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    1 OF 252

    Sero-epidemiology study of leptospirosis in febrile patients from Terai region of Nepal.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 18;17(1):628. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Health Services, Ministry of Health, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Background: Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic strains of bacteria belonging to genus Leptospira whose symptoms can range from mild clinical manifestations to a severe life threatening illness. This disease may be under-recognized in resource poor settings like Nepal where many clinical laboratories lack appropriate equipment, technology and personnel for proper diagnosis.

    Methods: We used IgM ELISA to estimate the sero-prevalence of leptospirosis in a group of febrile patients in a western region of Nepal. Read More

    Typhoid and Scrub Typhus Coinfection in a Returned Traveler.
    Glob Pediatr Health 2017 25;4:2333794X17726941. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
    This is a case report of a 12-year-old returned traveler with typhoid and scrub typhus coinfection. The diagnosis of typhoid was made early with blood cultures and Widal Weil Felix serology. Persistent fever despite appropriate antibiotics for typhoid fever prompted a search for concomitant infection, which led to the diagnosis of scrub typhus confirmed by Orientia tsutsugamushi serology. Read More

    Vaccinations and Malaria Chemoprophylaxis of Adolescents Traveling from Greece to International Destinations: A Nine-Year Prospective Study.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Sep 6. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    aDepartment for Interventions in Health Care Facilities, Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Athens, Greece; bFirst Department of Pediatrics, University of Athens Medical School, Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    Background: There are few publications focusing on vaccination and malaria chemoprophylaxis in adolescent travelers. We assessed pre-travel vaccinations and malaria chemoprophylaxis of adolescents 12-18 old traveling from Greece to international destinations.

    Methods: We prospectively studied 239 adolescents 12-18 years old during 2008-2016. Read More

    Use of a novel antigen expressing system to study the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi protein recognition by T cells.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 5;11(9):e0005912. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Center for Vaccine Development (CVD), Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.
    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of the typhoid fever, is a pathogen of great public health importance. Typhoid vaccines have the potential to be cost-effective measures towards combating this disease, yet the antigens triggering host protective immune responses are largely unknown. Read More

    Biofilm Producing Salmonella Typhi: Chronic Colonization and Development of Gallbladder Cancer.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Aug 31;18(9). Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Clinical Pathology and Microbiology, San Gallicano Institute, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), 00144 Rome, Italy.
    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi is the aetiological agent of typhoid or enteric fever. In a subset of individuals, S. Typhi colonizes the gallbladder causing an asymptomatic chronic infection. Read More

    Review of current typhoid fever vaccines, cross-protection against paratyphoid fever, and the European guidelines.
    Expert Rev Vaccines 2017 Oct;16(10):1029-1043
    d Department of Clinical Medicine , University of Helsinki , Helsinki , Finland.
    Introduction: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever remain a global health problem, which - in non-endemic countries - are mainly seen in travelers, particularly in VFRs (visiting friends and relatives), with occasional local outbreaks occurring. A rise in anti-microbial resistance emphasizes the role of preventive measures, especially vaccinations against typhoid and paratyphoid fever for travelers visiting endemic countries. Areas covered: This state-of-the-art review recapitulates the epidemiology and mechanisms of disease of typhoid and paratyphoid fever, depicts the perspective of non-endemic countries and travelers (VFRs), and collectively presents current European recommendations for typhoid fever vaccination. Read More

    Swiss Army Pathogen: The Salmonella Entry Toolkit.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 9;7:348. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Pathology, University of CambridgeCambridge, United Kingdom.
    Salmonella causes disease in humans and animals ranging from mild self-limiting gastroenteritis to potentially life-threatening typhoid fever. Salmonellosis remains a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and hence imposes a huge socio-economic burden worldwide. A key property of all pathogenic Salmonella strains is the ability to invade non-phagocytic host cells. Read More

    Predictors of Hypertension in a Population of Undergraduate Students in Sierra Leone.
    Int J Hypertens 2017 3;2017:8196362. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Njala University, PMB, Freetown, Sierra Leone.
    We report on the first survey of hypertension in undergraduates in Sierra Leone. Levels of hypertension (12%) and obesity (4%) appear low compared to the general population but given the rapid increase of both and the expectation that many graduates will enter the formal employment sector and a sedentary lifestyle, there is still cause for concern. We measured their BMI (body mass index) and used a questionnaire to investigate demographic and lifestyle choices. Read More

