357,807 results match your criteria Upper Respiratory Tract Infection


A Consolidated and Continuous Synthesis of Ciprofloxacin from a Vinylogous Cyclopropyl Amide.

J Org Chem 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is recognized as one of the World Health Organization's Essential Medicines. It is particularly effective in the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections associated with urinary, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. A streamlined and high yielding continuous synthesis of ciprofloxacin has been developed, which employs a chemoselective C-acylation step that precludes the need for intermediate isolations, extractions or purifications. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.8b03222DOI Listing
February 2019

[Pathogens in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of children with lower respiratory tract infection].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2019 Feb;21(2):144-149

Department of Pediatrics, Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Objective: To study the features of pathogens in children with lower respiratory tract infection.

Methods: A total of 108 children who were hospitalized due to lower respiratory tract infection and underwent fiber bronchoscopy between January 2017 and June 2018 were enrolled. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2019
1 Read

Decreased Antibiotic Utilization After Sinus Surgery in Cystic Fibrosis Patients With Lung Transplantation.

Am J Rhinol Allergy 2019 Feb 20:1945892419830624. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

1 Division of Head and Neck Surgery & Communication Sciences, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) who have undergone lung transplantation frequently require hospitalizations and antibiotic treatments for respiratory tract infections. Although endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) improves sinonasal quality of life in CF patients, it is unclear if ESS offers additional benefit in terms of antibiotics for pulmonary infection, hospitalization, and pulmonary function.

Objective: To determine whether ESS impacts antibiotic use or hospitalizations for pulmonary indications or pulmonary function in CF patients after lung transplantation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1945892419830624DOI Listing
February 2019

Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Hospital Utilization for Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Beijing, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Feb 13;16(4). Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

Few studies have examined the association between fine particulate matter (PM) and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in urban cities. The principal aim of the present study was to evaluate the short-term impact of PM on the incidence of URTI in Beijing, China. Data on hospital visits due to URTI from 1 October 2010 to 30 September 2012 were obtained from the Beijing Medical Claim Data for Employees, a health insurance database. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040533DOI Listing
February 2019

Safety and Efficacy of Elbasvir/Grazoprevir in Asian Participants with Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes 1 and 4 Infection.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, United States.

Background And Aim: Estimates suggest that in Asia more than 31 million individuals have hepatitis C virus infection. The present analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of elbasvir/grazoprevir in Asian participants enrolled in the elbasvir/grazoprevir phase 2/3 clinical trials.

Methods: This is an integrated analysis of data from 12 international phase 2/3 clinical trials. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.14636DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Help, hinder, hide and harm: what can we learn from the interactions between and during respiratory infections?

Thorax 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Recent studies of human respiratory secretions using culture-independent techniques have found a surprisingly diverse array of microbes. Interactions among these community members can profoundly impact microbial survival, persistence and antibiotic susceptibility and, consequently, disease progression. Studies of polymicrobial interactions in the human microbiota have shown that the taxonomic and structural compositions, and resulting behaviours, of microbial communities differ substantially from those of the individual constituent species and in ways of clinical importance. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2018-212616DOI Listing
February 2019

Emergency Department Visits After Kidney, Liver, and Heart Transplantation in a Hospital of a University in Turkey: A Retrospective Study.

Exp Clin Transplant 2019 Jan;17(Suppl 1):264-269

From the Department of Public Health, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: In our country, there are few publications evaluating emergency department visits among kidney, liver, and heart transplant recipients. Here, we examined emergency department visits of transplant recipients after initial hospital discharge following organ transplant performed in a medical faculty hospital in Ankara, Turkey.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed hospital records of 1144 transplant recipients (700 kidney, 332 liver, and 112 heart) who underwent living-donor and deceased-donor organ transplant procedures in a university hospital between 2007 and 2017 and were admitted to the emergency department during the same period. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.MESOT2018.P120DOI Listing
January 2019

Prevalence and risk factors of health care-associated infections in a limited resources country: A cross-sectional study.

