967 results match your criteria Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury


FEVER: The Flexed Elbow Valgus External Rotation View for MRI Evaluation of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament in Throwing Athletes-A Pilot Study in Major League Baseball Pitchers.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Touro University Nevada, Mountain View Hospital, Las Vegas, NV.

Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries are common in throwing athletes due to repetitive extreme valgus stress during overhead throwing maneuvers. Conventional positioning for elbow MRI provides suboptimal rendering of the UCL. To perform a prospective pilot study assessing the impact of a flexed elbow valgus external rotation (FEVER) view on ulnotrochlear (UT) joint space measurement and reader evaluation of the UCL when incorporated into standard elbow MRI in throwing athletes. Read More

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Increase in Use of Medial Ulnar Collateral Ligament Repair of the Elbow: A Large Database Analysis.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2021 Apr 15;3(2):e527-e533. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, U.S.A.

Purpose: To assess the current national rate of medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) repair of the elbow and delineate the patient demographics of those undergoing repair.

Methods: A retrospective review and analysis of a national private insurance database was conducted covering 2007-2017 using Pearl Diver technologies. All patients diagnosed with a MUCL injury and those who underwent repair were included using Clinical Modification and Current Procedural Terminology code 24345, referencing repair of the ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow with local tissue. Read More

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Pitch Break and Performance Metrics Remain Unchanged in Those who Returned to the Same Level of Play after Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Major League Baseball Pitchers.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The ulnar collateral ligament is commonly injured in overhead throwing athletes, particularly baseball pitchers. Pitch movement (break) is a critical aspect to pitching performance. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the changes in pitch velocity, pitch break, angle of break, and pitch performance metrics before and after ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. Read More

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Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction of the elbow at minimum 48-month mean follow-up demonstrates excellent clinical outcomes with low complication and revision rates: systematic review.

J ISAKOS 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sports Surgery Clinic, Dublin, Ireland.

Importance: Tears of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the elbow occur predominantly as an overuse injury, most commonly affecting throwing athletes, particularly baseball players. UCL reconstruction (UCLR) has been described as an effective treatment modality in the short term.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence in the literature to ascertain the clinical outcomes, complication and revision rates in baseball players following UCLR of the elbow at a minimum of 48 months of follow-up. Read More

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The ulnar collateral ligament loading paradox between in-vitro and in-vivo studies on baseball pitching (narrative review).

Int Biomech 2021 Dec;8(1):19-29

Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, CD Delft, The Netherlands.

Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) weakening or tears occur in 16% of professional baseball pitchers. To prevent players from sustaining a UCL injury, it is important to understand the relationship between the UCL properties and elbow stabilizers with the load on the UCL during pitching. In-vitro studies showed that the ultimate external valgus torque of 34 Nm would rupture the UCL, which is in apparent conflict with the reported peak valgus torques in pitching (40-120 Nm). Read More

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December 2021

Evaluation and management of elbow injuries in the adolescent overhead athlete.

SAGE Open Med 2021 22;9:20503121211003362. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Midwest Orthopaedics at Rush, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

With an increased interest in youth sports, the burden of overhead throwing elbow injuries accompanying early single-sport focus has steadily risen. During the overhead throwing motion, valgus torque can reach and surpass Newton meters (N m) during the late cocking and early acceleration phases, which exceeds the tensile strength (22.7-33 N m) of the ulnar collateral ligament. Read More

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Stener-like lesions in the hand, knee and foot: a review of anatomy, mechanism of injury and imaging evaluation.

Clin Imaging 2021 May 6;76:235-246. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Fleury Medicina e Saúde Higienópolis, Rua Mato Grosso 306, 1° Andar, Higienópolis, São Paulo, SP 01239-040, Brazil. Electronic address:

A Stener lesion is a displaced tear of the ulnar collateral ligament in the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb in which the adductor pollicis aponeurosis is positioned between the retracted ligament and the injury site, preventing natural healing. This lesion was first described in 1962, and since then, both radiologists and orthopedists have considered it important to treat surgically. Although this lesion was originally described in the thumb, this injury mechanism can occur in other joints of the hand, knee, and foot. Read More

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Postoperative Rehabilitation of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review.

