6,932 results match your criteria Typhus

Aglow: A Fluorescence Assay and Machine Learning Model to Identify Inhibitors of Intracellular Infection.

ACS Infect Dis 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Medicine, and the Ruy V. Lourenco Center for the Study of Emerging and Reemerging Pathogens, Rutgers University - New Jersey Medical School, Medical Sciences Building, 185 South Orange Avenue, Newark, New Jersey 07103, United States.

is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria that has for centuries caused large-scale morbidity and mortality. In recent years, the resurgence of rickettsial diseases as a major cause of pyrexias of unknown origin, bioterrorism concerns, vector movement, and concerns over drug resistance is driving a need to identify novel treatments for these obligate intracellular bacteria. Utilizing an uvGFP plasmid reporter, we developed a screen for identifying anti-rickettsial small molecule inhibitors using as a model organism. Read More

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The obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi differentiates into a developmentally distinct extracellular state.

Nat Commun 2022 Jun 23;13(1):3603. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Public Health Research Institute, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA.

Orientia tsutsugamushi (Ot) is an obligate intracellular bacterium in the family Rickettsiaceae that causes scrub typhus, a severe mite-borne human disease. Its mechanism of cell exit is unusual amongst Rickettsiaceae, as Ot buds off the surface of infected cells enveloped in plasma membrane. Here, we show that Ot bacteria that have budded out of host cells are in a distinct developmental stage compared with intracellular bacteria. Read More

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Systematic Surveillance of Rickettsial Diseases in 27 Hospitals from 26 Provinces throughout Vietnam.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2022 May 31;7(6). Epub 2022 May 31.

Viral and Rickettsial Diseases Department, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA.

In Vietnam, the public health burden of rickettsial infections continues to be underestimated due to knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of these diseases. We conducted a systematic study among 27 hospitals from 26 provinces in eight ecological regions throughout Vietnam to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and clinical characteristics of rickettsial diseases. We recruited 1834 patients in the study from April 2018 to October 2019. Read More

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Neurological Manifestations of Scrub Typhus.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Neurology, Vivekananda Institute of Medical Science, Kolkata, India.

Purpose Of Review: The occurrence of cases of scrub typhus is on the rise in South Asian and Southeast Asian countries. The present review discusses neurological complications following scrub typhus to appraise clinicians practicing in endemic regions about considering this treatable disease in the differential diagnosis of acute febrile illnesses, especially when accompanied with clinical neurological features.

Recent Findings: While the association of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, and meningoencephalitis with scrub typhus is well known, more recently described neurological syndromes associated with scrub typhus include acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, various cranial nerve palsies, cerebellitis, cerebrovascular diseases including cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, transverse myelitis, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, parkinsonism, and many more. Read More

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OtDUB from the Human Pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi Modulates Host Membrane Trafficking by Multiple Mechanisms.

Mol Cell Biol 2022 Jun 21:e0007122. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale Universitygrid.47100.32, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Host cell membrane-trafficking pathways are often manipulated by bacterial pathogens to gain cell entry, avoid immune responses, or to obtain nutrients. The 1,369-residue OtDUB protein from the obligate intracellular human pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi bears a deubiquitylase (DUB) and additional domains. Here we show that OtDUB ectopic expression disrupts membrane trafficking through multiple mechanisms. Read More

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The efficacy and tolerability of antibiotics in scrub typhus: An updated network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Int J Infect Dis 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Program in Translational Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City, Taiwan; Rong Hsing Research Center For Translational Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City, Taiwan; Department of Internal Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Inadequate treatment of scrub typhus results in severe complications such as septic shock and is also associated with a high median mortality rate of 6%. However, there has been no conclusive evidence about the superiority of different antibiotics in managing scrub typhus in terms of efficacy and tolerability.

Methods: The current network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted using the frequentist method. Read More

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Scrub Typhus and COVID-19 Coinfection Unmasking Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome.

Cureus 2022 May 15;14(5):e25008. Epub 2022 May 15.

General Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry, IND.

Scrub typhus is an acute febrile disease caused by with a clinical course varying from mild to fatal. Vascular thrombosis is rare in scrub typhus. There is an increased risk of thrombotic events in Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Read More

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A review of public health important fleas (Insecta, Siphonaptera) and flea-borne diseases in India.

J Vector Borne Dis 2022 Jan-Mar;59(1):12-21

ICMR-Vector Control Research Centre Field Station, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Fleas (Insecta, Siphonaptera) are important vectors of plague and murine typhus in many parts of the world. Currently, about 2700 flea species were described in the world. The most common vector flea Xenopsylla cheopis is found throughout India, but X. Read More

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Is vertical transmission the only pathway for Rickettsia felis?

Transbound Emerg Dis 2022 Jun 14. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

C.A. Salud Animal y Microbiología Ambiental, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Santiago de Querétaro, Mexico.