Am J Infect Control 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Community Health and Epidemiology Department, Hedi Chaker University Hospital, University of Sfax, Ain Street Km 1, Sfax, Tunisia 3029.

Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of health care-associated infections (HAI) in our university hospitals (UH) and to delineate the risk factors associated with HAI.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the 2 UH of Sfax, Tunisia on July 2017, including all patients hospitalized for at least 48 hours. It was a 1-day pass per department and a 1-week prevalence survey per UH. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2019.01.008DOI Listing
February 2019

High Detection Rates of Human Bocavirus in Infants and Small Children with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection from Croatia.

Clin Lab 2019 Jan;65(1)

Background: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is known to cause lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children and may result in substantial morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine HBoV prevalence among hospitalized infants and small children with acute LRTI in Zagreb, Croatia, as well as to evaluate HBoV DNA quantity in samples in relation to the patients' age and co-infection with other respiratory viruses.

Methods: During winter season 2016/2017, a total of 295 children younger than three years of age who were admitted to hospitals with LRTI were tested for the presence of HBoV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (ADV), parainfluenza virus (PIV) types 1 to 3, and human metapneumovirus (HMPV). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2018.180702DOI Listing
January 2019

Can we differentiate malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor from benign neurofibroma without invasive sampling.

World J Nucl Med 2019 Jan-Mar;18(1):66-68

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Elazig Medical Park Hospital, Elazığ, Turkey.

One of the most important benign tumors in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is plexiform neurofibroma, and there is a risk of developing malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) throughout life approximately 10%. However lesion characterization by anatomical imaging methods are not possible. Because of that most of cases goes to biopsy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/wjnm.WJNM_11_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6357707PMC
February 2019

Incidence of infections after therapy completion in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or acute myeloid leukemia: a systematic review of the literature.

Leuk Lymphoma 2019 Feb 18:1-11. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

a Division of Haematology/Oncology, Department of Paediatrics , The Hospital for Sick Children , Toronto , Canada.

Infections are a common complication of treatment for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Less is known about infections occurring after treatment. We performed a systematic review of the literature to assess the incidence of infections after therapy completion in children and young adults with ALL or AML. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2019.1573369DOI Listing
February 2019

Medical management of acute upper respiratory infections in an urban primary care out-of-hours facility: cross-sectional study of patient presentations and expectations.

BMJ Open 2019 Feb 15;9(2):e025396. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Graduate Entry Medical School, University of Limerick Faculty of Education and Health Sciences, Limerick, Ireland.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the expectations of patients attending an urban primary care out-of-hours (OOH) facility with acute upper respiratory tract infection (acute URTI) regarding clinical examination, symptom management, information on their condition, reassurance, antibiotic treatment and other possible options including referral.

Design: Cross-sectional design.

Setting: One urban primary care OOH facility located in the midwest of Ireland. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025396DOI Listing
February 2019

Abatacept initiation in rheumatoid arthritis and the risk of serious infection: A population-based cohort study.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Cote Ste-Catherine, H-461 Montreal, Québec H3T 1E2, Canada; Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess whether abatacept as initial biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is associated with an increased risk of serious infections, including bone and joint, gastrointestinal, respiratory tract, skin and soft tissue, and urinary tract, when compared with other biologic DMARDs.

Methods: We performed a population-based cohort study among patients newly-treated with biologic DMARDs within the US-based Truven MarketScan® population and Supplemental US Medicare from 2007 to 2014. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of serious infections requiring hospitalisation associated with initiation of abatacept, compared with initiation of other bDMARDs, after controlling for age and deciles of the propensity score. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2019.01.009DOI Listing
January 2019

Activation of upper respiratory tract mucosal innate immune responses in cats by liposomal toll-like receptor ligand complexes delivered topically.

