730 results match your criteria Undifferentiated Connective-Tissue Disease

VEGF Profile in Early Undifferentiated Arthritis Cohort.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Jun 20;58(6). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

The Clinic of Rheumatology, Traumatology Orthopaedics and Reconstructive Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, M. K. Čiurlionio str. 21, 03101 Vilnius, Lithuania.

Early undifferentiated arthritis (UA) is a group of inflammatory joint diseases that are not classified under any specific rheumatic or connective tissue disorder and might evolve into chronic inflammatory arthritis or may be a self-limiting condition. Early recognition and treatment are crucial for the future course of the disease. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic regulator that induces the growth of new capillary blood vessels, which are important in joint invasion and destruction during the progression of chronic inflammatory arthritis. Read More

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Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter and ozone and the onset of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases: an open cohort study in Quebec, Canada.

Arthritis Res Ther 2022 Jun 23;24(1):151. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Objectives: To estimate associations between fine particulate matter (PM) and ozone and the onset of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs).

Methods: An open cohort of over 6 million adults was constructed from provincial physician billing and hospitalization records between 2000 and 2013. We defined incident SARD cases (SLE, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, polyarteritis nodosa and related conditions, polymyalgia rheumatic, other necrotizing vasculopathies, and undifferentiated connective tissue disease) based on at least two relevant billing diagnostic codes (within 2 years, with at least 1 billing from a rheumatologist), or at least one relevant hospitalization diagnostic code. Read More

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The Efficacy and Safety of Pirfenidone Combined With Immunosuppressant Therapy in Connective Tissue Disease-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease: A 24-Week Prospective Controlled Cohort Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 12;9:871861. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Rheumatology, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Objective: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common manifestation of connective tissue disease (CTD) that manifests as several subtypes with significant differences in prognosis. It is necessary to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pirfenidone (PFD) combined with immunosuppressant (IS) in the treatment of CTD-ILD.

Methods: A total of 111 patients with CTD-ILD were enrolled, including those with systemic sclerosis (SSc), inflammatory myopathy (IIM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and other CTDs (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, primary Sjogren's syndrome, and undifferentiated CTD). Read More

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Machine learning identifies a common signature for anti-SSA/Ro60 antibody expression across autoimmune diseases.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2022 May 30. Epub 2022 May 30.

LBAI, UMR1227, Univ Brest, Inserm, Labex IGO, Brest, France.

Objectives: Anti-Ro autoantibodies are among the most frequently detected extractable nuclear antigen autoantibodies, mainly associated with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD). Is there a common signature to all patients expressing anti-Ro60 autoantibodies regardless of their disease phenotype?

Methods: Using high-throughput multi-omics data collected within the cross-sectional cohort from the PRECISESADS IMI project (genetic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, combined with flow cytometric data, multiplexed cytokines, classical serology and clinical data), we assessed by machine learning the integrated molecular profiling of 520 anti-Ro60-positive (anti-Ro60 ) compared to 511 anti-Ro60-negative (anti-Ro60 ) patients with pSS, SLE and UCTD, and 279 healthy controls (HCs).

Results: The selected features for RNA-Seq, DNA methylation and GWAS data allowed a clear separation between anti-Ro60 and anti-Ro60 patients. Read More

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Precursors to Systemic Sclerosis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: From Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease to the Development of Identifiable Connective Tissue Diseases.

Front Immunol 2022 5;13:869172. Epub 2022 May 5.

Division of Rheumatology, St. Joseph's Health Care, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

The pathogenesis of connective tissue diseases (CTDs), such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic sclerosis (SSc), is characterized by derangements of the innate and adaptive immune system, and inflammatory pathways leading to autoimmunity, chronic cytokine production, and chronic inflammation. The diagnosis of these diseases is based on meeting established criteria with symptoms, signs and autoantibodies. However, there are pre-clinical states where criteria are not fulfilled but biochemical and autoimmune derangements are present. Read More

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A Pilot Study Characterizing Flow Patterns in the Thoracic Aorta of Patients With Connective Tissue Disease: Comparison to Age- and Gender-Matched Controls Fluid Structure Interaction.

