache in Adults: Evidence-Based Assessment in the Primary Care Setting Many people suffer from headaches. Primary (idiopathic) headaches such as migraine and tension type headaches are most common. They may significantly affect occupational and social aspects of daily life, but are usually not dangerous. Read More

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[CME Dermatology 23/Answers: Hidradenitis suppurativa].

Praxis (Bern 1994) 2021 Jun;110(8):471-472

Institut für Dermatologie und Venerologie, Stadtspital Waid und Triemli, Zürich.

CME Dermatology 23/Answers: Hidradenitis suppurativa Hidradenitis suppurativa (Acne inversa) is a chronic skin disease characterized by recurrent inflammatory nodules, abscesses, and scarring mainly in the intertriginous areas. The prevalence is estimated to be 0.05 to 4. Read More

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Analysis of the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 65 patients with scrub typhus on the east coast of China.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May;10(5):5694-5705

Department of Emergency Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Background: The present study set out to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 65 patients with tsutsugamushi disease.

Methods: The clinical data of 65 patients with tsutsugamushi disease, who were admitted to the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical symptoms, laboratory examination results, clinical treatment plans, treatments, and outcomes of the patients were analyzed. Read More

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Low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in adult residents in Hainan, the tropical island province of China.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May;10(5):5580-5589

Department of Endocrinology, Hainan General Hospital, Hainan Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is considered to be a global health problem. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and analyze its related factors among adult residents in Hainan, a tropical island province of southern China.

Methods: A total of 1,700 healthy adults, aged 18-86 years (617 men and 1,073 women), were enrolled in our cross-sectional descriptive study. Read More

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[Relationship between triglyceride-glucose index and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2021 May;29(5):451-455

Department of Gastroenterology, the First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, China.

To explore the relationship between triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). 25 535 cases who participated in the health check-ups at the First Hospital of China Medical University from January 2019 to December 2019 were selected as the eligible subjects. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve were used to analyze the relationship between TyG index and NAFLD risk and its diagnostic value for NAFLD. Read More

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[A cross-sectional study of renal dysfunction in chronic hepatitis B outpatients treated with nucleos(t)ide drugs in China].

Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2021 May;29(5):409-414

Department of Infectious Diseases, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510630, China.

To compare the proportion of abnormal renal function indexes in outpatients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), and to further explore the correlation between the history of nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) antiviral therapy and abnormal renal function indexes. A cross-sectional design was adopted for renal function screening. Baseline characteristics, history of antiviral treatment, and renal function indexes were collected, including glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), blood urea nitrogen, blood creatinine, blood uric acid, and urine β2- microglobulin α 1-microglobulin and urinary protein. Read More

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[Benzodiazepines, addiction and cantonal authorization : legal framework and clinical implications.]

Rev Med Suisse 2021 06;17(742):1115-1117

Service de médecine des addictions, CHUV, 1011 Lausanne.

Use of benzodiazepine and Z-drug is common in Switzerland, also for prolonged periods of time. Physical dependence, psychological dependence and a syndrome of dependence may ensue. Related to a lack of well-established medical guidelines, current clinical practices are subject to debate. Read More

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[Physical inactivity versus sedentariness: analysis of the chilean national health survey 2016-2017].

Rev Med Chil 2021 Jan;149(1):103-109

Escuela de Ciencias de la Actividad Física, el Deporte y la Salud, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Physical inactivity and sedentariness are independent risk factors for mortality. Physical inactivity is defined as engaging in insufficient moderate/vigorous physical activity (i.e. Read More

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January 2021

[Water intake in the Chilean population: Findings from the 2016-17 National Health Survey].

Rev Med Chil 2021 Jan;149(1):52-61

Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Background: Water is an essential nutrient for cellular homeostasis and life. Drinking ≥ 6 glasses (1.5 L/day) is the recommendation of daily water intake (RIAD). Read More

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January 2021

HEALTH STATUS AND LIFESTYLE HABITS OF VULNERABLE, COMMUNITY-DWELLING OLDER PEOPLE DURING THE COVID-19 LOCKDOWN.

J Frailty Aging 2021 ;10(3):286-289

Mónica Machón Sobrado, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Biodonostia, Paseo Doctor Beguiristian s/n, 20014 San Sebastián (Gipuzkoa), Spain, Tel. +34943006086; Fax: +34943006250; e-mail:

This study evaluated the health status and lifestyle habits of vulnerable, community-dwelling older adults during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Spain. A telephone assessment was carried out in 38 individuals (71% women), with a Barthel index ≥85 who were frail or had a high risk of falls. Data were compared with those from an assessment performed 9 months earlier. Read More

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