13,182 results match your criteria Typhoid Fever


Invasive Salmonella infections among children in Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo: a 6-year retrospective review.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Apr 18;19(1):330. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Institute of Health and Community Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.

Background: Invasive Salmonella infections result in significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Asia, typhoid and paratyphoid fever are reported to be the major invasive Salmonella infections, while invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections are believed to be uncommon. Data from Sarawak, in Malaysian Borneo, are limited. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3963-xDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Systematic Review of Important Bacterial Zoonoses in Africa in the Last Decade in Light of the 'One Health' Concept.

Pathogens 2019 Apr 16;8(2). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Infectious Diseases and Anti-Infective Therapy Research Group, Sharjah Medical Research Institute and College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE.

Zoonoses present a major public health threat and are estimated to account for a substantial part of the infectious disease burden in low-income countries. The severity of zoonotic diseases is compounded by factors such as poverty, living in close contact with livestock and wildlife, immunosuppression as well as coinfection with other diseases. The interconnections between humans, animals and the environment are essential to understand the spread and subsequent containment of zoonoses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8020050DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of scrub typhus in patients with acute febrile illness presenting to a Tertiary Care Center in Puducherry, India.

J Lab Physicians 2019 Jan-Mar;11(1):82-86

Department of Microbiology, Pondicherry Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry, India.

Purpose: Scrub typhus an acute febrile illness has diverse clinical manifestations, which overlap with other febrile illnesses. Due to this reason, it is misdiagnosed, leading to inappropriate treatment, sometimes resulting in fatality. Thus, accurate diagnosis of scrub typhus is important for appropriate treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JLP.JLP_148_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437831PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Pathoadaptive alteration of biofilm formation in response to the gallbladder environment.

J Bacteriol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Typhoid fever, a human-specific disease, is primarily caused by the pathogen serovar Typhi ( Typhi). It is estimated that 3-5% of people infected with typhoid fever become chronic carriers. Studies have demonstrated that a mechanism of chronic carriage involves biofilm formation on gallstone surfaces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00774-18DOI Listing
April 2019
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Characteristics of regulatory T-cell populations before and after Ty21a typhoid vaccination in children and adults.

Clin Immunol 2019 Apr 4;203:14-22. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Molecular Microbiology and Immunology Department, University of Maryland Graduate Program in Life Sciences, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Typhoid fever, caused by the pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a serious global health concern. Challenge studies with wild type S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Single-Cell Metabolism and Stress Responses in Complex Host Tissues.

Authors:
Dirk Bumann

Microbiol Spectr 2019 03;7(2)

Focal Area Infection Biology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Systemic infections are a major cause of mortality worldwide and are becoming increasingly untreatable. Recent single-cell data from a mouse model of typhoid fever show that the host immune system actually eradicates many cells, while other organisms thrive at the same time in the same tissue, causing lethal disease progression. The surviving cells have highly heterogeneous metabolism, growth rates, and exposure to various stresses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/microbiolspec.BAI-0009-2019DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Salmonella Typhi outer membrane protein STIV is a potential candidate for vaccine development against typhoid and paratyphoid fever.

Immunobiology 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Division of Clinical Medicine, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, P-33 Scheme-XM, C.I.T. Road, Beliaghata, Kolkata, 700010, India. Electronic address:

Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovars, Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) is a major public health challenge for the developing nations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2019.02.011DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Diversity of Salmonella Typhi-responsive CD4 and CD8 T cells before and after Ty21a typhoid vaccination in children and adults.

Int Immunol 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Typhoid fever is a life-threatening disease caused by the human-restricted pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). The oral live attenuated Ty21a typhoid vaccine protects against this severe disease by eliciting robust, multifunctional cell-mediated immunity (CMI), shown to be associated with protection in wild-type S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intimm/dxz011DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Unique features in the intracellular transport of typhoid toxin revealed by a genome-wide screen.

PLoS Pathog 2019 Apr 5;15(4):e1007704. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

Typhoid toxin is a virulence factor for Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi, the cause of typhoid fever in humans. This toxin has a unique architecture in that its pentameric B subunit, made of PltB, is linked to two enzymatic A subunits, the ADP ribosyl transferase PltA and the deoxyribonuclease CdtB. Typhoid toxin is uniquely adapted to humans, recognizing surface glycoprotein sialoglycans terminated in acetyl neuraminic acid, which are preferentially expressed by human cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007704DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Human bile-mediated regulation of curli fimbriae.

