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    169 results match your criteria Urticaria Dermographism

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    Clinical and etiologic evaluation of the children with chronic urticaria.
    Allergy Asthma Proc 2016 Nov;37(6):450-457
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Kirikkale University, Kirikkale, Turkey.
    Background: Chronic urticaria (CU) is a skin disorder defined as daily or almost daily exhibition of pruritic and transient wheals that last for 6 weeks. CU is divided into two subtypes: chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and chronic inducible urticaria (CIndU).

    Objectives: To evaluate the clinical features, possible causes, associated findings, and laboratory results of different subtypes of CU in children according to a new classification. Read More

    Prevalence of Inducible Urticaria in Patients With Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: Associated Risk Factors.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2016 Nov 9. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
    Group of Experimental and Clinical Allergy, IPS Universitaria, University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.
    Background: Information on the prevalence of inducible urticaria (IU) in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and the factors affecting this prevalence is scarce in the literature.

    Objectives: To estimate the frequency of IU in patients with CSU and to explore possible factors associated with CSU.

    Methods: Patients older than 12 years diagnosed with CSU and a control group with no history of urticaria were recruited from 2 different cities. Read More

    Basophil CD63 expression in chronic spontaneous urticaria: correlation with allergic sensitization, serum autoreactivity and basophil reactivity.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Aug 12. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    Department of Dermatology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
    Background: The underlying causes and factors contributing to the disease severity of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) are unknown.

    Objective: Given the important role of basophils in the pathogenesis of urticaria and that CD63 serves as a useful marker for basophil activation and detecting, CD63 expression of basophils is a reliable tool for diagnosing allergy and hypersensitivity reactions to different allergens; the objective of this study was to investigate whether the level of basophil CD63 expression is correlated with allergen sensitization, serum autoreactivity and basophil reactivity in patients with CSU.

    Methods: Basophil-enriched leucocytes were separated from the blood of 64 patients with chronic urticaria (54 CSU patients and 10 symptomatic dermographism patients), 18 healthy control subjects and seven atopic donors without urticaria. Read More

    Dermographism: A Rare Cause of Intraoperative Hypotension and Urticaria.
    A A Case Rep 2016 Jul;7(2):41-3
    From the Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.
    A 54-year-old man with dermographism presented for spine surgery, and shortly after induction of anesthesia, he experienced severe hypotension and urticaria, resulting in cancellation of the case on suspicion of allergic reaction. For subsequent ventral hernia repair, a perioperative management strategy was devised, which resulted in an uneventful perioperative course. This case report is the first to demonstrate severe intraoperative hypotension and urticaria from dermographism. Read More

    Dermographism in the Oral Cavity.
    Am J Case Rep 2016 Jun 21;17:421-4. Epub 2016 Jun 21.
    Department of Oral Diagnostic Science, King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Background: Dermographism is a type of physical urticaria that can be induced by writing on the skin. It occurs in 2-5% of the population and is considered to be a normal physiological phenomenon. However, in a small subset of patients, it can be symptomatic and may affect the quality of life. Read More

    Unmet medical needs for chronic spontaneous urticaria patients: highlighting the real-life clinical practice in Taiwan.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Jan 1;30(1):41-9. Epub 2015 Oct 1.
    Department of Dermatology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Background: Treatment guidelines for chronic spontaneous/idiopathic urticaria (CSU) are available; however, only 50% of patients are well controlled with approved doses of H1-antihistamines, and certain patients remain symptomatic despite receiving up to 4× the approved dose of H1-antihistamines plus H2 antihistamines and/or leucotriene-receptor antagonists.

    Objectives: To highlight real-life clinical practice in Taiwan and to understand the unmet medical needs of CSU patients.

    Methods: A nationwide cross-sectional, observational survey of 50 dermatologists and 200 CSU patients was conducted between June 2013 and November 2013. Read More

    Validation of a simplified provocation instrument for diagnosis and threshold testing of symptomatic dermographism.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2015 Jun 18;40(4):399-403. Epub 2014 Dec 18.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Allergie-Centrum-Charité, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Symptomatic dermographism is a common urticarial condition, which requires determination of provocation thresholds to confirm diagnosis and allow physicians to individualize management and therapy for optimal control of symptoms. To determine provocation thresholds, we have developed a provocation test device, the FricTest(®) 4.0. Read More

    Symptomatic dermographism: an inadequately described disease.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2015 Apr 29;29(4):708-12. Epub 2014 Aug 29.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Allergie-Centrum-Charité, Charité - Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Symptomatic dermographism is the most common form of physical urticaria with a prevalence of 2-5%. However, its clinical picture has rarely been described.

