739 results match your criteria Uremic Encephalopathy


Potentially Reversible and Recognizable Acute Encephalopathic Syndromes: Disease Categorization and MRI Appearances.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Radiology (A.M.M.), University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida.

"Encephalopathy" is a vague term that encompasses varying definitions, often with a nonspecific clinical presentation and numerous possible pathophysiologic causes. Hence, MR imaging plays a crucial role in the early diagnosis and treatment by identifying imaging patterns when there is limited clinical history in such patients with acute encephalopathy. The aim of this review was to aid in remembrance of etiologies of potentially reversible acute encephalopathic syndromes on MR imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A6634DOI Listing

Predictors of 15-Day Survival for the Intensive Care Unit Patient on Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: A Retrospective Analysis.

Cureus 2020 May 18;12(5):e8175. Epub 2020 May 18.

Internal Medicine, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra Northwell, Staten Island University Hospital Northwell Health, Staten Island, USA.

Purpose In the intensive care unit (ICU), acute renal failure is mostly part of multiple organ dysfunction syndromes with mortality ranging from 28%-90%, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is the predominant mode of RRT used in ICU. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the outcomes in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) on CRRT in the ICU. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for all ICU patients with acute renal failure on CRRT in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237053PMC

Verotoxin Receptor-Based Pathology and Therapies.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 31;10:123. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Molecular Medicine, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Verotoxin, VT (aka Shiga toxin,Stx) is produced by enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and is the key pathogenic factor in EHEC-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (eHUS-hemolytic anemia/thrombocytopenia/glomerular infarct) which can follow gastrointestinal EHEC infection, particularly in children. This AB5 subunit toxin family bind target cell globotriaosyl ceramide (Gb), a glycosphingolipid (GSL) (aka CD77, pk blood group antigen) of the globoseries of neutral GSLs, initiating lipid raft-dependent plasma membrane Gb clustering, membrane curvature, invagination, scission, endosomal trafficking, and retrograde traffic via the TGN to the Golgi, and ER. In the ER, A/B subunits separate and the A subunit hijacks the ER reverse translocon (dislocon-used to eliminate misfolded proteins-ER associated degradation-ERAD) for cytosolic access. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136409PMC

The Impact of a Social Networking Service-Enhanced Smart Care Model on Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease: Quasi-Experimental Study.

J Med Internet Res 2020 Apr 14;22(4):e15565. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Institute of Health Policy and Management, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) presents a high risk for dialysis initiation and for complications such as uremic encephalopathy, uremic symptoms, gastrointestinal bleeding, and infection. One of the most common barriers to health care for patients with stage 5 CKD is poor continuity of care due to unresolved communication gaps.

Objective: Our aim was to establish a powerful care model that includes the use of a social networking service (SNS) to improve care quality for patients with CKD and safely delay dialysis initiation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/15565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189249PMC

The dual reno- and neuro-protective effects of dimethyl fumarate against uremic encephalopathy in a renal ischemia/reperfusion model.

Pharmacol Rep 2020 Mar 5. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Aini Str, Cairo, 11562, Egypt.

Background: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a Nrf2 activator approved for multiple sclerosis (MS) in 2013, showed promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects against cerebral injury. However, its mechanistic maneuver in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and its associated uremic encephalopathy has not been previously highlighted.

Methods: To fulfill this aim, rats were divided into 4 groups; sham-operated, renal I/R, and 14 days pretreated DMF (15 and 25 mg/kg/day, orally). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43440-020-00076-4DOI Listing

Nosocomial Myiasis Caused by (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Pediatric Patient in Mexico.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2020 29;2020:1285459. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Departamento de Nutrición y Bioprogramación, Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, Secretaría de Salud Montes Urales 800, Lomas de Virreyes, Alcaldía Miguel Hidalgo, C.P. 11000, Mexico City, Mexico.

Prevention of nosocomial myiasis, or hospital-acquired larvae infestation, should be an essential part of all hospital infection control programs. However, little is known about nosocomial myiasis, despite the extensive medical and psychological effects it has on patients and their families and the negative effects it has on hospitals' reputation and finances. This report describes a case of nosocomial myiasis of a 13-year-old boy who was admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit for congestive heart failure, anemia, uremic encephalopathy, hypertension, and severe respiratory distress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1285459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008277PMC
January 2020

Therapeutic Strategies to Protect the Central Nervous System against Shiga Toxin from Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2020 Feb 20. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Fisiología y Biofísica ''Houssay" (IFIBIO), Laboratorio de Neurofisiopatología, Facultad de Medicina, Argentina.

Infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) may cause hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and encephalopathy. The mortality rate derived from HUS adds up to 5% of the cases, and up to 40% when the central nervous system (CNS) is involved. In addition to the well-known deleterious effect of Stx, the gram-negative STEC releases lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and may induce a variety of inflammatory responses when released in the gut. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X18666200220143001DOI Listing
February 2020

Influenza A (H1N1)-associated severe complications; hemolytic uremic syndrome, myocarditis, acute necrotizing encephalopathy.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2019 01 31;13(1):83-86. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infection Disease, Marmara University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Influenza is a generally self-limited infection agent that only rarely causes severe complications. To increase awareness about its serious complications, we report three cases of influenza A (H1N1) infection complicated with hemolytic uremic syndrome, myocarditis and acute necrotizing encephalopathy. In all three cases, nasopharyngeal samples confirmed influenza A (H1N1) infection by antigen test and multiplex PCR detection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.10049DOI Listing
January 2019

Protein-bound uremic toxins are associated with cognitive function among patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

Sci Rep 2019 12 31;9(1):20388. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Patients with chronic kidney disease have a greater risk of cognitive impairment. Cerebral uremic solute accumulation causes uremic encephalopathy; however, the association of protein-bound uremic toxins on cognitive function remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the association of two protein-bound uremic toxins, namely indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), on cognitive function in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) for at least 90 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-57004-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6938492PMC
December 2019

Postoperative Symptomatic Cerebral Infarction in Pediatric Moyamoya Disease: Risk Factors and Clinical Outcome.

World Neurosurg 2020 Apr 21;136:e158-e164. Epub 2019 Dec 21.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Indirect bypass surgery is used to improve the hemodynamic status of pediatric patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). Symptomatic cerebral infarction during the early postoperative period may be the most frustrating complication. This study was conducted to investigate the factors associated with early postoperative symptomatic cerebral infarction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.12.072DOI Listing

Lentiform fork sign: Uremia alone or multifactorial causation?

Hemodial Int 2020 Jan 16;24(1):E10-E12. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Medicine, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, India.

Neurological complications are common in patients with acute or chronic renal failure, especially when there is marked reduction in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). One such clinical syndrome, uremic encephalopathy (UE), occurs due to widespread dysfunction of central nervous system (CNS). It manifests with myriad clinical features and usually is suggested by bedside elicitation of asterixis (flapping tremor). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hdi.12810DOI Listing
January 2020
1.363 Impact Factor

A case of Moyamoya disease complicated by aHUS in a patient with a history of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma: lightning strikes thrice?

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Dec 5;12(12). Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Lenox Hill Hospital, Northwell Health, New York City, New York, USA.

Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, acquired thrombotic microangiopathy, mediated by complement activation, in very sick patients. Moyamoya is similarly a rare disease in which stenosis or occlusion of segment(s) of the anterior cerebral circulation leads to the formation of many thin collaterals. Other reports have described an association between HUS and Moyamoya disease in the paediatric population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-229194DOI Listing
December 2019

Plasma miR-370-3p As a Biomarker of Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy, The Transcriptomic Profiling Analysis of Microrna-Arrays From Mouse Brains.

Shock 2019 Nov 15. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

The diagnosis of sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE), an alteration of conscious from sepsis, is difficult due to the similarity to altered states of conscious that occur from other causes. Transcriptomic analyses between mouse-brains at 24 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) (SAE brain as evaluated by SHIRPA score) and at 120 h post-CLP (survivor) were performed to discover the SAE biomarker. Then, candidate microRNAs (miRs) were validated in mouse and patient samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001473DOI Listing
November 2019

Pathogenic functions and diagnostic utility of cytokines/chemokines in EHEC-HUS.

