15,827 results match your criteria Typhoid Fever


In Silico Characterization of B Cell and T Cell Epitopes for Subunit Vaccine Design of Salmonella typhi PgtE: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Approach.

J Comput Biol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

4 Data Mining and Text Mining Laboratory, Department of Bioinformatics, Bharathiar University , Coimbatore, India .

Typhoid fever is an acute illness in humans, caused by Salmonella typhi, a gram-negative bacterium. Outer membrane proteins of S. typhi have strong potential for its use in the development of subunit vaccine against typhoid. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based detection of typhoid fever on an automated Genie II Mk2 system - A case-control-based approach.

Acta Trop 2018 Dec 5;190:293-295. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Infectious Diseases Epidemiology, Bernhard-Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine Hamburg, Bernhard-Nocht-Str. 74, 20359, Hamburg, Germany; German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Hamburg-Borstel-Lübeck, Germany.

Typhoid fever, caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi, is an important cause of blood stream infections in the tropics, for which easy-to-apply molecular diagnostic approaches are desirable. The diagnostic performance of a newly introduced and a previously described loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) approach using different primer sets on a Genie II Mk2 device for the identification of Salmonella enterica ssp. Read More

View Article
December 2018

21st-century typhoid fever-progression of knowledge but regression of control?

Authors:
Karen H Keddy

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Dec;18(12):1296-1298

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa. Electronic address:

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

A cross-sectional study to assess the awareness and practices related to adult immunization among nursing students in a metropolitan city.

J Educ Health Promot 2018 29;7:129. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Community Medicine, Seth G. S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Introduction: Immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases in adults is the need of the hour. The student nurses by virtue of training are the frontline health workers dealing with patient care. They are exposed to maximum risk of contracting the diseases. Read More

View Article
October 2018
4 Reads

Emergence of Multi-Resistant Enteric Infection In A Paediatric Unit Of Karachi, Pakistan.

J Pak Med Assoc 2018 Dec;68(12):1848-1850

Postgraduate trainee, Department of Paediatrics, Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi Medical and Denatl College.

From June 2018, onwards, there has been an upsurge of multi-resistant enteric infections in children admitted from various catchment areas of Abbasi Shaheed Hospital (ASH). This is a serious concern as very few antibiotics are available to treat the children. Children from June 2018 to September 2018 of age groups 5. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

The phylogeography and incidence of multi-drug resistant typhoid fever in sub-Saharan Africa.

Nat Commun 2018 11 30;9(1):5094. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

The Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, 764 Vo Van Kiet, Quant 5, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

There is paucity of data regarding the geographical distribution, incidence, and phylogenetics of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella Typhi in sub-Saharan Africa. Here we present a phylogenetic reconstruction of whole genome sequenced 249 contemporaneous S. Typhi isolated between 2008-2015 in 11 sub-Saharan African countries, in context of the 2,057 global S. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Evaluation of two WHO First International Standards for Vi polysaccharide from Citrobacter freundii and Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi.

Biologicals 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Division of Bacteriology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Blanche Lane, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, EN6 3QG, UK.

Numerous Vi capsular polysaccharide (Vi PS) conjugate vaccines to protect young children and infants from Typhoid are either licensed or under development. These vaccines are evaluated by laboratory methods to ensure their potency and that quality requirement are met. International Standard (IS) preparations of Vi PS are needed to calibrate and harmonise these assays. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Identification of a Small Molecule Anti-biofilm Agent Against .

Front Microbiol 2018 20;9:2804. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, Infectious Diseases Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

Biofilm formation is a common strategy utilized by bacterial pathogens to establish persistence in a host niche. serovar Typhi, the etiological agent of Typhoid fever, relies on biofilm formation in the gallbladder to chronically colonize asymptomatic carriers, allowing for transmission to uninfected individuals. serovar Typhimurium utilizes biofilms to achieve persistence in human and animal hosts, an issue of both clinical and agricultural importance. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

The Genomic Architecture of Fowl Typhoid Resistance in Commercial Layers.

