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    The genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi, identified in scrub typhus patients in northern Vietnam.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2017 May 22:1-3. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: There are an estimated one million patients with scrub typhus in the Asia-Pacific region. There are few reports describing the incidence of scrub typhus in Vietnam.

    Methods: Blood samples collected from 63 patients clinically diagnosed as having scrub typhus from July 2015 to September 2016 were subjected to genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi. Read More

    Evidence of infection with Leptospira interrogans and spotted fever group rickettsiae among rodents in an urban area of Osaka City, Japan.
    J Vet Med Sci 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Department of Microbiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine.
    We examined 33 rodents captured in an urban area of Osaka City, Japan for IgG antibodies against Seoul virus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, hepatitis E virus, Leptospira interrogans, Yersinia pestis, spotted fever, typhus and scrub typhus group rickettsiae. We found that 3 (9.1%) and 1 (3. Read More

    Seroprevalence of Scrub Typhus, Typhus, and Spotted Fever Among Rural and Urban Populations of Northern Vietnam.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 May;96(5):1084-1087
    Center for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    AbstractRickettsial infections are recognized as important causes of fever throughout southeast Asia. Herein, we determined the seroprevalence to rickettsioses within rural and urban populations of northern Vietnam. Prevalence of individuals with evidence of prior rickettsial infections (IgG positive) was surprisingly low, with 9. Read More

    Fatal Flea-Borne Typhus in Texas: A Retrospective Case Series, 1985-2015.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 May;96(5):1088-1093
    Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    AbstractFlea-borne (murine) typhus is a global rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia typhi. Although flea-borne typhus is no longer nationally notifiable, cases are reported for surveillance purposes in a few U.S. Read More

    Scrub typhus in Uttarakhand & adjoining Uttar Pradesh: Seasonality, clinical presentations & predictors of mortality.
    Indian J Med Res 2016 Dec;144(6):901-909
    Department of Medicine, Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun, India.
    Background & Objectives: Scrub typhus is a re-emerging mite-borne rickettsiosis, which continues to be underdiagnosed, with lethal consequences. The present study was conducted to determine the seasonality, clinical presentation and predictors of mortality in patients with scrub typhus at a tertiary care teaching hospital in northern India.

    Methods: Scrub typhus was suspected in patients attending the hospital as per the standard case definition and serological evidence was obtained by performing an IgM ELISA. Read More

    Abundance & distribution of trombiculid mites & Orientia tsutsugamushi, the vectors & pathogen of scrub typhus in rodents & shrews collected from Puducherry & Tamil Nadu, India.
    Indian J Med Res 2016 Dec;144(6):893-900
    ICMR-Vector Control Research Centre, Puducherry, India.
    Background & Objectives: Human cases of scrub typhus are reported every year from Puducherry and adjoining areas in southern India. However, information on the presence of causative agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi, and its vectors is lacking. Hence, the objective of the study was to find out the vector as well as pathogen distribution in rodents and shrews present in the scrub typhus-reported areas in southern India. Read More

    Severe Murine Typhus Presenting with Acalculous Cholecystitis: A Case Report and Literature Review.
    Case Rep Med 2017 4;2017:3769074. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Internal Medicine Department, Infectious Diseases Unit, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
    A 54-year-old otherwise healthy male, who was being evaluated for prolonged fever, developed clinical and ultrasonographic signs compatible with acute acalculous cholecystitis. Diagnosis of murine typhus was confirmed by serology and the patient was treated with doxycycline. He improved rapidly and all clinical and laboratory abnormalities returned to normal. Read More

    [Brief history of the First Hospital of Harbin City (1913-2013)].
    Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi 2017 Mar;47(2):87-90
    Department of Medical History, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150086, China.
    In 1913, after the Russian Prostitutes Sanatorium of Harbin Eastern Railway was received by the board of directors, they established the "Harbin City Board Hospital" and funded its expansion. In March 1926, the provisional Committee of the Harbin autonomous renamed the "City Board of First Hospital" to "The Public Hospital" . In November 1926, "The Public Hospital" was renamed as "Harbin Special Municipal Hospital" by the Harbin City Council and further funds were invested in its construction. Read More

    Effects of clarithromycin treatment in scrub typhus in children: comparison with chloramphenicol and azithromycin.
    Korean J Pediatr 2017 Apr 25;60(4):124-127. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Department of Pediatrics, Chonbuk National University Children's Hospital, Jeonju, Korea.
    Purpose: Chloramphenicol and tetracycline are not recommended for treating scrub typhus in pediatric patients because of potential side effects, such as aplastic anemia or tooth discoloration. While clarithromycin has recently been used in adults, few reports have been published on its effects in pediatric patients. We report the clinical profiles of pediatric scrub typhus and the effects of clarithromycin on scrub typhus in children. Read More

