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    Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Afamelanotide and its Clinical Use in Treating Dermatologic Disorders.
    Clin Pharmacokinet 2017 Jan 6. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Stadtspital Triemli, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Afamelanotide, the first α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) analogue, synthesized in 1980, was broadly investigated in all aspects of pigmentation because its activity and stability were higher than the natural hormone. Afamelanotide binds to the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), and MC1R signaling increases melanin synthesis, induces antioxidant activities, enhances DNA repair processes and modulates inflammation. The loss-of-function variants of the MC1R present in fair-skinned Caucasians are less effectively activated by the natural hormone. Read More

    [Partial response of solar urticaria to omalizumab therapy].
    Hautarzt 2016 Dec 19. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Klinik für Hautkrankheiten und Allergologie, HELIOS Vogtland-Klinikum Plauen GmbH, 100153, 08505, Plauen, Deutschland.
    The treatment of solar urticaria is regarded as difficult. In some cases good responses to the anti-IgE antibody omalizumab (Xolair®), approved for treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria, have been reported. We report on a 50-year-old Caucasian woman who for the last 5 years has developed localized itching and stinging erythemas following exposure to sunlight accompanied sometimes by anaphylactic reactions. Read More

    Clinical and etiologic evaluation of the children with chronic urticaria.
    Allergy Asthma Proc 2016 Nov;37(6):450-457
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Kirikkale University, Kirikkale, Turkey.
    Background: Chronic urticaria (CU) is a skin disorder defined as daily or almost daily exhibition of pruritic and transient wheals that last for 6 weeks. CU is divided into two subtypes: chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and chronic inducible urticaria (CIndU).

    Objectives: To evaluate the clinical features, possible causes, associated findings, and laboratory results of different subtypes of CU in children according to a new classification. Read More

    Solar urticaria: Epidemiology and clinical phenotypes in a Spanish series of 224 patients.
    Actas Dermosifiliogr 2017 Mar 25;108(2):132-139. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Unidad de Fotobiología Dermatológica y Oncología Cutánea, Departamento de Dermatología y Medicina, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, España.
    Background: Solar urticaria is a chronic inducible urticaria also classified as an idiopathic dermatosis. The objective of this paper is to define the phenotypic characteristics of solar urticaria and to evaluate its incidence.

    Material And Method: This was a retrospective multicenter study in which data were gathered on the epidemiology and clinical, photobiologic, laboratory, and therapeutic characteristics of solar urticaria. Read More

    Solar urticaria induced by visible light: successful treatment with omalizumab.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2016 Dec 20;41(8):890-892. Epub 2016 Oct 20.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy Unit, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland.
    We report the case of a 53-year-old man with solar urticaria (SU) not responding to histamine antagonist therapy. Using intradermal testing with the patient's irradiated serum, we demonstrated that his SU was elicited by visible light only. This type of SU is uncommon, and makes preventive measures such as sun block largely ineffective. Read More

    Omalizumab in the Treatment of Chronic Inducible Urticaria.
    Actas Dermosifiliogr 2016 Oct 5. Epub 2016 Oct 5.
    Servicio de Dermatología, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid, España.
    Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits immunoglobulin E. It has been approved for the treatment of severe asthma and chronic spontaneous urticaria refractory to other treatments. Its use in the management of chronic inducible urticaria (a type triggered by certain stimuli) is still considered off-label, although this use has been discussed in some consensus papers. Read More

    Infrared radiation increases skin damage induced by other wavelengths in solar urticaria.
    Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2016 Sep;32(5-6):284-290
    Photobiological Dermatology Laboratory, Medical Research Center, Department of Dermatology and Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain.
    Background: Photodermatoses are typically investigated by analyzing the individual or combined effects of ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), and visible light using light sources that simulate portions of the solar spectrum. Infrared radiation (IRR), however, accounts for 53% of incident solar radiation, but its effects are not taken into account in standard phototest protocols.