Front Pediatr 2022 4;10:772142. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Herma Heart Institute, Children's Wisconsin and the Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States.

Prior computational and imaging studies described changes in flow patterns for patients with Marfan syndrome, but studies are lacking for related populations. This pilot study addresses this void by characterizing wall shear stress (WSS) indices for patients with Loeys-Dietz and undifferentiated connective tissue diseases. Using aortic valve-based velocity profiles from magnetic resonance imaging as input to patient-specific fluid structure interaction (FSI) models, we determined local flow patterns throughout the aorta for four patients with various connective tissue diseases (Loeys-Dietz with the native aorta, connective tissue disease of unclear etiology with native aorta in female and male patients, and an untreated patient with Marfan syndrome, as well as twin patients with Marfan syndrome who underwent valve-sparing root replacement). Read More

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Nailfold capillaroscopy for the early diagnosis of the scleroderma spectrum of diseases in patients without Raynaud's phenomenon.

J Scleroderma Relat Disord 2022 Jun 21;7(2):144-150. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

Background: The utility of nailfold capillaroscopy in the evaluation of patients without Raynaud's phenomenon is unclear.

Objective: This study aims to compare the utility of nailfold capillaroscopy for the early diagnosis of the scleroderma-spectrum of diseases in patients who present with Raynaud's phenomenon, undifferentiated non-Raynaud's phenomenon features and positive systemic sclerosis-associated antibodies without scleroderma-spectrum of disease features.

Methods: Eligible patients were divided into three referral criteria groups: (I) Raynaud's phenomenon; (II) Undifferentiated non-Raynaud's phenomenon features and (III) Positive systemic sclerosis-associated autoantibodies without features to suggest scleroderma-spectrum of diseases. Read More

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Myocarditis on FDG-PET imaging.

Radiol Case Rep 2022 Jun 12;17(6):2120-2122. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, KS, USA.

Myocarditis is the inflammation of the heart muscle with various clinical presentations and etiology. In this case, we demonstrate the utility of Fluorodeoxyglucose PET scan in identifying its etiology. A 28-year-old female with a history of undifferentiated connective tissue disease and sacroiliitis referred to the cardiology clinic for palpitations. Read More

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Connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD) and interstitial lung abnormality (ILA): Evolving concept of CT findings, pathology and management.

Eur J Radiol Open 2022 7;9:100419. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Department of Radiology, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (SKKU-SOM), ChangWon, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea.

Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) demonstrating features of interstitial lung disease (ILD) include systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), Sjogren syndrome (SS), and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). On histopathology of lung biopsy in CTD-related ILDs (CTD-ILDs), multi-compartment involvement is an important clue, and when present, should bring CTD to the top of the list of etiologic differential diagnoses. Diverse histologic patterns including nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), organizing pneumonia, apical fibrosis, diffuse alveolar damage, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia can be seen on histology in patients with CTD-ILDs. Read More

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ASIA syndrome: Adverse reaction or autoimmunity?

JRSM Open 2022 Apr 4;13(4):20542704221086166. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Internal Medicine, Hospital Central do Funchal, Madeira Island, Portugal.

Introduction: Adjuvant-Induced Autoimmune / Auto-inflammatory Syndrome (ASIA) is an immune-mediated condition by the exposure of material previously considered inert, such as silicone, aluminum salts, mineral oils, hyaluronic acid and metallic implants. In addition to a genetic component, there is a risk of development of an undifferentiated connective tissue disease, which varies clinically and laboratorially depending on the adjuvant material used.

Patients And Methods: This paper addresses two cases reported, in caucasian subjects, born and residents in Madeira Island, Portugal. Read More

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Is axillary botulinum toxin efficient in controlling secondary Raynaud's phenomenon? A case report.

J Scleroderma Relat Disord 2021 Oct 29;6(3):327-329. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Wright-Patterson Medical Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, USA.

Raynaud's phenomenon when secondary to underlying systemic disease such as systemic sclerosis occurs early in the disease course and progression can bring significant morbidity such as pain, digital ulceration, and necrosis. Standard medical therapies are aimed at promoting distal arterial vasodilation but are often inadequate in managing Raynaud's phenomenon. Options for refractory cases include surgical and chemical sympathectomy with Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) hand injections but the latter can be associated with transient hand weakness. Read More

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October 2021

Capillaroscopic analysis of the microvascular status in mixed versus undifferentiated connective tissue disease.

Microvasc Res 2022 07 29;142:104367. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Laboratory of Experimental Rheumatology and Academic Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties (DiMI), University of Genova, IRCCS San Martino Polyclinic, Genoa, Italy. Electronic address:

Introduction: Raynaud phenomenon (RP), typically, precede the clinical onset of systemic manifestations in several connective tissue diseases (CTDs). These autoimmune disorders usually share a microvascular damage whose alterations can be detected by nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC). The aim of the study was to compare the NVC microvascular status in Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD) versus the Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD), and to search correlations between NVC findings and specific autoantibodies in UCTD patients. Read More

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Association of common variable immunodeficiency and rare and complex connective tissue and musculoskeletal diseases. A systematic literature review.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2022 May 28;40 Suppl 134(5):40-45. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Policlinic and Hiller Research Unit for Rheumatology, ERN-ReCONNET member, University Clinic Duesseldorf, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Germany.

Objectives: To perform a systematic literature review (SLR) on the association of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and rare and complex connective tissue and musculoskeletal diseases, namely systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM), systemic sclerosis (SSc), relapsing polychondritis, antiphospholipid syndrome, immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related disease, as well as undifferentiated and mixed connective tissue disease.

Methods: An SLR on studies and cases about the association of CVID and rare and complex connective tissue and musculoskeletal diseases was performed. Animal studies were excluded. Read More

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Wiad Lek 2022 ;75(2):344-350


Objective: The aim of the study was to discover the interrelation between the severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, acid exposure time (AET), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and the level of active blood plasma ghrelin in the patients with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD).

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: The study included 120 patients with GERD. All the patients were divided in two groups: Group I - GERD was not accompanied by the signs of connective tissue disease (n=45) and Group II - GERD developed on the background of UCTD syndrome (n=75). Read More

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Antigen Reactivity and Clinical Significance of Autoantibodies Directed Against the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Antigen Complex in Patients With Connective Tissue Disease.

Front Immunol 2022 28;13:822996. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) are the hallmark of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) but can be identified also in patients with connective tissue disease, namely, systemic sclerosis (SSc). Protein immunoprecipitation (IP) and IP-Western blot (WB) can be used to confirm AMA positivity directed at the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) subunits E1α, E1β, E2/E3, and E3BP in patients showing a cytoplasmic reticular pattern at indirect immunofluorescence when performed in a screening setting before the onset of overt cholestasis in rheumatic patients.

Patients And Methods: We studied sera from 285 patients affected by connective tissue disease [SSc, n = 144; dermato/polymyositis (DM/PM), n = 56; and undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD), n = 85] by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), protein-IP, and IP-WB to identify specific PDC subunits recognized by AMA. Read More

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Nailfold capillary scleroderma pattern may be associated with disease damage in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: important lessons from longitudinal follow-up.

Lupus Sci Med 2022 02;9(1)

Department of Pediatric Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious diseases, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam University Medical Centres, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To observe if capillary patterns in childhood-onset SLE (cSLE) change over time and find associations between a capillary scleroderma pattern with disease activity, damage or scleroderma-like features.

Methods: Clinical and (yearly) capillaroscopy data from a longitudinal cohort of patients with cSLE (minimum of four Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria, onset <18 years) were analysed. Disease activity was measured by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Activity Index (SLEDAI) and disease damage by SLICC Damage Index. Read More

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February 2022

Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease in Pregnancy: A Topic Yet to be Explored.

Front Pharmacol 2022 20;13:820760. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

High Risk Pregnancy Unit, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy.

Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is characterized by signs and symptoms suggestive of a connective tissue disease (CTD), but not fulfilling criteria for a specific CTD. Although UCTD is probably the most common rheumatic disease diagnosed in pregnant women, data about disease course during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes are very limited. Compared to other CTDs, UCTD seems to have milder clinical manifestations in pregnancy. Read More

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January 2022

Interstitial Lung Disease Is a Major Characteristic of Patients Who Test Positive for Anti-PM/Scl Antibody.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 18;8:778211. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Department of Rheumatology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: This study aimed to analyze the clinical features of anti-PM/Scl antibodies in Chinese patients.

Method: We reviewed the clinical data of anti-PM/Scl antibody-positive patients, including their long-term follow-up.

Results: A total of 30 patients carried anti-PM/Scl antibodies, 21 (70%) were females, and the mean age was 55. Read More

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January 2022

Performance of the systemic lupus erythematosus risk probability index in a cohort of undifferentiated connective tissue disease.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2022 Jan 7. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology Unit, 4th Department of Internal Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Objectives: We sought to evaluate the performance of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Risk Probability Index (SLERPI) for identification of SLE in a large cohort of patients with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD).

Methods: The SLERPI was applied in a cohort of patients who met classification criteria for UCTD and did not fulfill any classification criteria for other defined CTD including SLE. Patients with a SLERPI score of > 7 were "diagnosed" as SLE. Read More

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January 2022

[Analysis of associations of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia with the development of primary open-angle glaucoma. Clinical and genetic aspects].

Vestn Oftalmol 2021 ;137(6):74-80

Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Moscow, Russia.

Mutations and polymorphisms of the genes whose products are involved in the formation of extracellular matrix components can lead to the development of specific changes in the connective tissue of the eye in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Understanding the nature of connective tissue pathology and its manifestations at the system level contributes to the development of specific markers of early detection and a personalized approach to the prevention and treatment of POAG.

Purpose: To study the associations between systemic manifestations of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia (uCTD) and the development of POAG based on clinical and molecular genetic studies. Read More

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December 2021

Dense fine speckled immunofluorescence pattern in a Chinese population: Prevalence and clinical association.

J Clin Lab Anal 2022 Feb 24;36(2):e24173. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objective: To provide information on the prevalence and possible clinical association in a Chinese population for medical practice of the dense fine speckled pattern (DFS pattern).

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with patients who had the DFS pattern from June 2018 to December 2019 in West China Hospital.

Results: A total of 469 patients (1. Read More

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February 2022

Rheumatologic manifestations in a cohort of patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease.

Mod Rheumatol 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Rheumatology, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey.

Objectives: Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease (VKHD) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by granulomatous panuveitis. Inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs) are among the differential diagnosis of VKHD. However, current knowledge on the rheumatological aspects of VKHD is still limited. Read More

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September 2021

Comparing pregnancy outcomes in patients with criteria and non-criteria autoimmune disease: A systematic review.

Lupus 2022 Jan 6;31(1):5-18. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Rheumatology, 8964University College London Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Not all patients fulfil criteria for specific autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) and are then defined as having non-criteria (nc)ARD. It is uncertain whether well-recognised associations with adverse pregnancy outcomes in patients with criteria ARD also exist in patients with ncARD or undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD). Therefore, we undertook a systematic review of the prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes in various ncARD and UCTD compared with criteria ARD to identify whether there are increased risks and to examine for any benefits of treatment. Read More

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January 2022

Differentiating between UCTD and early-stage SLE: from definitions to clinical approach.

Nat Rev Rheumatol 2022 01 11;18(1):9-21. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rheumatology Unit, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with heterogeneous clinical manifestations that can potentially affect every organ and system. SLE is usually identified on the basis of clinical or serological manifestations; however, some individuals can present with signs and symptoms that are consistent with SLE but are not sufficient for a definite diagnosis. Disease in these individuals can either progress over time to definite SLE or remain stable, in which case their disease is often described as intermediate, possible or probable SLE. Read More

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January 2022

Fluorine-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography used in diagnosing connective tissue diseases in fever of unknown origin/inflammatory of unknown origin patients.

