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    [Globalization: challenges in abdominal surgery for migrants and refugees].
    Chirurg 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Chirurgische Klinik, Universitätsklinikum Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim, Deutschland.
    The increasing number of refugees, migrants and international travelers influences the surgical spectrum of abdominal diseases. The aim of this review is to familiarize surgeons with specific diseases which are endemic in the patients' countries of origin and are likely to be diagnosed with increasing incidence in Germany. Low levels of hygiene in the countries of origin or refugee camps is associated with a high incidence of numerous infections, such as helminth infections, typhoid fever or amoebiasis, which if untreated can cause surgical emergencies. Read More

    Splenic Abscess Caused by Salmonella Typhi and Co-Infection with Leptospira.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2017 Dec;65(12):95-97
    Professor, Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.
    Splenic abscesses caused by Salmonella typhi are a very rare complication of typhoid fever in this era of use of specific antibiotics. Co-infection with Leptospira in such a patient is even rarer. Clinical diagnosis of splenic abscess caused by Salmonella is difficult owing to its rarity, being insidious in onset and having nonspecific clinical presentation. Read More

    Decoding a Salmonella Typhi Regulatory Network that Controls Typhoid Toxin Expression within Human Cells.
    Cell Host Microbe 2018 Jan;23(1):65-76.e6
    Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536, USA. Electronic address:
    Salmonella Typhi is the cause of typhoid fever, a major global health concern. An essential virulence factor of this pathogen is typhoid toxin. In contrast to most AB-type toxins, typhoid toxin is exclusively expressed by intracellular bacteria. Read More

    Biofilm Formation Protects Salmonella from the Antibiotic Ciprofloxacin In Vitro and In Vivo in the Mouse Model of chronic Carriage.
    Sci Rep 2018 Jan 9;8(1):222. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, Infectious Diseases Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
    Typhoid fever is caused by the human-restricted pathogen Salmonella enterica sv. Typhi. Approximately 5% of people that resolve the disease become chronic carriers, with the gallbladder as the main reservoir of the bacteria. Read More

    Chronic urinary carrier state due to Salmonella Typhi causing urinary tract infection in an immunocompetent healthy woman.
    Trop Doct 2018 Jan 1:49475517752205. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    4 Professor and Head, Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College Hospital, Chandigarh, India.
    Enteric fever caused by Salmonella Typhi is a global public health problem. With adequate treatment, most patients recover from the acute phase; however, 2-4% develop a chronic carrier state acting as reservoir of infection by continued shedding of bacteria in faeces and urine. Recovery of S. Read More

    INCIDENCE OF MALARIA/TYPHOID CO-INFECTION AMONG ADULT POPULATION IN UNWANA COMMUNITY, AFIKPO NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, EBONYI STATE, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA.
    Afr J Infect Dis 2018 15;12(1):33-38. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi.
    Background: Malaria and typhoid fever are two leading infections of poverty with serious health and socioeconomic impacts, and due to their geographical overlap, co-infections are very common. Their mimicking symptomatology often present with gross misdiagnosis and mistreatment. This study was carried out to determine the incidence of malaria and typhoid co-infections among adult population in Unwana Community, Afikpo-North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Read More

    The influence of conjugation variables on the design and immunogenicity of a glycoconjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi.
    PLoS One 2017 29;12(12):e0189100. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    GSK Vaccines Institute for Global Health (GVGH), Siena, Italy.
    In recent years there have been major efforts to develop glycoconjugate vaccines based on the Vi polysaccharide that will protect against Salmonella enterica Typhi infections, particularly typhoid fever, which remains a major public health concern in low-income countries. The design of glycoconjugate vaccines influences the immune responses they elicit. Here we systematically test the response in mice to Vi glycoconjugates that differ in Vi chain length (full-length and fragmented), carrier protein, conjugation chemistry, saccharide to protein ratio and size. Read More

    Typhoid Vaccination among Japanese Travelers to South Asia and the Factors Associated with Compliance.
    Intern Med 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Infection Control and Prevention, Kurume University School of Medicine, Japan.
    Objective In 2010, candid advice concerning the low rate of typhoid vaccination among Japanese travelers was received from Nepal. Recently, progressive Japanese travel clinics have encouraged Japanese travelers to be vaccinated against typhoid fever in conjunction with officially approved vaccines, such as hepatitis A vaccine. We herein report the status of typhoid vaccinations for Japanese travelers to the most endemic area (South Asia) and describe the factors associated with compliance. Read More