    Human genetic variation in VAC14 regulates Salmonella invasion and typhoid fever through modulation of cholesterol.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Sep 21;114(37):E7746-E7755. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710;
    Risk, severity, and outcome of infection depend on the interplay of pathogen virulence and host susceptibility. Systematic identification of genetic susceptibility to infection is being undertaken through genome-wide association studies, but how to expeditiously move from genetic differences to functional mechanisms is unclear. Here, we use genetic association of molecular, cellular, and human disease traits and experimental validation to demonstrate that genetic variation affects expression of VAC14, a phosphoinositide-regulating protein, to influence susceptibility to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) infection. Read More

    The Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium (TyVAC): Vaccine effectiveness study designs: Accelerating the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines and reducing the global burden of enteric fever. Report from a meeting held on 26-27 October 2016, Oxford, UK.
    Vaccine 2017 Sep 10;35(38):5081-5088. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, and the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Typhoid fever is estimated to cause between 11.9-26.9 million infections globally each year with 129,000-216,510 deaths. Read More

    Construction of an inactivated typhoid vaccine candidate expressing Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit and evaluation of its immunogenicity in a murine model.
    J Med Microbiol 2017 Aug 10. Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Iksan campus, Gobong-ro 79 Iksan, 54596, Republic of Korea.
    Purpose: Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi has contributed to the global public health burden, particularly in developing countries. In this study, an S. Typhi ghost was developed and its capacity as a vaccine candidate against typhoid fever was assessed. Read More

    Preparedness of adolescents departing from Athens International Airport to Africa or Asia: A five-year airport-based prospective study.
    Travel Med Infect Dis 2017 Aug 1. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    University of Athens First Department of Pediatrics, "Aghia Sophia" Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    Background: The number of adolescents who travel has increased. We estimated the preparedness of adolescents (12-18 years) departing from Athens to Africa and Asia.

    Methods: An airport-based survey was conducted from 2011 to 2015. Read More

    Drug Resistance Pattern in the Recent Isolates of Salmonella Typhi with Special Reference to Cephalosporins and Azithromycin in the Gangetic Plain.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Jun 1;11(6):DM01-DM03. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Professor, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Introduction: Typhoid fever is an endemic disease in India against which many antibiotics are available. In the recent times, emerging resistance to traditional antibiotics, such as Ampicillin, Chloramphenicol and Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, Azithro-mycin and third generation Cephalosporins are being reported and increasingly being used in the treatment of invasive Salmonella infections. However, the latter two drugs have been reported with occasional clinical failures. Read More

    Salivary Anti-50 kDa Antibodies as a Useful Biomarker for Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Jun 1;11(6):DC10-DC13. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Professor, Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.
    Introduction: Typhoid fever remains a scourge of humanity, especially in developing and under-developed countries due to poor sanitation and food hygiene. Diagnostic methods available for detection of this disease are not satisfactory due to a lack of sensitive, specific, rapid and convenient diagnostic test kits available in the market.

    Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of a Dot-EIA method for Ig-class specific salivary antibody detection for diagnosis of typhoid fever. Read More

    Seroepidemiology of Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis in Uttar Pradesh: A Prospective Study.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 Jun 1;11(6):DC04-DC09. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Introduction: Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis (SFR), an acute febrile illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, R. conorii and R. akari which is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Read More

    Self-reported infections during international travel and notifiable infections among returning international travellers, Sweden, 2009-2013.
    PLoS One 2017 28;12(7):e0181625. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    The Public Health Agency of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    We studied food and water-borne diseases (FWDs), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), vector-borne diseases (VBDs) and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme among Swedish international travellers, in order to identify countries associated with a high number of infections. We used the national database for notifiable infections to estimate the number of FWDs (campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, giardiasis, shigellosis, EHEC, Entamoeba histolytica, yersinosis, hepatitis A, paratyphoid fever, typhoid fever, hepatitis E, listeriosis, cholera), STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and acute hepatitis B), VBDs (dengue fever, malaria, West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever) and diseases vaccinated against in the Swedish childhood vaccination programme (pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria) acquired abroad 2009-2013. We obtained number and duration of trips to each country from a database that monthly collects travel data from a randomly selected proportion of the Swedish population. Read More