Sports Med Arthrosc Rev 2021 Jun;29(2):e9-e17

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC.

The incidence of ulnar collateral ligament injuries has increased over the past few decades with greater participation in overhead throwing sports; however, optimal postoperative management following surgery remains unclear. This systematic review summarizes the latest evidence, on postoperative rehabilitation protocols for patients undergoing ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR). Studies published in the English language from the year 2000 to 2019 with a level 1 to 4 grade of evidence and examined rehabilitation protocols following UCLR were eligible for inclusion. Read More

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Collateral ligament sprains of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the long fingers: Results of a surgical series of 15 patients.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 May 2:102952. Epub 2021 May 2.

Institut Montpelliérain de la main et du membre supérieur, clinique Saint-Roch, 560, avenue du Colonel Pavelet, 34070 Montpellier, France.

Introduction: Collateral ligament sprains of the metacarpophalangeal joint (MP) of the long fingers are rare and mostly treated conservatively. Clinical examination to diagnose the severity of these injuries is mandatory. The purpose of our study is to report the results of 15 patients treated surgically. Read More

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[Extensor digitorum communis split approach combined with loop-plate technique for treatment of ulnar coronoid fracture in terrible triad of elbow].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;35(4):420-425

Department of Orthopaedic Trauma, Honghui Hospital Affiliated to Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Shaanxi, 710054, P.R.China.

Objective: To explore the effectivenesss of simple lateral extensor digitorum communis (EDC) split approach combined with loop-plate fixation in the treatment of ulnar coronoid fracture in terrible triad of elbow (TTE).

Methods: The clinical data of 60 patients with TTE who met the selection criteria between January 2015 and May 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 48 males and 12 females, aged from 18 to 60 years (mean, 37. Read More

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Nonsurgical Management of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev 2021 04 9;5(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

From the Department of Orthopedics, New York Presbyterian, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (Dr. Swindell, Dr. Trofa, Dr. Alexander, and Dr. Ahmad); the OrthoCarolina Sports Medicine Center, Charlotte, NC (Dr. Sonnenfeld and Dr. Saltzman); and the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Atrium Health Musculoskeletal Institute, Charlotte, NC (Dr. Saltzman).

Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries are a common source of pain and disability in the overhead athlete and often result in notable loss of time from competition. Over the past 10 to 15 years, the prevalence of UCL injury and reconstruction has undergone a dramatic increase, making it imperative to determine which patients may benefit from a nonsurgical regimen. Nonsurgical treatment involves a multidisciplinary approach of rehabilitation with tailored physical therapy programs and, in certain cases, biologic adjuncts. Read More

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Ulnar Collateral Ligament Laxity After Repetitive Pitching: Associated Factors in High School Baseball Pitchers.

Am J Sports Med 2021 05 8;49(6):1626-1633. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama, Japan.

Background: Medial elbow injury is common in baseball pitchers, with evidence of elbow valgus instability after only 60 consecutive pitches. However, the tissue-specific effects of repetitive pitching on medial elbow stabilizers are largely unknown.

Purpose/hypothesis: This study aimed to investigate changes in the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and forearm flexor-pronator muscles (FPMs) during repetitive pitching and factors that relate to identified change. Read More

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Rehabilitation Following Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction in Overhead-Throwing Athletes.

JBJS Rev 2021 04 5;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

USC Epstein Family Center for Sports Medicine at Keck Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California.

»: The prevalence of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury and UCL reconstruction (UCL-R) continues to rise, causing morbidity in overhead-throwing athletes.

»: Postoperative rehabilitation protocols are essential for proper healing of the reconstructed ligament and safely returning athletes to competition, yet there is no uniformly accepted standard of care.

»: UCL-R rehabilitation has traditionally been guided by expert opinion and conventional wisdom rather than scientific studies, resulting in substantial variability in rehabilitation practices, time to return to play, and outcomes. Read More

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Return to Play After Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection for Elbow UCL Injury: Outcomes Based on Injury Severity.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Mar 17;9(3):2325967121991135. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Naples Orthopedic & Sports Medicine, Naples, Florida, USA.