Authors:
Masaki Shimizu

Pediatr Int 2020 Mar 22;62(3):308-315. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

Hemolytic - uremic syndrome (HUS) is a severe complication of infection by Shiga toxin (STx)-producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Hemolytic - uremic syndrome is defined clinically as a triad of non-immune microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injuries. Neurologic complications such as acute encephalopathy are also observed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.14053DOI Listing

Rescue from Stx2-Producing E. coli-Associated Encephalopathy by Intravenous Injection of Muse Cells in NOD-SCID Mice.

Mol Ther 2020 01 1;28(1):100-118. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Division of Bacteriology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago 683-8503, Japan. Electronic address:

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and acute encephalopathies that may lead to sudden death or severe neurologic sequelae. Current treatments, including immunoglobulin G (IgG) immunoadsorption, plasma exchange, steroid pulse therapy, and the monoclonal antibody eculizumab, have limited effects against the severe neurologic sequelae. Multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are endogenous reparative non-tumorigenic stem cells that naturally reside in the body and are currently under clinical trials for regenerative medicine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2019.09.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953779PMC
January 2020
1 Read

Imaging of Atypical and Complicated Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome.

Front Neurol 2019 4;10:964. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a condition clinically characterized by headache, altered mental status, seizures, and visual loss and may be associated with systemic hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, chemotherapy, immunosuppressive therapies in the setting of organ transplantation, and uremic encephalopathy. While brain imaging in patients with PRES typically reveals symmetric vasogenic edema within the parietal and occipital lobes, PRES may present with atypical imaging findings such as central brainstem and deep gray involvement without subcortical edema, and even spinal cord involvement. Additionally, PRES may be complicated in some cases by the presence of cytotoxic edema and hemorrhage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.00964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6738024PMC
September 2019
5 Reads

Successful use of eculizumab to treat atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Thromb J 2019 9;17:18. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

1Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Room 7-155, Factor Bldg. 700 Tiverton Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.

Background: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare group of disorders that have in common underlying complement amplifying conditions. These conditions can accelerate complement activation that results in a positive feedback cycle. The known triggers for complement activation can be diverse and include, infection, autoimmune disease, and malignancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12959-019-0207-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6732828PMC
September 2019
5 Reads

Neuropsychiatric Disorders in Chronic Kidney Disease.

Front Pharmacol 2019 16;10:932. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Medical Investigation, Faculty of Medicine, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Neuropsychiatric conditions including depression, anxiety disorders, and cognitive impairment are prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These conditions often make worse the quality of life and also lead to longer hospitalizations and higher mortality. Over the past decades, some hypotheses have tried to explain the connection between CKD and neuropsychiatric disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6707423PMC
August 2019
1 Read

Angiotensin 1 receptor antagonist attenuates acute kidney injury-induced cognitive impairment and synaptic plasticity via modulating hippocampal oxidative stress.

Life Sci 2019 Oct 16;234:116775. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Aims: The activation of the angiotensin (Ang) II after acute kidney injury (AKI) triggers oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade which involved not only the kidneys but also the brain. Ang II through the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) may have deleterious effects on hippocampal synaptic transmission and cognitive functions under uremic encephalopathy. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of AT1R antagonist on AKI-induced cognitive and synaptic plasticity impairment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116775DOI Listing
October 2019
2 Reads

The Acute Dialysis Orders Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE): Fellow Performance on a Formative Assessment of Acute Kidney Replacement Therapy Competence.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2019 09 13;14(9):1346-1354. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Nephrology Service, Department of Medicine, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland

Background And Objectives: Acute kidney replacement therapy (KRT) prescription is a critical nephrology skill. We administered a formative objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to nephrology fellows to assess acute KRT medical knowledge, patient care, and systems-based practice competencies.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: Prospective cohort study of an educational test using the unified model of construct validity. Read More

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http://cjasn.asnjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.2215/CJN.02900319
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.02900319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6730513PMC
September 2019
3 Reads

Chronic kidney disease in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2019 10 1;39(10):1893-1905. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Chronic kidney disease has a graded and independent inverse impact on cerebrovascular health. Both thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications are highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease patients. Growing evidence suggests that in chronic kidney disease patients, ischemic strokes are more common than hemorrhagic strokes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X19866733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6775591PMC
October 2019
1 Read
5.407 Impact Factor

Hemolytic uremic syndrome and encephalopathy from Shiga toxin-producing .

CMAJ 2019 07;191(29):E817

Division of General Internal Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.190155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6645926PMC
July 2019
6 Reads

Hemorrhagic Stroke in Chronic Kidney Disease.

