564,520 results match your criteria Upper Respiratory Tract Infection


Characteristics and Results of Hospital Admission Caused by Influenza Virus Infections in Children under 5 Years Old.

J Trop Pediatr 2022 Jun;68(4)

Department of Pediatric Diseases, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Izmir, Turkey.

Aims: The influenza virus is an infectious disease with acute respiratory tract infections, caused secondary bacterial infections and death. In this study, we aimed to determine which predictors were associated with the need for high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) and transition to intensive care for influenza virus and also to compare single viral pathogens with multiple ones.

Methods: Inpatients under the age of 5 with influenza virus-related respiratory tract infections between November 2015 and March 2019 were included in the study. Read More

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Molecular epidemiological surveillance of viral agents of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children in Accra, Ghana.

BMC Pediatr 2022 Jun 24;22(1):364. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Virology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) in children under 5 years is known to be predominantly caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). In recent times, however, human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has also been implicated. This study sought to investigate and genotype respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus in children presenting with ALRTIs infection at the Princess Marie Louis Children's Hospital in Accra, Ghana. Read More

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Bronchial epithelia from adults and children: SARS-CoV-2 spread via syncytia formation and type III interferon infectivity restriction.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Jul 24;119(28):e2202370119. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

UMR 5234, Microbiologie Fondamentale et Pathogénicité, CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, 33076 Bordeaux, France.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections initiate in the bronchi of the upper respiratory tract and are able to disseminate to the lower respiratory tract, where infections can cause an acute respiratory distress syndrome with a high degree of mortality in elderly patients. We used reconstituted primary bronchial epithelia from adult and child donors to follow the SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamics. We show that, in epithelia from adult donors, infections initiate in multiciliated cells and spread within 24 to 48 h throughout the whole epithelia. Read More

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Neonates with SARS-CoV-2 infection: spectrum of disease from a prospective nationwide observational cohort study.

Swiss Med Wkly 2022 May 27;152:w30185. Epub 2022 May 27.

Paediatrics and Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital Lucerne, Cantonal Hospital Lucerne, Switzerland.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be more severe in infants than in older children. To date, only a few case series have reported data on neonates with COVID-19, including mostly asymptomatic neonates who were tested because of exposure to maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study summarises nationwide epidemiological data, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of neonates presenting with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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Identification and molecular characterization of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates recovered from invasive infections in a pre-pneumococcal vaccine era.

J Clin Lab Anal 2022 Jun 23:e24566. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Urology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Given the significant role of penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in inducing severe infectious diseases, identifying serotypes and genotypes that can mediate antimicrobial resistance has become a pillar of treatment strategies. This study aims to determine the correlation between the minimum inhibitory concentration of antimicrobial agents and amino acid mutations in penicillin-binding proteins. Moreover, molecular serotyping and multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis typing were first-ever performed to characterize the invasive penicillin-nonsusceptible S. Read More

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Effect of Breastfeeding and Preterm Births on the Severity of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections and Associated Risk of Hospitalization in Infants and Toddlers.

Glob Pediatr Health 2022 17;9:2333794X221089762. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Dr. Behçet Uz Children's Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

We studied the effect of duration of breastfeeding and history of prematurity on the duration of hospitalization in infants with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) because these may reflect the severity of illness as well as sizable direct and indirect healthcare costs. One hundred twenty-five patients (49 girls, 76 boys; aged 1-24 months) were hospitalized for LRTI during a period of 102 days and studied prospectively. We found a significant difference ( = . Read More

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Pembrolizumab-induced aseptic meningitis in a patient with non-small cell lung cancer: A case report and literature review of aseptic meningitis as an immune-related adverse event.

Mol Clin Oncol 2022 Jul 1;17(1):120. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine and Rheumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503, Japan.