    Aims: The aim was to analyze the effects of IRR, alone and combined with UVA and visible light on solar urticaria lesions, with a distinction between infrared A (IRA) and infrared B (IRB). Read More

    Wedelolactone mitigates UVB induced oxidative stress, inflammation and early tumor promotion events in murine skin: plausible role of NFkB pathway.
    Eur J Pharmacol 2016 Sep 6;786:253-64. Epub 2016 May 6.
    Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention Toxicology, Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110062, India. Electronic address:
    UVB (Ultra-violet B) radiation is one of the major etiological factors in various dermal pathology viz. dermatitis, actinic folliculitis, solar urticaria, psoriasis and cancer among many others. UVB causes toxic manifestation in tissues by inciting inflammatory and tumor promoting events. Read More

    Analysis of solar urticaria in Thai patients.
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2016 Jun;34(2):146-52
    Department of Dermatology Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University 2 Wanglang Road, Bangkoknoi, Bangkok, THAILAND 10700.
    Background: Solar urticaria (SU) is an uncommon photodermatosis characterized by erythema and whealing within minutes to a few hours after exposure to sunlight or an artificial light source.

    Objective: To determine the clinical features, photobiological characteristics and treatment outcomes in Thai SU patients visiting a tertiary referral hospital.

    Method: A retrospective analysis of 13 patients with SU was conducted. Read More

    Heat urticaria: a revision of published cases with an update on classification and management.
    Br J Dermatol 2016 Sep 30;175(3):473-8. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
    Department of Medicine, Section of Dermatology, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
    Heat urticaria (HU) is a rare type of physical inducible urticaria, characterized by itchy erythema and well-demarcated weals appearing soon after heat exposure. Most cases occur in female patients aged 20-45 years. Both localized and generalized forms exist, depending on the limitation of the reaction to the skin area directly exposed to the physical stimulus or the involvement of distant sites, respectively. Read More

    Omalizumab in patients with severe and refractory solar urticaria: A phase II multicentric study.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2016 Mar;74(3):574-5
    Université Paris Diderot, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Service de Dermatologie, Paris, France. Electronic address:

    Solar urticaria.
    J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2015 Dec;13(12):1250-3
    Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Jena, Jena, Germany.
    Solar urticaria is a rare IgE-mediated and chromophore-dependent photodermatosis. In some cases, these chromophores, designated as "serum factor", may be detected in serum or plasma. To date, the exact pathogenesis of solar urticaria has, however, not been elucidated. Read More

    Doxycycline-Induced Solar Urticaria: A Report of Two Cases.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2015 Nov;14(11):1358-9
    We report two cases of doxycycline-induced solar urticaria that developed shortly after initiation of therapy with persistence despite discontinuation. Consequently, dermatologists should be aware of the association between doxycycline and solar urticaria and counsel their patients on the potential for this side effect when prescribing doxycycline. Read More

    Treatment of solar urticaria using antihistamine and leukotriene receptor antagonist combinations tailored to disease severity.
    Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2015 Nov 26;31(6):302-6. Epub 2015 Jun 26.
    Department of Dermatology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Background: Solar urticarial (SU) is characterized by erythema, whealing, and/or pruritus occurring minutes after sun exposure. Treatment is difficult and often unsatisfactory.

    Objectives: To determine the action spectra and minimal urticaria dose (MUD) and to tailor a treatment regimen graded according to disease severity in a series of patients with SU. Read More

    Effect of tetracycline and UV radiation on melanization and antioxidant status of melanocytes.
    J Photochem Photobiol B 2015 Jul 27;148:168-73. Epub 2015 Apr 27.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Silesia, Jagiellońska 4, PL 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland.
    Tetracycline is a semisynthetic antibiotic and is used in several types of infections against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. This therapy is often associated with phototoxic reactions that occur after exposure to UV radiation and lead to photo-onycholysis, pseudoporphyria, solar urticaria and the fixed drug eruption in the skin. The phototoxic reactions may be related to the melanin content which, on one side may bind drugs - leading to their accumulation, and on the other side, they have photoprotective and antioxidant properties. Read More

    [Angioedema and urticaria].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2014 Nov;141 Suppl 3:S586-95
    Centre national de référence des angioedèmes (CREAK), CHU de Grenoble, Hôpital Nord, Boulevard de la Chantourne, 38700 La Tronche, France; Clinique universitaire de médecine interne, Pôle pluridisciplinaire de médecine, CHU de Grenoble - Hôpital Albert Michallon, BP 217, Boulevard de la Chantourne, 38043 Grenoble cedex 9, France.
    Angiœdema (AE) is the clinical expression of urticaria (U) which occurs when urticaria is located within the subcutis. It is a syndrome characterized by a sudden and limited subcutaneous and/or submucous swelling. The updated classification of urticaria distinguishes acute and chronic urticaria. Read More

    Dissociation between history and challenge in patients with physical urticaria.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2014 Nov-Dec;2(6):786-90. Epub 2014 Sep 8.
    Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.
    Background: Physical urticaria is a subtype of chronic urticaria induced by a physical stimulus.