Front Genet 2018 19;9:519. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

The Pirbright Institute, Surrey, United Kingdom.

serovar Gallinarum causes devastating outbreaks of fowl typhoid across the globe, especially in developing countries. With the use of antimicrobial agents being reduced due to legislation and the absence of licensed vaccines in some parts of the world, an attractive complementary control strategy is to breed chickens for increased resistance to . The potential for genetic control of salmonellosis has been demonstrated by experimental challenge of inbred populations. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Virulotyping of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from Pakistan: Absence of complete SPI-10 in Vi negative isolates.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Nov 30;12(11):e0006839. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Immunology, Microbiology and Parasitology, University of the Basque Country, (UPV/EHU), Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.

The pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the cause of typhoid fever in humans, is mainly attributed to the acquisition of horizontally acquired DNA elements. Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) are indubitably the most important form of horizontally acquired DNA with respect to pathogenesis of this bacterium. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

In silico epitope identification of unique multidrug resistance proteins from Salmonella Typhi for vaccine development.

Comput Biol Chem 2018 Nov 22;78:74-80. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Structural Biology Laboratory, Department of Bioinformatics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, 641046, Tamilnadu, India.

Typhoid fever is a multisystemic illness caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and is resistant to most antibiotics and drugs. The resistance is conferred through multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins, which efflux most antibiotics and other drugs. We predicted potential candidate B-cell and T-cell epitopes using bio- and immune-informatics tools in the 11 MDR proteins - EmrA, EmrB, EmrD, MdtA, MdtB, MdtC, MdtG, MdtH, MdtK, MdtL and TolC. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Spatial and temporal heterogeneities of district-level typhoid morbidities in Ghana: A requisite insight for informed public health response.

PLoS One 2018 29;13(11):e0208006. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

ECHO Research Group International, Aflao, Ghana.

Typhoid fever is estimated to cause between 9.9-24.2 million cases and 75,000-208,000 deaths per year globally. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Paradigm Shift in Drug Re-purposing From Phenalenone to Phenaleno-Furanone to Combat Multi-Drug Resistant Serovar Typhi.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 14;8:402. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Biological Sciences, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia.

Over recent years, typhoid fever has gained increasing attention with several cases reporting treatment failure due to multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of serovar Typhi. While new drug development strategies are being devised to combat the threat posed by these MDR pathogens, drug repurposing or repositioning has become a good alternative. The latter is considered mainly due to its capacity for saving sufficient time and effort for pre-clinical and optimization studies. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Prevention of enteric fever in travellers with typhoid conjugate vaccines.

J Travel Med 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

View Article
November 2018
3 Reads

Typhoid fever complicated by cholecystitis in a 10-year-old boy.

J Paediatr Child Health 2018 Nov 25. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Department of Infectious Disease, Royal Hobart Hospital, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Reflections on the Sulphonylurea Story. A Drug Class at Risk of Extinction? Or A Drug Class Worth Reviving?

Diabetes Obes Metab 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Population Health & Genomics, School of Medicine, Level 5, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee.

Sulphonylureas (SU) were discovered in 1942 when French researchers observed severe hypoglycaemia in patients receiving sulphonamide treatment for typhoid fever . It was recognised that sulphonamide-induced hypoglycaemia mimicked the action of insulin . SU were introduced to clinical practice in the 1950s. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

In vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and other comparable agents against clinically important Gram-negative bacilli: results from the 2017 Surveillance of Multicenter Antimicrobial Resistance in Taiwan (SMART).

Infect Drug Resist 2018 26;11:1983-1992. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objectives: We investigated the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinically important Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from 16 major teaching hospitals in Taiwan in 2017.

