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Data-based stochastic modeling reveals sources of activity bursts in single-cell TGF-β signaling.

PLoS Comput Biol 2022 Jun 27;18(6):e1010266. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Systems Biology, Institute for Biomedical Genetics (IBMG), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.

Cells sense their surrounding by employing intracellular signaling pathways that transmit hormonal signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus. TGF-β/SMAD signaling encodes various cell fates, controls tissue homeostasis and is deregulated in diseases such as cancer. The pathway shows strong heterogeneity at the single-cell level, but quantitative insights into mechanisms underlying fluctuations at various time scales are still missing, partly due to inefficiency in the calibration of stochastic models that mechanistically describe signaling processes. Read More

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Buprenorphine Compared with Methadone in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Subst Use Misuse 2022 Jun 25:1-17. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

School of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Introduction: Illicit opioid use in pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal, neonatal, and childhood outcomes. Opioid substitution is recommended, but whether methadone or buprenorphine is the optimal agent remains unclear.

Methods: We searched EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Open Gray, CINAHL and the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception to April 2020 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies comparing methadone and buprenorphine treatment for opioid-using mothers. Read More

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Mean and Covariance Estimation for Functional Snippets.

J Am Stat Assoc 2022 19;117(537):348-360. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Statistics University of California at Davis.

We consider estimation of mean and covariance functions of functional snippets, which are short segments of functions possibly observed irregularly on an individual specific subinterval that is much shorter than the entire study interval. Estimation of the covariance function for functional snippets is challenging since information for the far off-diagonal regions of the covariance structure is completely missing. We address this difficulty by decomposing the covariance function into a variance function component and a correlation function component. Read More

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Patterns and predictors of oral antipsychotic prescribing in adult patients with schizophrenia.

Explor Res Clin Soc Pharm 2022 Jun 9;6:100148. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

The University of Texas at Austin, Health Outcomes Division, College of Pharmacy, Austin, TX, United States.

Background: Evidence increasingly suggests minimal differences in efficacy between oral antipsychotics for the pharmacologic treatment of schizophrenia. As a result, newer treatment guidelines avoid an algorithmic approach to antipsychotic selection and recommend treatment be determined on a case-by-case basis.

Objective: To determine patterns and predictors of oral antipsychotic prescribing for adults diagnosed with schizophrenia. Read More

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Spike-and-slab type variable selection in the Cox proportional hazards model for high-dimensional features.

J Appl Stat 2022 4;49(9):2189-2207. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Statistics, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea.

In this paper, we develop a variable selection framework with the spike-and-slab prior distribution via the hazard function of the Cox model. Specifically, we consider the transformation of the score and information functions for the partial likelihood function evaluated at the given data from the parameter space into the space generated by the logarithm of the hazard ratio. Thereby, we reduce the nonlinear complexity of the estimation equation for the Cox model and allow the utilization of a wider variety of stable variable selection methods. Read More

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Feasibility, Appropriateness, and Willingness to Use Virtual Reality as an Adjunct to Counseling among Addictions Counselors.

Subst Use Misuse 2022 Jun 25:1-8. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.

Introduction: Research suggests that virtual reality (VR) experiences can be helpful as adjunctive tools in psychotherapy for some mental health conditions. VR is a computer-generated experience that produces a feeling of being immersed in a different environment. VR experiences could be useful in the treatment of substance use disorders, and several are currently being tested. Read More

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A minimum SNR criterion for computed tomography object detection in the projection domain.

Med Phys 2022 Jun 26. Epub 2022 Jun 26.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905.

Background: A common rule of thumb for object detection is the Rose criterion, which states that a signal must be five standard deviations above background to be detectable to a human observer. The validity of the Rose criterion in CT imaging is limited due to the presence of correlated noise. Recent reconstruction and denoising methodologies are also able to restore apparent image quality in very noisy conditions, and the ultimate limits of these methodologies are not yet known. Read More

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Risk ratio and risk difference estimation in case-cohort studies.

J Epidemiol 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Clinical Biostatistics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University.

Background: In case-cohort studies with binary outcomes, ordinary logistic regression analyses have been widely used because of their computational simplicity. However, the resultant odds-ratio estimates cannot be interpreted as relative risk measures unless the event rate is low. The risk ratio and risk difference are more favorable outcome measures that are directly interpreted as effect measures without the rare disease assumption. Read More

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Scaling of Acceleration Statistics in High Reynolds Number Turbulence.