J Vet Intern Med 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Center for Immune and Regenerative Medicine and the Center for Companion Animal Studies, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Background: Nonspecific induction of local innate immune responses by mucosally administered immunotherapy is a new approach to protection from upper respiratory tract infections. Therefore, a new liposome-toll-like receptor complex (LTC) immune stimulant was developed and investigated for its ability to activate innate immune responses in cats, both in vitro and in vivo, as part of an initial evaluation of LTC for use as an immunotherapeutic agent in cats.

Objectives: We hypothesized that LTC could activate innate immune responses in cats after topical application to nasal and oropharyngeal mucosal surfaces. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15426DOI Listing
February 2019

Household Fuel Use for Heating and Cooking and Respiratory Health in a Low-Income, South African Coastal Community.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Feb 14;16(4). Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa.

In low-income communities, non-electric fuel sources are typically the main cause of Household Air Pollution (HAP). In Umlazi, a South African coastal, informal settlement, households use electric- and non-electric (coal, wood, gas, paraffin) energy sources for cooking and heating. The study aimed to determine whether respiratory ill health status varied by fuel type use. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040550DOI Listing
February 2019

Over prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections; a qualitative study to explore Irish general practitioners' perspectives.

BMC Fam Pract 2019 Feb 14;20(1):27. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Graduate Entry Medical School, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.

Background: Anti-microbial resistance (AMR) is a global threat to public health and antibiotics are often unnecessarily prescribed for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in general practice. We aimed to investigate why general practitioners (GPs) continue to prescribe antibiotics for ARTIs despite increasing knowledge of their poor efficacy and worsening antimicrobial resistance.

Methods: We used an explorative qualitative study design. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12875-019-0917-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Comparison of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality of Persons with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries to the General Swiss Population: Results from a National Cohort Study.

Neuroepidemiology 2019 Feb 14;52(3-4):205-213. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Swiss Paraplegic Research, Nottwil, Switzerland.

Background: Traumatic spinal cord injuries (TSCI) are a neurological condition associated with reduced well-being, increased morbidity and reductions in life expectancy. Estimates of all-cause and cause-specific mortality can aid in identifying targets for prevention and management of contributors for premature mortality.

Objectives: To compare all-cause and cause-specific rates of mortality to that of the Swiss general population; to identify differentials in risk of cause-specific mortality according to lesion characteristics. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496976DOI Listing
February 2019

Prevalence and characteristics of acute respiratory virus infections in pediatric cancer patients.

J Med Virol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Experimental Pathology, Immunology and Microbiology.

Background: Pediatric cancer patients have a higher risk of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory viral infections than do other patient populations.

Objectives: To investigate the causative viruses of respiratory infections and their burden among pediatric cancer patients in Lebanon.

Study Design: Nasopharyngeal swabs along with clinical and demographic data were collected from pediatric cancer patients presenting febrile episodes with upper respiratory tract symptoms. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jmv.25432
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25432DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Update: Influenza Activity - United States, September 30, 2018-February 2, 2019.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019 Feb 15;68(6):125-134. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC.

CDC collects, compiles, and analyzes data on influenza activity and viruses in the United States. During September 30, 2018-February 2, 2019,* influenza activity in the United States was low during October and November, increased in late December, and remained elevated through early February. As of February 2, 2019, this has been a low-severity influenza season (1), with a lower percentage of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI), lower rates of hospitalization, and fewer deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza, compared with recent seasons. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6806a1.htm?s_cid=mm6
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6806a1DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Efficacy of gummy lozenges containing erysimum as ancillary treatment in children with sore throat.

Minerva Pediatr 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Pediatri di Famiglia, Federazione Italiana Medici Pediatri (FIMP), Sezione Provinciale di Catania, Catania, Italy.

Background: Sore throat frequently occurs in children aged between 4 and 15 years and is often associated to inflammation of the upper respiratory tract mucosa. A reliable approach to limit the damage caused by inflammation and, therefore, to alleviate associated symptoms might be the protection of the mucosa. Aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a medical device, formulated as a gummy lozenge and containing a combination of natural functional components (erysimum, aloe vera and Xilogel®) able to exert a barrier effect on the mucosa, as ancillary treatment in children with sore throat. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4946.19.05405-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Exploring views of pharmacists on antibacterial prescribing: a Maltese perspective.