Aseptic meningitis is a rare immune-related adverse event (irAE), which occurs during treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). This condition has non-specific symptoms and exhibits no clear signs on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There are only a few reports of aseptic meningitis caused by pembrolizumab treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Read More

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Evaluating Upadacitinib in the Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Active Ulcerative Colitis: Design, Development, and Potential Position in Therapy.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2022 17;16:1897-1913. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Gastroenterology and Endoscopy, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

Upadacitinib is a selective small molecule that inhibits Janus kinase (JAK) type 1. This molecule is administrated orally and is currently approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, atopic dermatitis, and psoriatic arthritis. Upadacitinib has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the induction and maintenance therapy of moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC) and is under investigation by the European Medicines Agency. Read More

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Influenza Virus Infections in Polarized Cells.

Viruses 2022 Jun 15;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

MU Center for Influenza and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.

In humans and other mammals, the respiratory tract is represented by a complex network of polarized epithelial cells, forming an apical surface facing the external environment and a basal surface attached to the basement layer. These cells are characterized by differential expression of proteins and glycans, which serve as receptors during influenza virus infection. Attachment between these host receptors and the viral surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) initiates the influenza virus life cycle. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load in the Pulmonary Compartment of Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients Correlates with Viral Serum Load and Fatal Outcomes.

Viruses 2022 Jun 14;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Helmholtz Center for Infection Research, Department of Viral Immunology, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany.

While SARS-CoV-2 detection in sputum and swabs from the upper respiratory tract has been used as a diagnostic tool, virus quantification showed poor correlation to disease outcome and thus, poor prognostic value. Although the pulmonary compartment represents a relevant site for viral load analysis, limited data exploring the lower respiratory tract is available, and its association to clinical outcomes is relatively unknown. Using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum samples, we quantified SARS-CoV-2 copy numbers in the pulmonary and systemic compartments of critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a COVID-19 referral hospital in Croatia during the second and third pandemic waves. Read More

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Gastrointestinal Involvement in SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Viruses 2022 May 30;14(6). Epub 2022 May 30.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi 60002, Taiwan.

SARS-CoV-2 has evolved into a virus that primarily results in mild or asymptomatic disease, making its transmission more challenging to control. In addition to the respiratory tract, SARS-CoV-2 also infects the digestive tract. Some gastrointestinal symptoms occur with or before respiratory symptoms in patients with COVID-19. Read More

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A Glycolipid α-GalCer Derivative, 7DW8-5 as a Novel Mucosal Adjuvant for the Split Inactivated Influenza Vaccine.

Viruses 2022 May 28;14(6). Epub 2022 May 28.

Department of Biopharmacy, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

Influenza virus infects the host and transmits through the respiratory tract (i.e., the mouth and nose); therefore, the development of intranasal influenza vaccines that mimic the natural infection, coupled with an efficient mucosal adjuvant, is an attractive alternative to current parenteral vaccines. Read More

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Execution and Design of an Anti HPIV-1 Vaccine with Multiple Epitopes Triggering Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses: An Immunoinformatic Approach.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 May 29;10(6). Epub 2022 May 29.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kota Bharu 16150, Malaysia.

Human Parainfluenza Virus (HPIV) Type-1, which is an anti-sense ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus belonging to the paramyxoviridae family, induces upper and lower respiratory tract infections. The infections caused by the HPIV Type-1 virus are usually confined to northwestern regions of America. HPIV-1 causes infections through the virulence of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein, which plays a key role in the attachment of the viral particle with the host's receptor cells. Read More

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-Got Worse by a Pandemic?

Pathogens 2022 Jun 14;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Albert Szent-Györgyi Health Center, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, H-6725 Szeged, Hungary.

The role of has been demonstrated in different nosocomial infections. An increasing number of publications have demonstrated its virulence in the respiratory tract, especially in the immunosuppressed patient population. The number of these patients has increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Infections in Cancer Patients.

Pathogens 2022 Jun 12;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University, IX Wieków Kielc 19A, 25-317 Kielce, Poland.

() is one of the most frequent opportunistic microorganisms causing infections in oncological patients, especially those with neutropenia. Through its ability to adapt to difficult environmental conditions and high intrinsic resistance to antibiotics, it successfully adapts and survives in the hospital environment, causing sporadic infections and outbreaks. It produces a variety of virulence factors that damage host cells, evade host immune responses, and permit colonization and infections of hospitalized patients, who usually develop blood stream, respiratory, urinary tract and skin infections. Read More

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A Systematic Review of the Influence of Bovine Colostrum Supplementation on Leaky Gut Syndrome in Athletes: Diagnostic Biomarkers and Future Directions.