    Rickettsiae as Emerging Infectious Agents.
    Clin Lab Med 2017 Jun;37(2):383-400
    Department of Pathology, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Keiller Building, Galveston, TX 77555-0609, USA. Electronic address:
    With advances in molecular genetics, more pathogenic rickettsial species have been identified. Pathogenic rickettsiae are transmitted by vectors, such as arthropods, into the patient's skin and then spread into the microvascular endothelial cells. Clinical manifestations are characterized by fever with headache and myalgias, followed by rash 3 to 5 days later. Read More

    Clinical manifestations of scrub typhus.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2017 Feb;111(2):43-54
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, 25, Kynsey Road, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka.
    The mite-borne rickettsial zoonosis scrub typhus is widely prevalent in parts of Southeast and Far East Asia, and northern Australia. The disease is an acute febrile illness, associated with rash and often an eschar, which responds dramatically to treatment with antibiotics. In some cases it results in a serious illness leading to multiple organ involvement and death. Read More

    Clinical significance of NGAL and KIM-1 for acute kidney injury in patients with scrub typhus.
    PLoS One 2017 18;12(4):e0175890. Epub 2017 Apr 18.
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Korea.
    Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) for acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with scrub typhus.

    Methods: From 2014 to 2015, 145 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus. Of these, we enrolled 138 patients who were followed up until renal recovery or for at least 3 months. Read More

    Nitric oxide enhanced the growth of an obligated intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi in murine macrophages.
    Microb Pathog 2017 Jun 12;107:335-340. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Department of Virology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan.
    Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus. It is an obligate intracellular bacterium that grows only in eukaryotic cells. Macrophages play an important role in innate immunity by surveilling the human body for pathogens. Read More

    Clinical Profile and Complications of Scrub Typhus: Hospital-Based Study in Sub-Himalayan Region.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2016 Dec;64(12):30-34
    Senior Resident, Department of Medicine, IGMC Shimla, Himachal Pradesh.
    Background: Scrub typhus is a documented disease in Himachal Pradesh, but there have been no clinico-epidemiological studies in this area. The present study is done with IgM ELISA as a diagnostic test which has higher sensitivity and specificity as most of previous studies had used Weil Felix test as a diagnostic test.

    Methodology: This was a prospective observational study. Read More

    Preparing for biological threats: Addressing the needs of pregnant women.
    Birth Defects Res 2017 Mar;109(5):391-398
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Intentional release of infectious agents and biological weapons to cause illness and death has the potential to greatly impact pregnant women and their fetuses. We review what is known about the maternal and fetal effects of seven biological threats: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola virus (smallpox); Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism); Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); and Rickettsia prowazekii (typhus). Evaluating the potential maternal, fetal, and infant consequences of an intentional release of an infectious agent requires an assessment of several key issues: (1) are pregnant women more susceptible to infection or illness compared to the general population?; (2) are pregnant women at increased risk for severe illness, morbidity, and mortality compared to the general population?; (3) does infection or illness during pregnancy place women, the fetus, or the infant at increased risk for adverse outcomes and how does this affect clinical management?; and (4) are the medical countermeasures recommended for the general population safe and effective during pregnancy? These issues help frame national guidance for the care of pregnant women during an intentional release of a biological threat. Read More

    [The advent of a newborn specialty: 19th century pediatrics].
    Presse Med 2017 Apr 6;46(4):438-448. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Hôpital Armand-Trousseau, 26, avenue Dr-Arnold-Netter, 75571 Paris cedex 12, France; Faculté de médecine Pierre-et-Marie-Curie, Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Pediatrics began under the most unfavorable conditions that are difficult to imagine nowadays. Children at the start of the 19th century were considered as negligible. The death rate was tremendous, increased by the work of children in factories as soon as 6 years of age in textile industries. Read More

    Dengue and Scrub Typhus Coinfection in a Patient Presenting with Febrile Illness.
    Case Rep Infect Dis 2017 13;2017:6214083. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Dengue fever and scrub typhus are common causes of acute febrile illness of unclear origin in Asia. Though coinfections of many vector-borne diseases have been described, articles on dengue and scrub typhus coinfection are distinctly limited. In case of coinfection with dengue and scrub typhus, vigilant monitoring of vitals, platelets transfusion, and timely treatment with doxycycline are necessary. Read More

    IAP Guidelines on Rickettsial Diseases in Children.
    Indian Pediatr 2017 Mar;54(3):223-229
    Smile Healthcare, Rehabilitation and Research Foundation, Smile Institute of Child Health, Ramdaspeth, Akola; *Department of Pediatrics, Ashwini Medical College, Solapur; and #Dr Yewale Multispeciality Hospital for Children, Navi Mumbai; for Indian Academy of Pediatrics "Guidelines on Rickettsial Diseases in Children" Committee. Correspondence to: Dr Narendra Rathi, Consultant Pediatrician, Smile Healthcare, Rehabilitation and Research Foundation, Smile Institute of Child Health, Ramdaspeth, Akola, Maharashtra, India.
    Objective: To formulate practice guidelines on rickettsial diseases in children for pediatricians across India.