Int J Pharm Pract 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Malta, Msida, Malta.

Objectives: To investigate the perception of Maltese pharmacists to prescribe a selected number of antibiotics.

Methods: A self-administered questionnaire entitled 'Antibiotic Prescribing by Pharmacists' was developed to study pharmacist perception to prescribing a selected number of antibacterial agents. The questionnaire was validated by a two-round Delphi technique and disseminated to all practising pharmacists (N = 930) during a 3-month period. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.12498DOI Listing
February 2019

Efficacy and safety of mTOR inhibitors (rapamycin and its analogues) for tuberous sclerosis complex: a meta-analysis.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2019 Feb 13;14(1):39. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Pharmacy, Peking University First Hospital, 6 Dahongluochang Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100034, China.

Background: The treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) using mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors is clinically promising. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mTOR inhibitors for improving the clinical symptoms of TSC.

Methods: We performed a systematic search of major electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and WanFang, CNKI, and VIP databases) to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomized studies from the date of database inception to November 2017; the Chinese Food and Drug Administration and clinicaltrials. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-019-1012-xDOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

[Primary Immunodeficiency: Primary Antibody Disorders in Respiratory Medicine].

Pneumologie 2019 Feb 13;73(2):94-107. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Clinical manifestations of primary immunodeficiency are heterogeneous, and early diagnosis is challenging. Leading symptoms are recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Response to antibiotic therapy is often reduced. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-108085DOI Listing
February 2019

The BeWo cell line derived from a human placental choriocarcinoma is permissive for respiratory syncytial virus infection.

Virus Genes 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Departamento de Inmunobioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Perinatología Isidro Espinosa de los Reyes, Montes Urales 800, Col. Lomas Virreyes, CP 11000, Mexico City, Mexico.

The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main pathogen associated with upper respiratory tract infections during early childhood. Vertical transmission of this virus has been suggested in humans, based on observations recorded during animal studies that revealed an association of RSV with persistent structural and functional changes in the developing lungs of the offspring. However, human placentas have not yet been evaluated for susceptibility to RSV infection. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-019-01646-2DOI Listing
February 2019

Can the imaging manifestations of melioidosis prognosticate the clinical outcome? A 6-year retrospective study.

Insights Imaging 2019 Feb 13;10(1):17. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Biostatistics, Christian Medical College Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632004, India.

Objective: Melioidosis being an important cause of community-acquired sepsis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei in the tropical and subtropical countries, is often underreported or misinterpreted on imaging investigations. We aim to describe the spectrum of imaging manifestations of melioidosis and to evaluate its role in prognosticating clinical outcome, and look for association of specific organ involvement with risk factors.

Methods: From January 2011 to October 2017, retrospective analysis of imaging investigations of 189 consecutive patients with culture-proven melioidosis was performed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13244-019-0708-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Effectiveness and safety of electronically delivered prescribing feedback and decision support on antibiotic use for respiratory illness in primary care: REDUCE cluster randomised trial.

BMJ 2019 Feb 12;364:l236. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

School of Population Health and Environmental Sciences, King's College London, Guy's Campus, King's College London, London, UK.

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety at population scale of electronically delivered prescribing feedback and decision support interventions at reducing antibiotic prescribing for self limiting respiratory tract infections.

Design: Open label, two arm, cluster randomised controlled trial.

Setting: UK general practices in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, randomised between 11 November 2015 and 9 August 2016, with final follow-up on 9 August 2017. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l236DOI Listing
February 2019

Epidemiology and risk factors for nosocomial infection in the respiratory intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in China: A prospective surveillance during 2013 and 2015.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 12;19(1):145. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Respiratory Intensive Care Unit of The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China.