The genus Rickettsia encompasses several species grouped into two main clusters, Typhus and the Transitional groups. The latter group contains Rickettsia felis, an endosymbiont of several arthropods with an uncertain human pathogenicity and whose most efficient transmission mechanism described thus far is transovarial. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether this pathway exists using phylogenetic analysis and partial sequences of the 17kDa and gltA genes and comparing them with host phylogeny using the cytb region. Read More

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Murine typhus complicated by sHLH mimicking adult-onset Still's disease.

Rev Med Interne 2022 Jun 10. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Lyon Croix-Rousse, Claude-Bernard University - Lyon 1, Lyon, France; University Claude-Bernard Lyon 1, Research on Healthcare Performance (RESHAPE), INSERM U1290, Lyon, France.

Introduction: Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare multisystemic disorder and a diagnostic challenge for physicians because of the wide range of differential diagnoses. Common features of AOSD and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) could favour diagnostic uncertainty, in particular in case of infection-related sHLH.

Observation: A 61-year-old man was admitted to our internal medicine department for suspected AOSD. Read More

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Scrub Typhus for the Neurologist: Forget Me Not.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2022 Mar-Apr;25(2):187-188. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Department of Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India.

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Scrub Typhus Presenting as Unilateral Abducens Nerve Palsy: A Case Report.

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2022 Jun 1;60(250):573-576. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, College of Medical Sciences, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal.

Abducens nerve palsies associated with infectious diseases are rare. Scrub typhus is an acute, febrile, infectious illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi carried out by vector mite zoonosis and is highly endemic in the so-called "tsutsugamushi triangle". The organism has been reported to be capable of entering the nervous system, causing meningitis and focal neurologic abnormalities. Read More

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Infectious causes of acute encephalitis syndrome hospitalizations in Central India, 2018-20.

J Clin Virol 2022 May 28;153:105194. Epub 2022 May 28.

Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, Telangana, India.

Background: We enhanced surveillance of hospitalizations of all ages for acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) along with infectious aetiologies, including the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV).

Methods: From October 2018 to September 2020, we screened neurological patients for AES in all age groups in Maharashtra and Telangana States. AES cases were enrolled at study hospitals along with other referrals and sampled with cerebrospinal fluid, acute and convalescent sera. Read More

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Scrub Typhus Co-Infections in a Young Boy With Varicella and Malaria: A Rare Case Report.

Cureus 2022 May 4;14(5):e24723. Epub 2022 May 4.

Clinical Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Gorakhpur, Gorakhpur, IND.

Scrub typhus is one of the leading causes of acute febrile illness of unknown origin in India. Though several co-infections of other vector-borne diseases have been described in the literature, few such cases have been described in children. As such, it is challenging to diagnose scrub typhus alone and becomes that more complicated when a varicella infection precedes it. Read More

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Genetic typing of isolates of Rickettsia typhi.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 05 31;16(5):e0010354. Epub 2022 May 31.

Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Murine typhus, which is caused by Rickettsia typhi, has a wide range of clinical manifestations. It has a low mortality rate but may result in meningoencephalitis and interstitial pneumonia in severe cases. Comparisons of complete genome sequences of R. Read More

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Development of a Scoring System to Differentiate Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome from Scrub Typhus.

Viruses 2022 05 19;14(5). Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea.

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and scrub typhus are disorders with similar clinical features; therefore, differentiating between them is difficult. We retrospectively collected data from 183 SFTS and 178 scrub typhus patients and validated an existing scoring system to develop a more sensitive, specific, and objective scoring system. We first applied the scoring systems proposed by Kim et al. Read More

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Vaccination against Bacterial Infections: Challenges, Progress, and New Approaches with a Focus on Intracellular Bacteria.

Anke Osterloh

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 May 10;10(5). Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Infection Immunology, Research Center Borstel, Parkallee 22, 23845 Borstel, Germany.

Many bacterial infections are major health problems worldwide, and treatment of many of these infectious diseases is becoming increasingly difficult due to the development of antibiotic resistance, which is a major threat. Prophylactic vaccines against these bacterial pathogens are urgently needed. This is also true for bacterial infections that are still neglected, even though they affect a large part of the world's population, especially under poor hygienic conditions. Read More

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A Murine Model of Waning Scrub Typhus Cross-Protection between Heterologous Strains of .

Pathogens 2022 Apr 26;11(5). Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Pathology, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Center for Tropical Diseases, Sealy Institute for Vaccine Development, Institute of Human Infections and Immunity, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.

, the etiologic agent of the life-threatening febrile disease scrub typhus, is an obligately intracellular small coccobacillary bacterium belonging to the family Rickettsiaceae and is transmitted by the parasitic larval stage of trombiculid mites. Progress towards a vaccine for protection against scrub typhus has been impeded by characteristics of the pathogen and the infection. There are numerous strains of in the Asia-Pacific region with geographical overlap. Read More

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Congenital Hydrocephalus and Associated Risk Factors: An Institution-Based Case-Control Study, Dessie Town, North East Ethiopia.