    Objective: To understand more of patients' views about the practical aspects of their condition, its cause and impact on quality of life. Read More

    Retreatment with omalizumab results in rapid remission in chronic spontaneous and inducible urticaria.
    JAMA Dermatol 2014 Mar;150(3):288-90
    Department of Dermatology, Venerology, and Allergology, Allergie-Centrum-Charité, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Importance: Omalizumab has emerged as a novel and effective treatment option for patients with antihistamine-resistant chronic urticaria. It is unclear whether patients with recurrent urticaria symptoms after discontinuation of omalizumab treatment can benefit from retreatment.

    Objective: To assess the response of patients with chronic urticaria who receive omalizumab retreatment. Read More

    Physical urticarias and cholinergic urticaria.
    Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2014 Feb 28;34(1):73-88. Epub 2013 Oct 28.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Allergie - Centrum Charité/ECARF, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin 10117, Germany.
    Physical urticarias are a unique subgroup of chronic urticaria in which urticarial responses can be reproducibly induced by different specific physical stimuli acting on the skin. These conditions include urticaria factitia/symptomatic dermographism, delayed pressure urticaria, cold contact urticaria, heat contact urticaria, solar urticaria, and vibratory urticaria/angioedema. Physical urticarias and cholinergic urticarias are diagnosed based on the patients' history and provocation tests including trigger threshold testing where possible. Read More

    Clinical and laboratory features of chronic idiopathic urticaria in the elderly.
    Int J Dermatol 2013 Nov 8;52(11):1387-91. Epub 2013 Jul 8.
    Leumit Health Services, Barzilai Medical Center, Ben Gurion University of Negev, Ashkelon, Israel; Medicine B Department, Barzilai Medical Center, Ben Gurion University of Negev, Ashkelon, Israel; Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit, Barzilai Medical Center, Ben Gurion University of Negev, Ashkelon, Israel.
    Background: There are few data regarding epidemiology and clinical features of urticarial diseases in the elderly population.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the clinical and laboratory characteristics of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) in the geriatric population.

    Methods: Electronic medical records of outpatient allergy consultations due to a diagnosis of CIU were retrospectively reviewed to collect demographic data, urticaria activity score, results of autologous serum skin test (ASST), and laboratory workup. Read More

    Diagnosis of urticaria.
    Indian J Dermatol 2013 May;58(3):211-8
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Allergie-Centrum-Charité, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Acute urticaria do not need extensive diagnostic procedures. Urticaria activity score is a useful tool for evaluation of urticaria. Complete blood count, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein are important investigations for diagnosis of infections in urticaria. Read More

    Hypocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome: a mimicker of systemic lupus erythematosus.
    BMJ Case Rep 2013 May 22;2013. Epub 2013 May 22.
    Department of Medicine, Medical College Kolkata, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    A middle aged female patient presented with generalised palpable purpura associated with intense pruritus along with subconjunctival haemorrhage and orbital inflammation. There was extensive dermographism. Other systemic examinations were within normal limits. Read More

    A novel, simple, validated and reproducible instrument for assessing provocation threshold levels in patients with symptomatic dermographism.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2013 Jun;38(4):360-6; quiz 366
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Allergie-Centrum-Charité, Charit\xE9-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Symptomatic dermographism is a common urticarial condition. There is a need for an objective method to determine the provocation threshold for patients, in order to facilitate individualized diagnosis and treatment.

    Aim: To compare the dermal responses evoked by a new type of dermographometer (FricTest) with those evoked by a spring-loaded dermographometer (the Dermographic tester). Read More

    [Myeloproliferative hypereosinophilic syndrome revealed by bipolar mucosal ulcerations].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2012 Oct 29;139(10):636-40. Epub 2012 Jun 29.
    Service de dermatologie, hôpital Saint-Louis, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 1, avenue Claude-Vellefaux, 75010 Paris, France.
    Background: Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is defined as an eosinophil count equal to or greater than 1.5 G/L for more than 6 months with organ damage (heart, nervous system, lung, etc) after the exclusion of other common causes of eosinophilia. A myeloproliferative variant of HES with FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion gene inducing constitutive activation of a tyrosine kinase receptor has been characterized. Read More