    Determinants of postoperative morbidity and mortality in children managed for typhoid intestinal perforation in Kano Nigeria.
    J Pediatr Surg 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Division Of Pediatrics Infectious Disease University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, USA.
    Background: Intestinal perforation is a serious but poorly understood complication of typhoid fever. This study aims to determine the patient factors associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of all children presenting to our unit with typhoid intestinal perforation (TIP) between March 2009 and December 2013. Read More

    An Updated View on the Rck Invasin of Salmonella: Still Much to Discover.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 8;7:500. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR1282 Infectiologie et Santé Publique, Nouzilly, France.
    Salmonella is a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium, responsible for a wide range of food- and water-borne diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to typhoid fever depending on hosts and serotypes. Salmonella thus represents a major threat to public health. A key step in Salmonella pathogenesis is the invasion of phagocytic and non-phagocytic host cells. Read More

    Primary care challenges of an obscure case of "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome in a patient with severe malaria in a resource-constrained setting: a case report.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Dec 22;17(1):789. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Health Education and Research Organization, Buea, Cameroon.
    Background: "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome (AIWS) is a rare neurological abnormality characterized by distortions of visual perceptions, body schema and experience of time. AIWS has been reported in patients with various infections such as infectious mononucleosis, H1N1 influenza, Cytomegalovirus encephalitis, and typhoid encephalopathy. However, AIWS occurring in a patient with severe malaria is less familiar and could pose serious primary care challenges in a low-income context. Read More

    Protection against inhalation anthrax by immunization with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a stably producing protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis.
    NPJ Vaccines 2017 15;2:17. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Protein Potential LLC, Rockville, MD 20850 USA.
    The national blueprint for biodefense concluded that the United States is underprepared for biological threats. The licensed anthrax vaccine absorbed vaccine, BioThrax, requires administration of at least 3-5 intramuscular doses. The anthrax vaccine absorbed vaccine consists of complex cell-free culture filtrates of a toxigenic Bacillus anthracis strain and causes tenderness at the injection site and significant adverse events. Read More

    Vertical transmission of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A leading to abortion.
    JMM Case Rep 2017 Nov 15;4(11):e005127. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Introduction. Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (typhoid fever) or S. enterica serotype Paratyphi A, B or C (paratyphoid fever), is a major health problem in developing countries. Read More

    Integration of molecular dynamics simulation and hotspot residues grafting for de novo scFv design against Salmonella Typhi TolC protein.
    J Mol Recognit 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia.
    With the development of de novo binders for protein targets from non-related scaffolds, many possibilities for therapeutics and diagnostics have been created. In this study, we described the use of de novo design approach to create single-chain fragment variable (scFv) for Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi TolC protein. Typhoid fever is a global health concern in developing and underdeveloped countries. Read More

    Comparison of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Typhimurium reveals typhoidal-specific responses to bile.
    Infect Immun 2017 Dec 11. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Typhimurium cause typhoid fever and gastroenteritis respectively. A unique feature of typhoid infection is asymptomatic carriage within the gallbladder, which is linked with S Typhi transmission. Despite this, S Typhi responses to bile have been poorly studied. Read More

    The impact of new national guidance for the public health management of enteric fever in England.
    Public Health 2018 Jan 22;154:79-86. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Field Epidemiology Service, National Infection Service, Public Health England, Skipton House, 80 London Road, SE1 6LH, UK.
    Objectives: New guidance was published in England in February 2012 to support the public health management of enteric fever and reduce the risks of secondary transmission. The new guidance was evaluated to assess: STUDY DESIGN: Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the implementation of new public health guidance.

    Methods: A qualitative review of all non-travel-related cases from February 2010 to January 2014 to compare the risk of secondary transmission before and after the guidance introduction; an audit of clearance sampling for each case and their contacts reported in London from February 2012-January 2015 to compare with a previous London audit; and an online user survey in November 2014. Read More

    Investigation into a community outbreak of Salmonella Typhi in Bengaluru, India.
    Indian J Med Res 2017 Jul;146(Supplement):S15-S22
    Mazumdar Shaw Centre for Translational Research, Narayana Health City, Bengaluru, India.
    Background & Objectives: Outbreaks of infection due to Salmonella enterica servovar Typhi (S. Typhi) are a great threat to public health. A rapid molecular typing method to characterize strains implicated in an outbreak is critical in implementing appropriate control measures. Read More