J Bacteriol 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA

Typhoid fever is caused primarily by serovar Typhi ( Typhi). Approximately 3-5% of individuals infected with Typhi become chronic carriers with the gallbladder (GB) as the site of persistence, as gallstones within the GB are a platform on which the bacteria form a biofilm. Typhi is a human-restricted pathogen; therefore, asymptomatic carriers represent a critical reservoir for further spread of disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00055-19DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Myositis associated with A bacteremia appears to be common.

J Family Med Prim Care 2019 Jan;8(1):125-129

Department of Neurology, JIPMER, Puducherry, India.

Background: Fever and severe myalgia in a tropical country like India bring to mind leptospirosis, rickettsioses, dengue, and other viral fevers. Enteric fever is widely prevalent in Asia, but myositis has not been previously described in A bacteremia.

Materials And Methods: Retrospectively, we recruited patients with enteric fever admitted to our treating unit over a 6-month period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_202_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6396611PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Age-Associated Heterogeneity of Ty21a-Induced T Cell Responses to HLA-E Restricted Typhi Antigen Presentation.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:257. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Human-restricted serovar Typhi (. Typhi) is the causative agent of typhoid fever-a life-threatening disease of great global health significance, particularly in the developing world. Ty21a is an oral live-attenuated vaccine that protects against the development of typhoid disease in part by inducing robust T cell responses, among which multifunctional CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) play an important role. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409365PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Laser micro-structured Si scaffold-implantable vaccines against Salmonella Typhimurium.

Vaccine 2019 Apr 15;37(16):2249-2257. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Biology, University of Crete, Vassilika Vouton, Heraklion 71409, Crete, Greece. Electronic address:

Salmonella Typhi is responsible for typhoid fever in humans. Despite the efforts, the development of long-lasting vaccines has failed and the available vaccines display only moderate activity, being considered as "international traveler's" vaccines. Taking advantage of the previously described implantable vaccine technology consisting on 3D laser-microstructured Si scaffolds loaded with antigen-seeded macrophages, the present study aimed to apply an antigenic stimulus of whole extracts of S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.02.080DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis infection).

Authors:
David A Warrell

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e106

Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine,University of Oxford,Oxford,UK.

Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is an epidemic disease with a fascinating history from Hippocrates' times, through the 6th century 'Yellow Plague', to epidemics in Ireland, Scotland and England in the 19th century and two large Afro-Middle Eastern pandemics in the 20th century. An endemic focus persists in Ethiopia and adjacent territories in the Horn of Africa. Since 2015, awareness of LBRF in Europe, as a re-emerging disease, has been increased dramatically by the discovery of this infection in dozens of refugees arriving from Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000116DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate And C-Reactive Protein As Marker Of Acute Versus Chronic Medical Conditions.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2019 Jan-Mar;31(1):39-45

Medicine Department, KRL Hospital Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background: The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are frequently requested investigations that aid health professionals in precisely diagnosing and following a number of complicated disease conditions. The aim of this study is to ascertain whether a rise in any of these acute phase reactants has predilection for an acute illness versus chronic disease.. Read More

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March 2019
4 Reads

Modeling the impact of sanitation and awareness on the spread of infectious diseases.

Math Biosci Eng 2019 01;16(2):667-700

Department of Mathematics, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi - 221005, India.

Sanitation and awareness programs play a fundamental role and are much effective public health interventions to control the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, a nonlinear mathematical model for the control of infectious diseases, such as typhoid fever is proposed and analyzed by considering budget required for sanitation and awareness programs as a dynamic variable. It is assumed that the budget allocation regarding the protection against the disease to warn people and for sanitation increases logistically and its per-capita growth rate increases with the increase in number of infected individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2019032DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Typhoid Fever in Chile.

Authors:
Felipe Cabello

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Dec;99(6):1649-1650

Department of Microbiology and Immunology.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283504PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Molecular analysis of clonally related Salmonella Typhi recovered from epidemiologically unrelated cases of typhoid fever, Brazil.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Apr 5;81:191-195. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: The primary method of molecular subtyping for the identification and investigation of outbreaks has been pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In some cases, this technique has not been able to show discrimination between the unrelated strains that can be achieved by whole genome sequencing (WGS).

Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the strengths and drawbacks of WGS using different analytic approaches compared to traditional typing method, PFGE, for retrospectively typing clusters cases of 28 S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.02.009DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Analysis of Serovar Typhi by Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) Profiling, Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE).

