6,136 results match your criteria Typhus


[A Rickettsia case caused by Rickettsia conorii].

Mikrobiyol Bul 2018 Oct;52(4):431-438

Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Public Health, Microbiology Reference Laboratory, Ankara, Turkey.

Rickettsia species are gram-negative intracellular, small pleomorphic coccobacilli in the Rickettsiaceae family. This genus is serologically and genotypically divided into four groups as spotted fever group, typhus group, Rickettsia belli and Rickettsia canadensis. Rickettsia conorii (R. Read More

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October 2018

High Seroprevalence Against Typhus Group and Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Rural Indigenous Populations of Peninsular Malaysia.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

2 Department of Parasitology and Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia .

Rickettsioses of the typhus group (TG) and spotted fever group (SFG) are emerging bacterial infections worldwide, especially in the tropics. Only a few studies on these pathogens and their respective clinical diseases have been conducted in Malaysia. Here, we performed a seroprevalence study among 544 healthy, afebrile indigenous people (Orang Asli) from peninsular Malaysia for TG and SFG rickettsioses in nine rural and peri-urban settlements. Read More

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December 2018

Rickettsioses: Cutaneous findings frequently lead to diagnosis - a review.

J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2018 Dec;16(12):1459-1476

While epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia prowazekii posed a significant threat in Europe before and throughout World War II due to its high mortality, the condition fortunately no longer plays a significant role. Nevertheless, rickettsioses, such as African tick bite fever, have been increasingly diagnosed in travelers returning from sub-Saharan Africa. Caused by Rickettsia africae, African tick bite fever presents with characteristic cutaneous findings such as eschar (tache noir) and a rash. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Spatiotemporal patterns and risk factors for Scrub Typhus from 2007 to 2017 in southern China.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Substantial outbreaks of scrub typhus coupled with the discovery of this vector-borne disease in new areas suggest that the disease remains remarkably neglected. The objectives of this study were to map the contemporary and potential transmission risk zones of the disease and provide novel insights into the health burden imposed by scrub typhus in southern China.

Methods: Based on the assembled data sets of annual scrub typhus cases and maps of environmental and socioeconomic correlates, a boosted regression tree modeling procedure was used to identify the environmental niche of scrub typhus and to predict the potential infection zones of the disease. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Recombinant 56-kDa Type-Specific Antigens Derived from Multiple Strains for Detection of Scrub Typhus Infection.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Center for Diagnostics and Vaccine Development, Centers for Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taipei, Republic of China.

Scrub typhus is caused by the intracellular bacterium . The 56-kDa type-specific antigen (TSA) displays a significant antigenic variation across different strains. To minimize the influence of the antigenic diversity of TSA on assay sensitivity, we developed a mixed-TSA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (mixed-TSA ELISA) using a mixture of recombinant TSAs of prototype (Karp, Gilliam, and Kato) and local (TW-1, TW-10, TW-19, and TW-22) strains as antigens to detect IgM and IgG antibodies against . Read More

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December 2018

Bacterial microbiome of the chigger mite Leptotrombidium imphalum varies by life stage and infection with the scrub typhus pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208327. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America.

Scrub typhus is a mites-borne rickettsiosis caused by the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease is potentially life threatening and is prevalent in tropical Asia, islands of the western Pacific Ocean and northern Australia where an estimated one million cases occur annually. Orientia tsutsugamushi is transmitted by the bite of larval mites in the genus Leptotrombidium. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Geometric morphometrics of the scutum for differentiation of trombiculid mites within the genus Walchia (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Trombiculidae), a probable vector of scrub typhus.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Medical Entomology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address:

The vectors of scrub typhus are the larval stage of trombiculid mites, termed "chiggers". These vectors are very small - the larvae are approximately 0.2 mm in size - and therefore their morphological identification is difficult. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Scrub typhus and depression: a nationwide cohort analysis.

J Transl Med 2018 Dec 3;16(1):333. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Medical Research, Tungs' Taichung Metroharbor Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.

Background: Studies on the relationship between depression and scrub typhus are limited. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate whether scrub typhus is a risk factor for depression.

Methods: Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, this study investigated the incidence of depression, and its risk factors, in patients diagnosed with scrub typhus between 2000 and 2010. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Ultrastructural visualization of Orientia tsutsugamushi in biopsied eschars and monocytes from scrub typhus patients in South Korea.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 26;8(1):17373. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Drug & Disease Target Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongju, 28119, South Korea.