Nutrients 2022 Jun 17;14(12). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Physical Culture in Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poznan University of Physical Education, Estkowskiego 13, 66-400 Gorzów Wielkopolski, Poland.

Background: Bovine colostrum (BC) contains a myriad of bioactive molecules that are renowned for possessing unique medicinal benefits in children and adults, and BC supplements are considered safe and cost-effective options to manage/prevent the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and gut-related problems in athletes. In this review, we will try to answer the question: How will BC supplementation ameliorate gut permeability problems among athletes?

Methods: Literature searches were performed using PRISMA guidance to identify studies assessing the influence of BC supplements on gut permeability. Studies were selected using four databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO, and a total number of 60 articles were retrieved by using appropriate keywords. Read More

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Current Opinion in LAIV: A Matter of Parent Virus Choice.

Authors:
Irina Kiseleva

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 19;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 19.

Institute of Experimental Medicine, 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia.

Influenza is still a frequent seasonal infection of the upper respiratory tract, which may have deadly consequences, especially for the elderly. This is in spite of the availability of vaccines suggested for persons above 65 years of age. Two types of conventional influenza vaccines are currently licensed for use-live attenuated and inactivated vaccines. Read More

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Allicin as a Volatile or Nebulisable Antimycotic for the Treatment of Pulmonary Mycoses: In Vitro Studies Using a Lung Flow Test Rig.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 14;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Plant Physiology, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany.

Fungal infections of the lung are an increasing problem worldwide and the search for novel therapeutic agents is a current challenge due to emerging resistance to current antimycotics. The volatile defence substance allicin is formed naturally by freshly injured garlic plants and exhibits broad antimicrobial potency. Chemically synthesised allicin was active against selected fungi upon direct contact and via the gas phase at comparable concentrations to the pharmaceutically used antimycotic amphotericin B. Read More

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Tendency in Pulmonary Aspergillosis Investigation during the COVID-19 Era: What Is Changing?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jun 9;19(12). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Hygiene Section, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy.

Aspergillosis is a disease caused by , and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is the most common invasive fungal infection leading to death in severely immuno-compromised patients. The literature reports co-infections in patients with COVID-19 (CAPA). Diagnosing CAPA clinically is complex since the symptoms are non-specific, and performing a bronchoscopy is difficult. Read More

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Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Pediatric Patients with Severe Neurological Impairments: Clinical Observations and Perspectives in a Palliative Care Unit.

Children (Basel) 2022 Jun 8;9(6). Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Paediatric Palliative Care Centre, Children's and Adolescents' Hospital, Witten/Herdecke University, 58448 Witten, Germany.

Pediatric palliative care (PPC) patients with a severe neurologic impairment (SNI) suffer considerable morbidity and increased mortality from lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). The indication and choice of antibiotic therapy for bacterial LRTIs are often challenging given the lack of evidence-based treatment recommendations for this vulnerable patient population. We conducted an observational study before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in an eight-bed pediatric palliative care inpatient unit. Read More

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Harnessing the Potential of Enzymes as Inhaled Therapeutics in Respiratory Tract Diseases: A Review of the Literature.

Biomedicines 2022 Jun 17;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Inspira Pharmaceuticals Limited, 27 Old Gloucester Street, London WC1N 3AX, UK.

Respiratory tract diseases (RTDs) are a global cause of mortality and affect patient well-being and quality of life. Specifically, there is a high unmet need concerning respiratory tract infections (RTIs) due to limitations of vaccines and increased antibiotic resistance. Enzyme therapeutics, and in particular plant-based enzymes, represent an underutilised resource in drug development warranting further attention. Read More

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Hospital-Wide Protocol Significantly Improved Appropriate Management of Patients with Bloodstream Infection.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2022 Jun 20;11(6). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

bloodstream infection (SA-BSI) causes morbidity and mortality. We established a management protocol for patients with SA-BSI aimed at improving quality of care and patient outcomes. A retrospective pre-post intervention study was conducted at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital from 1 October 2019 to 30 September 2020 in the pre-intervention period and from 1 November 2020 to 31 October 2021 in the post-intervention period. Read More

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Investigation of Bacterial Isolations and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Chronic Rhinitis in Cats.