Phys Rev Lett 2022 Jun;128(23):234502

Tandon School of Engineering, New York University, New York, New York 11201, USA.

The scaling of acceleration statistics in turbulence is examined by combining data from the literature with new data from well-resolved direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence, significantly extending the Reynolds number range. The acceleration variance at higher Reynolds numbers departs from previous predictions based on multifractal models, which characterize Lagrangian intermittency as an extension of Eulerian intermittency. The disagreement is even more prominent for higher-order moments of the acceleration. Read More

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Improving access to maternal health services among rural hard-to-reach fishing communities in Uganda, the role of community health workers.

Womens Health (Lond) 2022 Jan-Dec;18:17455057221103993

Ghent University International Centre for Reproductive Health, Ghent, Belgium.

Objectives: To explore whether community health worker household-based maternal health visits improve antenatal care and skilled birth attendance among hard-to-reach fishing villages on Lake Victoria, Uganda.

Methods: This quasi-experimental 18-month prospective study involved 486 consenting women aged 15-49 years, who were pregnant or had a pregnancy outcome in the past 6 months, from 6 island fishing communities. The community health worker household-based intervention (community health workers' household visits to provide counseling, blood pressure measurement, anemia, and HIV testing) involved 243 women from three fishing communities. Read More

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The effect of laying down posture while using smartphone among school children in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand.

Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2022 ;72(2):221-229

Department of Occupational Health and Safety, School of Public Health, Walailak University, Nakhon Si Thammarat 80161, Thailand.

Background: Lots of children use the smartphone in lying down posture that is unappreciated posture. The postures of children while using a smartphone affect their musculoskeletal pain and can enhance Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs).

Objective: To study the effect of lying down posture while using smartphone among school children in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. Read More

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Mortality association of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection requiring treatment in Taiwan: a population-based study.

Ther Adv Respir Dis 2022 Jan-Dec;16:17534666221103213

College of Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City.

Background: Infection due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is an emerging issue worldwide, and we aimed to address the epidemiology and mortality association of NTM infection requiring treatment in Taiwan.

Methods: We used the 2003-2018 data of 2 million representative individuals in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified patients with newly diagnosed NTM infection and received treatment as NTM cases. Read More

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Consumption of selected groups of food products by medical and non-medical students during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2022 ;73(2):173-181

Scientific Society of Young Educators, Department of Human Nutrition, School of Health Sciences in Bytom, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland.

Background: A properly balanced diet should provide multiple valuable nutrients necessary for the proper functioning of the body through the proper frequency of consuming food products that are their source. This is particularly important during the pandemic when there is a need to support the immune system.

Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of consumption of selected groups of food products and to determine whether this frequency differs among medical and non-medical students in the period before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Community-based Interventions to Prevent Dental Caries among Kindergarten Children in Vietnam: A 12-month Study of Field Trial.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2022 Feb 1;23(2):135-142. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Institute for Community Health Research, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue University, Hue City, Vietnam; Faculty of Public Health, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue University, Hue City, Vietnam, e-mail:

Aim: To investigate the status of dental caries and assess the effectiveness of dental caries prevention interventions in children from 3 to 5-year-old in Hue City, Vietnam.

Materials And Methods: The subjects were 464 children and their direct caregivers at some kindergartens in Hue City from June 2020 to October 2021. The study included two consecutive phases: the first one was a cross-sectional study to identify the rate of dental caries and related factors in the studied kindergartens, and phase 2 was a controlled comparative interventional study for a period of 12 months. Read More

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February 2022

Colorectal Carcinoma in the Background of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2022 Jan-Dec;10:23247096221106755

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, TX, USA.

Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is a common malignancy with steadily declining incidence rates and mortality, secondary to improved screening and lifestyle changes (eg, decreased smoking rates). The association between pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and CRC has been unclear in the past. However, multiple studies showed a positive association between PID and underlying malignancy (gynecologic and pelvic primarily). Read More

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Attitudes Toward Gender-Based Violence Among Sexually Active Adult Men at High Risk for HIV in Rustenburg, South Africa.

