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    Cost-effectiveness analysis of typhoid conjugate vaccines in five endemic low- and middle-income settings.
    Vaccine 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06520-8034, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Typhoid fever remains endemic in low- and middle-income countries. Programmatic use of existing vaccines is limited, but upcoming typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) could warrant wider use. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of five TCV delivery strategies in three urban areas (Delhi and Kolkata, India and Nairobi, Kenya) and two rural settings (Lwak, Kenya and Dong Thap, Vietnam) with varying incidence. Read More

    Delineation of B-cell Epitopes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Hemolysin E: Potential antibody therapeutic target.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 19;7(1):2176. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, Malaysia.
    Hemolysin E (HlyE) is an immunogenic novel pore-forming toxin involved in the pathogenesis of typhoid fever. Thus, mapping of B-cell epitopes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is critical to identify key immunogenic regions of HlyE. Read More

    Overview of the impact of Typhoid and Paratyphoid fever. Utility of Ty21a vaccine (Vivotif®).
    J Prev Med Hyg 2017 Mar;58(1):E1-E8
    Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy.
    Cases of diarrhoeal disease number from 1.7 to 5 billion per year worldwide. One of the main causes of diarrhoeal disease is typhoid fever, which is a potentially life-threatening multi-systemic illness. Read More

    A novel approach for construction of an inactivated typhoid vaccine candidate that effectively augments both humoral and cellular immune responses.
    Vaccine 2017 Jun 8;35(25):3333-3341. Epub 2017 May 8.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Iksan Campus, Gobong-ro 79, Iksan 54596, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ghost was constructed as a vaccine candidate against typhoid fever. An asd(+) plasmid pJHL187 harboring a ghost cassette comprised of PhiX 174 E lysis gene stringently controlled under the convergent promotor components and was transformed into the asd gene-deleted mutant S. Typhi Ty21a strain (STG). Read More

    Vi Capsular Polysaccharide Produced by Recombinant Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi A Confers Immunoprotection against Infection by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 24;7:135. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Microbiology, Third Military Medical UniversityChongqing, China.
    Enteric fever is predominantly caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, and accounts for an annual global incidence of 26.9 millions. In recent years, the rate of S. Read More

    Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi and Paratyphi Isolates from a General Hospital in Karawaci, Tangerang, Indonesia: A Five-Year Review.
    Int J Microbiol 2017 6;2017:6215136. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Pelita Harapan University, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia.
    Typhoid and paratyphoid fever known as enteric fever pose important global public health problem, with 21.6 million cases and approximately 250,000 deaths annually. It is a prevalent disease in Indonesia, but data on the antimicrobial resistance pattern is limited. Read More

    Reproducible diagnostic metabolites in plasma from typhoid fever patients in Asia and Africa.
    Elife 2017 May 9;6. Epub 2017 May 9.
    The Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Salmonella Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid. Typhoid is diagnosed by blood culture, a method that lacks sensitivity, portability and speed. We have previously shown that specific metabolomic profiles can be detected in the blood of typhoid patients from Nepal (Näsström et al. Read More

    The impact of migration and antimicrobial resistance on the transmission dynamics of typhoid fever in Kathmandu, Nepal: A mathematical modelling study.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 May 5;11(5):e0005547. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Disease, Yale School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.
    Background: A substantial proportion of the global burden of typhoid fever occurs in South Asia. Kathmandu, Nepal experienced a substantial increase in the number of typhoid fever cases (caused by Salmonella Typhi) between 2000 and 2003, which subsequently declined but to a higher endemic level than in 2000. This epidemic of S. Read More

    Predictive value of clinical and laboratory features for the main febrile diseases in children living in Tanzania: A prospective observational study.
    PLoS One 2017 2;12(5):e0173314. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Background: To construct evidence-based guidelines for management of febrile illness, it is essential to identify clinical predictors for the main causes of fever, either to diagnose the disease when no laboratory test is available or to better target testing when a test is available. The objective was to investigate clinical predictors of several diseases in a cohort of febrile children attending outpatient clinics in Tanzania, whose diagnoses have been established after extensive clinical and laboratory workup.