    Expression of intra- and extracellular granzymes in patients with typhoid fever.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 27;11(7):e0005823. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam (CINIMA), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Background: Typhoid fever, caused by the intracellular pathogen Salmonella (S.) enterica serovar Typhi, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Granzymes are serine proteases promoting cytotoxic lymphocytes mediated eradication of intracellular pathogens via the induction of cell death and which can also play a role in inflammation. Read More

    Salmonella enterica serovar-specific transcriptional reprogramming of infected cells.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Jul 24;13(7):e1006532. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
    Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.
    Despite their high degree of genomic similarity, different Salmonella enterica serovars are often associated with very different clinical presentations. In humans, for example, the typhoidal S. enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid fever, a life-threatening systemic disease. Read More

    A recombinant protein of Salmonella Typhi induces humoral and cell-mediated immune responses including memory responses.
    Vaccine 2017 Aug 21;35(35 Pt B):4523-4531. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Division of Clinical Medicine, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India. Electronic address:
    Gram negative enteric bacteria, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the etiological agent of typhoid fever is a major public health problem in developing countries. While a permanent solution to the problem would require improved sanitation, food and water hygiene, controlling the infection by vaccination is urgently required due to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains in multiple countries. Read More

    Salmonella Intracellular Lifestyles and Their Impact on Host-to-Host Transmission.
    Microbiol Spectr 2017 Jul;5(4)
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, Departamento de Biotecnología Microbiana, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CNB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    More than a century ago, infections by Salmonella were already associated with foodborne enteric diseases with high morbidity in humans and cattle. Intestinal inflammation and diarrhea are hallmarks of infections caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars, and these pathologies facilitate pathogen transmission to the environment. In those early times, physicians and microbiologists also realized that typhoid and paratyphoid fever caused by some Salmonella serovars could be transmitted by "carriers," individuals outwardly healthy or at most suffering from some minor chronic complaint. Read More

    A cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey of typhoid fever in Fiji.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 20;11(7):e0005786. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Fiji, an upper-middle income state in the Pacific Ocean, has experienced an increase in confirmed case notifications of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). To characterize the epidemiology of typhoid exposure, we conducted a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey measuring IgG against the Vi antigen of S. Read More

    Development and evaluation of a multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis assay for subtyping Salmonella Typhi strains from sub-Saharan Africa.
    J Med Microbiol 2017 Jul 19;66(7):937-945. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    1​Centre for Enteric Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, a division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa 2​Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Purpose: Molecular epidemiological investigations of the highly clonal Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) are important in outbreak detection and in tracking disease transmission. In this study, we developed and evaluated a multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) assay for characterization of S. Read More

    Spatio-temporal variations of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers in Zhejiang Province, China from 2005 to 2015.
    Sci Rep 2017 Jul 18;7(1):5780. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Epidemiology & Health Statistics, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
    Typhoid and paratyphoid are two common enteric infectious diseases with serious gastrointestinal symptoms. Data was collected of the registered cases in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2015. The epidemiological characteristics were investigated and high-risk regions were detected with descriptive epidemiological methods and in-depth spatio-temporal statistics. Read More

    Traditional treatment of human and animal salmonelloses in Southern Benin: Knowledge of farmers and traditherapists.
    Vet World 2017 Jun 3;10(6):580-592. Epub 2017 Jun 3.
    Laboratory of Biology and Molecular Typing in Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Abomey-Calavi, 05 PO Box 1604 Cotonou, Benin.
    Aim: This study aimed to report medicinal plants that are likely to be used in the control of salmonellosis.

    Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Southern Benin. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 150 farmers and 100 traditional therapists in seven high municipalities. Read More

    Clinical and laboratory profile of dengue viral infections in and around Mangalore, India.
    Indian J Med Microbiol 2017 Apr-Jun;35(2):256-261
    Department of Microbiology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, India.
    Background: Dengue (DEN) is being recognised as the world's major emerging tropical disease. Clinically, DEN may resemble other infections such as malaria, leptospirosis, and typhoid, and thus, laboratory investigations are required for definitive diagnosis. Secondary DEN infection, caused most often by dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 2 and 3, is known to present with severe disease manifestations. Read More

    Molecular Subtyping of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis in India: Their Association with Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles.
    Jpn J Infect Dis 2017 Jul 1. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    Microbiology Division, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases.
    Molecular subtyping, and recently DNA sequencing based methods, which are commonly used for discriminating Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) isolates, leads to improved molecular epidemiological investigations for prevention and control of typhoid fever. We included S. Read More

    The STRATAA study protocol: a programme to assess the burden of enteric fever in Bangladesh, Malawi and Nepal using prospective population census, passive surveillance, serological studies and healthcare utilisation surveys.
    BMJ Open 2017 Jul 2;7(6):e016283. Epub 2017 Jul 2.
    Department of Paediatrics, Oxford Vaccine Group,University of Oxford, and the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, UK.
    Introduction: Invasive infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi A are estimated to account for 12-27 million febrile illness episodes worldwide annually. Determining the true burden of typhoidal Salmonellae infections is hindered by lack of population-based studies and adequate laboratory diagnostics.The Strategic Typhoid alliance across Africa and Asia study takes a systematic approach to measuring the age-stratified burden of clinical and subclinical disease caused by typhoidal Salmonellae infections at three high-incidence urban sites in Africa and Asia. Read More

    Enteric Cholestatic Hepatitis with Ascites: A Rare Entity.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 May 1;11(5):OD08-OD09. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, (Manipal University), Manipal, Karnataka, India.
    Typhoid fever is a very common illness in developing countries. Patients most often present with a history of fever, vomiting, anorexia, abdominal pain, etc. Rarely there is hepatic involvement due to the disease process. Read More

    The Role of Typhoid Toxin in Salmonella Typhi Virulence
.
    Yale J Biol Med 2017 Jun 23;90(2):283-290. Epub 2017 Jun 23.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, NY.
    Unlike many of the nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars such as S. Typhimurium that cause restricted gastroenteritis, Salmonella Typhi is unique in that it causes life-threatening typhoid fever in humans. Despite the vast difference in disease outcomes that S. Read More

    Detecting Ebola with limited laboratory access in the Democratic Republic of Congo: evaluation of a clinical passive surveillance reporting system.
    Trop Med Int Health 2017 Sep 28;22(9):1141-1153. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Background: Ebola virus disease (EVD) can be clinically severe and highly fatal, making surveillance efforts for early disease detection of paramount importance. In areas with limited access to laboratory testing, the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may be a vital tool in improving outbreak response.

    Methods: Using DRC IDSR data from the nation's four EVD outbreak periods from 2007-2014, we assessed trends of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) and EVD differential diagnoses reportable through IDSR. Read More

    In vitro efficacy and in silico analysis of cefixime-ofloxacin combination for Salmonella Typhi from bloodstream infection.
    J Appl Microbiol 2017 Sep;123(3):615-624
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Aims: Recently, the cefixime-ofloxacin combination is approved by Drug Controller General of India to treat typhoid fever. We sought to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of cefixime-ofloxacin combination against Salmonella Typhi.

    Methods And Results: A total of 283 nonduplicate S. Read More

    [Surveillance data on typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in 2015, China].
    Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2017 Jun;38(6):754-758
    Division of Infectious Disease, Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early Warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.
    Objective: Through analyzing the surveillance data on typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in 2015 to understand the related epidemiological features and most possible clustering areas of high incidence. Methods: Individual data was collected from the passive surveillance program and analyzed by descriptive statistic method. Characteristics on seasonal, regional and distribution of the diseases were described. Read More

    Development of ELISAs for diagnosis of acute typhoid fever in Nigerian children.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 22;11(6):e0005679. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America.
    Improved serodiagnostic tests for typhoid fever (TF) are needed for surveillance, to facilitate patient management, curb antibiotic resistance, and inform public health programs. To address this need, IgA, IgM and IgG ELISAs using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and hemolysin E (t1477) protein were conducted on 86 Nigerian pediatric TF and 29 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) cases, 178 culture-negative febrile cases, 28 "other" (i. Read More