Materials And Methods: (n=686) and bloodstream isolates (n=673), non-typhoid (NTS; n=221) from various sources, species (n=21) from fecal samples, and (n=129) from the genitourinary tract were collected. Antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Read More

View Article
October 2018
5 Reads

Non-Typhi, non-Paratyphi Salmonella-related hospitalisations in Spain: trends, clinical aspects, risk factors for worse prognosis and hospital costs.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Subdirectorate of Epidemiology, Health Department of the Community of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

This study reviews non-typhoid Salmonella (NTS)-related hospitalisations at National level in Spain between 2010 and 2015. NTS hospitalisations were obtained from the National Registry of Hospitalisations. A descriptive analysis of the hospitalisations was performed, including hospitalisation rates (HR) and case-fatality rates (CFR%) calculation. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Modelling the cost-effectiveness of a rapid diagnostic test (IgMFA) for uncomplicated typhoid fever in Cambodia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Nov 19;12(11):e0006961. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Global Health and Development, Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Typhoid fever is a common cause of fever in Cambodian children but diagnosis and treatment are usually presumptive owing to the lack of quick and accurate tests at an initial consultation. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for typhoid fever diagnosis, an immunoglobulin M lateral flow assay (IgMFA), in a remote health centre setting in Cambodia from a healthcare provider perspective. A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) with decision analytic modelling was conducted. Read More

View Article
November 2018
8 Reads

Functional analysis of Salmonella Typhi adaptation to survival in water.

Environ Microbiol 2018 Nov;20(11):4079-4090

The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK.

Contaminated water is a major risk factor associated with the transmission of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the aetiological agent of human typhoid. However, little is known about how this pathogen adapts to living in the aqueous environment. Read More

View Article
November 2018
15 Reads

Compound volvulus: a case report and literature review.

J Surg Case Rep 2018 Nov 13;2018(11):rjy311. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Surgery, Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, Nigeria.

Compound volvulus is an uncommon cause of acute abdomen and involves the twisting of the loops of ileum around the base of the sigmoid or vice versa. It is a surgical emergency that is often missed pre-operatively. We are reporting this case and reviewing the relevant literature to increase the awareness of this condition. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Manipulation of Typhi Gene Expression Impacts Innate Cell Responses in the Human Intestinal Mucosa.

Front Immunol 2018 1;9:2543. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Although immunity induced by typhoid fever is moderated and short-lived, typhoid vaccination with the attenuated Ty21a oral vaccine generates long-lasting protection rates reaching up to 92%. Thus, there are important differences on how wild-type and typhoid vaccine strains stimulate host immunity. We hypothesize that vaccine strains with different mutations might affect gut inflammation and intestinal permeability by different mechanisms. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Kenya.

BMC Microbiol 2018 Nov 14;18(1):187. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Typhoid fever remains a public health concern in developing countries especially among the poor who live in informal settlements devoid of proper sanitation and clean water supply. In addition antimicrobial resistance poses a major challenge in management of the disease. This study assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Evaluating PCR-Based Detection of Typhi and Paratyphi A in the Environment as an Enteric Fever Surveillance Tool.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Child Health Research Foundation, Department of Microbiology, Dhaka Shishu Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

With prequalification of a typhoid conjugate vaccine by the World Health Organization, countries are deciding whether and at what geographic scale to provide the vaccine. Optimal local data to clarify typhoid risk are expensive and often unavailable. To determine whether quantitative real-time PCR can be used as a tool to detect typhoidal DNA in the environment and approximate the burden of enteric fever, we tested water samples from urban Dhaka, where enteric fever burden is high, and rural Mirzapur, where enteric fever burden is low and sporadic. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Epithelial invasion by Salmonella Typhi using STIV-Met interaction.

Cell Microbiol 2018 Nov 13:e12982. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Division of Clinical Medicine, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India.

Typhoid is a life-threatening febrile illness that affects ~24.2 million people worldwide and is caused by the intracellular bacteria Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi). Read More

View Article
November 2018
6 Reads

Serovar Typhi in Bangladesh: Exploration of Genomic Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance.