    Method: From April to December 2008, 1005 consecutive children aged 2 months to 10 years with temperature ≥38°C attending two outpatient clinics in Dar es Salaam were included. Read More

    Salmonella Typhi Associated Endogenous Endophthalmitis: A Case Report and a Review of Literature.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2017 Apr 28:1-6. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    a Lokmanya Tilak Municipal Medical College and General Hospital , Ophthalmology, Mumbai , India.
    Aim: To report a rare case of Salmonella typhi associated endogenous endophthalmitis in an immunocompetent male and to review the available literature.

    Methods: Retrospective chart review.

    Results: A 28-year-old immunocompetent male presented with a 3-day-old history of pain, redness and diminished vision in his left eye. Read More

    [Waterborne diseases and basic sanitation in Colombia].
    Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) 2016 Sep-Oct;18(5):738-745
    Facultad de Medicina. Departamento de Salud Pública. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogotá, Colombia.
    Objective: To analyze the relationship of sewerage coverage and wastewater treatment with waterborne disease behaviour.

    Methods: A descriptive retrospective study was conducted using secondary sources (document review and information available in databases) about basic sanitation coverage, treatment of domestic sewage in the country and the prevalence of waterborne diseases during the period 2008-2014.

    Results: The country invested USD 1,100 million in the implementation of wastewater treatment systems from 2011 until the first half of 2013. Read More

    Simultaneous Molecular Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi, Enteritidis, Infantis, and Typhimurium.
    Iran J Public Health 2017 Jan;46(1):103-111
    Molecular Biology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, as causative agent of typhoid fever, is one of the most important endemic pathogens. Non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars, including Typhimurium, Infantis, and Enteritidis are amongst the most prevalent serotypes worldwide and in developing areas such as Iran. The aim of this study was to apply a uniplex PCR for rapid detection of Salmonella spp. Read More

    Bioactive Components from Qingwen Baidu Decoction against LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats.
    Molecules 2017 Apr 26;22(5). Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, China.
    Qingwen Baidu Decoction (QBD) is an extraordinarily "cold" formula. It was traditionally used to cure epidemic hemorrhagic fever, intestinal typhoid fever, influenza, sepsis and so on. The purpose of this study was to discover relationships between the change of the constituents in different extracts of QBD and the pharmacological effect in a rat model of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Read More

    Enteric Fever in Children in Western Sydney, Australia, 2003-2015.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Apr 25. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    1. Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia 2. Division of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia 3. Department of General Medicine, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia 4. National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance, New South Wales, Australia.
    Background: Enteric fever is a vaccine-preventable disease with cases in Australia predominantly acquired overseas. The aim of this study was to define the burden of enteric fever in children presenting to a pediatric hospital in Western Sydney between 2003 and 2015.

    Methods: Cases between January 2003 and December 2013 were ascertained through medical records using ICD-coded discharge diagnoses, cross-referenced with microbiology laboratory data for all isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Read More

    Rhabdomyolysis Complicating Typhoid Fever in a Child and Review of the Literature.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    1Department of General Paediatrics, Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Brisbane, 2Faculty of Paediatrics, University of Queensland 3Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Belfast 4Infection Management and Prevention Service, Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Brisbane.
    Typhoid fever is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world, particularly in children, but is infrequently observed in the developed world and can occur in patients without a significant travel history. Rhabdomyolysis as a complication has rarely been reported, and never in a child. A child with Salmonella enterica serovar typhi septicemia, complicated by rhabdomyolysis, encephalopathy and pancreatitis is described and all 15 reported cases to date are summarized. Read More

    Challenge of Humans with Wild-type Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Elicits Changes in the Activation and Homing Characteristics of Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells.
    Front Immunol 2017 6;8:398. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Gastrointestinal infections by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) are rare in industrialized countries. However, they remain a major public health problem in the developing world with an estimated 26. Read More

    Microbiological quality of water in a city with persistent and recurrent waterborne diseases under tropical sub-rural conditions: The case of Kikwit City, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Int J Hyg Environ Health 2017 Mar 30. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    Université Pédagogique Nationale (UPN), Croisement Route de Matadi et Avenue de la Libération, Quartier Binza/UPN, B.P. 8815 Kinshasa, République Démocratique du Congo; University of Geneva, Faculty of Science, Department F.-A. Forel for Environmental and Aquatic Sciences, and Institute of Environmental Sciences, 66, Boulevard Carl-Vogt, CH-1205, Geneva, Switzerland; University of Kinshasa (UNIKIN), Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, B.P. 190, Kinshasa XI, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Electronic address:
    The availability of safe drinking water in sub-Saharan countries remains a major challenge because poor sanitation has been the cause of various outbreaks of waterborne disease due to the poor microbiological quality of water used for domestic purposes. The faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) used in the present study included Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT). Read More

    Epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic features of typhoid intestinal perforation in a rural environment of Burkina Faso.
    Med Sante Trop 2017 Feb;27(1):67-70
    Université de Ouagadougou, BP 56 Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic features of ileal perforation due to typhoid fever at the regional hospital of Tenkodogo (Burkina Faso). This cross-sectional study examined the records over a 5-year period of all patients treated for typhoid ileal perforation. Ileal perforation was diagnosed intraoperatively, and its typhoid origin determined according to the following criteria : background signs of typhoid fever, location of the perforation on the antimesenteric edge of the terminal ileum, and a positive Widal-Felix serology. Read More

    Bilateral retinitis following typhoid fever.
    Int J Retina Vitreous 2017 10;3:11. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Sankara Eye Centre, Sathy Road, Sivanandapuram, Coimbatore, 641035 India.
    Background: Post typhoid fever immune related reactions affecting the eye is a rare finding which can have various presentations in which typhoid retinopathy is not a well recognized sequelae.

    Case Presentation: Here we present a case of 59 year old male who presented with right eye sudden painless loss of vision 4 weeks after typhoid fever which was diagnosed and treated successfully. His BCVA was 2/60 in right eye and 6/6 in left eye. Read More

    Typhoid intestinal perforation in developing countries: Still unavoidable deaths?
    World J Gastroenterol 2017 Mar;23(11):1925-1931
    Sandro Contini, Former Professor of Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Parma, 43123 Parma, Italy.
    Typhoid fever is a public health challenge mostly concentrated in impoverished, overcrowded areas of the developing world, with lack of safe drinking and sanitation. The most serious complication is typhoid intestinal perforation (TIP), observed in 0.8% to 39%, with a striking rate difference between high-income and low-middle-income countries. Read More

    An Appraisal of the Clinical Features of Pediatric Enteric Fever: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Age-Stratified Disease Occurrence.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Jun;64(11):1604-1611
    Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and.
    Children bear a substantial proportion of the enteric fever disease burden in endemic areas. Controversy persists regarding which age groups are most affected, leading to uncertainty about optimal intervention strategies. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in Asia and Africa to compare the relative proportion of children with enteric fever in the age groups <5 years, 5-9 years, and 10-14 years. Read More

    Epidemiological characteristics and clinical treatment outcome of typhoid fever in Ningbo China, 2005-2014, PFGE results revealing great proportion of common transmission sources.
    Jpn J Infect Dis 2017 Mar 28. Epub 2017 Mar 28.
    Department of Microbiology, Ningbo Municipal Centre for Disease Control and Prevention.
    We aimed to describe the molecular epidemiological characteristics and clinical treatment outcome of typhoid fever in Ningbo, China, 2005-2014. Eighty-eight Salmonella Typhi isolates were obtained from 307 admitted patients. Three prevalent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of 54 isolates in 3 outbreaks were identified. Read More

    Yellow Fever Outbreak - Kongo Central Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, August 2016.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Mar 31;66(12):335-338. Epub 2017 Mar 31.
    On April 23, 2016, the Democratic Republic of the Congo's (DRC's) Ministry of Health declared a yellow fever outbreak. As of May 24, 2016, approximately 90% of suspected yellow fever cases (n = 459) and deaths (45) were reported in a single province, Kongo Central Province, that borders Angola, where a large yellow fever outbreak had begun in December 2015. Two yellow fever mass vaccination campaigns were conducted in Kongo Central Province during May 25-June 7, 2016 and August 17-28, 2016. Read More

    Bacterial genotoxin functions as immune-modulator and promotes host survival.
    Microb Cell 2016 Jul 28;3(8):355-357. Epub 2016 Jul 28.
    Dept. of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm Sweden.
    Bacterial genotoxins are effectors that cause DNA damage in target cells. Many aspects of the biology of these toxins have been characterised in vitro, such as structure, cellular internalisation pathways and effects on the target cells. However, little is known about their function in vivo. Read More

