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    The rise of neglected tropical diseases in the "new Texas".
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Jan 18;12(1):e0005581. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, Departments of Pediatrics and Molecular Virology and Microbiology, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America.
    Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health. Read More

    Molecular Epidemiology of an Orientia tsutsugamushi Gene Encoding a 56-kDa Type-Specific Antigen in Chiggers, Small Mammals, and Patients from the Southwest Region of Korea.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Division of Infectious disease investigation, Health and Environment Research Institute of Gwangju City, Gwangju, Korea.
    A phylogenetic analysis of Orientia tsutsugamushi was performed to elucidate its antigenic diversity in chiggers, small mammals, and patients. Between September 2014 and December 2016, a total of 3,816 chiggers were identified within nine species of four genera in the southwest region of Korea: Leptotrombidium scutellare (49.9%; 1,907/3,816), Leptotrombidium orientale (21. Read More

    [Red Cross war hospital in Rijeka (1914-1918)].
    Acta Med Hist Adriat 2017 Dec;15(Suppl1):47-66
    Državni arhiv u Rijeci, Hrvatska.
    The article describes how the system of medical care for wounded soldiers in Rijeka during the First World War was organized. In the Austro-Hungarian Empire the hospital care for sick and wounded soldiers, except of a military health care, was under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Red Cross. The Municipal Committee of the Hungarian Red Cross in Rijeka, established in 1881, renewed its previously suspended activity in August 1914, with the task of starting a war hospital for wounded soldiers. Read More

    Tropical Fevers in Indian Intensive Care Units: A Prospective Multicenter Study.
    Indian J Crit Care Med 2017 Dec;21(12):811-818
    Professor Emeritus Pathology, PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana, India.
    Background And Aims: Infections in tropics often present as undifferentiated fevers with organ failures. We conducted this nationwide study to identify the prevalence, profile, resource utilization, and outcome of tropical fevers in Indian Intensive Care Units (ICUs).

    Materials And Methods: This was a multicenter prospective observational study done in 34 ICUs across India (July 2013-September 2014). Read More

    Differentiation of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome from scrub typhus.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Dec 25. Epub 2017 Dec 25.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
    We developed a severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) differentiation score in the cohort including 21 patients with SFTS and 91 patients with scrub typhus. This scoring using criteria (score > 1) of altered mental status, leukopenia, prolonged aPTT, and normal CRP provided 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity for SFTS. Read More

    Clinical Profile of Scrub Typhus Meningoencephalitis among South Indian Children.
    J Trop Pediatr 2017 Dec 18. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Department of Community Medicine, Indira Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, 255, Vazhudavoor Road, Kathirkamam, Puducherry 605009, India.
    Re-emerging scrub typhus is gaining recognition as an important cause of paediatric meningoencephalitis in tropics. We studied the clinical profile of scrub typhus meningoencephalitis (STME) in children <12 years. Of 270 serology-confirmed cases of scrub typhus, 14 (5%) had features consistent with STME and 9 (64%) of these children were between 5 and 12 years of age; 12 (85%) children presented to the hospital during the second week of illness. Read More

    Longevity of antibody and T-cell responses against outer membrane antigens of Orientia tsutsugamushi in scrub typhus patients.
    Emerg Microbes Infect 2017 Dec 20;6(12):e116. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea.
    Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi infection, has been a serious public health issue in the Asia-Pacific region, with rising incidence and sporadic outbreaks. However, human protective immunity against specific antigens has been poorly characterized for this bacterium. In addition, immunity produced in early vaccine trials or even after natural infections, did not last long and had poor cross-reactivity among various genotypes. Read More

    Drug treatment of scrub typhus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2017 Aug;111(8):336-344
    Department of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.
    Scrub typhus, a potentially fatal infection caused by the pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi, has a wide geographical distribution. This systematic review analyses the evidence from prospective controlled clinical studies for the efficacy of antibiotics in the treatment of scrub typhus. PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and clinical trial registries in China, India and Sri Lanka were searched for controlled prospective clinical trials (randomized, quasi-randomized or non-randomized) enrolling patients with confirmed scrub typhus for treatment with antibiotics. Read More