Background: To determine the epidemiology and risk factors for nosocomial infection (NI) in the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of a teaching hospital in Northwest China.

Methods: An observational, prospective surveillance was conducted in the RICU from 2013 to 2015. The overall infection rate, distribution of infection sites, device-associated infections and pathogen in the RICU were investigated. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3772-2DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A multicenter point prevalence survey of antibiotic use in Punjab, Pakistan: findings and implications.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

h Faculty of Pharmacy and Health sciences , University of Balochistan , Quetta , Pakistan.

Objectives: In line with the recent global action plan for antimicrobial resistance, this is the first time such a comprehensive survey has been undertaken in Pakistan, sixth most populous country.

Methods: This point prevalence survey (PPS) was conducted in 13 hospitals among 7 different cities of Pakistan. The survey included all inpatients receiving an antibiotic on the day of PPS. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2019.1581063DOI Listing
February 2019

Antibiotic Prescribing Practices and Errors among Hospitalized Pediatric Patients Suffering from Acute Respiratory Tract Infections: A Multicenter, Cross-Sectional Study in Pakistan.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2019 Feb 11;55(2). Epub 2019 Feb 11.

College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54000, Pakistan.

The noncompliance of treatment guidelines by healthcare professionals, along with physiological variations, makes the pediatric population more prone to antibiotic prescribing errors. The present study aims to evaluate the prescribing practices and errors of the most frequently prescribed antibiotics among pediatric patients suffering from acute respiratory tract infections who had different lengths of stay (LOS) in public hospitals. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in five tertiary-care public hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan, between 1 January 2017 and 30 June 2017. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.mdpi.com/1010-660X/55/2/44
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina55020044DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Complicated Head and Neck Infections Following Influenza Virus Infection in Children.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX.

Seasonal influenza infection is associated with secondary bacterial complications involving the upper and lower respiratory tract. However, the association of influenza infection with secondary severe or complicated head and neck infections is not appreciated. We report six cases of head and neck infections following influenza infection in pediatric patients. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002294DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Chlamydia pneumoniae enhances Interleukin 8 (IL-8) production with reduced azithromycin sensitivity under hypoxia.

APMIS 2019 Mar;127(3):131-138

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae causes respiratory tract infections such as community-acquired pneumonia. During infection, C. pneumoniae induces inflammatory responses in host cells and the oxygen concentration at the infection sites subsequently decreases. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.12924DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Nasopharyngeal Microbiota in Children With Invasive Pneumococcal Disease: Identification of Bacteria With Potential Disease-Promoting and Protective Effects.

Front Microbiol 2019 28;10:11. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain.

The risk of suffering from some infectious diseases can be related to specific microbiota profiles. Specifically, the nasopharyngeal microbiota could play a role as a risk or protective factor in the development of invasive disease caused by . We analyzed the nasopharyngeal microbiota of children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and that of healthy controls matched by age, sex, and seasonality from Catalonia, Spain. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360994PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Epidemiology of human respiratory viruses in children with acute respiratory tract infection in a 3-year hospital-based survey in Northern Italy.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Viale A. Gramsci 14, 43126 Parma, Italy.

Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children. The viral etiology of ARTIs was investigated over 3 years (October 2012-September 2015) in 2575 children in Parma, Italy, using indirect immunofluorescent staining of respiratory samples for viral antigens, cell culture, and molecular assays. Respiratory viruses were detected in 1299 cases (50. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2019.01.008DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Thirty Years of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG: A Review.