Clin Rheumatol 2022 Mar 21;41(3):839-846. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Emergency, Peking University People's Hospital, No.11 Xizhimen South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100044, China.

Objective: To explore the significance of Fluorine-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in diagnosing connective tissue diseases (CTDs) in fever of unknown origin (FUO) or inflammation of unknown origin (IUO) patients.

Methods: Clinical and image data of 242 consecutive FUO/IUO patients who underwent PET/CT examination and eventually diagnosed CTDs were retrospectively analyzed, including distribution of diseases, clinical characteristics, and PET/CT imaging findings. The role of FDG PET/CT in differential diagnosis of CTDs was evaluated through clinical questionnaire survey. Read More

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Unique serum immune phenotypes stratify Oklahoma Native American rheumatic disease patients.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2021 Oct 1. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Arthritis and Clinical Immunology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Objective: Native American (NA) populations have higher rates of rheumatic disease and present with overlapping disease symptoms and nontraditional serological features, thus presenting an urgent need for better biomarkers in NA diagnostics. This study utilized a machine-learning approach to identify immune signatures that more effectively stratify NA rheumatic disease patients.

Methods: Adult NA patients with autoantibody-positive (AAB+) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n=28), autoantibody negative (AAB-) RA (n=18), systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (n=28), arthralgia/osteoarthritis (n=28), polyarthritis/undifferentiated connective tissue disease (n=28), and controls (n=28) provided serum samples for cytokine, chemokine, and autoantibody assessment. Read More

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October 2021

UCTD and SLE patients show increased levels of oxidative and DNA damage together with an altered kinetics of DSB repair.

Mutagenesis 2021 11;36(6):429-436

Dipartimento di Biologia, Unità di Genetica, University of Pisa, Via Derna 1, 56126 Pisa, Italy.

Immunological tolerance is a critical feature of the immune system; its loss might lead to an abnormal response of lymphocytes causing autoimmune diseases. One of the most important groups belonging to autoimmune disorders is the connective tissue diseases (CTD). CTD are classified among systemic rheumatic diseases and include pathologies such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and undifferentiated CTD (UCTD). Read More

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November 2021

Lessons of the month 2: Meningococcal epiglottitis and connective tissue disease associated with C2 deficiency.

Clin Med (Lond) 2021 09;21(5):e539-e540

John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK

Case Presentation: A 68-year-old woman was referred for immunological investigation following an episode of meningococcal epiglottitis with associated septicaemia. Several years previously, she had been diagnosed with undifferentiated connective tissue disease. On investigation, alternative pathway complement function was normal; however, classical pathway complement activation was reduced. Read More

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September 2021

Differentiation of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis from rheumatologic and autoimmune diseases causing diffuse alveolar hemorrhage: establishing a diagnostic approach.

Clin Rheumatol 2022 Feb 7;41(2):325-336. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Næstved Hospital, University College Zealand, 4700, Næstved, Denmark.

This narrative review provides an overview of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) associated with rheumatologic and autoimmune diseases and their differentiation from idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH). Relevant immunologic diseases associated with DAH are discussed, and a diagnostic flowchart is proposed to establish a "definitive" diagnosis of IPH within the spectrum of DAH. IPH is a rare cause of recurrent DAH both in children and adults. Read More

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February 2022

Diagnosis of Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease in a Patient With Digital Gangrene and Positive Antinuclear Antibodies.

Cureus 2021 Jun 24;13(6):e15883. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, IND.

The occurrence of ischemia of the digits or digital gangrene is a well-known complication of systemic autoimmune diseases, such as systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and anti-phospholipid syndrome, among others. The pathophysiological mechanisms are small vessel vasculitis, vasospasm of Raynaud's phenomenon, microthrombi due to antiphospholipid syndrome, and/or accompanying accelerated atherosclerosis. Digital ischemia can also occur in the context of disseminated bacterial infections and sepsis. Read More

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