    Clinical, virological, and biological parameters associated with outcomes of Ebola virus infection in Macenta, Guinea.
    JCI Insight 2017 Mar 23;2(6):e88864. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Unité de Biologie des Infections Virales Emergentes, Institut Pasteur, Lyon, France.; Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Université de Lyon, INSERM, U1111, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS UMR5308, Lyon, France.
    BACKGROUND. The pathogenesis of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) is poorly characterized. The establishment of well-equipped diagnostic laboratories close to Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) has made it possible to obtain relevant virological and biological data during the course of EVD and to assess their association with the clinical course and different outcomes of the disease. Read More

    Antimicrobial susceptibility profile, treatment outcome and serotype distribution of clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica: a 2-year study from Kerala, South India.
    Infect Drug Resist 2017 14;10:97-101. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Department of Microbiology, Amrita School of Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Kochi, Kerala, India.
    Background/purpose: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death in parts of Asia, being associated with poor sanitation and consumption of unsafe food and water. Antimicrobial resistance has emerged to traditional first-line drugs, namely, the fluoroquinolones, as well as to third-generation cephalosporins, posing challenges to treatment. Azithromycin has proven to be an effective alternative for treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever. Read More

    Comparative genomics of transport proteins in probiotic and pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains.
    Microb Pathog 2017 Jun 24;107:106-115. Epub 2017 Mar 24.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0116, USA. Electronic address:
    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species that can be pathogenic, probiotic, commensal, or a harmless laboratory strain. Pathogenic strains of E. coli cause urinary tract infections, diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and pyelonephritis, while the two known probiotic E. Read More

    Treatment Response in Enteric Fever in an Era of Increasing Antimicrobial Resistance: An Individual Patient Data Analysis of 2092 Participants Enrolled into 4 Randomized, Controlled Trials in Nepal.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Jun;64(11):1522-1531
    Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Wellcome Trust Major Overseas Programme, Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Background.: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is the leading cause of bacterial febrile disease in South Asia.

    Methods. Read More

    The Epidemiology of Childhood Salmonella Infections in Alberta, Canada.
    Foodborne Pathog Dis 2017 Mar 17. Epub 2017 Mar 17.
    1 Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta , Edmonton, Canada .
    Objectives: The objectives were to describe the incidence, demographics, laboratory findings, and suspected sources of childhood Salmonella infections in Alberta, Canada, with a focus on preventable cases.

    Methods: Data from Notifiable Disease Reports for children with nontyphoidal salmonellosis (NTS) or typhoid/paratyphoid fever from 2007 through 2015 were analyzed.

    Results: NTS was detected from 2285 children. Read More

    Pattern of antimicrobial drug resistance of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A in a Teaching Hospital in Islamabad.
    J Pak Med Assoc 2017 Mar;67(3):375-379
    Medical Student, Final Year MBBS, RMC and Allied Hospitals, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
    Objective: To see the pattern of antimicrobial drug resistance among Salmonella serovars.

    Methods: This longitudinal, observational study was conducted at Khan Research Laboratories Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from May 2012 to December 2014. All patients presenting with typhoid fever with positive blood culture were included. Read More

    Importance of Salmonella Typhi-Responsive CD8+ T Cell Immunity in a Human Typhoid Fever Challenge Model.
    Front Immunol 2017 2;8:208. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine , Baltimore, MD , USA.
    Typhoid fever, caused by the human-restricted organism Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), constitutes a major global health problem. The development of improved attenuated vaccines is pressing, but delayed by the lack of appropriate preclinical models. Read More

    Incidences of Waterborne and Foodborne Diseases After Meteorologic Disasters in South Korea.
    Ann Glob Health 2016 Sep - Oct;82(5):848-857
    Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon, Korea. Electronic address:
    Background: Climate change could increase the number of regions affected by meteorologic disasters. Meteorologic disasters can increase the risk of infectious disease outbreaks, including waterborne and foodborne diseases. Although many outbreaks of waterborne diseases after single disasters have been analyzed, there have not been sufficient studies reporting comprehensive analyses of cases occurring during long-term surveillance after multiple disasters, which could provide evidence of whether meteorologic disasters cause infectious disease outbreaks. Read More