Scrub typhus, which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a public health problem in the Asian-Pacific region and is the third most frequently reported infectious disease in South Korea. While ultrastructural studies have been performed on O. tsutsugamushi in murine fibroblasts, its variable locations in patients have hampered similar studies in humans. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Socio-demographic and Clinico-Epidemiological Study of Scrub Typhus in Two Tertiary Care Hospitals of Kolkata.

J Assoc Physicians India 2018 May;66(5):22-25

Department of Medicine, VIMS, Kolkata, West Bengal.

Background And Aims : Scrub typhus is the commonest of the rickettsial diseases in India and is difficult to diagnose. Untreated cases have fatality rates of 30-45%. Eschar is present in 7-97% cases. Read More

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May 2018
4 Reads

Factors for Severe Outcome in Scrub Typhus: A Hospital Based Study in Sub Himalayan Region.

J Assoc Physicians India 2018 May;66(5):36-38

Professor, Department of Microbiology, IGMC, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh.

Background: Scrub typhus is a re-emerging zoonotic rickettsial infection. Mortality is approximately 15% in some areas due to missed or delayed diagnosis. There had been only few studies on the markers for the severity of the disease, so this study has been planned to provide the knowledge regarding various aspects of scrub typhus in adult age group to detect early signs of severity . Read More

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May 2018
5 Reads

Risk Factors for Acquiring Scrub Typhus among Children in Deoria and Gorakhpur Districts, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2017.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Dec;24(12):2364-2367

Scrub typhus is associated with outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome in Uttar Pradesh, India. A case-control study indicated that children residing, playing, or visiting fields; living with firewood stored indoors; handling cattle fodder; and practicing open defecation were at increased risk for scrub typhus. Communication messages should focus on changing these behaviors. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Bayesian zero-inflated spatio-temporal modelling of scrub typhus data in Korea, 2010-2014.

Geospat Health 2018 11 9;13(2). Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Applied Statistics, Hanyang University, Seoul.

Scrub typhus, a bacterial, febrile disease commonly occurring in the autumn, can easily be cured if diagnosed early. However, it can develop serious complications and even lead to death. For this reason, it is an important issue to find the risk factors and thus be able to prevent outbreaks. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Ocular manifestations of in South India.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec;66(12):1840-1844

Resident, Aravind Eye Hospital and Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India.

Purpose: Among the major groups of rickettsiosis, the commonly reported diseases in India are: (a) Typhus group induced-scrub typhus, murine flea-borne typhus; (b) Spotted fever group induced-Indian tick typhus; and (c) Q fever. Though many scrub typhus outbreaks have been reported from India, only one outbreak of spotted fever-serologically proven Indian tick typhus (Rickettsia conorii)-has been reported. We report for the first time ocular manifestations of serologically proven R. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Genomes of trombidid mites reveal novel predicted allergens and laterally transferred genes associated with secondary metabolism.

Gigascience 2018 Dec 1;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Institute of Infection & Global Health, University of Liverpool, L3 5RF, United Kingdom.

Background: Trombidid mites have a unique life cycle in which only the larval stage is ectoparasitic. In the superfamily Trombiculoidea ("chiggers"), the larvae feed preferentially on vertebrates, including humans. Species in the genus Leptotrombidium are vectors of a potentially fatal bacterial infection, scrub typhus, that affects 1 million people annually. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Use of eschar for the molecular diagnosis and genotypic characterisation of causing scrub typhus.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2018 Jul-Sep;36(3):422-425

Department of Paediatric Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Scrub typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi presents as an acute febrile illness with a varied presentation from mild illness to fatal disease in the absence of appropriate antibiotic treatment. Performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on eschar sample acts a rapid diagnostic tool in the early stage of scrub typhus when blood is negative. A total of eight patients from whom both whole blood and eschar samples were collected and tested by nested PCR targeting 56 kDa trichostatin A (TSA) gene to detect O. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads
1.037 Impact Factor

Survey and Phylogenetic Analysis of Rodents and Important Rodent-Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Gedu, Bhutan.