    Long-term monitoring of breath methane.
    Sci Total Environ 2017 Dec 13;624:69-77. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Institute of Earth Sciences, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 236, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    In recent years, methane as a component of exhaled human breath has been considered as a potential bioindicator providing information on microbial activity in the intestinal tract. Several studies indicated a relationship between breath methane status and specific gastrointestinal disease. So far, almost no attention has been given to the temporal variability of breath methane production by individual persons. Read More

    Renal Manifestation in Scrub Typhus during a Major Outbreak in Central Nepal.
    Indian J Nephrol 2017 Nov-Dec;27(6):440-445
    Health Services Research, United Health Group, OptumInsight, CT, USA.
    Renal involvement and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common clinical manifestations seen in scrub typhus, a vector-borne tropical disease. There are no data on renal manifestation in scrub typhus in Nepal. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the incidence, urinary abnormalities, course, severity, outcome, and the predictors of AKI in patients with scrub typhus during a major outbreak in Central Nepal. Read More

    Rapid Diagnosis of Tick-Borne Illnesses by Use of One-Step Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification and Bio-Optical Sensor Detection.
    Clin Chem 2017 Dec 5. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Departments of Infectious Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea;
    Background: Scrub typhus and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) are the most common tick-borne illnesses in South Korea. Early differentiation of SFTS from scrub typhus in emergency departments is essential but difficult because of their overlapping epidemiology, shared risk factors, and similar clinical manifestations.

    Methods: We compared the diagnostic performance of one-step isothermal nucleic acid amplification with bio-optical sensor detection (iNAD) under isothermal conditions, which is rapid (20-30 min), with that of real-time PCR, in patients with a confirmed tick-borne illness. Read More

    Guillain-Barre Syndrome with Falciparum Malaria and Scrub Typhus Mixed Infection-An Unusual Combination.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Sep 1;11(9):OD10-OD11. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Professor, Department of Medicine, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.
    Guillain-Barre Syndrome is very rare in parasitic and rickettsial infection. Here we report a case of Plasmodium falciparum and scrub typhus mixed infection, presented with quadriparesis. Clinical, Serological, CSF analysis and Nerve Conduction Studies were consistent with Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (variant of GBS). Read More

    A Severe Case of Murine Typhus Presenting With Anemia and Severe Thrombocytopenia.
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2017 Dec 1. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine.
    We discuss a child with severe thrombocytopenia and mild anemia admitted to the Hematology service who quickly deteriorated to a life-threatening state. However, once rickettsial disease was considered in the differential diagnosis and empiric doxycycline begun, she quickly and fully recovered. A diagnostic panel, including Rickettsia typhi serology, confirmed the diagnosis of murine typhus but this occurred weeks after she had recovered. Read More

    Seroprevalence of rickettsial infections and Q fever in Bhutan.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Nov 27;11(11):e0006107. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia.
    Background: With few studies conducted to date, very little is known about the epidemiology of rickettsioses in Bhutan. Due to two previous outbreaks and increasing clinical cases, scrub typhus is better recognized than other rickettsial infections and Q fever.

    Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted from January to March 2015 in eight districts of Bhutan. Read More

    Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory profile of scrub typhus cases detected by serology and RT-PCR in Kumaon, Uttarakhand: a hospital-based study.
    Trop Doct 2017 01 1:49475517743891. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    6 Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.
    We analysed the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory data of the 168 scrub typhus cases confirmed by a combination of any one of the following: real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or immunofluorescence assay (IFA) (IgM and/or IgG). The peak season for scrub typhus is from July to October. By multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, the risk of scrub typhus was about four times in those working in occupation related to forest work. Read More

    Newly Recognized Pediatric Cases of Typhus Group Rickettsiosis, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Dec;23(12):2068-2071
    An increase in typhus group rickettsiosis and an expanding geographic range occurred in Texas, USA, over a decade. Because this illness commonly affects children, we retrospectively examined medical records from 2008-2016 at a large Houston-area pediatric hospital and identified 36 cases. The earliest known cases were diagnosed in 2011. Read More