Authors:
Lucio Capurso

J Clin Gastroenterol 2019 Mar;53 Suppl 1:S1-S41

Department of Gastroenterology, San Filippo Neri Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) was the first strain belonging to the genus Lactobacillus to be patented in 1989 thanks to its ability to survive and to proliferate at gastric acid pH and in medium containing bile, and to adhere to enterocytes. Furthermore LGG is able to produces both a biofilm that can mechanically protect the mucosa, and different soluble factors beneficial to the gut by enhancing intestinal crypt survival, diminishing apoptosis of the intestinal epithelium, and preserving cytoskeletal integrity. Moreover LGG thanks to its lectin-like protein 1 and 2 inhibits some pathogens such as Salmonella species. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0000000000001170DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Use of microbiology tests in the era of increasing AMR rates- a multicentre hospital cohort study.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2019 4;8:28. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

10Department of Essential Medicines and Health Products, World Health Organization (WHO), Avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.

Background: Effective use of microbiology test results may positively influence patient outcomes and limit the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. However, studies indicate that their potential is not fully utilized. We investigated microbiology test ordering practices and the use of test results for antibiotic decision-making in hospitals. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://aricjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1375
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13756-019-0480-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360791PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Use of personal protective equipment to protect against respiratory infections in Pakistan: A systematic review.

J Infect Public Health 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.

Like other low-income countries, limited data are available on the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in Pakistan. We conducted a systematic review of studies on PPE use for respiratory infections in healthcare settings in Pakistan. MEDLINE, Embase and Goggle Scholar were searched for clinical, epidemiological and laboratory-based studies in English, and 13 studies were included; all were observational/cross-sectional studies. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2019.01.064DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Activating mutations in PIK3CD disrupt the differentiation and function of human and murine CD4 T cells.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Immunology Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia; St Vincent's Clinical School, University of NSW, Australia; CIRCA (Clinical Immunogenomics Research Consortia Australia), Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Gain of function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD cause a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, susceptibility to herpes virus infections and impaired antibody responses. Previous work revealed defects in CD8 T and B cells that contribute to this clinical phenotype but less is understood about the role of CD4 T cells in disease pathogenesis.

Objective: To dissect the effects of increased phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling on CD4 T cell function. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.01.033DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Presentation to primary care during the prodrome of Type 1 diabetes in childhood: a case-control study using record data linkage.

Pediatr Diabetes 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Division of Population Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff.

Objective: To evaluate primary care presentations during the prodrome (12 months prior to onset-Type 1 diabetes, with or without DKA), to identify opportunities for earlier diagnosis.

Methods: This was a case-control study, linking 16 years of data from children (≤15 years) registered at diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes, and routinely collected primary care records in Wales (UK). Controls (without Type 1 diabetes) were matched on a 3:1 ratio. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pedi.12829DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Multiplicative rates model for recurrent events in case-cohort studies.

Lifetime Data Anal 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.

In large prospective cohort studies, accumulation of covariate information and follow-up data make up the majority of the cost involved in the study. This might lead to the study being infeasible when there are some expensive variables and/or the event is rare. Prentice (Biometrika 73(1):1-11, 1986) proposed the case-cohort study for time to event data to tackle this problem. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10985-019-09466-0DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A different clinical presentation of Heiner syndrome: The case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage causing massive hemoptysis and hematemesis.

Respir Med Case Rep 2019 23;26:206-208. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Pediatric, University of Health Sciences, Adana Health Practices and Research Center, Adana, Turkey.

Heiner syndrome is a non-IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to cow's milk, which often causes pulmonary disease in infants and young children. Patients often have symptoms of chronic or recurrent upper or lower respiratory tract infection. It has been reported that the Heiner's syndrome can cause recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage, and it is difficult to differentiate from the entity of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis, another disease with recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage of unknown etiology usually occurring in the older children. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmcr.2019.01.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354653PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines Against Respiratory Viruses.

Front Immunol 2019 24;10:22. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Département des Sciences Biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

The respiratory mucosa is the primary portal of entry for numerous viruses such as the respiratory syncytial virus, the influenza virus and the parainfluenza virus. These pathogens initially infect the upper respiratory tract and then reach the lower respiratory tract, leading to diseases. Vaccination is an affordable way to control the pathogenicity of viruses and constitutes the strategy of choice to fight against infections, including those leading to pulmonary diseases. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00022
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353795PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Challenges and opportunities to tackle the rising prevalence of diet-related non-communicable diseases in Africa.