    Objective: To evaluate the consistency between a history of physical urticaria and results of challenge testing.

    Methods: Seventy-six subjects, ages 3 to 77 years old, were referred with the diagnosis of a physical urticaria and were evaluated by using challenge testing directed toward the presenting diagnosis, yet included other stimuli based on history. Read More

    Severe and refractory solar urticaria treated with intravenous immunoglobulins: a phase II multicenter study.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2014 Nov 16;71(5):948-953.e1. Epub 2014 Aug 16.
    Université Paris Diderot, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Service de Dermatologie, Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Background: Retrospective data have suggested the effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) for solar urticaria (SU).

    Objective: We sought to prospectively assess the efficacy of IVIG for SU.

    Methods: We conducted a multicentric phase II study to test the efficacy of a single course of IVIG (2 g/kg) in patients with severe and refractory SU. Read More

    Minireview: Peptide analogs and short sequence oligopeptides as modulators of skin pigmentation.
    Curr Top Med Chem 2014 ;14(12):1418-24
    Escape Therapeutics, Inc., 5941 Optical Court, San Jose, CA 95138, USA.
    Short sequence amino acids or oligopeptides have recently garnered attention for use as treatments for a myriad of dermatologic disorders due to their ability to effect and modulate various biological processes in the epidermis and dermis, rendering them promising candidates as medical and cosmeceutical therapeutics. Major advantages include their relative ease of synthesis and multitude of modifications that can be applied to enhance potency, affinity, specificity, hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity and cytotoxicity. Given the photoprotective effects of eumelanin on skin, there has been substantial interest in developing agents, particularly α-MSH analogs, that can induce 'sunless tanning' helping reduce risk of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Read More

    Hydroa vacciniforme and solar urticaria.
    Dermatol Clin 2014 Jul 24;32(3):345-53, viii. Epub 2014 Apr 24.
    Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 2 Wanglang Road, Bangkoknoi, Bangkok 10700, Thailand. Electronic address:
    Hydroa vacciniforme (HV) and solar urticaria (SU) are uncommon immunologically mediated photodermatoses. HV occurs almost exclusively in children, usually beginning in childhood and remitting spontaneously by adolescence. Association with chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection has been reported in HV, which raises the possibility of lymphoproliferative disorders in these patients. Read More

    Evaluation of patients with photodermatoses.
    Dermatol Clin 2014 Jul 5;32(3):267-75, vii. Epub 2014 May 5.
    Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Henry Ford Hospital, 3031 West Grand Boulevard, Suite 800, Detroit, MI 48202, USA. Electronic address:
    The systematic evaluation of photosensitive patients involves a comprehensive history, physical examination, phototesting, and, if necessary, photopatch testing and laboratory evaluation. Polymorphous light eruption, chronic actinic dermatitis, solar urticaria, and photosensitivity secondary to systemic medications are the most commonly encountered photodermatoses in dermatology clinics worldwide. Read More

    Novel pentapeptide activators of mammalian and mushroom tyrosinase.
    Curr Top Med Chem 2014 ;14(12):1463-8
    Escape Therapeutics, Inc., 5941 Optical Court, San Jose, CA 95138, USA.
    Melanoma incidence continues to rise due to intentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight and indoor tanning beds. Eumelanin exhibits photoprotective effects; thus, agents that induce its synthesis offer a means for sunless tanning without UVR damage. Herein, we report the development of two pentapeptides, P9 and P10, capable of enhancing melanin synthesis in B16 melanoma cells by activating mushroom and mouse tyrosinases without any effect on cell viability or proliferation. Read More

    Solar urticaria in a 1-year-old infant: diagnosis and management.
    BMJ Case Rep 2014 Apr 17;2014. Epub 2014 Apr 17.
    Department of Pediatrics, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.
    Solar urticaria is a type of inducible urticaria triggered by sun exposure resulting in hives on exposed skin as well as risk of developing systemic symptoms. Most cases are reported in the adult population. However, cases do occur in children. Read More