Am J Mens Health 2022 May-Jun;16(3):15579883221106331

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Gender-based violence (GBV) toward women is widespread and has been associated with increased HIV risk. We investigated attitudes toward GBV among men living in Rustenburg, South Africa, who were enrolled in a longitudinal HIV incidence study. Participants were 18 to 49 years old, reported high risk sexual activity in the last 3 months, and were HIV-uninfected. Read More

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Impact of SARS-CoV-2 on incidence, treatment and outcome of very preterm born infants in Switzerland: a retrospective, population-based cohort study.

Swiss Med Wkly 2022 05 13;152:w30174. Epub 2022 May 13.

Newborn Research, Department of Neonatology, University of Zurich and Zurich University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

Aims Of The Study: To assess whether the COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 had an impact on incidence, treatment or major adverse short-term outcome of preterm-born infants in Switzerland.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study of preterm infants born in 2020 based on two independent data sources from the Swiss Federal Statistics Office (FSO) and SwissNeoNet. Based on FSO data, we calculated the odds ratios for extremely preterm (22-27 weeks gestation), very preterm (28-31 weeks gestation), and late preterm (32-36 weeks gestation) births during the pandemic. Read More

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Persistent post-thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism: A multicenter retrospective cohort study.

Scand J Surg 2022 Apr-Jun;111(2):14574969221107282

Erasmus MC Cancer Institute Department of Surgical Oncology and Gastrointestinal Surgery P.O. 2040 Rotterdam 3000 The Netherlands.

Background And Objective: The reported incidence of persistent hypoparathyroidism varies widely, and consensus on a definition is lacking. The objective was to evaluate the real-life incidence of persistent hypoparathyroidism by investigating a new pragmatic definition.

Methods: This retrospective multicenter cohort study evaluated the effect of different definitions for persistent hypoparathyroidism on the incidence of hypoparathyroidism. Read More

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Incidence of parastomal and incisional hernia following emergency surgery for Hinchey III-IV diverticulitis: A systematic review.

Scand J Surg 2022 Apr-Jun;111(2):14574969221107276

Department of Surgery, Medical Research Center, University of Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.

Purpose: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the risk of parastomal (PSH) and incisional hernias (IH) after emergency surgery for Hinchey III-IV diverticulitis, with comparison between the Hartmann procedure and other surgical techniques.

Methods: The Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science and Scopus databases were systematically searched. The primary endpoint was parastomal hernia incidence. Read More

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Neonates with SARS-CoV-2 infection: spectrum of disease from a prospective nationwide observational cohort study.

Swiss Med Wkly 2022 May 27;152:w30185. Epub 2022 May 27.

Paediatrics and Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital Lucerne, Cantonal Hospital Lucerne, Switzerland.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be more severe in infants than in older children. To date, only a few case series have reported data on neonates with COVID-19, including mostly asymptomatic neonates who were tested because of exposure to maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study summarises nationwide epidemiological data, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of neonates presenting with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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Association between the COVID-19 pandemic and pertussis derived from multiple nationwide data sources, France, 2013 to 2020.

Euro Surveill 2022 Jun;27(25)

Institut Pasteur, Université Paris Cité, Biodiversity and Epidemiology of Bacterial Pathogens, Paris, France.

BackgroundInterventions to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic may impact other respiratory diseases.AimsWe aimed to study the course of pertussis in France over an 8-year period including the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and its association with COVID-19 mitigation strategies, using multiple nationwide data sources and regression models.MethodsWe analysed the number of French pertussis cases between 2013 and 2020, using PCR test results from nationwide outpatient laboratories (Source 1) and a network of the paediatric wards from 41 hospitals (Source 2). Read More

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One Health surveillance of West Nile and Usutu viruses: a repeated cross-sectional study exploring seroprevalence and endemicity in Southern France, 2016 to 2020.

Euro Surveill 2022 Jun;27(25)

ASTRE research unit, CIRAD, INRAe, Montpellier University, Montpellier, France.

BackgroundWest Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), two closely related flaviviruses, mainly follow an enzootic cycle involving mosquitoes and birds, but also infect humans and other mammals. Since 2010, their epidemiological situation may have shifted from irregular epidemics to endemicity in several European regions; this requires confirmation, as it could have implications for risk assessment and surveillance strategies.AimTo explore the seroprevalence in animals and humans and potential endemicity of WNV and USUV in Southern France, given a long history of WNV outbreaks and the only severe human USUV case in France in this region. Read More

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Important public health messages to avert a UK opioid crisis.