Pediatric Health Med Ther 2022 11;13:175-182. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Radiography, Dessie Health Science College, Dessie, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Congenital hydrocephalus is one of the commonest congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. It is characterized by extensive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain due to an imbalance between synthesis and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid. This study was planned to investigate the incidence and associated risk factors of congenital hydrocephalus. Read More

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Murine Typhus Induced Myocarditis.

Am J Med 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX. Electronic address:

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Development of a New Genus-Specific Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay for the Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus in South America.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 27;9:831045. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc., Bethesda, MD, United States.

Scrub typhus is a potentially severe rickettsiosis, caused by in the Asia-Pacific region. Recently, however, two distinct pathogens, " Orientia chuto" and " Orientia chiloensis", have been discovered in the Middle East and South America, respectively. Since the novel pathogens differ significantly from , many established diagnostic methods are unreliable. Read More

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Evaluation of the Therapeutic Effect of Antibiotics on Scrub Typhus: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

Front Public Health 2022 27;10:883945. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: To explore the efficacy and safety of drugs in patients with scrub typhus.

Methods: For this systematic review and network meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang data (WF) up to December 2021. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antibiotics used to treat scrub typhus were included without language or date restrictions. Read More

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Unusual Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Scrub Typhus Encephalitis.

Neurol India 2022 Mar-Apr;70(2):760-763

Department of Radiodiagnosis, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, India.

Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The diagnosis of scrub typhus relies on the patient's history of exposure, clinical manifestations, and results of serological tests. Our patient had a history of altered sensorium, inability to walk, and macular rashes predominantly distributed over the chest and bilateral upper limbs. Read More

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Molecular detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi strains circulating in Nagaland.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Division of Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.

The antigenic heterogeneity of Orientia in India is still unknown in many disease endemic areas. The present study aims to characterize the strains of O. tsutsugamushi circulating in Nagaland, Northeast India. Read More

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Simple clinical and laboratory predictors to improve empirical treatment strategies in areas of high scrub typhus and dengue endemicity, central Vietnam.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 05 4;16(5):e0010281. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Medicine, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Dengue fever is highly endemic in Vietnam, but scrub typhus-although recognized as an endemic disease-remains underappreciated. These diseases together are likely to account for more than half of the acute undifferentiated fever burden in Vietnam. Scrub typhus (ST) is a bacterial disease requiring antimicrobial treatment, while dengue fever (DF) is of viral etiology and does not. Read More

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Molecular epidemiology of scrub typhus in Taiwan during 2006-2016.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 04 29;16(4):e0010369. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Center for Diagnostics and Vaccine Development, Centers for Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Scrub typhus is the most common endemic vector-borne disease in Taiwan. We identified a total of 4,857 laboratory-confirmed cases during 2006-2016 with hyperendemic foci on offshore islands, including Penghu (778 cases, 16.0%) and Kinmen (716 cases, 14. Read More

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Clinical characteristics and risk factors for severe scrub typhus in pediatric and elderly patients.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 04 29;16(4):e0010357. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, China.

Background: Scrub typhus (ST) is a life-threatening infectious disease if appropriate treatment is unavailable. Large discrepancy of clinical severity of ST patients was reported among age groups, and the underlying risk factors for severe disease are unclear.

Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data of ST patients were collected in 55 surveillance hospitals located in Guangzhou City, China, from 2012 to 2018. Read More

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Distinct Role of TNFR1 and TNFR2 in Protective Immunity Against Infection in Mice.

Front Immunol 2022 11;13:867924. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, United States.

Infection with , an obligate intracellular bacterium, can cause mild or severe scrub typhus. Some patients develop acute lung injury, multi-organ failure, and fatal infection; however, little is known regarding key immune mediators that mediate infection control or disease pathogenesis. Using murine models of scrub typhus, we demonstrated in this study the requirement of TNF-TNFR signaling in protective immunity against this infection. Read More

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Delayed correlation between the incidence rate of indigenous murine typhus in humans and the seropositive rate of Rickettsia typhi infection in small mammals in Taiwan from 2007-2019.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 04 25;16(4):e0010394. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Center for Diagnostics and Vaccine Development, Centers for Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taipei, Taiwan.

Murine typhus is a flea-borne zoonotic disease with acute febrile illness caused by Rickettsia typhi and is distributed widely throughout the world, particularly in port cities and coastal regions. We observed that murine typhus was an endemic disease (number of annual indigenous cases = 29.23±8. Read More

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Dengue infection with warning signs: The 2019 epidemic.

Med J Armed Forces India 2022 Apr 27;78(2):140-146. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Resident (Internal Medicine), 7 Air Force Hospital, Kanpur Cantt, UP, India.

Background: Dengue is a common arthropod-borne viral disease with a variable clinical spectrum, course, and outcome.

Method: We conducted a prospective observational study describing the clinical profile of patients hospitalized for dengue with warning signs during the 2019 epidemic.

Result: A total of 1349 patients with dengue, including 459 with warning signs, were seen. Read More

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