14,100 results match your criteria Typhoid Fever


A typhoid fever protein capsular matrix vaccine candidate formulated with Advax-CpG adjuvant induces a robust and durable anti-typhoid Vi polysaccharide antibody response in mice, rabbits and nonhuman primates.

Vaccine 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Vaxine Pty Ltd, 11 Walkley Avenue, Warradale, Adelaide, Australia; School of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia. Electronic address:

Typhax is an investigational typhoid fever vaccine candidate that is comprised of Vi polysaccharide from Salmonella enterica serovar typhi (S. Typhi) non-covalently entrapped in a glutaraldehyde catalyzed, cross-linked α-poly-L-lysine and CRM protein matrix. A previous Phase 1 trial of an aluminum phosphate adjuvanted Typhax formulation showed it induced Vi IgG after a single dose but that subsequent doses failed to further boost Vi IgG levels. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The international and intercontinental spread and expansion of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella Typhi: a genomic epidemiology study.

Lancet Microbe 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The emergence of increasingly antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) threatens to undermine effective treatment and control. Understanding where antimicrobial resistance in S Typhi is emerging and spreading is crucial towards formulating effective control strategies.

Methods: In this genomic epidemiology study, we sequenced the genomes of 3489 S Typhi strains isolated from prospective enteric fever surveillance studies in Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and India (between 2014 and 2019), and combined these with a global collection of 4169 S Typhi genome sequences isolated between 1905 and 2018 to investigate the temporal and geographical patterns of emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant S Typhi. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Estimating typhoid incidence from community-based serosurveys: a multicohort study.

Lancet Microbe 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Center for Celiac Research and Treatment, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, MA, USA; Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The incidence of enteric fever, an invasive bacterial infection caused by typhoidal Salmonellae (Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi), is largely unknown in regions without blood culture surveillance. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether new diagnostic serological markers for typhoidal Salmonella can reliably estimate population-level incidence.

Methods: We collected longitudinal blood samples from patients with blood culture-confirmed enteric fever enrolled from surveillance studies in Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and Ghana between 2016 and 2021 and conducted cross-sectional serosurveys in the catchment areas of each surveillance site. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Complex Mechanism of the Biofilm Formation That Facilitates Pathogenicity: A Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 9;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, AIMST University, Bedong 08100, Kedah, Malaysia.

serovar Typhi () is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family, where biofilm (aggregation and colonization of cells) formation is one of their advantageous traits. typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever in the human body and is exceptionally host specific. It is transmitted through the fecal-oral route by consuming contaminated food or water. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cross-Talk Between the Intestinal Epithelium and Typhimurium.

Front Microbiol 2022 6;13:906238. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

IRSD - Institut de Recherche en Santé Digestive, Université́ de Toulouse, INSERM, INRAE, ENVT, UPS, Toulouse, France.

serovars are invasive gram-negative bacteria, causing a wide range of diseases from gastroenteritis to typhoid fever, representing a public health threat around the world. gains access to the intestinal lumen after oral ingestion of contaminated food or water. The crucial initial step to establish infection is the interaction with the intestinal epithelium. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mechanisms for the Invasion and Dissemination of .

Authors:
Qiao Li

Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2022 9;2022:2655801. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Sciences and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

is a gastroenteric Gram-negative bacterium that can infect both humans and animals and causes millions of illnesses per year around the world. infections usually occur after the consumption of contaminated food or water. Infections with species can cause diseases ranging from enterocolitis to typhoid fever. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan: results of the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project.

Lancet Glob Health 2022 Jul;10(7):e978-e988

Child Health Research Foundation, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: Precise enteric fever disease burden data are needed to inform prevention and control measures, including the use of newly available typhoid vaccines. We established the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP) to inform these strategies.

Methods: From September, 2016, to September, 2019, we conducted prospective clinical surveillance for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S Typhi) and Paratyphi (S Paratyphi) A, B, and C at health facilities in predetermined catchment areas in Dhaka, Bangladesh; Kathmandu and Kavrepalanchok, Nepal; and Karachi, Pakistan. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tackling typhoid fever burden in south Asia.