Korean J Parasitol 2018 Oct 31;56(5):521-525. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

International Development Group, School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Rodents are well-known reservoirs and vectors of many emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, but little is known about their role in zoonotic disease transmission in Bhutan. In this study, a cross-sectional investigation of zoonotic disease pathogens in rodents was performed in Chukha district, Bhutan, where a high incidence of scrub typhus and cases of acute undifferentiated febrile illness had been reported in people during the preceding 4-6 months. Twelve rodents were trapped alive using wire-mesh traps. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Tick- and flea-borne rickettsioses in Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria: Implications for travel medicine.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2018 Nov - Dec;26:51-57. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Aix Marseille Univ, IRD, AP-HM, SSA, VITROME, IHU-Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Background: In Algeria, Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF), caused by Rickettsia conorii conorii and transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, is endemic. However, the documentation of cases is rare due to a lack of laboratory facilities. Our aim was to screen for rickettsioses in patients with fever, rash and a possible inoculation eschar. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Critical Illness Scoring Systems: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, and Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment to Predict the Clinical Outcomes in Scrub Typhus Patients with Organ Dysfunctions.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2018 Oct;22(10):706-710

Department of Nephrology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

Background And Aim: Scrub typhus (ST) is an acute infectious disease of variable severity caused by (formerly ) . The disease can be complicated by organ dysfunctions and the case fatality rate (CFR) is approximately 15%, which further rises with the development of severe complications. We studied the clinical features of the ST and the performance of critical illness scoring systems (CISSs) - Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA), and quick SOFA (qSOFA) in predicting the clinical outcomes in complicated ST (cST) patients admitted to the emergency department. Read More

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October 2018
10 Reads

A case report of scrub typhus complicated with myocarditis and rhabdomyolysis.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Nov 7;18(1):551. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Premedical Science, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Background: Scrub typhus is a zoonotic disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, a gram-negative intracellular bacterium. Myocarditis and rhabdomyolysis are rare complications of scrub typhus.

Case Presentation: We report a case of scrub typhus, which was simultaneously complicated with myocarditis and rhabdomyolysis. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Current challenges in the development of vaccines and drugs against emerging vector-borne diseases.

Authors:
Kwang-Sun Kim

Curr Med Chem 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Chemistry and Chemistry Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 46241. Korea.

Vectors are living organisms that transmit infectious diseases from an infected animal to humans or another animal. Biological vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, and sand flies carry pathogens that multiply within their bodies prior to delivery to a new host. The increased prevalence of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as Aedes-borne dengue, Chikungunya (CHIKV), Zika (ZIKV), malaria, tick-borne disease (TBD), and scrub typhus has a huge impact on the health of both humans and livestock worldwide. Read More

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November 2018
9 Reads

Seroprevalence of spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae in individuals with acute febrile illness from Gorakhpur, India.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.

Background: The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of spotted fever group (SFG) and typhus group (TG) rickettsiae among individuals with acute febrile illness (AFI) in the scrub typhus endemic district of Gorakhpur in India. This district is one of the worst affected by annual seasonal acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) outbreaks.

Methods: Antibodies against SFG and TG rickettsiae and the associated risk factors were determined in 294 individuals presenting with an AFI, encountered during a community-based survey conducted during the AES outbreak period October-November 2016. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read
2.330 Impact Factor

A surface antigen of activates human monocyte-derived dendritic cells via nuclear factor-kB & p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

Indian J Med Res 2018 Aug;148(2):215-224

Institute of Medical Sciences, Tzu Chi University, Chia Yi, Taiwan.

Background & Objectives: Scrub typhus is a chigger-borne disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The immunological reactions to O. tsutsugamushi infection are not completely understood. Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads

Anti-aquaporin-4 Antibody Positive Optic Neuritis Following Scrub Typhus in an Elderly Female.

Neurologist 2018 Nov;23(6):183-184

Department of Neurology, St. Vincent Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Introduction: Aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) is specific for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and so is helpful to distinguish NMOSD from other autoimmune diseases. Several viral infections may play a role in the onset of NMOSD.

Case Report: We describe a case of a previous healthy 82-year-old woman who presented with acute visual loss occurring 3 weeks after scrub typhus. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with neurological manifestations in an infant with scrub typhus: a rare fatal occurrence.

Trop Doct 2018 Oct 26:49475518804696. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

4 Director Professor and Head, Department of Pediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of unchecked activation of the immune system leading to phagocytosis of blood cells and proliferation of histiocytes in solid organs. HLH can be primary or secondary to infective, autoimmune and malignant conditions. Scrub typhus is an infective illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, transmitted by mite. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Ethnopharmacological study of Sephardic remedies in the 19th century: The "Livro de Milizinas".