    Characterization of antimicrobial resistance markers & their stability in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.
    Indian J Med Res 2017 Jul;146(Supplement):S9-S14
    National Salmonella & Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli, India.
    Background & Objectives: Typhoid fever is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing countries including India. Resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents is an emerging global problem that has serious impact on the treatment of disease. There are many factors associated with the emergence of resistance. Read More

    In vivo tropism of Salmonella Typhi toxin to cells expressing a multiantennal glycan receptor.
    Nat Microbiol 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.
    Typhoid fever is a life-threatening disease, but little is known about the molecular bases for its unique clinical presentation. Typhoid toxin, a unique virulence factor of Salmonella Typhi (the cause of typhoid fever), recapitulates in an animal model many symptoms of typhoid fever. Typhoid toxin binding to its glycan receptor Neu5Ac is central, but, due to the ubiquity of Neu5Ac, how typhoid toxin causes specific symptoms remains elusive. Read More

    Massive Lower Gastrointestinal Bleed caused by Typhoid Ulcer: Conservative Management.
    Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol 2017 Jul-Dec;7(2):176-177. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    Department of Medicine University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Typhoid fever is caused by gram-negative organism Salmonella typhi. The usual presentation is high-grade fever, but complications like gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage and perforation are also seen frequently. With the advent of antibiotics, these complications are rarely seen now. Read More

    Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous plants in Kel village, Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.
    J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2017 Dec 1;13(1):68. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Department of Botany, University of Poonch Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, 12350, Pakistan.
    Background: This explorative study was undertaken for the first time in Kel village located in the Upper Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. The purpose was to document the indigenous knowledge of the native people used in the preparation of herbal medicines.

    Methods: To get the data on traditional uses of medicinal plants, 20 informants were interviewed. Read More

    Knowledge, attitude and practice of hygiene and sanitation in a Burundian refugee camp: implications for control of a Salmonella typhi outbreak.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 21;28:54. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    WHO Country Office, Ebenezer House, Boulevard of Umuganda, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Introduction: A Salmonella typhi outbreak was reported in a Burundian refugee camp in Rwanda in October 2015. Transmission persisted despite increased hygiene promotion activities and hand-washing facilities instituted to prevent and control the outbreak. A knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of ongoing typhoid fever preventive interventions. Read More

    A 23-year retrospective investigation of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi isolated in a tertiary Kathmandu hospital.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Nov 27;11(11):e0006051. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Background: Salmonella serovars Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A), the causative agents of enteric fever, have been routinely isolated organisms from the blood of febrile patients in the Kathmandu Valley since the early 1990s. Read More

    Lessons Learned from Emergency Response Vaccination Efforts for Cholera, Typhoid, Yellow Fever, and Ebola.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Dec;23(13)
    Countries must be prepared to respond to public health threats associated with emergencies, such as natural disasters, sociopolitical conflicts, or uncontrolled disease outbreaks. Rapid vaccination of populations vulnerable to epidemic-prone vaccine-preventable diseases is a major component of emergency response. Emergency vaccination planning presents challenges, including how to predict resource needs, expand vaccine availability during global shortages, and address regulatory barriers to deliver new products. Read More

    Development of a synthetic Vi polysaccharide vaccine for typhoid fever.
    Vaccine 2017 Dec 14;35(51):7121-7126. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.
    Typhoid fever remains a serious public health problem with a high impact on toddlers and young children. Vaccines against the Vi capsular polysaccharide are efficacious against typhoid fever demonstrating that antibodies against Vi confer protection. The currently licensed Vi typhoid vaccines have however limited efficacy and are manufactured by a complex process from wild-type bacteria. Read More

    Association between prior antibiotic therapy and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections: a systematic review.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Primary Care and Public Health Sciences, King's College London, Addison House, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK.
    Background: Antibiotic use can have negative unintended consequences including disruption of the human microbiota, which is thought to protect against pathogen overgrowth. We conducted a systematic review to assess whether there is an association between exposure to antibiotics and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections.

    Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published before 30 June 2017, examining the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection. Read More

    Role of computed tomography of abdomen in difficult to diagnose typhoid fever: a case series.
    Trop Doct 2017 Jan 1:49475517740311. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    4 Consultant, Department of Internal Medicine and Diabetology, 470686 Gleneagles Global Health City , Perumbakkam, Chennai, India.
    Background and Aim Diagnosis of typhoid is challenging when blood cultures fail to isolate Salmonella species. We report our experience with interpreting computed tomography (CT) abdomen findings in a case series of typhoid fever. Methods The case series consisted of patients who had a CT abdomen done as part of their investigations and a final diagnosis of typhoid fever. Read More

    [Spatial and temporal clustering characteristics of typhoid and paratyphoid fever and its change pattern in 3 provinces in southwestern China, 2001-2012].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 Nov;38(11):1504-1508
    State Key Laboratory for Communicable Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.
    Objective: To analyze the spatial and temporal clustering characteristics of typhoid and paratyphoid fever and its change pattern in Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi provinces in southwestern China in recent years. Methods: The incidence data of typhoid and paratyphoid fever cases at county level in 3 provinces during 2001-2012 were collected from China Information System for Diseases Control and Prevention and analyzed by the methods of descriptive epidemiology and geographic informatics. And the map showing the spatial and temporal clustering characters of typhoid and paratyphoid fever cases in three provinces was drawn. Read More

    Prevalence of current patterns and predictive trends of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhi in Sudan.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Nov 14;16(1):73. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Background: Enteric fever has persistence of great impact in Sudanese public health especially during rainy season when the causative agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi possesses pan endemic patterns in most regions of Sudan - Khartoum.

    Objectives: The present study aims to assess the recent state of antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi with special concern to multidrug resistance strains and predict the emergence of new resistant patterns and outbreaks.

    Methods: Salmonella Typhi strains were isolated and identified according to the guidelines of the International Standardization Organization and the World Health Organization. Read More

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Producing CTX-M-15 Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Oct;65(7):1229-1231
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium.
    We report a typhoid fever case with a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolate showing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the strain carried a plasmid-mediated CTX-M-15 ESBL gene and did not belong to the dominant H58 Salmonella Typhi clade. Read More

    [Results after surgical management of ileal perforation due to typhoid fever, about 29 cases in Ouahigouya (Burkina Faso)].
    Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2017 Dec 10;110(5):298-299. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Service de chirurgie générale, Centre hospitalier universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
    The aim of this study was to determine the results of management of typhoid perforations. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016 in the General Surgery Department of the Regional Teaching Hospital Center of Ouahigouya (Burkina Faso). It involved 29 operated patients, in whom the diagnosis of typhoid perforation was confirmed at laparotomy: age, sex, admission time, clinical, therapeutic and prognostic aspects were analyzed. Read More

    A new primary health-care system in the Syrian opposition territories: Good effort but far from being perfect.
    Avicenna J Med 2017 Oct-Dec;7(4):189-192
    Department of Neurology, Clinical Associate Professor, University of Alberta, Senior consultant Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
    Objectives: The primary health-care system in Syria has suffered a great deal of damage over the past 6 years. A large number of physicians and health-care providers have left the country. The objectives of this study are to describe our experience in establishing a primary health-care system in the opposition territories (OTs) in Syria and report the most common treated diseases. Read More

    Travel Characteristics and Pretravel Health Care Among Pregnant or Breastfeeding U.S. Women Preparing for International Travel.
    Obstet Gynecol 2017 Dec;130(6):1357-1365
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center, Bronx, New York; the Department of Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; the Department of Surgery, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; MGH Biostatistics Center and the Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; the Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; the Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; the Department of Pediatrics and the Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts; the International Clinic, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; the Division of Infectious Diseases and Travel Medicine, Mount Auburn Hospital, Cambridge, Massachusetts; and the Department of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Objective: To study characteristics and preventive interventions of adult pregnant and breastfeeding travelers seeking pretravel health care in the United States.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed data (2009-2014) of pregnant and breastfeeding travelers seen at U.S. Read More

    A Rare Coincidence of Measles with Typhoid Fever.
    Cureus 2017 Aug 30;9(8):e1630. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Typhoid, otherwise known as enteric fever, and measles both have a high incidence worldwide. However, a coincidence of both has been only documented twice previously in 1866 and 1949. We present a case of a 24-year-old male who presented with high-grade fever and diffuse abdominal tenderness. Read More

    Transcriptomic study of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi biofilm.
    BMC Genomics 2017 Oct 31;18(1):836. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, USM, Malaysia.
    Background: Typhoid fever is an acute systemic infection of humans caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). In chronic carriers, the bacteria survive the harsh environment of the gallbladder by producing biofilm. Read More

    Encephalitis in a traveller with typhoid fever: efficacy of corticosteroids.
    J Travel Med 2017 Sep;24(6)
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Pitié Salpétrière Hospital, 47-83 Boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France.
    Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella typhi or S. paratyphi, recognized as a classical cause of fever in returning travellers. However, neuropsychiatric presentations are rarely reported in travellers diagnosed in western countries, whereas they are more commonly described in patients treated in endemic areas. Read More