    The safety of codeine in patients with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug hypersensitivity: a preliminary study.
    Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2013 May-Jun;41(3):163-8. Epub 2012 Sep 30.
    Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Chest Diseases, Adult Allergy Unit, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background: Drug provocation testing should be performed before safely prescribing an analgesic for patients that are hypersensitive to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Whether or not the direct histamine releasing effect of codeine renders it useful in NSAID-hypersensitive patients is unknown. This study aimed to determine if codeine could be recommended as a safe treatment option for NSAID-hypersensitive patients without the need for oral drug provocation testing. Read More

    Provocation tests with the offending nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with urticaria/angioedema reactions.
    Allergy Asthma Proc 2012 Sep-Oct;33(5):421-6
    Allergology and Immunology Unit, Novara Hospital-Experimental Program Piemonte Allergy Network, Novara, Italy.
    The provocation test (PT) with the suspected drug represents the gold standard in the diagnosis of non-IgE hypersensitivity reactions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Nevertheless, there is no consensus regarding the clinical management of suspected NSAID-sensitive patients. This study assessed if a PT with the suspected drug is a reliable and safe proceeding to confirm NSAID hypersensitivity in patients with a clinical history of urticaria/angioedema (Urt/AE). Read More

    Urticaria and dermographism in patients with adult-onset Still's disease.
    Rheumatol Int 2012 Aug 23;32(8):2551-5. Epub 2011 Jul 23.
    Department of Dermatology, Hospital das Clínicas, Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) patients typically present with arthralgia, fever, lymphadenopathy and a transient salmon maculopapular rash. Only approximately 25 cases of AOSD with urticaria were described in the literature. In this article, the authors report three additional cases of AOSD with urticarial and dermographic lesions who had a good clinical response to glucocorticoid and antihistamines. Read More

    mRNA profiles of cytokine receptors in unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria.
    J Biomed Res 2011 Mar;25(2):141-7
    Department of Dermatology, Haidian Hospital, Beijing 10080, China ; Section of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Dermatology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Nanjing 210042, Jiangsu, China.
    This present study was aimed to investigate the roles of the receptors of Th1/Th2 cytokines and chemokines in the pathogenesis of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Thirty patients with CIU, 30 patients with dermographism and 30 healthy controls were randomly enrolled. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to analyze the mRNA of cytokine receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Read More

    Physical urticaria: prevalence, type and natural course in a tropical country.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2011 Oct 22;25(10):1194-9. Epub 2010 Dec 22.
    Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Physical urticarias (PU) are an urticarial response to different specific physical stimuli. PU can occur concurrently with chronic spontaneous urticaria or another type of PU.

    Objective: We aimed to study the prevalence, type, clinical data and natural course of each type of PU and other inducible urticarias and also the prognostic factors for remission of patients visiting a tertiary referral hospital. Read More

    Anti-immunoglobulin E treatment of patients with recalcitrant physical urticaria.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2011 24;154(2):177-80. Epub 2010 Aug 24.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Allergie-Centrum-Charité, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    In physical urticaria, exogenous physical factors such as thermal triggers, solar radiation and mechanic triggers including friction or pressure are responsible for the elicitation of symptoms in the skin of patients. Avoidance of the respective stimulus is usually difficult or impossible, and many patients are not sufficiently treated with standard antihistamines. We report that treatment with omalizumab (Xolair®) of 7 patients with physical urticarias [solar urticaria (n = 2), urticaria factitia/symptomatic dermographism (n = 2), cold urticaria, delayed pressure urticaria and localized heat urticaria] resulted in complete symptom control within days after the first injection in 5 patients. Read More

    [Assessment of the usefulness of autologous serum skin testing in chronic urticaria: a retrospective single-centre study of 74 patients].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2010 Jun-Jul;137(6-7):444-50. Epub 2010 Jun 9.
    Service de dermatologie, centre hospitalier universitaire, université François-Rabelais, 2, boulevard Tonnellé, 37044 Tours cedex 09, France.
    Background: Chronic urticaria (CU) is a debilitating disease, and patients and their physicians often seek an aetiological explanation. Studies have suggested that idiopathic CU is associated with the presence of serum auto-antibodies that may be detected by autologous serum skin test (ASST).