    Justification: Rickettsial diseases are increasingly being reported from various parts of India. Due to low index of suspicion, nonspecific clinical features in early course of disease, and absence of easily available, sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, these infections are difficult to diagnose. Read More

    Scrub typhus meningitis in a renal transplant recipient.
    Indian J Nephrol 2017 Mar-Apr;27(2):151-153
    Department of Nephrology, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Scrub typhus is a rickettsial infection commonly seen in Asia. The clinical presentation ranges from nonspecific febrile illness to potentially fatal multiorgan involvement such as liver, kidney, or lung. Central nervous system involvement is uncommon. Read More

    Typhus Group Rickettsiosis, Texas, USA, 2003-2013.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Apr;23(4):645-648
    We characterized the epidemiology of typhus group rickettsiosis in Texas, USA. During 2003-2013, a total of 1,762 cases were reported to the state health department. The number of diagnosed cases and geographic expansion increased over time. Read More

    Effects on the anti-ABO titers of military blood donors from a predeployment vaccination program.
    J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2017 Jun;82(6S Suppl 1):S91-S95
    From the Department for Transfusion Medicine (O.B.), Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Background: The use of blood group O as "universal blood" for emergency whole blood transfusions carries the risk for a hemolytic transfusion reaction mediated by incompatible A/B antibodies. This risk can be minimized by assuring that the donor has a low titer of anti-A and anti-B. The level of these naturally occurring antibodies has been shown to be increased by vaccination with most biologically derived vaccines. Read More

    Incidence, risk factors and clinical outcomes of acute kidney injury associated with scrub typhus: a retrospective study of 510 consecutive patients in South Korea (2001-2013).
    BMJ Open 2017 Mar 15;7(3):e013882. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Changwon Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Changwon, Korea.
    Objectives: Renal involvement in scrub typhus ranges from simple urinary abnormalities to acute kidney injury (AKI) leading to death. This study evaluated the incidence, predictors and prognosis of AKI associated with scrub typhus according to the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage kidney disease) criteria.

    Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of patients diagnosed with scrub typhus from January 2001 to November 2013 in Gyeongsang National University Hospital. Read More

    Lateral Flow Rapid Test for Accurate and Early Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus: A Febrile Illness of Historically Military Importance in the Pacific Rim.
    Mil Med 2017 Mar;182(S1):369-375
    Naval Medical Research Center, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910.
    Scrub typhus (ST) is an infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Historically, ST was ranked as the second most important arthropod-borne medical problem only behind malaria during World War II and the Vietnam War. The disease occurs mainly in Southeast Asia and has been shown to emerge and reemerge in new areas, implying the increased risk for U. Read More

    GFPuv-expressing recombinant Rickettsia typhi: a useful tool for the study of pathogenesis and CD8(+) T cell immunology in Rickettsia typhi infection.
    Infect Immun 2017 Mar 13. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Department of Immunology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany
    Rickettsia (R) typhi is the causative agent of endemic typhus, a disease that occurs wordwide with increasing incidence and can be fatal. Because of its obligate intracellular life style, genetic manipulation of this pathogen is difficult. Nonetheless, in recent years genetic manipulation tools have been successfully applied to rickettsiae. Read More

    Serological evidence of exposure to Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia typhi in Australian veterinarians.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Mar 13;10(1):129. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia.
    Background: Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia typhi are emerging arthropod-borne zoonoses causing fever and flu-like symptoms. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure to these organisms was explored in Australian veterinarians.