J Assoc Physicians India 2018 Dec;66(12):61-64

Physician, INHS Klayani, Vizag, Andhra Pradesh.

Hemorrhagic stroke is leading cause of death in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) population. Uremic patients are susceptible to hemorrhagic complications due to multiple reasons i.e platelet dysfunction, low platelet number, use of heparin during hemodialysis, use of anticoagulants for thromboembolic risk etc. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

In-hospital mortality among incident hemodialysis older patients in Peru.

Int Health 2020 02;12(2):142-147

School of Medicine, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Background: Understanding the pattern of mortality linked to end stage renal disease (ESRD) is important given the increasing ageing population in low- and middle-income countries.

Methods: We analyzed older patients with ESRD with incident hemodialysis, from January 2012 to August 2017 in one large general hospital in Peru. Individual and health system-related variables were analyzed using Generalized Linear Models (GLM) to estimate their association with in-hospital all-cause mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihz037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7057138PMC
February 2020
3 Reads

Oral Anticoagulants in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and End-Stage Renal Disease.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2019 11 8;24(6):499-508. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

1 Department of Cardiology, Good Samaritan Hospital, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The role of oral anticoagulants (OAC) in atrial fibrillation (AF) is well established. However, none of the randomized controlled trials included patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) leaving a lack of evidence in this large, challenging and unique patient group. Patients on hemodialysis (HD) with AF have additional risk factors for stroke due to vascular comorbidities, HD treatment, age, and diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1074248419858116DOI Listing
November 2019
2 Reads

Epidemiology, diagnosis, and etiology of acute kidney injury in the elderly: A retrospective analysis.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2019 May-Jun;30(3):678-685

Department of Internal Medicine, Military Hospital of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia.

The increased incidence of the acute kidney injury (AKI) in the elderly is becoming a disturbing reality in our days, mainly with the aging of the general population, and the predisposition of old persons to chronic diseases, drug toxicity, and infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological, clinical, and biological features and to assess variant etiologies and outcomes of AKI in the elderly. Data were collected from the medical records of patients older than 65 years age having AKI admitted in the Internal Medicine Department of the Military Hospital of Tunis from January 2006 to June 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.261344DOI Listing
January 2020
17 Reads

Diclofenac-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura with concomitant complement dysregulation: a case report and review of the literature.

J Med Case Rep 2019 Jun 23;13(1):190. Epub 2019 Jun 23.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Bronx Care Health System, Affiliated with Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 1650 Grand Concourse, Bronx, NY, 10457, USA.

Background: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome are two forms of thrombotic microangiopathies. They are characterized by severe thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolysis, and thrombosis, leading to a systemic inflammatory response and organ failure. Plasmapheresis is used to treat thrombotic microangiopathies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13256-019-2097-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6589168PMC
June 2019
6 Reads

The role of hormones in renal disease and ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2019 May;22(5):469-476

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

The patients with renal diseases, especially end-stage renal disease (ESRD), are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disturbances. Some hormones such as brain natriuretic peptide appear to be important serum biomarkers in predicting cardiac death in ESRD patients. Renal diseases cause inflammation, anemia, uremic toxins, fluid overload, and electrolyte disturbance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/ijbms.2019.34037.8095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6556504PMC
May 2019
5 Reads

Uremic encephalopathy in patients undergoing assisted peritoneal dialysis: a case series and literature review.

CEN Case Rep 2019 11 8;8(4):271-279. Epub 2019 Jun 8.

Division of Nephrology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, 4-1-22 Hiroo, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, 150-8935, Japan.

We sometimes hesitate to switch renal replacement therapy from peritoneal dialysis (PD) particularly in elderly patients due to their physical tolerance levels and lifestyles. Here, we describe the cases of three patients treated with PD alone despite an anuric status who subsequently developed uremic encephalopathy, which was successfully treated with hemodialysis (HD). The first patient was a 75-year-old woman who developed uremic encephalopathy with an anuric status and inadequate PD after 7 months of treatment. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13730-019-00406-3
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13730-019-00406-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6820630PMC
November 2019
11 Reads

[New Complement Therapeutics in Complement-Related Diseases].

Brain Nerve 2019 Jun;71(6):555-564

Department of Medicine and Physiology, Rakuno Gakuen University.

The complement was named after "a complement", a protein molecule that supports an antibody. It was considered previously that the complement mainly participates in protecting against microbial infections. But later, as research on biological functions in complement activation advanced drastically, it was elucidated that the complement could be involved in the onset of various diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1416201316DOI Listing
June 2019
26 Reads

Why do neurologists miss catatonia in neurology emergency? A case series and brief literature review.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2019 Sep 22;184:105375. Epub 2019 May 22.

Department of Neurology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India.

Catatonia is a well-described clinical syndrome characterized by features that range from mutism, negativism and stupor to agitation, mannerisms and stereotype. Causes of catatonia may range from organic brain disorders to psychiatric conditions. Despite a characteristic syndrome, catatonia is grossly under diagnosed. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03038467193016
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2019.105375DOI Listing
September 2019
10 Reads

Accumulation of uremic solutes in the cerebrospinal fluid in experimental acute renal failure.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2019 08 29;317(2):F296-F302. Epub 2019 May 29.

Division of Nephrology, Stanford University , Stanford, California.

The accumulation of uremic solutes in kidney failure may impair mental function. The present study profiled the accumulation of uremic solutes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in acute renal failure. CSF and plasma ultrafiltrate were obtained from rats at 48 h after sham operation (control; = 10) or bilateral nephrectomy ( = 10) and analyzed using an established metabolomic platform. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00100.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6732458PMC
August 2019
9 Reads

The Effect of Serum Calcium Levels on Uremic Encephalopathy in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury in the Emergency Department.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2019 May 23;55(5). Epub 2019 May 23.

Şırnak State Hospital, Emergency Service, 73000 Şırnak, Turkey.

Background And Objectives: Uremic encephalopathy is the most important complication of renal failure and urgent dialysis treatment is required. Parathormone (PTH) contributes to the etiopathogenesis of uremic encephalopathy. PTH is a hormone that acts in the calcium balance in the organism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina55050204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6572505PMC
May 2019
12 Reads

[Case report of acute encephalopathy caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection in a 24-year-old woman].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2019 May 26;59(5):274-278. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Department of Neurology, Niigata Prefectural Shibata Hospital.

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and acute encephalopathy caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection occur commonly in children, whereas adult-onset disease is rare. Here we report the case of a 24-year-old woman who developed acute encephalopathy and recovered without sequelae. She initially developed abdominal pain and diarrhea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5692/clinicalneurol.cn-001291DOI Listing
May 2019
10 Reads

Anti-biofilm and Antibacterial Activity of Against Drug Resistant Shiga-Toxin Producing (STEC) Isolates from Patient Samples and Food Sources.

Indian J Microbiol 2019 Jun 18;59(2):171-179. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Biological Sciences, Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University, Sagar, M. P. 470003 India.

() colonizes human intestinal tract and is usually harmless to the host. However, several strains of have acquired virulent genes and could cause enteric diseases, urinary tract and even brain infections. Shiga toxin producing (STEC) is an enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) which can result in bloody diarrhoea and could potentially lead to deadly heamolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12088-019-00784-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458215PMC
June 2019
8 Reads

Apparent Correlations Between AMPK Expression and Brain Inflammatory Response and Neurological Function Factors in Rats with Chronic Renal Failure.

J Mol Neurosci 2019 Jun 27;68(2):204-213. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, No. 19 Nonglin Xia Road, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong Province, China.

To explore the correlations between AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and brain inflammatory response and neurological function factors in rats with chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure models in rats were established, and the healthy control group (normal group) was set. Chronic renal failure model rats were divided into model group (without any treatment), control group (intraperitoneal injection of normal saline), A-769662 group (intraperitoneal injection of AMPK specific activator), and compound C group (intraperitoneal injection of AMPK specific inhibitor). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12031-019-01299-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-019-01299-8DOI Listing
June 2019
10 Reads
2.343 Impact Factor

Exercise and cognitive function in patients with end-stage kidney disease.

Semin Dial 2019 07 22;32(4):283-290. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

In this review we summarize the research pertaining to the role of exercise in preventing cognitive decline in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Impairment in cognitive function, especially in executive function, is common in patients with ESKD, and may worsen with maintenance dialysis as a result of retention of uremic toxins, recurrent cerebral ischemia, and high burden of inactivity. Cognitive impairment may lead to long-term adverse consequences, including dementia and death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6606387PMC
July 2019
4 Reads

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and complement blockade: established and emerging uses of complement inhibition.

Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2019 05;28(3):278-287

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a diagnosis that has captured the interest of specialists across multiple fields. The hallmark features of aHUS are microangiopathic hemolysis and thrombocytopenia, which creates a diagnostic dilemma because of the occurrence of these findings in a wide variety of clinical disorders.

Recent Findings: In most of the instances, aHUS is a diagnosis of exclusion after ruling out causes such as Shigella toxin, acquired or genetic a disintegrin and metalloproteinase thrombospondin motif 13 deficiency (thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura), and vitamin B12 deficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MNH.0000000000000499DOI Listing
May 2019
13 Reads

Indole-3 acetic acid increased risk of impaired cognitive function in patients receiving hemodialysis.

Neurotoxicology 2019 07 28;73:85-91. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Institute of Population Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) have a higher risk of cognitive impairment and dementia than the general population. The accumulation of uremic toxins in the brain causes uremic encephalopathy, however, limited data exists to elucidate the effect of protein-bound uremic toxins on cognitive function. Here we investigate the effect of indole-3 acetic acid (IAA) and hippuric acid (HA), two different protein-bound uremic toxins from amino acid derivatives, on cognitive function by Silico and in a clinical study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2019.02.019DOI Listing
July 2019
8 Reads

Indoxyl Sulfate Induces Apoptosis Through Oxidative Stress and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway Inhibition in Human Astrocytes.

J Clin Med 2019 Feb 5;8(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

Uremic toxins accumulated in chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the risk of cognitive impairment. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is a well-known protein-bound uremic toxin that is correlated with several systemic diseases, but no studies on human brain cells are available. We investigated the effect of IS on primary human astrocytes through next-generation sequencing and cell experiment confirmation to explore the mechanism of IS-associated brain damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406290PMC
February 2019
11 Reads

[The unusual couple: a clinical case of coexistence between aHUS and Fabry's disease].

G Ital Nefrol 2019 Feb;36(1)

Professore Ordinario di Nefrologia, Università degli Studi della Campania, Luigi Vanvitelli.

Atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, potentially lethal (1-4) systemic disorder, capable of affecting both adults and children, causing thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) (5) that leads to the formation of thrombus within small blood vessels with multiple organ failure. The pathogenesis of the aHUS is part of a sort of chronic and uncontrolled activation of the complement system by genetic mutation of some proteins usually responsible for its self-regulation (6,7). Today, the rapid diagnosis of the disease and the timely start of treatment with eculizumab, improve outcomes of renal failure, stroke and heart attack (8-10). Read More

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February 2019
10 Reads

Cerebral pontine infarctions during pregnancy - A case report and review of the literature.

Case Rep Womens Health 2019 Jan 23;21:e00097. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

University of South Alabama, Children's and Women's Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 251 Cox Street, Mobile, AL 36604, United States.

Cerebrovascular disease is not uncommon during pregnancy as a result of either venous or arterial occlusion, or a hemorrhagic event, resulting in ischemia. Pregnancy may alter the prognosis of these neurologic disorders, with increased risks of morbidity and mortality for the mother and the developing fetus. Etiologies of stroke during pregnancy and the postpartum period include preeclampsia, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), amniotic fluid embolism, postpartum angiopathy, postpartum cardiomyopathy, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), cerebral venous thrombosis, CNS infections, and maternal thrombophilia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crwh.2019.e00097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358547PMC
January 2019
40 Reads

Shiga toxin 2 from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli induces reactive glial cells and neurovascular disarrangements including edema and lipid peroxidation in the murine brain hippocampus.

J Biomed Sci 2019 Feb 7;26(1):16. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Fisiología y Biofísica ''Houssay" (IFIBIO), Laboratorio de Neurofisiopatología, Facultad de Medicina, Paraguay 2155 piso 7, 1121, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: Shiga toxin 2 from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is the etiologic agent of bloody diarrhea, hemolytic uremic syndrome and derived encephalopathies that may result to death in patients. Being a Gram negative bacterium, lipopolysaccharide is also released. Particularly, the hippocampus has been found affected in patients intoxicated with Shiga toxin 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12929-019-0509-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366040PMC
February 2019
11 Reads

Multiple Factors Including Infections and Antibiotics Affecting New-Onset Epilepsy in Hemodialysis Patients.

Ther Apher Dial 2019 Oct 6;23(5):404-408. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Nephrology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China.

This study investigates some clinical characteristics of maintenance hemodialysis patients with new-onset epilepsy. Thirty-five patients with new-onset epilepsy who underwent maintenance hemodialysis were selected for study. Sixty patients undergoing routine hemodialysis were selected as the control group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-9987.12793DOI Listing
October 2019
12 Reads

Profile and outcome of patients with emergency complications of renal failure presenting to an urban emergency department of a tertiary hospital in Tanzania.

BMC Emerg Med 2019 01 22;19(1):11. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Emergency Medicine Department, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Science, P.O Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background: Renal failure carries high mortality even in high-resource countries. Little attention has been paid to renal failure patients presenting acutely in emergency care settings in low-to-middle income countries (LMIC). Our aim was to describe the profile, management strategies and outcome of renal failure patients presenting with indications for emergent dialysis to an urban Emergency Department (ED) in a tertiary public hospital in Tanzania. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12873-019-0229-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341653PMC
January 2019
16 Reads

Brain consequences of acute kidney injury: Focusing on the hippocampus.

Authors:
Maryam Malek

Kidney Res Clin Pract 2018 Dec 31;37(4):315-322. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

The high mortality rates associated with acute kidney injury are mainly due to extra-renal complications that occur following distant-organ involvement. Damage to these organs, which is commonly referred to as multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, has more severe and persistent effects. The brain and its sub-structures, such as the hippocampus, are vulnerable organs that can be adversely affected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23876/j.krcp.18.0056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312775PMC
December 2018
11 Reads

Diagnosis of monogenic chronic kidney diseases.

Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2019 03;28(2):183-194

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review is to emphasize that single gene disorders are an important and sometimes unrecognized cause of progressive chronic kidney disease. We provide an overview of the benefits of making a genetic diagnosis, the currently available genetic testing methods and examples of diseases illustrating the impact of a genetic diagnosis.

Recent Findings: Although there are now a number of monogenic renal diseases, only a few, such as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), are generally diagnosable without genetic testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MNH.0000000000000486DOI Listing
March 2019
10 Reads

Impact of correction of anemia in end-stage renal disease patients on cerebral circulation and cognitive functions.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2018 Nov-Dec;29(6):1333-1341

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Kasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have been associated with accelerated vascular disease of the cerebral circulation due to uremic toxins. Furthermore, anemia increases cerebral oxygen extraction fraction which impairs the cerebral vasodilatory capacity. We evaluated the effect of correction of anemia on cerebral blood flow by measuring the mean blood flow velocity, resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in relation to cognitive functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.248306DOI Listing
October 2019
1 Read

Paraneoplastic Encephalopathy in a Patient With Metastatic Lung Cancer: A Case Study.

Authors:
Scott M Rowley

J Adv Pract Oncol 2018 Mar 1;9(2):216-221. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute.

RS, a 36-year-old female, presented to the emergency department (ED) of a large academic medical center upon the advice of her primary care provider because of 3 weeks of progressive mental status changes, weakness, and decreased oral intake. According to her husband, RS was diagnosed with stage IIIA large cell lung cancer 8 months earlier and was treated with concurrent chemotherapy (carboplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab) and radiation therapy that was completed 4 months prior to admission. No other specific information about her treatment or outside health records was available. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303004PMC
March 2018
63 Reads

Syndrome of uremic encephalopathy and bilateral basal ganglia lesions in non-diabetic hemodialysis patient: a case report.

BMC Nephrol 2018 12 19;19(1):370. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Division of Nephrology, Department of medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510630, Guangdong, China.

Background: Uremic encephalopathy (UE), a toxic metabolic encephalopathy, is an uncommon complication resulting from endogenous uremic toxins in patients with severe renal failure. UE syndrome can range from mild inattention to coma. The imaging findings of UE include cortical or subcortical involvement, basal ganglia involvement and white matter involvement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-018-1174-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299987PMC
December 2018
19 Reads