    Determination of free polysaccharide in Vi glycoconjugate vaccine against typhoid fever.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal 2017 May 24;139:143-147. Epub 2017 Feb 24.
    GSK Vaccines Institute for Global Health S.r.l. (former Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health NVGH), Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy.
    Glycoconjugate vaccines based on the Vi capsular polysaccharide directed against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi are licensed or in development against typhoid fever, an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Quantification of free polysaccharide in conjugate vaccines is an important quality control for release, to monitor vaccine stability and to ensure appropriate immune response. However, we found that existing separation methods based on size are not appropriate as free Vi non-specifically binds to unconjugated and conjugated protein. Read More

    Vaccination of active component US military personnel against Salmonella Typhi.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 6;35(14):1742-1748. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
    Naval Medical Research Center, Enteric Diseases Department, Silver Spring, MD, United States.
    Introduction: Vaccination against Salmonella Typhi is one of the leading public health interventions reducing the risk of typhoid fever. There are two available licensed vaccines, Vivotif, oral live-attenuated, and Typhim Vi, intramuscular Vi capsular polysaccharide. The US military is a high risk travel population commonly vaccinated for S. Read More

    Comparison of Molecular Detection Method (Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction) with Blood Culture and Paired Widal test for the Rapid Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever.
    Mymensingh Med J 2017 Jan;26(1):117-123
    Dr Shafinaz Khan, Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Dr. Sirajul Islam Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Typhoid fever is a major health problem in developing countries in spite of the use of antibiotics and the development of newer antibacterial drugs. Blood culture & serological tests (specially Widal test) which are invariably done in Bangladesh for typhoid fever diagnosis give unacceptable levels of false negative & false positive results respectively. This cross sectional study was done at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from March 2013 to February 2014. Read More

    Epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of typhoid fever in Jorhat town of Assam, India.
    Indian J Med Res 2016 Oct;144(4):592-596
    Department of Microbiology, Assam Medical College & Hospital, Dibrugarh, India.
    Background & Objectives: Typhoid fever is a global health problem and is also endemic in India. An outbreak of fever occurred in January 2014 in Jorhat Town in Assam, India. Here we report the results of an investigation done to find out the aetiology and source of the outbreak. Read More

    The burden of typhoid fever in low- and middle-income countries: A meta-regression approach.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 27;11(2):e0005376. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.
    Background: Upcoming vaccination efforts against typhoid fever require an assessment of the baseline burden of disease in countries at risk. There are no typhoid incidence data from most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), so model-based estimates offer insights for decision-makers in the absence of readily available data.

    Methods: We developed a mixed-effects model fit to data from 32 population-based studies of typhoid incidence in 22 locations in 14 countries. Read More

    Emerging insights into the biology of typhoid toxin.
    Curr Opin Microbiol 2017 Feb 14;35:70-77. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536, United States. Electronic address:
    Typhoid toxin is a unique A2B5 exotoxin and an important virulence factor for Salmonella Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever. In the decade since its initial discovery, great strides have been made in deciphering the unusual biological program of this toxin, which is fundamentally different from related toxins in many ways. Purified typhoid toxin administered to laboratory animals causes many of the symptoms of typhoid fever, suggesting that typhoid toxin is a central factor in this disease. Read More

    Typhoid Fever on the Half Shell.
    Tex Med 2017 Feb 1;113(2):39-41. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Protecting the public from communicable infectious disease outbreaks is one of the most important, and most challenging, functions of public health. Foodborne outbreaks are not uncommon, and they can be especially difficult. This true story of the epidemiologic investigation into a typhoid fever outbreak illustrates the critical importance of timely reporting by front-line clinicians, extensive interprofessional teamwork, and statewide coordination. Read More

    Preclinical efficacy and safety of the Ty21a vaccine strain for intravesical immunotherapy of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
    Oncoimmunology 2017 7;6(1):e1265720. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois , Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Intravesical Bacillus-Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy can reduce recurrence/progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), although significant adverse events and treatment failure argue for alternative options. Here, we examined whether another attenuated live vaccine, Vivotif/Ty21a, used since more than 30 y against typhoid fever, may be safely used intravesically to improve bladder-tumor treatment. Mice-bearing MB49 orthotopic bladder-tumors treated with intravesical Ty21a or BCG were compared for survival and bacteria recovery. Read More