Trop Life Sci Res 2019 Jan 31;30(1):57-71. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli-173204, Himachal Pradesh, India.

A number of countries, including developed countries, still have typhoid fever as a major problem resulting in frequent outbreaks. The importance of controlling spread of typhoid fever is well known and necessitates periodic studies to delineate epidemiological relationships. Although phage typing remains to be the preferred conventional method for characterisation of typhoid bacilli, it is of limited use due to prevalence of few predominant phage types in the country like India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/tlsr2019.30.1.4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6396889PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Salmonella Typhi From Blood Cultures in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: A 10-Year Surveillance.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar;68(Supplement_2):S130-S137

Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp.

Background: This study gives an overview of a decade (2007-2017) of hospital-based Salmonella Typhi bloodstream infection (BSI) surveillance in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), at 4 main sampling sites.

Methods: Blood cultures were sampled in hospital-admitted patients with suspected BSI, according to standardized clinical indications. The results of the surveillance period 2015-2017 were compiled with those of previous surveillance periods (2007-2010 and 2011-2014). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405282PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Global Typhoid Fever Incidence: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar;68(Supplement_2):S105-S116

Centre for International Health, University of Otago, New Zealand.

Background: Contemporary incidence estimates of typhoid fever are needed to guide policy decisions and control measures and to improve future epidemiological studies.

Methods: We systematically reviewed 3 databases (Ovid Medline, PubMed, and Scopus) without restriction on age, country, language, or time for studies reporting the incidence of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever. Outbreak, travel-associated, and passive government surveillance reports were excluded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405273PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Logistics of Implementing a Large-scale Typhoid Vaccine Trial in Kathmandu, Nepal.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar;68(Supplement_2):S138-S145

Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.

Typhoid fever is estimated to affect over 20 million people per year worldwide, with infants, children, and adolescents in south-central and southeast Asia experiencing the greatest burden of disease. The Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium (TyVAC) aims to support the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines into Gavi-eligible countries in an effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from typhoid. TyVAC-Nepal is a large-scale, participant- and observer-blind, individually randomized, controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a newly developed typhoid conjugate vaccine in an urban setting in Nepal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405269PMC
March 2019
6 Reads

A Review of the Economic Evidence of Typhoid Fever and Typhoid Vaccines.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar;68(Supplement_2):S83-S95

International Vaccine Access Center, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Typhoid places a substantial economic burden on low- and middle-income countries. We performed a literature review and critical overview of typhoid-related economic issues to inform vaccine introduction. We searched 4 literature databases, covering 2000-2017, to identify typhoid-related cost-of-illness (COI) studies, cost-of-delivery studies, cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs), and demand forecast studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405266PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Assessing the Impact of a Vi-polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine in Preventing Typhoid Infection Among Bangladeshi Children: A Protocol for a Phase IIIb Trial.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar;68(Supplement_2):S74-S82

International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research-Bangladesh, Dhaka.

Background: Typhoid fever illnesses are responsible for more than 100 000 deaths worldwide each year. In Bangladesh, typhoid fever is endemic, with incidence rates between 292-395 per 100 000 people annually. While considerable effort has been made to improve access to clean water and sanitation services in the country, there is still a significant annual typhoid burden, which particularly affects children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405281PMC
March 2019
1 Read
8.886 Impact Factor

Incidence of Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fevers Among Adolescents and Adults in Yangon, Myanmar.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar;68(Supplement_2):S124-S129

Centre for International Health, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Background: Accurate estimates of typhoid disease burden are needed to guide policy decisions, including on vaccine use. Data on the incidence of enteric fever in Myanmar are scarce. We estimated typhoid and paratyphoid fever incidence among adolescents and adults in Yangon, Myanmar, by combining sentinel hospital surveillance with a healthcare utilization survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405279PMC
March 2019
1 Read

A Phase II, Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine in Children Under 2 Years of Age in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: A Methods Paper.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar;68(Supplement_2):S59-S66