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Feb 21;230:20-73. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Dpto. Ecología e Hidrología, Campus de Espinardo, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The Sephardic or Judeo-Spanish communities kept a cultural heritage extremely relevant which is recognizable through the peculiar form of their language and practices. Medicine was one of the main professional activities among Jews of Spain before their expulsion in 1492. We expected to find ingredients and recipes in the Sephardic traditional medicine related to classical medicine and to modern ethnopharmacology of Spain, but also influenced by the host countries. Read More

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February 2019
7 Reads

Targeting metabolic pathways proteins of Orientia tsutsugamushi using combined hierarchical approach to combat scrub typhus.

J Mol Recognit 2018 Oct 21:e2766. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Regional Station, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Orientia tsutsugamushi (Ott) is a causative agent of chigger-borne zoonosis, scrub typhus which is life threatening and highly pervasive illness in humans. In this report, we have mined and classified the proteins involved in pathways unique to Ott by using high-throughput computational techniques. The 12 metabolic pathways were found to be unique to the pathogen. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads
2.151 Impact Factor

Rickettsia typhi as Cause of Fatal Encephalitic Typhus in Hospitalized Patients, Hamburg, Germany, 1940-1944.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Nov;24(11):1982-1987

We evaluated formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 7 patients who died with encephalitic typhus in Hamburg, Germany, during World War II. The archived specimens included only central nervous system tissues >70 years old that had been stored at room temperature. We demonstrated successful detection of Rickettsia typhi DNA by a nested qPCR specific to prsA in 2 patients. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Identification of B- and T-cell epitopes on HtrA protein of Orientia tsutsugamushi.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Oct 15. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Sri Sakthi Amma Institute of Biomedical Research, Sri Narayani Hospital and Research Centre, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Orientia tsutsugamushi, a cause of scrub typhus is emerging as an important pathogen in several parts of the tropics. The control of this infection relies on rapid diagnosis, specific treatment, and prevention through vector control. Development of a vaccine for human use would be very important as a public health measure. Read More

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October 2018
9 Reads
3.260 Impact Factor

Insects and the Transmission of Bacterial Agents.

Microbiol Spectr 2018 Oct;6(5)

Aix Marseille Univ, IRD, AP-HM, SSA, VITROME, IHU-Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.

Arthropods are small invertebrate animals, among which some species are hematophagous. It is during their blood meal that they can transmit pathogenic microorganisms that they may be harboring to the vertebrate host that they parasitize, which in turn will potentially develop a vector-borne disease. The transmission may occur directly through their bite, but also through contaminated feces. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Case Report: Concurrent Sympatric Scrub Typhus and Japanese Spotted Fever in Japan.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Dec;99(6):1386-1389

Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Scrub typhus and Japanese spotted fever-both rickettsial diseases-are endemic and notifiable in Japan and may cause a fatal outcome without prompt treatment. Here we present the first case of a concurrent sympatric infection of both diseases with grade II evidence. A 67-year-old woman, after a single event of potential exposure to the pathogens, presented with a 12-day history of fever, pharyngeal pain, papulo-erythematous rash, and pronounced fatigue. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Novel high-throughput screening method using quantitative PCR to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Orientia tsutsugamushi clinical isolates.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 Jan;74(1):74-81

Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU), Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR.

Objectives: To develop a method to enable the large-scale antimicrobial susceptibility screening of Orientia tsutsugamushi clinical isolates, using one timepoint and one concentration of antibiotics to considerably speed up the time to result.

Methods: Growth, harvesting, multiplicity of infection (moi) and the day to determine the MICs were optimized using five O. tsutsugamushi reference strains [susceptible (Karp, Kato and Gilliam) and putatively resistant (AFC-3 and AFSC-4)], one clinical isolate (UT76) and one rodent isolate (TA763). Read More

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January 2019
7 Reads

Typhus and the spotted fevers.

Authors:
Ruaridh Buchanan

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2018 Oct;79(10):C146-C149

Senior Clinical Fellow, National Mycobacterium Reference Service - South, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London NW9 5EQ.

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October 2018
1 Read

Community-based prevalence of typhoid fever, typhus, brucellosis and malaria among symptomatic individuals in Afar Region, Ethiopia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Oct 4;12(10):e0006749. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Microbiology Research Unit, Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, where there is the scarcity of proper diagnostic tools, febrile illness related symptoms are often misdiagnosed as malaria. Information on causative agents of febrile illness related symptoms among pastoral communities in Ethiopia have rarely been described.

Methods: In this a community based cross-sectional survey, we assessed the prevalence of typhoid fever, typhus, brucellosis and malaria among individuals with a set of given symptoms in Amibara district, Afar Region, Ethiopia. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Identification and Characterization of Orientia chuto in Trombiculid Chigger Mites Collected from Wild Rodents in Kenya.

J Clin Microbiol 2018 Dec 27;56(12). Epub 2018 Nov 27.

U.S. Army Medical Research Directorate-Kenya/Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya

We present data that concurs with the reported geographical expansion of scrub typhus outside the "Tsutsugamushi Triangle" and addition of as a second species in the genus. Wild rodents were caught in Marigat, Baringo County, Kenya, and ectoparasites, including chiggers, were recovered. Rodent and chigger species were identified by taxonomic features. Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads
3.993 Impact Factor

Serological evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiosis in and around Puducherry, south India-A three years study.

J Vector Borne Dis 2018 Apr-Jun;55(2):144-150

Department of General Medicine and Microbiology, Indira Gandhi Govt. General Hospital and Post Graduate Institute, Puducherry, India.

Background & Objectives: Rickettsial diseases are important re-emerging infections that mostly go unnoticed or are misdiagnosed. Though few case reports of Indian tick typhus have been reported in Indian literature in the past 10 yr, prevalence surveys are few and far between. The objective of this research was to study the seroprevalence of spotted fever (SF) group rickettsiosis and its coinfection with scrub typhus (ST) in Puducherry region of south India, as these two diseases may show similar clinical presentations. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Coinfections as an aetiology of acute undifferentiated febrile illness among adult patients in the sub-Himalayan region of north India.

J Vector Borne Dis 2018 Apr-Jun;55(2):130-136

Department of Medicine, Dr Rajendra Prasad Government Medical College, Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Background & Objectives: In India, certain geographic regions witness simultaneous outbreaks of two or more diseases like scrub typhus, dengue fever, malaria, leptospirosis and chikungunya during monsoon and post-monsoon period, sharing common indication of acute febrile illness. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of coinfections among patients with acute undifferentiated fevers (AUF) admitted in a tertiary care hospital in the northern hilly state of Himachal Pradesh, India.

Methods: This was a hospital based open cohort study conducted over a period of two months (September and October) in 2016. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Diagnostic Accuracy of the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect™ ELISA for the Detection of IgM Antibodies in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2018 Sep 1;3(3). Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420/6 Rajvithee Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

Here we estimated the accuracy of the InBios Scrub Typhus Detect™ immunoglobulin M (IgM) ELISA to determine the optimal optical density (OD) cut-off values for the diagnosis of scrub typhus. Patients with undifferentiated febrile illness from Chittagong, Bangladesh, provided samples for reference testing using (i) qPCR using the spp. 47-kDa gene, (ii) IFA ≥1:3200 on admission, (iii) immunofluorescence assay (IFA) ≥1:3200 on admission or 4-fold rise to ≥3200, and (iv) combination of PCR and IFA positivity. Read More

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September 2018
8 Reads

Serological Cross-Reactivity among Serotypes but Not with in Japan.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2018 Jul 5;3(3). Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Mahara Institute of Medical Acarology, Tokushima 779-1510, Japan.

The rickettsial diseases Japanese spotted fever (JSF) and scrub typhus (ST) are caused by and , respectively. The diseases share clinical symptoms, such as fever, rash, and eschar. However, there are no systematical investigations of the serological cross-reactivity between and . Read More

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July 2018
4 Reads

Outer Membrane Protein A Conservation among Isolates Suggests Its Potential as a Protective Antigen and Diagnostic Target.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2018 Jun 11;3(2). Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.

Scrub typhus threatens one billion people in the Asia-Pacific area and cases have emerged outside this region. It is caused by infection with any of the multitude of strains of the bacterium . A vaccine that affords heterologous protection and a commercially-available molecular diagnostic assay are lacking. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads

Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Associated with Scrub Typhus: Systematic Review and Comparison between Pediatric and Adult Cases.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2018 Feb 14;3(1). Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Stroke Center, Jichi Medical University 3311-1, Yakushiji, Shimotsuke-city, Tochigi 329-0498, Japan;

Background: Scrub typhus is a mite-borne bacterial infection caused by . Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a potential severe complication. Most reported cases of HLH associated with scrub typhus were single cases or case series with a small sample sizes. Read More

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February 2018
2 Reads

Rickettsial Infections and Q Fever Amongst Febrile Patients in Bhutan.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2018 Jan 25;3(1). Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia.