    Incidence of invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicentre population-based surveillance study.
    Lancet Glob Health 2017 Mar;5(3):e310-e323
    International Vaccine Institute, SNU Research Park, Seoul, South Korea.
    Background: Available incidence data for invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Standardised, multicountry data are required to better understand the nature and burden of disease in Africa. We aimed to measure the adjusted incidence estimates of typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the causative agents. Read More

    Expression, purification and evaluation of recombinant lipoprotein of Salmonella typhi as a vaccine candidate.
    Biologicals 2017 Mar 8;46:108-113. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    School of Biochemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi, India. Electronic address:
    Lipoprotein has been reported as a vaccine candidate against many pathogenic bacteria, it plays direct role as a virulence-associated function. Here the approach is toward the expression of recombinant lipoprotein of Salmonella typhi in prokaryotic host and its evaluation as a vaccine candidate. Lipoprotein gene (lp1) was cloned in pET32a expression vector in addition to Bam HI and Hind III restriction sites, and BL21(pLysS) was used as prokaryotic expression host for transformation. Read More

    Approach to Fever in the Returning Traveler.
    N Engl J Med 2017 02;376(6):548-560
    From the Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom (G.E.T., N.P.J.D.); Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (G.E.T.); and the Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand (N.P.J.D.).

    Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigen Modification Impact on Serum Resistance and Antibody Recognition.
    Infect Immun 2017 Apr 23;85(4). Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Centre for Immunology and Infection, Hull York Medical School and Department of Biology, University of York, York, United Kingdom
    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is a human-restricted Gram-negative bacterial pathogen responsible for causing an estimated 27 million cases of typhoid fever annually, leading to 217,000 deaths, and current vaccines do not offer full protection. The O-antigen side chain of the lipopolysaccharide is an immunodominant antigen, can define host-pathogen interactions, and is under consideration as a vaccine target for some Gram-negative species. The composition of the O-antigen can be modified by the activity of glycosyltransferase (gtr) operons acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Read More

    Safety of live vaccinations on immunosuppressive therapy in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, solid organ transplantation or after bone-marrow transplantation - A systematic review of randomized trials, observational studies and case reports.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 3;35(9):1216-1226. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Department of Public Health, Division of Infectious Diseases/Travel Clinic, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, Hirschengraben 84, 8001 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Background: Live vaccines are generally contraindicated on immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, data are limited to corroborate this practice.

    Objectives: To estimate the safety of live vaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) or solid organ transplantation (SOT) on immunosuppressive treatment and in patients after bone-marrow transplantation (BMT). Read More

    Evaluation of the Clinical and Microbiological Response to Salmonella Paratyphi A Infection in the First Paratyphoid Human Challenge Model.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Apr;64(8):1066-1073
    Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, and the National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, and.
    Background.: To expedite the evaluation of vaccines against paratyphoid fever, we aimed to develop the first human challenge model of Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A infection.

    Methods. Read More

    Application of landscape epidemiology to assess potential public health risk due to poor sanitation.
    J Environ Manage 2017 May 31;192:124-133. Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia. Electronic address:
    Clear identification of areas vulnerable to waterborne diseases is essential for protecting community health. This is particularly important in developing countries where unsafe disposal of domestic wastewater and limited potable water supply pose potential public health risks. However, data paucity can be a compounding issue. Read More

    Blood culture-PCR to optimise typhoid fever diagnosis after controlled human infection identifies frequent asymptomatic cases and evidence of primary bacteraemia.
    J Infect 2017 Apr 24;74(4):358-366. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics and the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Background: Improved diagnostics for typhoid are needed; a typhoid controlled human infection model may accelerate their development and translation. Here, we evaluated a blood culture-PCR assay for detecting infection after controlled human infection with S. Typhi and compared test performance with optimally performed blood cultures. Read More

    [Bacteremia caused by ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella serotype Kentucky: a case report and the review of literature].
    Mikrobiyol Bul 2016 Oct;50(4):598-605
    Ankara Atatürk Training and Research Hospital, Medical Microbiology Laboratory, Ankara, Turkey.
    Salmonella infections can be seen in four clinical types, namely gastroenteritis, bacteremia/sepsis, enteric fever and carriage. These infections can result in uncomplicated diarrhea in most cases, but can lead to invasive disease requiring antimicrobial therapy and can be life-threatening in elderly or immunocomprimised patients. Broad-spectrum cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones are crucial options in the treatment of the invasive infections. Read More

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