    Methods: One hundred and thirty-one veterinarians from across Australia were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey. Read More

    Murine models of scrub typhus associated with host control of Orientia tsutsugamushi infection.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 10;11(3):e0005453. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Department of Pathology, Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Center for Tropical Diseases, Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, Institute of Human Infections and Immunity, School of Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America.
    Background: Scrub typhus, a febrile illness of substantial incidence and mortality, is caused by infection with the obligately intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is estimated that there are more than one million cases annually transmitted by the parasitic larval stage of trombiculid mites in the Asia-Pacific region. The antigenic and genetic diversity of the multiple strains of O. Read More

    Diversity of rickettsiae in a rural community in northern California.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 Feb 27. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
    Far northern California forests are highly biodiverse in wildlife reservoirs and arthropod vectors that may propagate rickettsial pathogens in nature. The proximity of small rural communities to these forests puts people and domestic animals at risk of vector-borne infection due to spillover from wildlife. The current study was conducted to document exposure to rickettsial pathogens in people and domestic animals in a rural community, and identify which rickettsiae are present in sylvatic and peri-domestic environments near this community. Read More

    Healthcare Associated Infections in a Resource Limited Setting.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Jan 1;11(1):OC01-OC04. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    Professor, Department of Medicine, JIPMER , Puducherry, India .
    Introduction: Health Care associated Infections (HAI) are the most common complications affecting the hospitalized patients. HAI are more common in developing and under developed countries. However, there are no systematic surveillance programs in these countries. Read More

    Climate variability, animal reservoir and transmission of scrub typhus in Southern China.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 8;11(3):e0005447. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.
    Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the relationships between climate variability, animal reservoirs and scrub typhus incidence in Southern China.

    Methods: We obtained data on scrub typhus cases in Guangzhou every month from 2006 to 2014 from the Chinese communicable disease network. Time-series Poisson regression models and distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM) were used to evaluate the relationship between risk factors and scrub typhus. Read More

    Significance of major international seaports in the distribution of murine typhus in Taiwan.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 6;11(3):e0005430. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Geography and Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Background: International seaports are hotspots for disease invasion and pathogens can persist in seaports even after ports are abandoned. Transmitted by fleas infected by Rickettsia typhi, murine typhus, a largely neglected and easily misdiagnosed disease, is known to occur primarily in large seaports. However, the significance of seaports in the occurrence of murine typhus has never been validated quantitatively. Read More

    [Study of epidemic area on Tsutsugamushi disease in Taizhou from 2013 to 2014].
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Mar;51(3):252-256
    Department of Acute Infectious Disease, Taizhou Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Taizhou 225300, China.
    Objective: To study the epidemiological characteristics of tsutsugamushi disease, and to confirm the existence of the disease's epidemic foci in Taizhou. Methods: From 2013 to 2014, Dongxing town hospital and Xingqiao town hospital were selected as specimen collection sites in Jingjiang city. Blood samples (5 ml) were collected from 40 patients with acute tsutsugamushi disease. Read More

    Molecular and serological evidence of flea-associated typhus group and spotted fever group rickettsial infections in Madagascar.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Mar 4;10(1):125. Epub 2017 Mar 4.
    Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
    Background: Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria responsible for many febrile syndromes around the world, including in sub-Saharan Africa. Vectors of these pathogens include ticks, lice, mites and fleas. In order to assess exposure to flea-associated Rickettsia species in Madagascar, human and small mammal samples from an urban and a rural area, and their associated fleas were tested. Read More

    Molecular characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes causing scrub typhus outbreak in southern region of Andhra Pradesh, India.
    Indian J Med Res 2016 Oct;144(4):597-603
    Department of Virology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India.
    Background & Objectives: Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic infection caused by Orientiatsutsugamushi. Local epidemiology of the circulating serotypes of scrub typhus is not available from most parts of India. We conducted this study for the diagnosis of scrub typhus using IgM ELISA and to detect O. Read More

    Clinical Score to Differentiate Scrub Typhus and Dengue: A Tool to Differentiate Scrub Typhus and Dengue.
    J Glob Infect Dis 2017 Jan-Mar;9(1):12-17
    Department of Biostatistics, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Background: Dengue and scrub typhus share similar clinical and epidemiological features, and are difficult to differentiate at initial presentation. Many places are endemic to both these infections where they comprise the majority of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses.

    Materials And Methods: We aimed to develop a score that can differentiate scrub typhus from dengue. Read More

    Diversification of Orientia tsutsugamushi genotypes by intragenic recombination and their potential expansion in endemic areas.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Mar 1;11(3):e0005408. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Scrub typhus is a mite-borne febrile disease caused by O. tsutsugamushi infection. Recently, emergence of scrub typhus has attracted considerable attention in several endemic countries in Asia and the western Pacific. Read More

    Use of eschar swabbing for the molecular diagnosis and genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi causing scrub typhus in Quang Nam province, Vietnam.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 27;11(2):e0005397. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    URMITE, Aix Marseille Université, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, IHU - Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.
    Background: Scrub typhus is a rickettsiosis which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and occurs throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Molecular diagnosis of rickettsioses using eschar swabs has recently emerged, and may be very useful for the diagnosis of these diseases in tropical settings.