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

The recent Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program demonstrated an overall adjusted incidence of typhoid fever 2-3 times higher than previous estimates in Africa. Recently, a single-dose typhoid conjugate vaccine that allows infants as young as 6 months old to be vaccinated was prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO). This Vi-based conjugate vaccine demonstrated robust immunogenicity after 1 dose in infants and children 6 through 23 months of age in India with no safety signal, and is currently being tested for the first time on the African continent in Malawi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405275PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Assessing the Impact of a Vi-polysaccharide Conjugate Vaccine in Preventing Typhoid Infections Among Nepalese Children: A Protocol for a Phase III, Randomized Control Trial.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar;68(Supplement_2):S67-S73

Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Enteric fever is estimated to affect 11-20 million people worldwide each year. Morbidity and mortality from enteric fever primarily occur in lower-income countries, with children under 5 years of age experiencing a significant portion of the burden. Over the last few decades, the control of enteric fever has focused primarily on improved water and sanitation, with the available vaccines unsuitable for children and primarily used by travelers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405280PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

The Design and Analysis of Seroefficacy Studies for Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar;68(Supplement_2):S183-S190

Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Demonstrating the efficacy of new Vi-conjugate typhoid vaccines is challenging, due to the cost of field trials requiring tens of thousands of participants. New trial designs that use serologically defined typhoid infections (seroefficacy trials) rather than blood culture positivity as a study endpoint may be useful to assess efficacy using small trials.

Methods: We developed a model for Vi-immunoglobin G antibody responses to a Vi-vaccine, incorporating decay over time and natural boosting due to endemic exposures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405265PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Epidemiology of Typhoid and Paratyphoid: Implications for Vaccine Policy.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar;68(Supplement_2):S117-S123

Child Health Research Foundation, Department of Microbiology, Dhaka Shishu Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Background: Typhoid and paratyphoid remain the most common bloodstream infections in many resource-poor settings. The World Health Organization recommends typhoid conjugate vaccines for country-specific introduction, but questions regarding typhoid and paratyphoid epidemiology persist, especially regarding their severity in young children.

Methods: We conducted enteric fever surveillance in Bangladesh from 2004 through 2016 in the inpatient departments of 2 pediatric hospitals and the outpatient departments of 1 pediatric hospital and 1 private consultation clinic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405278PMC
March 2019
2 Reads
8.886 Impact Factor

Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella enterica Bloodstream Isolates Among Febrile Children in a Rural District in Northeastern Tanzania: A Cross-sectional Study.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar;68(Supplement_2):S177-S182

National Institute for Medical Research, Tanga Center, Tanzania.

Background: Salmonella enterica including Salmonella Typhi and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) are the predominant cause of community-acquired bloodstream infections in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). Multiple-drug resistance and emerging fluoroquinolone resistance are of concern. Data on the age distribution of typhoid fever in sSA are scarce but essential for typhoid conjugate vaccine policy. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/68/Supplement_2/S177/53
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405276PMC
March 2019
8 Reads

Forecasting Demand for the Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine in Low- and Middle-income Countries.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar;68(Supplement_2):S154-S160

Center for Vaccine Innovation and Access, PATH, Seattle, Washington.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) released a position paper in March 2018 calling for integration of a novel typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) into routine immunization along with catch-up campaigns for children up to age 15. Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, has committed funding to help resource-constrained countries introduce this vaccine. In this article, the Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium forecasts demand if WHO recommendations are followed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405267PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium Malawi: A Phase III, Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Trial of the Clinical Efficacy of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Among Children in Blantyre, Malawi.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar;68(Supplement_2):S50-S58

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Background: Typhoid fever is an acute infection characterized by prolonged fever following the ingestion and subsequent invasion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), a human-restricted pathogen. The incidence of typhoid fever has been most reported in children 5-15 years of age, but is increasingly recognized in children younger than 5 years old. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405268PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Transient periportal hyperechogenicity in feverish patients: a novel ultrasonographic finding.

J Ultrasound 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Al-Azhar University, Asyut, Egypt.

Purpose: Periportal hyperechogenicity has been recorded in many inflammatory and infectious diseases, including viral hepatitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, toxic shock syndrome of staphylococcus infection, typhoid fever, and schistosomiasis. We aimed to evaluate the echogenicity of the portal tracts of the liver by abdominal ultrasound imaging in patients with fever irrespective of the cause.

Methods: Abdominal ultrasound examination was performed in 277 consecutive patients presented with fever at their first visit and repeated 2 weeks later after their recovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40477-019-00369-2DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Medicinal plants in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in the African Continent.

Tissue Eng Part A 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Tshwane University of Technology Faculty of Science, 275316, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Pretoria, South Africa , 0001.