    The epidemic typhus and trench fever are risk for public health due to increased migration in southeast of Turkey.
    Acta Trop 2018 Feb 7;178:115-118. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Cukurova University, Medical Faculty, Medical Parasitology, Adana, Turkey.
    Pediculus humanus capitis is a small ectoparasitic insect that has lived and feds on human beings for thousands of years. Molecular techniques have been used for Pediculus species identification and evolutionary, phylogenic, and ecological studies. A total of 23 adults of P. Read More

    Differences in agricultural activities related to incidence of scrub typhus between Korea and Japan.
    Epidemiol Health 2017 9;39:e2017051. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Korea.
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to establish a basis for improving or strengthening the preventive strategy against scrub typhus in Korea by comparing and analyzing the difference of prevention behaviors contributing to the occurrence of scrub typhus in Japan and Korea.

    Methods: The survey was carried out in Jeollabuk-do, which is a high risk and high incidence area, and Fukuoka Prefecture, which is a high risk and low incidence area. The study included 406 Korean farmers and 216 Japanese farmers. Read More

    Rickettsia spp. among wild mammals and their respective ectoparasites in Pantanal wetland, Brazil.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2018 Jan 27;9(1):10-17. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The genus Rickettsia comprises obligatory intracellular bacteria, well known to cause zoonotic diseases around the world. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Rickettsia spp. in wild animals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil, by molecular and serological techniques. Read More

    Orientia tsutsugamushi modulates endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation to benefit its growth.
    Infect Immun 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia, 23298-0678, USA
    Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligate intracellular bacterium that is auxotrophic for the aromatic amino acids and histidine, causes scrub typhus, a potentially deadly infection that threatens one billion people. O. tsutsugamushi growth is minimal during the first 24 to 48 h of infection, but becomes logarithmic thereafter. Read More

    Chigger Mite (Acari: Trombiculidae) Survey of Rodents in Shandong Province, Northern China.
    Korean J Parasitol 2017 Oct 31;55(5):555-559. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Shandong Academy of Medicine Sciences, Shandong Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Jining, Shandong Province 272033, People's Republic of China.
    Chigger mites are parasites of rodents and other vertebrates, invertebrates, and other arthropods, and are the only vectors of scrub typhus, in addition to other zoonoses. Therefore, investigating their distribution, diversity, and seasonal abundance is important for public health. Rodent surveillance was conducted at 6 districts in Shandong Province, northern China (114-112°E, 34-38°N), from January to December 2011. Read More

    A review of the global epidemiology of scrub typhus.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Nov 3;11(11):e0006062. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America.
    Scrub typhus is a serious public health problem in the Asia-Pacific area. It threatens one billion people globally, and causes illness in one million people each year. Caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, scrub typhus can result in severe multiorgan failure with a case fatality rate up to 70% without appropriate treatment. Read More

    Health during the Cardenismo (1934-1940).
    Gac Med Mex 2017 ;153(5):608-625
    Departamento de Historia y Filosofía de la Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México.
    The present symposium, Health during the Cardenismo (1934-1940), consist of four studies: Medical sanitary aspects in Mexico by Martha Eugenia Rodríguez; Campaigns against diseases by Carlos Viesca Treviño; Hospitals during Cardenism by Guillermo Fajardo Ortiz; and Military medicine in Mexico by Antonio Moreno Guzmán. Through them is given an integral vision of the state of health and illness during the administration of General Lázaro Cárdenas del Río, the first sexennial presidential government of the twentieth century. Several aspects are discussed, among them, the President's nationalist policy which led to an important distribution of land to the peasants. Read More

    The Cat Flea (Ctenocephalides felis) Immune Deficiency Signaling Pathway Regulates Rickettsia typhi Infection.
    Infect Immun 2018 Jan 19;86(1). Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Rickettsia species are obligate intracellular bacteria with both conserved and lineage-specific strategies for invading and surviving within eukaryotic cells. One variable component of Rickettsia biology involves arthropod vectors: for instance, typhus group rickettsiae are principally vectored by insects (i.e. Read More

    Differential diagnosis of scrub typhus meningitis from tuberculous meningitis using clinical and laboratory features.
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2017 Dec 23;163:76-80. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Malabar Institute of Medical Sciences, Calicut, Kerala, India.
    Objectives: The involvement of the central nervous system in the form of meningitis or meningoencephalitis is common in scrub typhus and is an important differential diagnosis of other lymphocytic meningitis like tuberculous meningitis (TBM). The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and laboratory parameters that may be helpful in differentiating scrub typhus meningitis from TBM.