Authors:
Buddha Basnyat

Lancet Glob Health 2022 Jul;10(7):e932-e933

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit-Nepal, GPO Box 3596, Kathmandu, Nepal. Electronic address:

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immunological characterization of chitosan adjuvanted outer membrane proteins of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi as multi-epitope typhoid vaccine candidate.

Mol Biol Rep 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering College (NIBGE-C), Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Background: Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Gram-negative bacteria have been known as potential vaccine targets due to their antigenic properties and host specificity. Here, we focused on the exploration of the immunogenic potential and protective efficacy of total OMPs of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi due to their multi epitope properties, adjuvanted with nanoporous chitosan particles (NPCPs). The study was designed to extrapolate an effective, low cost prophylactic approach for typhoid fever being getting uncontrolled in Pakistan due to emergence of extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Molecular characterization of the severe malaria with typhoid co-infection: A case report.

J Vector Borne Dis 2022 Jan-Mar;59(1):105-107

Cell Biology Laboratory and Malaria Parasite Bank, ICMR-National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi, India.

Malaria and typhoid co-infections can be a serious public health issue in tropical countries leading to incorrect diagnosis due to overlapping clinical presentations of malaria and typhoid and hence, causing a delay in implementing the appropriate treatment regimen for these concurrent infections. This study reports a case of six-year-old female child co-infected with severe malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) and typhoid (Salmonella typhi) diagnosed by rapid malaria antigen test (RMAT) and blood culture respectively. Further, analysis of the chloroquine resistance gene Pfcrt for the falciparum demonstrated the presence of K76T mutant allele in pfcrt gene with high IC50 (150nM) for chloroquine (CQ) drug. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vaccination coverage among older adults: a population-based study in India.

Bull World Health Organ 2022 Jun 26;100(6):375-384. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai, Maharashtra, 400088, India.

Objective: To estimate the prevalence and explore the predictors of vaccine uptake among older adults in India.

Methods: We used data from the national Longitudinal Ageing Study in India, a national household survey conducted during 2017-2018. Based on interviewees' self-reports, we calculated population-weighted estimates of the uptake of influenza, pneumococcal, typhoid and hepatitis B vaccines among 64 714 Indian adults aged 45 years or older. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Salmonella Typhi: A Review of Antibiogram Journey in Developing Countries.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Microbiology Government Medical College and Hospital Dept of Microbiology second floor ,GMCH 32.

Background: Typhoid fever remains a major global health problem in low-and middle-income countries. It affects millions of children and adults globally each year with high prevalence in South Asia. Up to 1% of patients who get typhoid may die of the disease and, in those that survive, a prolonged period of ill health and catastrophic financial costs to the family may follow. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effectiveness of typhoid conjugate vaccine in Zimbabwe used in response to an outbreak among children and young adults: A matched case control study.

Vaccine 2022 Jul 9;40(31):4199-4210. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Epicentre, 14-34 Avenue Jean Jaurès, 70519 Paris, France.

Background: Zimbabwe suffers from regular outbreaks of typhoid fever (TF), worse since 2017. Most cases were in Harare and a vaccination campaign with Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (TCV) was conducted in March 2019. The vaccine effectiveness (VE) was assessed against culture-confirmed S. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Historical overview and update on relapsing fever group Borrelia in Latin America.

Parasit Vectors 2022 Jun 8;15(1):196. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Latin American Group for the Study of Ornithodoros-borne Borrelioses (Grupo Latinoamericano Para el Estudio de Borreliosis Transmitidas Por Ornithodoros [GLEBTO]), Bogotá, Colombia.

Relapsing fever group Borrelia (RFGB) are motile spirochetes transmitted to mammalian or avian hosts through the bite of hematophagous arthropods, such as soft ticks (Argasidae), hard ticks (Ixodidae) and the human clothing lice. RFGB can infect pets such as dogs and cats, as well as birds, cattle and humans. Borrelia recurrentis, B. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Phase 3, Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial to Evaluate Immune Equivalence and Safety of Multidose and Single-dose Formulations of Vi-DT Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine in Healthy Filipino Individuals 6 Months to 45 Years of Age.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2022 Jul 30;24:100484. Epub 2022 May 30.