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine therapy is still in a very early phase in the African continent, despite the significant progress that has been made in many parts of the world. Although South Africa's position in the world competitiveness scale has improved, there is an urgent need for a skilled and technically sophisticated work force to be developed in the African continent. The existence of traditional and complementary medicine is known to be a fertile ground source of Western Medicine and Africa is rich with medicinal plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEA.2019.0060DOI Listing
March 2019
8 Reads

Relapse of typhoid fever following delayed response to meropenem: A case report and review of previously published cases indicating limited clinical efficacy of meropenem for the treatment of typhoid fever.

Ger Med Sci 2019 7;17:Doc01. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, University Hospital Minden, Germany.

In times of emerging multi-drug resistance among Gram-negative bacteria (including , Serovar Typhi), we observed relapse of typhoid fever following delayed response to treatment with meropenem, suggestive for limited clinical efficacy of the drug. Three previously published cases supported our suspicion. Within this context, we discuss the case details with a focus on potential explanations for insufficient clinical response to meropenem (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3205/000267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388674PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Salmonella infections in Canadian children.

Authors:
Joan L Robinson

Paediatr Child Health 2019 Feb 15;24(1):50-51. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee, Ottawa, Ontario.

Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections are primarily transmitted by contaminated food or water or contact with carrier animals (particularly reptiles), and present with diarrhea. Antibiotics do not decrease the severity or duration of diarrhea and may increase the incidence of NTS carriage, so they should only be used with suspected or proven bacteremia or invasive infection. Typhoid/paratyphoid fever manifests as bacteremia within 60 days of travel to resource-poor countries and presents with fever and variable abdominal complaints. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxy199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376300PMC
February 2019
3 Reads
1.545 Impact Factor

Extensively drug-resistant typhoid fever in Pakistan.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 Mar;19(3):242-243

School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30051-9DOI Listing
March 2019
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Prevalence and co-infection of Malaria and Typhoid in the local population of Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Jan;32(1(Supplementary)):323-326

College of Allied Health Professional, Directorate of Medical Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan / Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Malaria and typhoid fever are among the major infectious diseases which impose significant health and socioeconomic burden on affected populations. Further, co-infection and resembling symptomatology in both infections, mostly leads to misdiagnosis and mistreatment. So co-infection of malaria and typhoid fever is becoming a major issue in tropical and subtropical countries. Read More

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January 2019
15 Reads

Analysis of two B/O plasmids, R805a from 1972 and pCERC6 from 2008, reveals extensive mosaicism in B/O plasmid backbones.

Plasmid 2019 Mar 27;102:62-70. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Two B/O plasmids were sequenced. The kanamycin resistance plasmid R805a was found in a Salmonella Typhi strain from a 1972 typhoid fever outbreak in Mexico City. pCERC6, which confers resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazole, was found in a commensal E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plasmid.2019.02.005DOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads
1.578 Impact Factor

Case 2: Fever, Chills, and Abdominal Pain in a 4-year-old Girl.

Pediatr Rev 2019 Mar 1;40(3):142-144. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Family Medicine, Northshore University Health System, University of Chicago, Evanston, IL.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/pir.2017-0200DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The first Canadian pediatric case of extensively drug-resistant Typhi originating from an outbreak in Pakistan and its implication for empiric antimicrobial choices.

IDCases 2019 15;15:e00492. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.

We report on a three year-old male who contracted enteric fever during a visit to the Sindh province of Pakistan in the summer of 2018. He was diagnosed after returning to Canada and blood cultures isolated serovar Typhi which harbored extensive drug-resistance (XDR) to all first-line antibiotics including ceftriaxone. Empiric ceftriaxone was switched to meropenem and he was successfully treated with a two-week course. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2019.e00492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6378779PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Discovery of trehalose phospholipids reveals functional convergence with mycobacteria.

J Exp Med 2019 Apr 25;216(4):757-771. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands

species are among the world's most prevalent pathogens. Because the cell wall interfaces with the host, we designed a lipidomics approach to reveal pathogen-specific cell wall compounds. Among the molecules differentially expressed between Paratyphi and Typhi, we focused on lipids that are enriched in Typhi, because it causes typhoid fever. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20181812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446866PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

The global burden of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Authors:

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 Apr 18;19(4):369-381. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Background: Efforts to quantify the global burden of enteric fever are valuable for understanding the health lost and the large-scale spatial distribution of the disease. We present the estimates of typhoid and paratyphoid fever burden from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017, and the approach taken to produce them.