    Patients And Methods: We compared of the clinical and laboratory features of 57 patients admitted with scrub typhus meningitis or TBM during a 3-year period. Read More

    The Biology and Ecology of Cat Fleas and Advancements in Their Pest Management: A Review.
    Insects 2017 Oct 27;8(4). Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Entomology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
    The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché) is the most important ectoparasite of domestic cats and dogs worldwide. It has been two decades since the last comprehensive review concerning the biology and ecology of C. f. Read More

    Emission of greenhouse gases and soil carbon sequestration in a riparian marsh wetland in central Ohio.
    Environ Monit Assess 2017 Oct 23;189(11):580. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    Carbon Management and Sequestration Center, School of Environment and Natural Resources, College of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Wetlands are a C sink, but they also account for a large natural source of greenhouse gases (GHG), particularly methane (CH4). Soils of wetlands play an important role in alleviating the global climate change regardless of the emission of CH4. However, there are uncertainties about the amount of C stored and emitted from wetlands because of the site specific factors. Read More

    Bartonella quintana and Typhus Group Rickettsiae Exposure among Homeless Persons, Bogotá, Colombia.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 11;23(11):1876-1879
    In 2015, we investigated Bartonella quintana and typhus group rickettsiae in body lice from homeless persons in Bogotá, Colombia. We found B. quintana-infected body lice and seroprevalence of this microorganism in 19% of homeless persons and typhus group rickettsiae in 56%. Read More

    Outer Membrane Protein OmpB Methylation May Mediate Bacterial Virulence.
    Trends Biochem Sci 2017 Dec 13;42(12):936-945. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
    Methylation of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) has been implicated in bacterial virulence. Lysine methylation in rickettsial OmpB is correlated with rickettsial virulence, and N- and O-methylations are also observed in virulence-relevant OMPs from several pathogenic bacteria that cause typhus, leptospirosis, tuberculosis, and anaplasmosis. We summarize recent findings on the structure of methylated OmpB, biochemical characterization, and crystal structures of OmpB methyltransferases. Read More

    Relative Bradycardia in Scrub Typhus.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Nov 10;97(5):1316-1318. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.
    To investigate the relationship between heart rate and temperature, we examined 493 febrile patients with documented disease. These patients were diagnosed serologically and analyzed retrospectively: 337 (68.4%) responded to fever with increased heart rate < 10 beats/minute/°C (relative bradycardia [RB]), and 156 patients had a heart rate response ≥ 10 beats/minute/°C (general heart rate increase [GHRI]). Read More

    Immune thrombocytopenia with multi-organ dysfunction syndrome as a rare presentation of scrub typhus: a case report.
    BMC Res Notes 2017 Oct 6;10(1):496. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    M.O.S.C Medical College & Hospital, Ernakulam District, Kolenchery, Kerala, 682311, India.
    Background: Scrub typhus is an acute infectious illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is endemic to a part of the world known as the "tsutsugamushi triangle". Humans are accidental hosts in this zoonotic disease. Read More

    New Record of the Scrub Typhus Vector, Leptotrombidium rubellum, in Southwest China.
    J Med Entomol 2017 Nov;54(6):1767-1770
    Vector Laboratory, Institute of Pathogens and Vectors, Dali University, and the Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory for Zoonosis Control and Prevention, Dali, Yunnan Province 671000, P. R. China.
    There are several main vectors of scrub typhus in China, and Leptotrombidium rubellum Wang et Liao, 1984 is one of them, which was previously considered to be restricted to the coastal regions of Changle to Xiamen, Fujian province of east China. Ecological investigation of chigger mites in recent years demonstrated the presence of L. rubellum also in Yunnan province. Read More