Background: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries of the elbow are uncommon in the general population but prevalent in the athletic community, particularly among baseball players. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection therapy has become a popular nonoperative adjuvant treatment for such injuries to help reduce recovery time and avoid surgery.

Purpose/hypothesis: To analyze patient outcomes by injury severity and identify injury types that responded most favorably and unfavorably to PRP treatment. Read More

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Forearm flexor injury is associated with medial ulnar collateral ligament injury in throwing athletes.

PM R 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Background: Elbow ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries have become increasingly common in throwing athletes. The forearm flexors (FF) have been studied as biomechanical stabilizers for the medial elbow. However, there are no studies investigating the association of concomitant UCL injuries and FF injuries in throwing athletes. Read More

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Return-to-Play Outcomes in Professional Baseball Players After Nonoperative Treatment of Incomplete Medial Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries: A Long-Term Follow-up Study.

Am J Sports Med 2021 04 15;49(5):1137-1144. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

UCHealth Steadman Hawkins Clinic-Denver, Englewood, Colorado, USA.

Background: Medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries are common among baseball players. There is sparse literature on long-term results after nonoperative treatment of UCL injuries in professional baseball players.

Purpose: The primary purpose was to assess long-term follow-up on reinjury rates, performance metrics, rate of return to the same level of play or higher (RTP), and ability to advance to the next level of play in professional baseball players after nonoperative treatment of incomplete UCL injuries. Read More

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Effect of the medial collateral ligament and the lateral ulnar collateral ligament injury on elbow stability: a finite element analysis.

Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin 2021 Mar 14:1-13. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Chinese Education Ministry, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, No.37, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China.

Ligaments are the most important stabilizer of elbow. However, the stress of ligaments is hard to measure because of the complex biomechanical environment in the elbow. Our objective was to develop a human elbow finite element model and to validate it by a comparison with previous experimental data. Read More

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Return to play rates after ulnar nerve transposition and decompression surgery: a retrospective analysis.

JSES Int 2021 Mar 9;5(2):296-301. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Rothman Orthopaedic Institute at the Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Medial elbow pain is a common complaint in overhead throwing athletes. The throwing motion places repetitive tensile and compressive forces on the elbow resulting in significant stress across the ulnohumeral joint. This stress can result in soft-tissue, ligamentous, and ulnar nerve injury. Read More

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Risk factors for throwing elbow injuries during pitching analyzed by simulation using human musculoskeletal model in youth baseball pitchers.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Jun 3;30(6):1309-1315. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital, Yokohama, Japan.

Background: Pitching mechanics are believed to be risk factors for throwing elbow injury. Thus, a prospective study of abnormal mechanics in youth baseball players is needed. This study aimed to analyze the ulnar collateral ligament during normal pitching using SIMM (Software for Interactive Musculoskeletal Modeling) for analysis and investigate the risk parameters of throwing elbow injuries in youth baseball players. Read More

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The Effects of Differences in the Morphologies of the Ulnar Collateral Ligament and Common Tendon of the Flexor-Pronator Muscles on Elbow Valgus Braking Function: A Simulation Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 18;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Anatomy, School of Life Dentistry at Niigata, Nippon Dental University, Niigata 951-8151, Japan.

The anterior bundle (AB) and posterior bundle (PB) of the ulnar collateral ligament and the anterior common tendon (ACT) and posterior common tendon (PCT) of the flexor-pronator muscles have an independent form and an unclear form. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of differences in the morphologies of the AB, PB, ACT, and PCT on the elbow valgus braking function. This investigation examined three elbows. Read More

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February 2021

[Extensor tendon injuries of the thumb].

Unfallchirurg 2021 Apr 3;124(4):287-293. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Klinik für Unfall‑, Hand- und Wiederherstellungschirurgie, Universitätsklinikum Jena, Am Klinikum 1, 07747, Jena, Deutschland.