There is limited evidence of rickettsial diseases in Bhutan. We explored the contribution of rickettsioses as a cause of undifferentiated febrile illness in patients presenting to 14 Bhutanese hospitals from October 2014 to June 2015. Obvious causes of fever were excluded clinically. Read More

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January 2018
7 Reads

Scrub Typhus: No Longer Restricted to the Tsutsugamushi Triangle.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2018 Jan 25;3(1). Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Viral and Rickettsial Diseases Department, Naval Medical Research Center, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA.

Scrub typhus is the most important rickettsial disease in the world. Its previous endemic region was considered to be in Asia, Australia and islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans; this area was referred to as the Tsutsugamushi Triangle. Accumulation of serological, molecular, genetic, and culture data have shown that not only is scrub typhus not limited to the Tsutsugamushi Triangle, but can be caused by orientiae other than . Read More

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January 2018
6 Reads

A Review of Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi and Related Organisms): Then, Now, and Tomorrow.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2018 Jan 17;3(1). Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Viral and Rickettsial Diseases Department, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA.

Scrub typhus and the rickettsial diseases represent some of the oldest recognized vector-transmitted diseases, fraught with a rich historical aspect, particularly as applied to military/wartime situations. The vectors of were once thought to be confined to an area designated as the Tsutsugamushi Triangle. However, recent reports of scrub typhus caused by species other than well beyond the limits of the Tsutsugamushi Triangle have triggered concerns about the worldwide presence of scrub typhus. Read More

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January 2018
2 Reads

Tick-, Flea-, and Louse-Borne Diseases of Public Health and Veterinary Significance in Nigeria.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2018 Jan 3;3(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health, Georgia Southern University, 501 Forest Drive, Statesboro, GA 30458-8015, USA.

Mosquito-borne diseases are common high-impact diseases in tropical and subtropical areas. However, other non-mosquito vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) may share their geographic distribution, seasonality, and clinical manifestations, thereby contributing their share to the morbidity and mortality caused by febrile illnesses in these regions. The purpose of this work was to collect and review existing information and identify knowledge gaps about tick, flea-, and louse-borne diseases of veterinary and public health significance in Nigeria. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

The Re-Emergence and Emergence of Vector-Borne Rickettsioses in Taiwan.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2017 Dec 21;3(1). Epub 2017 Dec 21.

Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, No. 17, Xu-Zhou Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan.

Rickettsial diseases, particularly vector-borne rickettsioses (VBR), have a long history in Taiwan, with studies on scrub typhus and murine typhus dating back over a century. The climatic and geographic diversity of Taiwan's main island and its offshore islands provide many ecological niches for the diversification and maintenance of rickettsiae alike. In recent decades, scrub typhus has re-emerged as the most prevalent type of rickettsiosis in Taiwan, particularly in eastern Taiwan and its offshore islands. Read More

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December 2017
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The Historical Case for and the Future Study of Antibiotic-Resistant Scrub Typhus.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2017 Dec 15;2(4). Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Viral and Rickettsial Diseases Department, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA.

Scrub typhus is an acute, and sometimes fatal, human febrile illness, typically successfully treated using chloramphenicol or one of the tetracyclines. Over the past several years, descriptions of strains of with reduced susceptibility to antibiotics have appeared. Because case-fatality ratios approached 50% during the pre-antibiotic era, antibiotic-resistant scrub typhus is concerning. Read More

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December 2017
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Infection of Rodents by Orientia tsutsugamushi, the Agent of Scrub Typhus in Relation to Land Use in Thailand.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2017 Oct 6;2(4). Epub 2017 Oct 6.

CNRS ISEM-CIRAD ASTRE, Faculty of Veterinary Technology, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10220, Thailand.

The relationship between land use structures and occurrence of scrub typhus agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi infection in small wild mammals was conducted in three provinces of Thailand: Buriram, Loei, and Nan. Orientia tsutsugamushi detection was performed using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicon sequencing approach using Miseq Illumina platform. In total, 387 animals (rodents and shrews) were examined for the bacterium infection. Read More

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October 2017
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