    A novel method to generate Salmonella Typhi Ty21a ghosts exploiting the λ phage holin-endolysin system.
    Oncotarget 2017 Jul;8(29):48186-48195
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Iksan Campus, Iksan, Republic of Korea.
    Human typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi still poses a severe global disease burden in developing countries despite the availability of commercial vaccines. In this study, we constructed a non-living S. Typhi Ty21a vaccine candidate by employing a lambda (λ) phage-derived holin-endolysin system to efficiently construct bacterial ghosts. Read More

    New Insights into the Roles of Long Polar Fimbriae and Stg Fimbriae in Salmonella Interactions with Enterocytes and M Cells.
    Infect Immun 2017 Sep 18;85(9). Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA
    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes the systemic disease typhoid fever. After ingestion, it adheres to and invades the host epithelium while evading the host innate immune response, causing little if any inflammation. Conversely, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in humans and thrives in the inflamed gut. Read More

    Synthesis and Antigenic Evaluation of Oligosaccharide Mimics of Vi Antigen from Salmonella typhi.
    Chemistry 2017 Aug 19;23(44):10670-10677. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Xue Yuan Road No. 38, Beijing, 100191, China.
    Salmonella typhi is responsible for typhoid fever, which is a serious health threat in developing countries. As a virulent factor of Salmonella typhi, the purified Vi polysaccharide (Vi PS) has become an effective vaccine to combat typhoid fever. The chemical synthesis can provide homogeneous and well-defined molecules for the development of Vi-based vaccines. Read More

    International Travelers' Sociodemographic, Health, and Travel Characteristics: An Italian Study.
    Ann Glob Health 2017 Mar - Apr;83(2):380-385. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Post Graduate School of Public Health University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Background: Approximately the 8% of travelers requires medical care, with the diagnosis of a vaccine-preventable disease. The aim of our study was to analyze the socio-demographic, health and travel characteristics of the Italian international travelers.

    Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study from January 2015 to June 2016, at the Travel Medicine Clinic of Siena, asking the doctor to interview patients who attended the Clinic, recording socio-demographic and travel information, malaria prophylaxis, vaccinations. Read More

    Molecular dynamics approach to probe the antigenicity of PagN - an outer membrane protein of Salmonella Typhi.
    J Biomol Struct Dyn 2017 Jun 28:1-19. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    a Bioinformatics Infrastructure Facility , College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University , Khanapara, Guwahati 781022 , Assam , India.
    PagN is a highly immunogenic 27-kDa outer membrane adhesin present in Salmonella Typhi. It plays a major role in the pathogenesis of typhoid fever and has emerged as a strong vaccine candidate. In this report, we predict the three-dimensional structure of PagN and describe the conformational dynamics associated with its four extracellular loops based on two 100-ns molecular dynamics simulations at 300 and 310 K. Read More

    Vaccination against Salmonella Infection: the Mucosal Way.
    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2017 Sep 14;81(3). Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    R&D Laboratory, Division of Immunology and Allergy, CHUV, Centre des Laboratoires d'Epalinges, Epalinges, Switzerland
    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica includes several serovars infecting both humans and other animals and leading to typhoid fever or gastroenteritis. The high prevalence of associated morbidity and mortality, together with an increased emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, is a current global health issue that has prompted the development of vaccination strategies that confer protection against most serovars. Currently available systemic vaccine approaches have major limitations, including a reduced effectiveness in young children and a lack of cross-protection among different strains. Read More

    A forecast of typhoid conjugate vaccine introduction and demand in typhoid endemic low- and middle-income countries to support vaccine introduction policy and decisions.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Jun 12:1-8. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    d International Vaccine Institute , Policy and Economic Research Department , Gwanak-gu , Seoul , South Korea.
    A Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (TCV) is expected to acquire WHO prequalification soon, which will pave the way for its use in many low- and middle-income countries where typhoid fever is endemic. Thus it is critical to forecast future vaccine demand to ensure supply meets demand, and to facilitate vaccine policy and introduction planning. We forecasted introduction dates for countries based on specific criteria and estimated vaccine demand by year for defined vaccination strategies in 2 scenarios: rapid vaccine introduction and slow vaccine introduction. Read More