    Scrub Typhus in Southern Districts of West Bengal.
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Sep-Oct;62(5):512-514
    Department of Dermatology, R G Kar Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Scrub typhus has been previously reported from north and eastern Indian states and areas such as Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, and Darjeeling district of West Bengal. It has also been known to be endemic in some parts of South India (Eastern and Western Ghats). However, no cases have ever been reported from the southern districts of West Bengal. Read More

    Scrub Typhus: An Emerging Threat.
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Sep-Oct;62(5):478-485
    Department of Dermatology, Dr. B. C. Roy Postgraduate Institute of Pediatric Science, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Scrub typhus is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (formerly Rickettsia) and is transmitted to humans by an arthropod vector of the Trombiculidae family (Leptotrombidium deliense and L. akamushi). It is the most common re-emerging Rickettsial infection in India and many other South East Asian countries. Read More

    Acute undifferentiated fever in India: a multicentre study of aetiology and diagnostic accuracy.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Oct 4;17(1):665. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Infectious Diseases Training and Research Centre, Department of Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India.
    Background: The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of malaria, bacteraemia, scrub typhus, leptospirosis, chikungunya and dengue among hospitalized patients with acute undifferentiated fever in India, and to describe the performance of standard diagnostic methods.

    Methods: During April 2011-November 2012, 1564 patients aged ≥5 years with febrile illness for 2-14 days were consecutively included in an observational study at seven community hospitals in six states in India. Malaria microscopy, blood culture, Dengue rapid NS1 antigen and IgM Combo test, Leptospira IgM ELISA, Scrub typhus IgM ELISA and Chikungunya IgM ELISA were routinely performed at the hospitals. Read More

    Co-trimoxazole versus azithromycin for the treatment of undifferentiated febrile illness in Nepal: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
    Trials 2017 Oct 2;18(1):450. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Background: Undifferentiated febrile illness (UFI) includes typhoid and typhus fevers and generally designates fever without any localizing signs. UFI is a great therapeutic challenge in countries like Nepal because of the lack of available point-of-care, rapid diagnostic tests. Often patients are empirically treated as presumed enteric fever. Read More

    Scrub Typhus in a New Born.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Aug 1;11(8):SD05-SD06. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Senior Resident, Department of Paediatrics, Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya, Delhi, India.
    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile mite-born rickettsial infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (formely called Rickettsiatsutsugamushi). This infection is very uncommon in neonates. We report a case of 19-day-old newborn presenting with clinical features mimicking severe sepsis but was subsequently diagnosed with primary scrub typhus infection. Read More

    Improving the Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus by Combining groEL Based Polymerase Chain Reaction and IgM ELISA.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Aug 1;11(8):DC27-DC31. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Senior Technical officer, Department of Statistics, Regional Medical Research Centre, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.
    Introduction: Scrub typhus, an acute febrile illness, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an important cause of pyrexia of unknown origin in regions of endemicity. This disease is mostly underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, the reasons for this being a combination of factors which include clinical manifestations that can mimic other infections, lack of easy and reliable diagnostic methods and variation among strains in endemic areas. Hence, easy and reliable methods of diagnosis will contribute to rapid identification and treatment of the infection. Read More

    Estimating the burden of scrub typhus: A systematic review.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 25;11(9):e0005838. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Scrub typhus is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that can be life-threatening. There are no licensed vaccines, or vector control efforts in place. Despite increasing awareness in endemic regions, the public health burden and global distribution of scrub typhus remains poorly known. Read More

    Prevalence and Phylogenetic Analysis of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Rodents and Mites from Central India.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2017 11 21;17(11):749-754. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    1 Centre for Zoonoses, Department of Veterinary Public Health, Nagpur Veterinary College, Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University , Nagpur, India .
    Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of scrub typhus in humans, is an obligate intracytosolic bacterium transmitted among animals and to humans by some species of larval trombiculid mites (chiggers) and is hosted mainly by rodents. In this study, we attempted detection of O. tsutsugamushi from blood and tissue samples of rodents trapped from different locations in Central India using PCR targeting the 56 kDa outer membrane protein gene and the 47 kDa high temperature transmembrane protein gene. Read More

    Zoonotic surveillance for rickettsiae in rodents and mapping of vectors of rickettsial diseases in India: A multi-centric study.
    Indian J Public Health 2017 Jul-Sep;61(3):174-181
    Junior Scientific Assistant, Department of Community Medicine, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Background: The global resurgence of rickettsial diseases and their potential to impact the fitness of military personnel and inflict widespread casualties amongst civil populations has emerged as a major cause of public health concern. Absence of surveillance system, lack of awareness amongst medical fraternity to rickettsial activity along with the difficulty in diagnosis because of their protean clinical manifestations are reasons for the outbreaks of these diseases.