Methods: For this systematic analysis we broke down the relative contributions of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers by country, year, and age, and analysed trends in incidence and mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30685-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437314PMC
April 2019
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Identification of Genes Involved in Biogenesis of Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) in Serovar Typhi.

Front Microbiol 2019 4;10:104. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Laboratorio de Genética y Patogénesis Bacteriana, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile.

Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nano-sized proteoliposomes discharged from the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria. OMVs normally contain toxins, enzymes and other factors, and are used as vehicles in a process that has been considered a generalized, evolutionarily conserved delivery system among bacteria. Furthermore, OMVs can be used in biotechnological applications that require delivery of biomolecules, such as vaccines, remarking the importance of their study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369716PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

Integrating Typhoid Fever Within the Sustainable Development Goals: Pragmatism or Utopia?

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;68(Supplement_1):S34-S41

Centre for Global Child Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Several decades following the first estimates of the global burden of typhoidal salmonellosis (infections caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi), this disorder remains a major cause of morbidity worldwide with an estimated 17 million cases annually. The risk factors for typhoid include poverty, poor living conditions with unsafe water and lack of adequate sanitation, and unsafe foods-all reasons for the disease burden being highest among such populations including urban slums. A recent review of typhoid trends globally and in specific countries suggests that the relative contributions of these risk factors to disease burden reduction as well as persistence have varied. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/68/Supplement_1/S34/532
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376087PMC
February 2019
7 Reads

Introduction of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccines in Africa and Asia.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;68(Supplement_1):S27-S30

PATH, Seattle, Washington.

Typhoid fever continues to be a major public health concern, particularly in many low- and middle-income countries. The current threats of increasing antimicrobial resistance, urbanization, and climate change elevate the urgency for better prevention and control efforts for typhoid fever. In 2017, the results of ground-breaking research on typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs), the World Health Organization prequalification of a TCV, and global policy and financing decisions have set the stage for the introduction of TCVs into routine immunization programs in endemic countries. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/68/Supplement_1/S27/532
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376078PMC
February 2019
14 Reads

Multidrug-resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella Hotspots as Targets for Vaccine Use in Management of Infections in Endemic Settings.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;68(Supplement_1):S10-S15

Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: Salmonella infections cause a disproportionately high number of deaths in Africa, especially among poor urban populations. The increasing level of multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections is a major cause of concern in these settings where alternative effective treatment is unavailable. Other options for management of these infections must be sought. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376148PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Overview of the Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Pipeline: Current Status and Future Plans.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;68(Supplement_1):S22-S26

International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Typhoid fever remains a common and serious disease in populations that live in low- and middle-income countries. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics, but problems with drug-resistant strains have been increasing in endemic countries, making treatment prolonged and costly. Improved sanitation and food hygiene have been effective in controlling the disease in the industrialized world, but these steps are associated with socioeconomic progress that has been slow in most of the affected areas. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/68/Supplement_1/S22/532
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376107PMC
February 2019
11 Reads

Revised Global Typhoid Vaccination Policy.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;68(Supplement_1):S31-S33

Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Typhoid fever is a continuing public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries; however, routine vaccination as a recommended control strategy has not been implemented in the past in most countries. Greater understanding of the typhoid fever burden, the increasing threat of antimicrobial resistance, and licensure of a new generation of typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) were instrumental in paving the way for the World Health Organization (WHO) to issue a revised global policy on typhoid vaccines in March 2018. The new policy follows evidence-based recommendations by the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization for routine and catch-up vaccination with TCVs and highlights considerations for universal, risk-based, or phased vaccination strategies in different settings. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/68/Supplement_1/S31/532
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376084PMC
February 2019
11 Reads

Progress in Typhoid Fever Epidemiology.

Authors:
John A Crump

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Feb;68(Supplement_1):S4-S9

Centre for International Health, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) is the cause of typhoid fever and a human host-restricted organism. Our understanding of the global burden of typhoid fever has improved in recent decades, with both an increase in the number and geographic representation of high-quality typhoid fever incidence studies, and greater sophistication of modeling approaches. The 2017 World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization recommendation for the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines for infants and children aged >6 months in typhoid-endemic countries is likely to require further improvements in our understanding of typhoid burden at the global and national levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376096PMC
February 2019
1 Read