Authors:
Victor O Owino

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 8:1-7. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Nutritional and Health-Related Environmental Studies Section, Division of Human Health,International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre,PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna,Austria.

Africa is experiencing a sharp rise in non-communicable diseases (NCD) related to rapid globalisation and urbanisation leading to shifts in dietary and lifestyle patterns characterised by increased energy intake and physical inactivity. However, unlike more resource-endowed regions, Africa has a double burden of disease: NCD co-exist with infectious diseases including lower respiratory tract infections, HIV/AIDS and diarrhoeal diseases. The African economy is also relatively weaker, making it difficult to cope with this burden. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002823DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Swyer-James-Macleod syndrome as a rare cause of unilateral hyperlucent lung: Three case reports.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Feb;98(6):e14269

Rationale: Swyer-James-Macleod syndrome (SJMS) is a rare lung disorder characterized by unilateral hyperlucent lungs which arises as a complication of bronchiolitis obliterans. It is typically diagnosed during childhood, although some patients may only be diagnosed in adulthood, often as an incidental finding, but others due to recurrent chest infections.

Patient Concerns: Three patients were referred to our institution with complaints of dyspnea on exertion, chronic productive cough, and recurrent pulmonary infections. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00005792-201902080-0002
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000014269DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Antibiotics for induction and maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 Feb 7;2:CD012730. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

Background: Several antibiotics have been evaluated in Crohn's disease (CD), however randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have produced conflicting results.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of antibiotics for induction and maintenance of remission in CD.

Search Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, the Cochrane IBD Group Specialized Register and Clinicaltrials. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012730.pub2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366891PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

Absence of adaptive evolution is the main barrier against influenza emergence in horses in Asia despite frequent virus interspecies transmission from wild birds.

PLoS Pathog 2019 Feb 7;15(2):e1007531. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Virus ecology and evolution play a central role in disease emergence. However, their relative roles will vary depending on the viruses and ecosystems involved. We combined field studies, phylogenetics and experimental infections to document with unprecedented detail the stages that precede initial outbreaks during viral emergence in nature. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007531DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Structure basis of neutralization by a novel site II/IV antibody against respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein.

PLoS One 2019 7;14(2):e0210749. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

Globally, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in newborns, young children, and the elderly for which there is no vaccine. The RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein is a major target for vaccine development. Here, we describe a novel monoclonal antibody (designated as R4. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210749PLOS
February 2019
1 Read

Transmission and prevention of acute viral respiratory tract infections in hospitals.

Curr Opin Pulm Med 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Transmission of acute respiratory tract viral infections in healthcare environments is a major problem worldwide. We review recent literature of viruses imported to hospitals from the local community and from abroad, their modes of transmission and measures required to reduce and contain them.

Recent Findings: Common causes of outbreaks include influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and coronaviruses. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCP.0000000000000566DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Risk factors for acquisition of meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt.

Trop Med Int Health 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Objective: To investigate potential risk factors for acquisition in seven countries of the meningitis belt.

Methods: Households were followed up every 2 weeks for 2 months, then monthly for a further 4 months. Pharyngeal swabs were collected from all available household members at each visit and questionnaires completed. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13203DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Converting habits of antibiotic use for respiratory tract infections in German primary care - study protocol of the cluster-randomized controlled CHANGE-3 trial.

Trials 2019 Feb 6;20(1):103. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Institute of General Practice, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock, Germany.

Background: The overuse of antibiotics is a major cause for the worldwide rise of antibiotic resistance. Although it is well known that acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) are mainly caused by viruses and are often self limiting, antibiotics are too frequently prescribed in primary care. CHANGE-3 examines whether a complex intervention focusing on improving communication and provision of prescribing feedback reduces antibiotic use in patients suffering from ARTI. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3209-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366085PMC
February 2019
1 Read