    Objectives: To determine rickettsial activity amongst rodents and study vector diversity, abundance and their distribution to enable mapping of rickettsial hotspots. Read More

    Strong interferon-gamma mediated cellular immunity to scrub typhus demonstrated using a novel whole cell antigen ELISpot assay in rhesus macaques and humans.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 11;11(9):e0005846. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Scrub typhus is a febrile infection caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi, which causes significant morbidity and mortality across the Asia-Pacific region. The control of this vector-borne disease is challenging due to humans being dead-end hosts, vertical maintenance of the pathogen in the vector itself, and a potentially large rodent reservoir of unclear significance, coupled with a lack of accurate diagnostic tests. Development of an effective vaccine is highly desirable. Read More

    Typhoid and Scrub Typhus Coinfection in a Returned Traveler.
    Glob Pediatr Health 2017 25;4:2333794X17726941. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
    This is a case report of a 12-year-old returned traveler with typhoid and scrub typhus coinfection. The diagnosis of typhoid was made early with blood cultures and Widal Weil Felix serology. Persistent fever despite appropriate antibiotics for typhoid fever prompted a search for concomitant infection, which led to the diagnosis of scrub typhus confirmed by Orientia tsutsugamushi serology. Read More

    Comparative effectiveness of azithromycin for treating scrub typhus: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Sep;96(36):e7992
    aDepartment of Pediatrics, Hsinchu MacKay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu City bDepartment of Pediatrics, MacKay Children's Hospital, Taipei cMacKay Medical College, New Taipei dDepartment of Medical Technology, Jen-Teh Junior college of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Miaoli eDivision of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taoyuan General Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taoyuan fDepartment of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University gBiobank Management Center of the Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center hDepartment of Pathology and Graduate Institute of Pathology and Parasitology, the Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center iGraduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei jDepartment of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Hsinchu Mackay Memorial Hospital, Hsinchu City, Taiwan kDivision of Infection and Pathway Medicine, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
    Background: Scrub typhus is a zoonotic disease that remains an important health threat in endemic areas. Appropriate anti-rickettsial treatment ensures a successful recovery. Doxycycline is a recommended drug, but it is contraindicated in pregnant women and young children. Read More

    Validation of Geno-Sen's Scrub Typhus Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Kit by its Comparison with a Serological ELISA Test.
    J Glob Infect Dis 2017 Jul-Sep;9(3):108-112
    Department of Genomics and Proteomics, Central Interdisciplinary Research Facility, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, India.
    Background: In the recent past, scrub typhus (ST) has been reported from different parts of India, based on Weil-Felix/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)/indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Molecular tests are applied only by a few researchers.

    Aims: Evaluation of a new commercial real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit for molecular diagnosis of ST by comparing it with the commonly used IgM ELISA is our aim. Read More

    Two mice models for transferability of zoonotic bacteria via tick vector.
    Acta Virol 2017;61(3):372-376
    Spotted fever and typhus-related diseases caused by rickettsiae, Lyme borreliosis induced by spirochetes from Borrelia burgdorferii sensu lato complex, and Q fever evoked by Coxiella burnetii, are important zoonoses occurring worldwide. In order to study the pathogenesis of these infections, the efficacy of vaccines from the perspective of protection against the pathogens, pathogen - pathogen interactions during co-infections or pathogen-vector-host interrelationship, a suitable animal model should be established. In this study, we evaluated two mouse models - the C3H/N and Balb/c strains for susceptibility to infection and ability to transmit the pathogens via tick vector and to reveal the potential interactions between various bacterial tick-borne agents. Read More

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