Extensor tendon injuries of the thumb include lesions of the tendons of the extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis longus muscles. The latter is practically only affected in open injuries. Open injuries require a tendon reconstruction by suture followed by immobilization in the distal and an adequate aftercare depending on the zone of injury. Read More

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Effect of Younger Starting Pitching Age on Humeral Retrotorsion in Baseball Pitchers With an Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury.

Am J Sports Med 2021 04 1;49(5):1160-1165. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Texas Health Sports Medicine, Fort Worth, Texas, USA.

Background: Increased humeral retrotorsion (HRT) has been found to be a risk factor for ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears in baseball players. Recent work has demonstrated the age of 11 years as a potential watershed age for HRT development.

Hypothesis: In a group of baseball pitchers with UCL injuries, athletes who started pitching before the age of 10 years will demonstrate significantly more dominant limb humeral retrotorsion (DHRT) when compared with a group of baseball pitchers who reported starting pitching at 10 years or older. Read More

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Investigation of ligament, bone, synovial and plica pathologies accompanied by common extensor tendon in patients with lateral overuse syndrome of the elbow using magnetic resonance imaging.

Acta Radiol 2021 Feb 25:284185121990797. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Radiology, Izmir Katip Celebi University Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

Background: Tendinosis in the common extensor tendon and accompanying ligament, bone, and plica abnormalities can be observed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Purpose: To determine whether there is a difference between accompanying abnormalities according to the degree of common extensor tendon injury.

Material And Methods: Patients who underwent 1. Read More

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February 2021

Clinical Outcomes and Return to Play in Youth Overhead Athletes After Medial Epicondyle Fractures Treated With Open Reduction and Internal Fixation.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Feb 9;9(2):2325967120976573. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

American Sports Medicine Institute, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Background: There is limited literature regarding outcomes after operative treatment of displaced medial epicondyle avulsion fractures in adolescent athletes. Most studies have had a relatively small sample size and have not assessed return to play of the overhead athlete.

Purpose: To examine return to play and outcomes of youth overhead athletes who underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with screw fixation. Read More

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February 2021

Risk Factors of Elbow Stiffness After Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of the Terrible Triad of the Elbow Joint.

Orthop Surg 2021 Apr 22;13(2):530-536. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hong Hui Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Objective: To analyze the risk factors of elbow stiffness following open reduction and internal fixation of the terrible triad of the elbow joint.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of 100 patients with the terrible triad of the elbow joint, who had been treated at our hospital from January 2015 to December 2018. All patients were treated with a loop plate to repair the ulnar coronoid process. Read More

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Pronation and palmar pinch improve the stability of the medial elbow joint space in high school baseball pitchers.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Feb 7. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan.

Hypothesis: We aimed to investigate the contributions of grip, pronation, and pinch to stabilization of the medial elbow joint space; examine their relationship with muscle strength; and assess the effect of stabilization on the medial elbow joint space in baseball pitchers.

Methods: In this controlled laboratory study, we measured the medial elbow joint space using ultrasound during the following conditions: unloading; loading; and loading with grip, pronation, and pinch. To evaluate changes in the medial elbow joint space as a result of various conditions, 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc analysis for multiple comparisons were performed. Read More

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February 2021

Negative Pressure Wound Therapy With Instillation and Dwell Time Used to Treat a Complex Open (Terrible Triad) Injury of the Elbow: A Case Report.

Wounds 2020 Dec;32(12):E126-E129

Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Trauma, Regional Hospital of Orleans, Orleans, France.

Introduction: Treating a complex elbow injury known as the terrible triad, combined with a severe soft tissue trauma, is challenging for most orthopedic surgeons and can lead to permanent disabilities and poor functional outcomes if reconstruction is inadequate.

Case Report: A 75-year-old male with a history of high blood pressure was injured in an accident involving agricultural equipment and presented with a triad injury of the left elbow: a posterolateral dislocation combined with fractures of the radial head (Mason-Johnson Type II) and ulnar coronoid process (Morrey Type 1). Fractures to the radial head and ulnar coronoid process and injuries to the lateral collateral ligament and triceps tendon were repaired, and a local skin flap was preserved to provide adequate soft tissue coverage. Read More

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December 2020