MBio 2018 Nov 13;9(6). Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Typhoid fever, caused by serovar Typhi, is a global public health concern due to increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Characterization of Typhi genomes for AMR and the evolution of different lineages, especially in countries where typhoid fever is endemic such as Bangladesh, will help public health professionals to better design and implement appropriate preventive measures. We studied whole-genome sequences (WGS) of 536 Typhi isolates collected in Bangladesh during 1999 to 2013 and compared those sequences with data from a recent outbreak in Pakistan reported previously by E. Read More

View Article
November 2018
8 Reads

Digging deeper in the differential effects of inflammatory and psychosocial stressors in remitted depression: Effects on cognitive functioning.

J Affect Disord 2018 Nov 6;245:356-363. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Collaborative Antwerp Psychiatric Research Institute (CAPRI), University of Antwerp - Campus "Drie Eiken", Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium; Psychiatric Hospital Duffel, Stationsstraat 22C, 2570 Duffel, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) covers a wide spectrum of symptoms, including cognitive dysfunction, which can persist during remission. Both inflammatory states and psychosocial stress play a role in MDD pathogenesis.

Methods: The effects of inflammatory (i. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

In trauma, expect the unexpected: a rare case of post-traumatic pancreatitis associated with salmonellosis and enterocolitis.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Nov 8;2018. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Health Children's Medical Center Dallas, Dallas, Texas, USA.

A 16-year-old Hispanic man was transferred to our level I paediatric trauma centre with pancreatitis. Ten days prior, he had sustained a gunshot wound to the abdomen requiring an exploratory laparotomy for repair of a traumatic left diaphragmatic injury. Additional injuries included gastric, renal, liver and pancreatic lacerations as well as a T12 burst fracture that resulted in paraplegia. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Typhi Infection Among Adult Patients in Qatar: A Hospital-based Study.

Oman Med J 2018 Nov;33(6):468-472

Department of Microbiology, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.

Objectives: We sought to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of typhoid fever in Qatar.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of adult patients treated for typhoid fever at Hamad General Hospital and Alkhor Hospital between 2005 and 2012.

Results: The mean age of the 354 patients enrolled in the study was 28. Read More

View Article
November 2018
5 Reads

The Typhoid epidemic: Where are we heading?

J Pak Med Assoc 2018 Nov;68(11):1741-1742

Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi.

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Sero-prevalence and associated risk factors of Brucellosis among Malaria negative febrile out-patients in Wakiso district, Central Uganda.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Nov 8;11(1):803. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Biomolecular Resources and Biolab Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.

Objective: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease usually acquired through direct contact with the infected animals and consumption of contaminated milk and meat products. In humans Brucellosis presents similar signs with other febrile diseases like Malaria, typhoid and other febrile conditions. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Brucella abortus among patients with fever but were negative for Malaria. Read More

View Article
November 2018
6 Reads

Typhoid in a Kenyan Village: Its Impact, Its Prevention.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Nov;99(5):1112-1113

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Dry Gangrene in Children with Typhoid Intestinal Perforation: A Report of Two Cases.

Case Rep Surg 2018 8;2018:7097014. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Paediatrics, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano., Nigeria.

Intestinal perforation is a life-threatening complication of typhoid fever commonly seen in developing countries, but extraintestinal complications are infrequently reported. We report herein two cases of gangrene seen in children managed for typhoid intestinal perforation, highlighting the challenges faced in their management. Read More

View Article
October 2018
17 Reads

Pediatric travelers presenting to an Australian emergency department (2014-2015): A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2018 Nov 3. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Discipline of Pediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Australia; Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, Australia; Marie Bashir Institute of Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Epidemiological data on pediatric travelers are lacking, especially from Oceania. We aimed to evaluate travelers presenting to a pediatric emergency department in Sydney during a time of heightened travel surveillance.