    Systematic review of the clinical manifestations of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Greater Mekong Subregion: implications for malaria elimination and beyond.
    BMJ Glob Health 2017 19;2(3):e000415. Epub 2017 Aug 19.
    Department of Community and Global Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Introduction: To achieve malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) by 2030, proper case management is necessary. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, are the only available medicines effective in preventing relapse of the hypnozoite stage of Plasmodium vivax, as well as the onward transmission of Plasmodium falciparum. However, primaquine can cause haemolysis in individuals who have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd). Read More

    Modelling and Optimal Control of Typhoid Fever Disease with Cost-Effective Strategies.
    Comput Math Methods Med 2017 10;2017:2324518. Epub 2017 Sep 10.
    Department of Mathematics, Kenyatta University, Nairobi City, Kenya.
    We propose and analyze a compartmental nonlinear deterministic mathematical model for the typhoid fever outbreak and optimal control strategies in a community with varying population. The model is studied qualitatively using stability theory of differential equations and the basic reproductive number that represents the epidemic indicator is obtained from the largest eigenvalue of the next-generation matrix. Both local and global asymptotic stability conditions for disease-free and endemic equilibria are determined. Read More

    Induction of Cell Cycle and NK Cell Responses by Live-Attenuated Oral Vaccines against Typhoid Fever.
    Front Immunol 2017 12;8:1276. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    The mechanisms by which oral, live-attenuated vaccines protect against typhoid fever are poorly understood. Here, we analyze transcriptional responses after vaccination with Ty21a or vaccine candidate, M01ZH09. Alterations in response profiles were related to vaccine-induced immune responses and subsequent outcome after wild-type Salmonella Typhi challenge. Read More

    Integration of enteric fever surveillance into the WHO-coordinated Invasive Bacterial-Vaccine Preventable Diseases (IB-VPD) platform: A low cost approach to track an increasingly important disease.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Oct 26;11(10):e0005999. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Child Health Research Foundation, Department of Microbiology, Dhaka Shishu (Children) Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Background: Lack of surveillance systems and accurate data impede evidence-based decisions on treatment and prevention of enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi/Paratyphi. The WHO coordinates a global Invasive Bacterial-Vaccine Preventable Diseases (IB-VPD) surveillance network but does not monitor enteric fever. We evaluated the feasibility and sustainability of integrating enteric fever surveillance into the ongoing IB-VPD platform. Read More

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection acquired through a traditional healer's ritual: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Oct 26;11(1):301. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Jakaya Kikwete Cardiac Institute, P.O Box 65141, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Background: Globally, over 36 million people were infected with human immunodeficiency virus by the end of 2015. The Sub-Saharan African region home to less than one-fifth of the global population disproportionately harbors over two-thirds of the total infections and related deaths. Residents of Sub-Saharan Africa continue to face limited access to allopathic medicine and it is estimated that over 80% of primary health care needs in the region are met through traditional healing practices. Read More

    Biomagnetic Pair Therapy and Typhoid Fever: A Pilot Study.
    Med Acupunct 2017 Oct;29(5):308-312
    Re-Genesis Health: New Beginnings in Health & Wellness, Global Mission Partners, Inc., Edmond, OK.
    Objective: This pilot study examined the laboratory responses of patients with laboratory-documented typhoid fever who were treated with Biomagnetic Pair Therapy (BPT; medical biomagnetism), a specific application of pairs of magnets for various ailments that are infectious and otherwise. Materials and Methods: This study was an assessment of patients' response to treatment with only BPT for Salmonella typhi infections (typhoid fever) using standard conventional laboratory techniques. The research was conducted in an outpatient village clinic in Kenya. Read More

    Profile of hepatic involvement in dengue infections in adult Pakistani population.
    Pak J Med Sci 2017 Jul-Aug;33(4):963-967
    Dr. Fawad Ahmad Randhawa, FCPS (Medicine). Assistant Professor of Medicine, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Objectives: To estimate the range of hepatic involvement in dengue infections by assessing clinical and biochemical profile of adult dengue infected patients.

    Methods: Serologically confirmed 220 adult cases of dengue infections admitted to Mayo hospital from June 2013 to November 2013 were classified as having dengue fever, dengue haemorragic fever and dengue shock syndrome. The frequency and range of bilirubin, liver enzymes derangement and presence of liver enlargement in each group was calculated and further stratified according to age and gender. Read More


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