    Methodology/principal Findings: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to detect O. Read More

    Incidence and Outcome of Acute Cardiorenal Syndrome in Hospitalized Children.
    Indian J Pediatr 2017 Feb 27. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Department of Pediatric Medicine, Division of Pediatric Nephrology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, 302004, India.
    Objectives: To determine the incidence, etiology and outcome of Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) in hospitalized children.

    Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried out in 242 children between 6 mo to 18 y of age hospitalized with primary cardiac, renal or any systemic disorder at a tertiary care center in India. The primary outcome was the development of CRS. Read More

    Fatal Salmonellosis in Captive Maras (Dolichotis patagonum) Caused by Salmonella Enteritidis.
    J Comp Pathol 2017 Feb 23. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Azabu University, Kanagawa, Japan. Electronic address:
    We report epidemic occurrences of fatal salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis in captive maras (Dolichotis patagonum) in a zoological garden in Japan. The deaths were sudden or followed a peracute course within a few hours of the first observations of clinical abnormalities. Gross lesions included haemorrhages in the subcutis and skeletal muscles, liver, spleen, lung, heart and gastrointestinal tract. Read More

    Predictors of acute myocarditis in complicated scrub typhus: an endemic province in the Republic of Korea.
    Korean J Intern Med 2017 Feb 23. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Division of Cardiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon, Korea.
    Background/aims: Scrub typhus is known as a self-limited infectious disease. Cardiac complication is uncommon and usually not life-threatening. Until now, few cases of fulminant myocarditis by scrub typhus have been reported. Read More

    Cytotoxic effector functions of T cells are not required for protective immunity against fatal Rickettsia typhi infection in a murine model of infection: Role of TH1 and TH17 cytokines in protection and pathology.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 21;11(2):e0005404. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Department of Immunology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg, Germany.
    Endemic typhus caused by Rickettsia (R.) typhi is an emerging febrile disease that can be fatal due to multiple organ pathology. Here we analyzed the requirements for protection against R. Read More

    Indian Tick Typhus Presenting as Purpura Fulminans with Review on Rickettsial Infections.
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Jan-Feb;62(1):1-6
    Department of Dermatology, S. S. Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Davanagere, Karnataka, India.
    Rickettsial diseases are some of the most covert reemerging infections of the present times. They are generally incapacitating and notoriously difficult to diagnose; untreated cases can have fatality rates as high as 30%-35%, but when diagnosed properly, they are often easily treated but lack of definite diagnostic tools and the hazards of handling these microorganisms aggravate the difficulties of diagnosis and treatment. Read More

    Use of Multiplex Real-Time PCR To Diagnose Scrub Typhus.
    J Clin Microbiol 2017 May 15;55(5):1377-1387. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a common cause of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in the Asia-Pacific region. However, its nonspecific clinical manifestation often prevents early diagnosis. We propose the use of PCR and serologic tests as diagnostic tools. Read More

    Molecular detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi from suspected scrub typhus cases.
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2017 Jan-Mar;60(1):70-73
    Department of Microbiology, Dr. A. L. Mudaliar PG Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Context: Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease is under-diagnosed in India, because of low index of suspicion and also due to its nonspecific presentation, and lack of confirmatory diagnostic tests.

    Aims: This study was undertaken to diagnose scrub typhus in patients with undifferentiated fevers by serology and molecular methods. Read More

    Prevalence and clinical presentation of Rickettsia, Coxiella, Leptospira, Bartonella and chikungunya virus infections among hospital-based febrile patients from December 2008 to November 2009 in Bangladesh.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Feb 13;17(1):141. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    International Centre for Diarrheal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Background: We conducted a study to identify Rickettsia, Coxiella, Leptospira, Bartonella, and Chikungunya virus infections among febrile patients presenting at hospitals in Bangladesh.

    Methods: We collected blood samples from patients at six tertiary hospitals from December 2008 to November 2009 and performed laboratory tests at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

    Results: Out of 720 enrolled patients, 263 (37%) were infected with Rickettsia; 132 patients had immunofluorescence antibody titer >64 against spotted fever, 63 patients against scrub typhus fever and 10 patients against typhus fever. Read More

    Prevalence and risk factors for scrub typhus in South India.
    Trop Med Int Health 2017 May 2;22(5):576-582. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Christian Medical College, Vellore, India.
    Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of scrub typhus in Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Methods: We performed a clustered seroprevalence study of the areas around Vellore. All participants completed a risk factor survey, with seropositive and seronegative participants acting as cases and controls, respectively, in a risk factor analysis. Read More

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