Method: Cases between December 2014 and February 2015 were ascertained by screening medical records for key terms and visa status, as well as laboratory data for malaria testing. Read More

View Article
November 2018
3 Reads

Epidemiological Trend of Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fevers in Zhejiang Province, China from 1953 to 2014.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Nov 1;15(11). Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Epidemiology & Health Statistics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

: The incidences of typhoid and paratyphoid remain high and these diseases still pose a public health problem in China and in Zhejiang Province in particular. This study aimed to investigate the trend of typhoid and paratyphoid in Zhejiang Province from 1953 to 2014 and to provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of these diseases. : Included in this study were compiled epidemiological data of typhoid and paratyphoid cases in Zhejiang from 1953 to 2003 and epidemiological data of those from 2004 to 2014 registered in the China Information System for Diseases Control and Prevention. Read More

View Article
November 2018
5 Reads

Rewiring of one carbon metabolism in Salmonella serves as an excellent live vaccine against systemic salmonellosis.

Vaccine 2018 Nov 29;36(50):7715-7727. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India; Centre for Biosystems Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India. Electronic address:

Live attenuated vaccines are superior to the killed or subunit vaccines. We designed a Salmonella Typhimurium strain by deleting folD gene (encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-cyclohydrolase) in the presence of a heterologous fhs gene (encoding formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase) and tested its vaccine potential under stringent conditions of lethal and sub-lethal challenges with virulent Salmonella in the murine model. The efficacy of the vaccine in conferring protection against Salmonella infection was determined in a wide range of host conditions of systemic infection, corresponding to human young adults, neonates, geriatric age and, importantly, to the immune compromised state of pregnancy. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads
3.624 Impact Factor

Health Problems while Working as a Volunteer or Humanitarian Aid Worker in Post-Earthquake Nepal.

JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc 2018 Mar-Apr;56(211):691-695

CIWEC Hospital and Travel Medicine Center, Kapurdhara Marg, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Introduction: Volunteers and humanitarian aid workers working in disaster struck areas of the world are a vulnerable group of travelers. Nepal saw an influx of these humanitarian aid workers following earthquakes in April and May 2015. This study was undertaken to find out the pre-travel preparation and to estimate the risk of disease while the volunteers were deployed in Nepal. Read More

View Article
November 2018
3 Reads

A Case of Malaria Predisposing to Bacteremia in a Returning Traveler from Nigeria.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2018 27;2018:8463417. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, MSC 752, Charleston, SC, USA.

We describe a febrile adult returning to the U.S. from Nigeria. Read More

View Article
September 2018
1 Read

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with neurological manifestations in an infant with scrub typhus: a rare fatal occurrence.

Trop Doct 2018 Oct 26:49475518804696. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

4 Director Professor and Head, Department of Pediatrics, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of unchecked activation of the immune system leading to phagocytosis of blood cells and proliferation of histiocytes in solid organs. HLH can be primary or secondary to infective, autoimmune and malignant conditions. Scrub typhus is an infective illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, transmitted by mite. Read More

View Article
October 2018
7 Reads

Edward Ballard and the Practice of Epidemiology in the 19th-Century United Kingdom.

Am J Public Health 2018 Dec 25;108(12):1632-1638. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Jacob Steere-Williams is with the Department of History, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC.

This article recovers the history of Victorian epidemiology through the career of British physician Edward Ballard (1820-1897). Ballard's career provides a useful window into the practices of epidemiology in the 19th century because he held notable public health posts as medical officer of health for Islington and inspector at the Medical Department of the Local Government Board. By the time of his death, in 1897, he typified the transition toward professional epidemiology. Read More

View Article
December 2018
4 Reads

Effect of live oral attenuated Typhoid vaccine, Ty21a, on systemic and terminal ileum mucosal CD4+ T memory responses in humans.

Int Immunol 2018 Oct 20. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Our current understanding of CD4+ T cell mediated immunity (CMI) elicited by the oral live attenuated typhoid vaccine Ty21a is primarily derived from studies using peripheral blood. Very limited data is available in humans regarding mucosal immunity (especially CD4+ T) at the site of infection (e.g. Read More

View Article
October 2018
4 Reads

Typhoid Fever Diagnosis in Endemic Countries: A Clog in the Wheel of Progress?