International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Trial Design: Phase 3, randomized, controlled, multicenter, equivalence trial.

Methods: Recruitment of participants occurred between 04Februray2020 and 15July2020 at four centers in the Philippines: University of the East - Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center Inc., Quezon City; University of Philippines Manila - National Institute of Health, Ermita Manila; Asian Hospital and Medical Center, Metro Manila, Philippines Study; and Medical Research Unit, Tropical Disease Foundation, Makati City, Metro Manila, Philippines. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Misdiagnosis of COVID-19 infection before molecular confirmation in Sulaimaniyah City, Iraq.

Eur J Med Res 2022 Jun 3;27(1):84. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani New, Street 29, Zone 207, Sulaymaniyah, 46001, Republic of Iraq.

Background: During the last 2 years, in the Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq, there were thousands of COVID-19 cases that have not been reported officially, but diagnosed and confirmed by private laboratories and private hospitals, or clinicians based on typical clinical signs, as well as few people using home self-test after appearing of some flu-like clinical symptoms. Thus, this study aims to assess the misdiagnosis and mismanagement of cases before COVID-19 confirmation.

Methods: This study enrolled 100 consecutive patients who visited an outpatient clinic of Shar Hospital that had symptoms highly suspicious of COVID-19 infection while misdiagnosed previously to have other types of disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Secondary Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis - A Common Ramification of Different Diseases.

EJIFCC 2022 Apr 11;33(1):63-69. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Department of Paediatric Medicine, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, India.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a rare and potentially fatal disorder caused by immune dysregulation. It can occur as a primary genetic disease or secondarily due to various causes including infections, malignancies or autoimmune diseases. In this case report, we present two cases of Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis which were secondary to typhoid and dengue fever. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Detection of Salmonella Typhi in Bile by Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 May 31:e0024922. Epub 2022 May 31.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

In countries where the incidence of typhoid fever is high, fecal material from short-term carriers of Salmonella Typhi contaminates inadequately treated water supplies. As treated water supplies and improved sanitation become available, chronic (mainly gallbladder) carriers of S. Typhi become important. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Towards equitable scheduling of global health teleconferences: a spatial exploration of the world's population and health by time zone.

BMJ Open 2022 May 30;12(5):e056696. Epub 2022 May 30.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Otago, Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand.

Objectives: To examine the world's population, development, and health by condensed Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) offset to support a normative position on how to most defensibly schedule global health teleconferences with the primary goal of advancing equitable regard for participants by health condition.

Design: Spatial exploration examined through the lens of equitable regard for participants.

Setting: The Earth. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

From Gut to Heart: Extensively Drug-resistant Salmonella typhi with Multi System Involvement.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2022 Apr;32(4):S37-S38

Department of Internal Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) salmonella typhi is a gram-negative bacillus, transmitted by feco-oral route. Its systemic manifestations are protean. Untreated enteric fever carries high morbidity and mortality. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

In Vivo Tracking of Bacterial Colonization in Different Murine Models Using Bioluminescence: The Example of Salmonella.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2427:235-248

INRAE, Université de Tours, ISP, Nouzilly, France.

Applications of bioluminescence for the in vivo study of pathogenic microorganisms are numerous, ranging from the quantification of virulence gene expression to measuring the effect of antimicrobial molecules on the colonization of tissues and organs by the pathogen. Most studies are performed in mice, but recent works demonstrate that this technique is applicable to larger animals like fish, guinea pigs, ferrets, and chickens. Here, we describe the construction and the utilization of a constitutively luminescent strain of Salmonella Typhimurium to monitor in vivo and ex vivo the colonization of mice in the gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, and asymptomatic carriage models of Salmonella infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Analysis of Salmonella Typhi Pathogenesis in a Humanized Mouse Model.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2427:215-234

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Efforts to understand molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of the human-restricted pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, have been hampered by the lack of a tractable small animal model. This obstacle has been surmounted by a humanized mouse model in which genetically modified mice are engrafted with purified CD34+ stem cells from human umbilical cord blood, designated CD34+ Hu-NSG (formerly hu-SRC-SCID) mice. We have shown that these mice develop a lethal systemic infection with S. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Corrigendum: Genomic Investigation Reveals a Community Typhoid Outbreak Caused by Contaminated Drinking Water in China, 2016.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 9;9:918129. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2022. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Non-typhoidal bacteremia: comparison of adults and children in a single medical center.