    Aim: To confirm the frequency of positivity of ASST and to evaluate its usefulness and possible correlation with the severity of urticaria (greater resistance to AH1, greater activity score or longer duration). Read More

    Most common clinical presentations of cutaneous mastocytosis.
    Acta Clin Croat 2009 Mar;48(1):59-64
    University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia.
    The term mastocytosis is referred to as an array of uncommon, usually sporadic, heterogeneous clinical illnesses that result from the hyperplasia of tissue mast cells. It comprises many different clinical manifestations varying from indolent cutaneous forms to systemic and malignant conditions. The characteristic presentation of mastocytosis consists of cutaneous manifestations: either a solitary mastocytoma, urticaria pigmentosa, or less commonly, diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis. Read More

    Association between asthma, rhinitis and NSAID hypersensitivity in chronic urticaria patients and prevalence rates.
    Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2009 4;150(3):299-306. Epub 2009 Jun 4.
    Department of Chest Diseases, Adult Allergy Unit, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
    Background: The coexistence of allergic diseases and chronic urticaria (CU) is not uncommon. Our aim was to show the prevalence of allergic diseases in chronic urticaria patients and whether possible risk factors precipitate the development of these conditions.

    Methods: The data of 953 patients diagnosed with CU in our adult allergy clinic between January 1991 and June 2006 were retrospectively evaluated. Read More

    Neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis: a variant of neutrophilic urticaria strongly associated with systemic disease. Report of 9 new cases and review of the literature.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2009 Jan;88(1):23-31
    The Université Louis Pasteur, Hôpitaux Universitaires, Strasbourg, France.
    We conducted the current study to define within the spectrum of the neutrophilic dermatoses a group of patients with an urticarial rash clinically and a neutrophilic dermatosis histopathologically. We reviewed the literature on neutrophilic urticaria and we report here a series of patients with this unique presentation. We reviewed all cutaneous biopsies submitted to our department between 2000 and 2006 in which histopathologic evaluation was compatible with this entity. Read More

    Narrowband ultraviolet B phototherapy is beneficial in antihistamine-resistant symptomatic dermographism: a pilot study.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2008 Nov 5;59(5):752-7. Epub 2008 Sep 5.
    Dermatology Department, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Background: Symptomatic dermographism is the most common type of physical urticaria. It can be severe and poorly controlled with H1 antihistamines in some patients. Photochemotherapy (psoralen plus ultraviolet [UV] A) may help the itch of dermographism but the effect of narrowband (NB) UVB therapy has not been previously studied. Read More

    Multiple physical urticarias.
    Postgrad Med J 2008 Jan;84(987):e1-2
    University of Florence, Department of Dermatological Sciences, Via della Pergola 58/60, 50121 Florence, Italy.
    Physical urticarias are a group of mucocutaneous disorders characterised by the appearance of whealing and/or angioedema and induced by physical stimuli. A 24-year-old Caucasian male affected by ultraviolet A-induced solar urticaria, specific food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, symptomatic dermographism and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is described. Read More

    Leukotriene receptor antagonists in monotherapy or in combination with antihistamines in the treatment of chronic urticaria: a systematic review.
    J Asthma Allergy 2008 Dec 9;2:9-16. Epub 2008 Dec 9.
    Dipartimento di Medicina clinica e delle Patologie Emergenti;
    In vitro and in vivo clinical and experimental data have suggested that leukotrienes play a key role in inflammatory reactions of the skin. Antileukotriene drugs, ie, leukotriene receptor antagonists and synthesis inhibitors, are a class of anti-inflammatory drugs that have shown clinical efficacy in the management of asthma and in rhinitis with asthma. We searched MEDLINE database and carried out a manual search on journals specializing in allergy and dermatology for the use of antileukotriene drugs in urticaria. Read More

    Urticarial dermographism: clinical features and response to psychosocial stress.
    Acta Derm Venereol 2007 ;87(6):493-8
    Department of Clinical Sciences, University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden.
    Studies report that urticarial dermographism is exacerbated by "life events" and emotions. The aim of this study was to determine what aspects of life quality are affected by symptomatic dermographism and whether acute stress is a potential triggering factor. A total of 21 adult patients with urticarial dermographism completed a questionnaire on symptoms and quality of life. Read More

    Persistent linear bands in infancy acquired after local pressure: a consequence of mast cell activation?
    Pediatr Dermatol 2007 Jul-Aug;24(4):391-3
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.
    A 10-month-old girl with marked symptomatic dermographism presented with linear bands at the sock line noted to have developed following an episode of localized urticaria and angioedema at the sock line. We speculate that release of mast cell mediators associated with the dermographism may have triggered the development of the linear bands. Read More

    Dermographism and delayed pressure urticaria.
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2007 Jun 27;103(6):774-9. Epub 2007 Feb 27.
    Glasgow Dental Hospital and School, Glasgow, Scotland.
    There are few papers in the literature that describe pressure urticaria in the maxillofacial region. We present 2 cases and discuss the significance and principles of management. One case describes the diagnosis of pressure urticaria and the second describes the dental management of a patient with severe pressure urticaria. Read More

    Assessment of dermographism at different anatomical regions by dermographometer.
    J Med Assoc Thai 2006 Jul;89(7):992-6
    Department of Family Medicine, the Bangkok Medical Metropolitan College and Vajira Hospital.
    Objective: Classic dermographism refers to the ability of the skin to produce a linear wheal with a scratch pressure of 4,900 gm/cm2. The authors manufactured a dermographometer to have precise and consistent measurement and tested it on different body regions to find the best location.

    Material And Method: Twenty two patients with dermographism were enrolled. Read More

    Is there a role for antileukotrienes in urticaria?
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2006 May;31(3):327-34
    Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Medicina Sperimentale, Università degli Studi di Verona, Italy.
    In vitro and in vivo clinical and experimental data have suggested that leukotrienes play a key role in inflammatory reactions of the skin. Antileukotriene drugs, i.e. Read More

    Evaluation of patients with symptomatic dermographism.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2006 Jan;20(1):58-62
    Gülhane Military Medical Academy, Haydarpaşa Teaching Hospital, Department of Dermatology & Allergy, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Background: Dermographism or 'simple' dermographism, which has been noted in about 1.5% to 5% of healthy individuals, is regarded as a normal physiological phenomenon. However, in symptomatic dermographism (SD), even light pressure or rubbing from clothes may provoke widespread weal-and-flare reactions with itching and burning. Read More

    Bullous delayed pressure urticaria: pathogenic role for eosinophilic granulocytes?
    Br J Dermatol 2005 Aug;153(2):435-9
    Department of Dermatology Venerology and Allerology, University of Würzburg, Germany.
    Bullous delayed pressure urticaria (DPU) is a rare variant of DPU. Treatment of DPU is difficult and the underlying pathogenic mechanism of DPU remains elusive. We report a 72-year-old man with DPU and associated chronic urticaria as well as delayed urticarial dermographism. Read More

    Cutaneous manifestations associated with antiphospholipid antibodies.
    Int J Dermatol 2004 Sep;43(9):632-7
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, the Laboratory of Central de Análises Clínicas (CAC), and the Ceará State Hemotherapy Center, HEMOCE, Fortaleza, Brazil.
    Background: Primary Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (PAAS) is characterized by detection of antiphospholipid antibodies associated with venous or arterial thrombosis and/or miscarriages by patients with no other associated disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Primary Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome has many clinical manifestations of which dermatological ones are probably the most common. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of each cutaneous lesion, describing clinical features essential for diagnosis, in patients with Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (AAS) attending Walter Cantídio University Hospital. Read More

    Solar urticaria in Singapore: an uncommon photodermatosis seen in a tertiary dermatology center over a 10-year period.
    Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2004 Apr;20(2):101-4
    National Skin Center, Singapore.
    Background: Solar urticaria is an uncommon photodermatosis, characterized by the appearance of pruritic wheals after sun exposure. In this study, we examine the photobiological characteristics of solar urticaria in the heterogeneous group of Singaporean patients.

    Methods: The photobiological features of all patients treated for solar urticaria at a tertiary dermatology center in Singapore over a 10-year period were retrospectively examined. Read More

    Intolerance to topical products may be due to dermographism.
    Am J Contact Dermat 2003 Mar;14(1):35-6
    Section of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Hospital of St. Raphael, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Patients with reactions to topical products may be eliciting a physical urticaria, dermographism, by rubbing. These reactions may be misinterpreted as allergic, and three cases demonstrating this phenomenon were reviewed. All patients with reactions to topical products due to dermographism improved with counseling and antihistamine therapy. Read More

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