Medicina (Kaunas) 2018 Apr 25;54(2). Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu 400241, Nigeria.

Typhoid fever causes significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries, with inaccurate estimates in some countries affected, especially those situated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Disease burden assessment is limited by lack of a high degree of sensitivity and specificity by many current rapid diagnostic tests. Some of the new technologies, such as PCR and proteomics, may also be useful but are difficult for low-resource settings to apply as point-of-care diagnostics. Read More

View Article
April 2018
10 Reads

Travellers take heed: Outbreak of extensively drug resistant (XDR) typhoid fever in Pakistan and a warning from the US CDC.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2018 Oct 16. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.

View Article
October 2018
12 Reads

Extensively Drug-Resistant Typhoid - Are Conjugate Vaccines Arriving Just in Time?

N Engl J Med 2018 Oct;379(16):1493-1495

From the Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (J.R.A.); the Department of Pediatric and Child Health, the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan (F.N.Q.); and the Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital (R.C.C., E.T.R.), the Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School (R.C.C., E.T.R.), and the Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (E.T.R.) - all in Boston.

View Article
October 2018
12 Reads

Typhoid vaccine responses in travellers treated with immunosuppressive therapy.

J Travel Med 2018 Jan;25(1)

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

View Article
January 2018
1 Read

Madagascar should introduce typhoid conjugate vaccines now.

Lancet 2018 10;392(10155):1309-1310

Laboratoire de Microbiologie et de Parasitologie, University of Antananarivo, Antananarivo, Madagascar.

View Article
October 2018
4 Reads

Antibiotic-Resistant in the Food Supply and the Potential Role of Antibiotic Alternatives for Control.

Foods 2018 Oct 11;7(10). Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108 USA.

is one of the most ubiquitous enteropathogenic bacterial species on earth, and comprises more than 2500 serovars. Widely known for causing non-typhoidal foodborne infections (95%), and enteric (typhoid) fever in humans, colonizes almost all warm- and cold-blooded animals, in addition to its extra-animal environmental strongholds. The last few decades have witnessed the emergence of highly virulent and antibiotic-resistant , causing greater morbidity and mortality in humans. Read More

View Article
October 2018
2 Reads

A systematic review of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the etiological agent of typhoid.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Oct 11;12(10):e0006779. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford and the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: The temporal and spatial change in trends of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in typhoid have not been systematically studied, and such information will be critical for defining intervention, as well as planning sustainable prevention strategies.

Methodology And Findings: To identify the phenotypic trends in AMR, 13,833 individual S. Typhi isolates, reported from 1973 to 2018 in 62 publications, were analysed to determine the AMR preponderance over time. Read More

View Article
October 2018
3 Reads

A Retrospective Review of Hospital-Based Data on Enteric Fever in India, 2014-2015.

J Infect Dis 2018 Nov;218(suppl_4):S206-S213

Sabin Vaccine Institute, Washington, D. C., Georgia.

Background: Enteric fever remains a threat to many countries with minimal access to clean water and poor sanitation infrastructure. As part of a multisite surveillance study, we conducted a retrospective review of records in 5 hospitals across India to gather evidence on the burden of enteric fever.

Methods: We examined hospital records (laboratory and surgical registers) from 5 hospitals across India for laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Typhi or Salmonella Paratyphi cases and intestinal perforations from 2014-2015. Read More

View Article
November 2018
5 Reads

The Relationship Between Blood Sample Volume and Diagnostic Sensitivity of Blood Culture for Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Infect Dis 2018 Nov;218(suppl_4):S255-S267

Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut.

Background: Blood culture is the standard diagnostic method for typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever in surveillance studies and clinical trials, but sensitivity is widely acknowledged to be suboptimal. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine sources of heterogeneity across studies and quantified the effect of blood volume.

Methods: We searched the literature to identify all studies that performed blood culture alongside bone marrow culture (a gold standard) to detect cases of enteric fever. Read More

View Article
November 2018
19 Reads