Authors:
Ali Sm Jawad

J R Soc Med 2022 Jul;115(7):248

The Royal London Hospital, London, E1 4DG, UK.

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COVID-19 and H1N1-09: A Systematic Review of Two Pandemics with a Focus on the Lung at Autopsy.

Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2022 Jun;27(6):182

Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic and Orthopedic Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 00186 Rome, Italy.

Background: The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a comparative overview of the two global pandemics: the first on June 11th 2009 due to influenza A H1N1 (H1N1-09); the second and current pandemic caused by coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) on March 11th 2020, focusing on how autopsy can contribute to the definition of cellular pathology, to clinical pathology and, more generally, to public health.

Methods: A systematic literature search selection was conducted on PubMed database on June 5, 2021, with this search strategy: (COVID-19) AND (H1N1 influenza) showing 101 results. The following inclusion criteria were selected: English language; published in a scholarly peer-reviewed journal; full-length articles were further elected. Read More

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COVID-19 Lockdown Impacts Among Patients with Cystic Fibrosis: An Italian Regional Reference Centre Experience.

Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 2022 Jun;27(6):178

Department of Maternal, Infantile and Urological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 155, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Background: Coronavirus pandemic has influenced our society with social distancing and management of chronic disease such as cystic fibrosis (CF). During the Italian lockdown from March to May 2020, CF patients reduced the number of outpatient visits, limited social interactions and spent more time at home. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the lockdown on body mass index (BMI) and lung function tests on CF patients. Read More

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[To what degree is the strong social gradient of mental health care accompanied by a uniformly consistent association between mental health care and social care?]

Authors:
J van Os

Tijdschr Psychiatr 2022 ;64(6):366-376

Background: In the Netherlands, mental health care consumption is characterized by a strong social gradient, in contrast to specialist medical care.
AIM: A more detailed analysis of this social gradient in relation to type of care, diagnosis and cost parameters.
METHOD: Analysis of national costs data and socio-economic data at 4-digit postal code level. Read More

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Psychotropic medication use and Parkinson's disease risk amongst older women.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Family and Community Medicine (Emeritus), School of Medicine, University of Nevada (Reno), Auburn, California, 95602, USA.

Objective: To examine associations of antidepressant, anxiolytic and hypnotic use amongst older women (≥65 years) with incident Parkinson's Disease (PD), using data from Women's Health Initiative linked to Medicare claims.

Methods: PD was defined using self-report, first diagnosis, medications and/or death certificates and psychotropic medications were ascertained at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Cox regression models were constructed to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health characteristics, overall and amongst women diagnosed with depression, anxiety and/or sleep disorders (DASD). Read More

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Operationalizing integrated needs-based workforce planning at Nova Scotia Health in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Healthc Manage Forum 2022 Jul;35(4):222-230

432234Nova Scotia Health, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

This paper documents Nova Scotia Health's progress in operationalizing integrated needs-based workforce planning as part of its ongoing response to the pandemic. A multidisciplinary workforce planning team with representation spanning key portfolios was created to facilitate the organization's response to the pandemic. Analyses applied early in Wave 3 of the pandemic showed large projected shortages in several professions and identified which services would likely be scarcest among the available workforce relative to patient need. Read More

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Length of stay and influencing factors of NICU in the Western Hunan, an underdeveloped area of China: A 9-year retrospective study.

J Int Med Res 2022 Jun;50(6):3000605221100753

Department of Nursing, Jishou University School of Medicine, Jishou, Hunan Province, China.

Objective: To investigate the factors that influence the length of stay (LOS) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Methods: This retrospective study analysed clinical data from all newborns hospitalized in the NICU of a tertiary hospital in the Western Hunan area of China over a 9-year period (2012-2020). Factors associated with the LOS were analysed using univariate analysis and Cox regression analysis. Read More

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[Translated article] Contact Dermatitis to Allergens in the Spanish Standard Series: Patch Test Findings in the South of Gran Canaria.

Actas Dermosifiliogr 2022 Jun 10;113(6):T555-T562. Epub 2022 May 10.

Servicio de Dermatología, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno Infantil, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.

Background And Objectives: Contact dermatitis is a common reason for consultation in dermatology. Sensitization levels and frequency, however, vary from one population to the next. The aim of this study was to review patch test results showing sensitization to allergens in the Spanish standard series in the Canary Islands, where a large proportion of the population works in tourism. Read More

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