Animals (Basel) 2022 Jun 17;12(12). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Companion Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, 50 Ngamwongwan Rd., Bangkok 10900, Thailand.

Chronic rhinitis is a quite common upper respiratory tract (URT) disease in cats. As a result of unclear etiology, frequently, multidrug-resistant bacteria are identified. This study investigated bacterial isolations and an antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) in chronic rhinitis in cats. Read More

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Podotimod in pediatric recurrent respiratory tract infections: a cost-utility analysis.

BMC Pulm Med 2022 Jun 23;22(1):244. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Research Group in Pharmacology and Toxicology "INFARTO", Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia.

Introduction: Despite the growing evidence on efficacy, few economic evaluations have evaluated the cost-utility of Pidotimod (PDT) supplementation to decrease the probability of recurrent respiratory tract infections in children. This study aimed to determine the cost-utility of PDT to reduce the incidence rate of recurrent respiratory tract infections in children.

Methods: A decision tree model was used to estimate the cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of PDT in a patient aged 1-6 with a history of recurrent respiratory tract infections. Read More

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A limited role for microbiological testing for childhood lower respiratory tract infections in primary care: managing diagnostic uncertainty by withholding antibiotics and watchful waiting.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Steinwiesstrasse 75, CH-8032 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

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[Utilizing Routine Health Insurance Data for Calculation of Disease Frequencies in the Project BURDEN 2020].

Gesundheitswesen 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Wissenschaftliches Institut der AOK (WIdO), Berlin, Germany.

Objective: The concept of disease burden enables a comprehensive analysis of the health status of a population. Key indicators are years of life lost due to mortality (YLL) and morbidity (years lived with disability, YLD), summarised in the DALY indicator (disability adjusted life years). These indicators are suitable for planning prevention, health care or provision of health services. Read More

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Codelivery of SARS-CoV-2 Prefusion-Spike Protein with CBLB502 by a Dual-Chambered Ferritin Nanocarrier Potentiates Systemic and Mucosal Immunity.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, 201058 Shanghai, China.

Thousands of breakthrough infections are confirmed after intramuscular (i.m.) injection of the approved vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Read More

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Spreading of Infection in a Pet Rabbit Breeding and Possible Implications on Healed Bunnies.

Vet Sci 2022 Jun 18;9(6). Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", S. P. Casamassima km 3, 70010 Valenzano, Italy.

The number of pets such as dogs, cats, rabbits, and parrots has increased in European families. Social benefits to owners such as decreasing feelings of loneliness and anxiety are provided by pets which are also used in Animal-assisted Therapy (AAT). Nevertheless, human-animal interactions are also associated with health problems including allergies, asthma, and zoonosis. Read More

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Flow Cytometric Analysis of Leukocyte Populations in the Lung Tissue of Dromedary Camels.

Vet Sci 2022 Jun 10;9(6). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Research Centre for Animal Production and Aquaculture, Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l'analisi dell'economia Agraria (CREA), Via Salaria, 31-Monterotondo, 00016 Rome, Italy.

Respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in dromedary camels, with a high impact on animal health, production, and welfare. Tissue-specific distribution of immune cells is one of the important factors that influence the nature and outcome of the immune response to pathogens. Several protocols have recently been described for the flow cytometric analysis of immune cells in the lung tissue of several species. Read More

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Anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) as a silent cause of mitral regurgitation in children.

Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi.

Anomalous left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), also known as Bland-White-Garland syndrome, is a rare cardiac disease. This condition may present with complications such as myocardial infarction, left ventricular dilatation, mitral regurgitation, and left heart failure in children. We report a case of a four-year-old boy who presented with shortness of breath, palpitations, and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. Read More

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