    UVB-sensitive solar urticaria possibly associated with terbinafine.
    Dermatol Online J 2014 Mar 17;20(3). Epub 2014 Mar 17.
    University of California, Davis.
    Solar urticaria is an uncommon condition characterized by erythema and whealing shortly after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) and/or visible light. We report a 25-year-old woman with an erythematous, edematous, pruritic reaction minutes after sun exposure while she was taking terbinafine for onychomycosis. Phototesting revealed a UVB-sensitive urticarial reaction, confirming the diagnosis of solar urticaria. Read More

    Impact assessment of energy-efficient lighting in patients with lupus erythematosus: a pilot study.
    Br J Dermatol 2014 Mar;170(3):694-8
    The Photobiology Unit, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, DD1 9SY, U.K.
    Background: Patients with lupus erythematosus (LE) are often abnormally photosensitive. Ultraviolet (UV) exposure can not only induce cutaneous lesions but may also contribute to systemic flares and disease progression. Various forms of energy-efficient lighting have been shown to emit UV radiation. Read More

    Retreatment with omalizumab results in rapid remission in chronic spontaneous and inducible urticaria.
    JAMA Dermatol 2014 Mar;150(3):288-90
    Department of Dermatology, Venerology, and Allergology, Allergie-Centrum-Charité, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Importance: Omalizumab has emerged as a novel and effective treatment option for patients with antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria. It is unclear whether patients with recurrent urticaria symptoms after discontinuation of omalizumab treatment can benefit from retreatment.

    Objective: To assess the response of patients with chronic urticaria who receive omalizumab retreatment. Read More

    Physical urticarias and cholinergic urticaria.
    Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2014 Feb 28;34(1):73-88. Epub 2013 Oct 28.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Allergie - Centrum Charité/ECARF, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin 10117, Germany.
    Physical urticarias are a unique subgroup of chronic urticaria in which urticarial responses can be reproducibly induced by different specific physical stimuli acting on the skin. These conditions include urticaria factitia/symptomatic dermographism, delayed pressure urticaria, cold contact urticaria, heat contact urticaria, solar urticaria, and vibratory urticaria/angioedema. Physical urticarias and cholinergic urticarias are diagnosed based on the patients' history and provocation tests including trigger threshold testing where possible. Read More

    Comparison of photodermatoses in African-Americans and Caucasians: a follow-up study.
    Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2014 Oct 30;30(5):231-6. Epub 2013 Oct 30.
    Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA.
    Background/purpose: Only a few studies have compared frequencies of photodermatoses among different races and skin types. This is an extension of a study performed by Kerr and Lim and evaluates the frequency of photodermatoses in African-Americans compared with Caucasians in the same institution during an 8-year period.

    Methods: Retrospective chart review was performed, including dermatology clinic charts from October 2004 to August 2012 with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnostic codes related to photodermatoses. Read More

    Influence of narrowband UVB irradiation of serum on autologous serum skin test results.
    Int J Dermatol 2013 Sep 8;52(9):1088-91. Epub 2013 Jul 8.
    Department of Dermatology, Pamukkale University, Faculty of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey.
    Background: Autologous serum skin test (ASST) is an in vivo test to demonstrate circulating endogenous proinflammatory or wheal-inducing factors in urticaria patients. While ASST was negative in a patient with solar urticaria and in a patient with localized heat urticaria, test results turned to positive when performed with visible light-irradiated and heated serums, respectively. These data suggest that some factors and/or antibodies in serum may be activated or inhibited with different factors. Read More

    Energy-saving lamps and their impact on photosensitive and normal individuals.
    Br J Dermatol 2013 Oct;169(4):910-5
    Photobiology Unit, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, DD1 9SY, U.K.
    Background: A preliminary investigation showed that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) emissions from compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) can pose a risk to the skin of photosensitive individuals.

    Objectives: To carry out a larger-scale study, in patients with a range of photodermatoses, to assess this risk. To determine a safe alternative light source for photosensitive individuals. Read More

    Solar urticaria: a time-extended retrospective series of 61 patients and review of literature.
    Eur J Dermatol 2013 Apr;23(2):202-7
    INSERM U1058, University of Montpellier I, Department of Dermatology, and UFR Pharmacy, Hôpital Saint-Eloi, Montpellier, France.
    Background: Solar urticaria is a rare, disabling, chronic disease. Few large series are available.

    Objective: To report the epidemiological, clinical, phototesting, treatment and patient outcome data of a large series. Read More

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