    Typhoid spondylodiscitis mimicking tuberculosis in a teenage girl.
    J Infect Public Health 2017 Jun 8. Epub 2017 Jun 8.
    Department of Microbiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India. Electronic address:
    Salmonella Typhi cause a broad spectrum of human illnesses like gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, and bacteremia. It has also been recognized as a causative organism of osteomyelitis for more than a century but the incidence appears to be uncommon. Microbiological workup plays important role in the diagnosis of Typhoid spondylodiscitis as most of the time it mimics tuberculosis and misguide the clinician, especially in the developing world. Read More

    Detection of typhoid fever by diatom-based optical biosensor.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Jun 2. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, 641 046, India.
    Surface-modified diatom substrates are employed for the development of immunocomplex-based optical biosensor for diagnosis of typhoid. Biosensor has been prepared by covalent immobilization of Salmonella typhi antibody onto the crosslinked diatom substrates via glutaraldehyde. Photoluminescent (PL) studies revealed good specificity and ability of conjugated diatom substrates to distinguish complementary (S. Read More

    Trends of vaccine-preventable diseases in Afghanistan from the Disease Early Warning System, 2009-2015.
    PLoS One 2017 1;12(6):e0178677. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America.
    Background: Afghanistan's public health system was neglected during decades of military and civil conflict, and trends in infectious disease occurrence remain poorly characterized. This study examines cyclical and long-term trends of six vaccine-preventable diseases: pneumonia, diarrhea, meningitis, typhoid, measles, and acute viral hepatitis.

    Methods: Using weekly data collected between 2009 and 2015 through Afghanistan's Disease Early Warning System, we calculated monthly case counts, and fit a Poisson regression with a Fourier transformation for seasonal cycles and dummy variables for year. Read More

    Biochemical derangements prior to emergency laparotomy at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi: A cross-sectional pilot study.
    Malawi Med J 2017 Mar;29(1):55-56
    Department of Surgery, North Devon District Hospital, Barnstaple, United Kingdom.
    Background: The aim of this study was to examine biochemical investigations not routinely performed prior to emergency laparotomy in patients at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, a low-resource public hospital in Blantyre, Malawi.

    Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study of adults (N = 15) needing emergency laparotomy over a 4-week period were studied at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital. Biochemical investigations, not routinely performed for economic reasons, were performed preoperatively; these included sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, urea, and calcium levels. Read More

    An evaluation of purified Salmonella Typhi protein antigens for the serological diagnosis of acute typhoid fever.
    J Infect 2017 Aug 25;75(2):104-114. Epub 2017 May 25.
    The Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam; Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom; The Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Objectives: The diagnosis of typhoid fever is a challenge. Aiming to develop a typhoid diagnostic we measured antibody responses against Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) protein antigens and the Vi polysaccharide in a cohort of Bangladeshi febrile patients. Read More

    Antimicrobial storage and antibiotic knowledge in the community: a cross-sectional pilot study in north-western Angola.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Jul 22;60:83-87. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Health Research Centre of Angola, CISA, Caxito, Angola; Lisbon School of Health Technology, Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Background: Antimicrobials are drugs that were once lifesavers and mainly curative. Nowadays their value is increasingly under pressure because of the rapid and worldwide emergence of antimicrobial resistance, which, in low-resource settings, frequently occurs in microorganisms that are likely to be transmitted in the community.

    Methods: This was a cross-sectional pilot study including 102 households within the 10th Health and Demographic Surveillance System round in Dande, Bengo Province, Angola. Read More

    Molecular diagnosis of Salmonella typhi and its virulence in suspected typhoid blood samples through nested multiplex PCR.
    J Microbiol Methods 2017 Aug 23;139:150-154. Epub 2017 May 23.
    Microbiological Laboratory, Cowley Brown Road (East), R. S. Puram, Coimbatore- 641 002, India.
    A nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnosis was developed for the detection of virulent Salmonella typhi in the blood specimens from patients suspected for typhoid fever. After the Widal test, two pairs of primers were used for the detection of flagellin gene (fliC) of S. typhi. Read More

    Rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 05 26;5:CD008892. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK, L3 5QA.
    Background: Differentiating both typhoid (Salmonella Typhi) and paratyphoid (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infection from other causes of fever in endemic areas is a diagnostic challenge. Although commercial point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for enteric fever are available as alternatives to the current reference standard test of blood or bone marrow culture, or to the widely used Widal Test, their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. If accurate, they could potentially replace blood culture as the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended main diagnostic test for enteric fever. Read More

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