J Med Microbiol 2022 May;71(5)

Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Non-typhoidal (NTS) bacteremia can cause significant morbidity and mortality. There is high incidence of Salmonellosis in the Middle East, including Israel, but there is a paucity of data on the clinical and epidemiological features of children in comparison to adults. Previous studies describing the differences between paediatric and adult populations with bacteremia are sparse. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Bacteriophage therapy of human-restricted Salmonella species-a study in a surrogate bacterial and animal model.

Authors:
V B Yadav G Nath

Lett Appl Microbiol 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India.

Salmonella Typhi has been an important human-restricted pathogen from time immemorial, and unfortunately, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics has induced the emergence of multidrug resistance in S. Typhi. Bacteriophage therapy may be a possible alternative in countering antimicrobial resistance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Queensland typhoid cluster linked to twelve-year carriage of Salmonella Typhi.

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2022 May 19;46. Epub 2022 May 19.

OzFoodNet, Communicable Diseases Branch, Department of Health, Queensland Health, Brisbane.

In September 2021, a household cluster of three typhoid cases was investigated by Queensland public health authorities. Through case interviews and molecular typing, the investigation revealed chronic carriage of Salmonella Typhi persisting at least 12 years in the index case. This case report summarises the investigation and highlights the complexity of chronic pathogen carriage in the control and management of typhoid disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Identification of a Host-Targeted Compound to Control Typhoid Fever.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 May 17:e0061922. Epub 2022 May 17.

Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Typhoid fever is caused primarily by the enteric microbe Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and remains a major global health problem with approximately 14 million new infections and 136,000 fatalities annually. While there are antibiotic options available to treat the disease, the global increase in multidrug-resistant strains necessitates alternative therapeutic options. Host-targeted therapeutics present a promising anti-infective strategy against intracellular bacterial pathogens. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Typhoid toxin sorting and exocytic transport from Typhi-infected cells.

Elife 2022 05 17;11. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, United States.

Typhoid toxin is an essential virulence factor for Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever in humans. This toxin has an unusual biology in that it is produced by Typhi only when located within host cells. Once synthesized, the toxin is secreted to the lumen of the -containing vacuole from where it is transported to the extracellular space by vesicle carrier intermediates. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Enhanced surveillance for adverse events following immunization during the 2019 typhoid conjugate vaccine campaign in Harare, Zimbabwe.

Vaccine 2022 Jun 12;40(26):3573-3580. Epub 2022 May 12.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: During February 25-March 4, 2019, Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care conducted an emergency campaign using 342,000 doses of typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) targeting individuals 6 months-15 years of age in eight high-risk suburbs of Harare and up to 45 years of age in one suburb of Harare. The campaign represented the first use of TCV in Africa outside of clinical trials.

Methods: Three methods were used to capture adverse events during the campaign and for 42 days following the last dose administered: (1) active surveillance in two Harare hospitals, (2) national passive surveillance, and (3) a post-campaign coverage survey. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Salmonellacidal antibody response to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in enteric fever and after vaccination with Vi capsular polysaccharide.

Int J Infect Dis 2022 Aug 11;121:120-125. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objectives: Serum salmonellacidal (bactericidal) antibody could be used to detect functional capacity of antibody in patients with enteric fever and after typhoid vaccination.

Methods: Salmonellacidal antibody response was measured by colorimetric serum salmonellacidal assay from 70 acute and 11 convalescence sera of patients infected with Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A and also from 15 control and 6 Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccinated volunteer's sera.

Results: Sera from patients with typhoid and paratyphoid A showed significant (p < 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF