13,489 results match your criteria Typhoid Fever


A Computationally Efficient Method for Probabilistic Parameter Threshold Analysis for Health Economic Evaluations.

Med Decis Making 2020 Jul 5:272989X20937253. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Centre for Health Economics Research and Modeling Infectious Diseases (CHERMID), Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute (VAXINFECTIO), University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Antwerp, Belgium.

. Threshold analysis is used to determine the threshold value of an input parameter at which a health care strategy becomes cost-effective. Typically, it is performed in a deterministic manner, in which inputs are varied one at a time while the remaining inputs are each fixed at their mean value. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272989X20937253DOI Listing

Laboratory Diagnosis of Paratyphoid Fever: Opportunity of Surface Plasmon Resonance.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Jun 28;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia.

Paratyphoid fever is caused by the bacterium serovar Paratyphi (A, B and C), and contributes significantly to global disease burden. One of the major challenges in the diagnosis of paratyphoid fever is the lack of a proper gold standard. Given the absence of a licensed vaccine against Paratyphi, this diagnostic gap leads to inappropriate antibiotics use, thus, enhancing antimicrobial resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10070438DOI Listing

A review on the origin of multidrug-resistant Salmonella and perspective of tailored phoP gene towards avirulence.

Microb Pathog 2020 Jun 24;147:104352. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Microbial Technology, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, 625021, Tamilnadu, India. Electronic address:

Salmonellosis continues to remain a health problem as the causative organism Salmonella spp. developed resistance to many of the antibiotics. As per World Health Organization (WHO), it is estimated that enteric fever, accounts for almost 16 million cases annually and over 600,000 deaths worldwide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104352DOI Listing

Paediatrics in Theresienstadt ghetto.

Cent Eur J Public Health 2020 Jun;28(2):155-160

Faculty of Education, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

The main objective of this study is to describe the most common childhood diseases occurring in the Theresienstadt ghetto during the Second World War as well as applied anti-epidemic measures. A partial objective is to describe medical and nursing care of sick child prisoners. The data was obtained by the method of synthesis of primary and secondary data with the highest importance after adequate external source criticism using selected monographs, memoirs, survivor diaries, Orders of the day by the Council of the Elders and Reports of the Jewish self-government of the Theresienstadt ghetto from 1941 to 1945, the Archives of the Jewish Museum in Prague, the Ghetto Museum, the Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw, Post Bellum online electronic collection of oral historical interviews, and witness accounts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21101/cejph.a5557DOI Listing

Use of Typhoid Vi-Polysaccharide Vaccine as a Vaccine Probe to Delineate Clinical Criteria for Typhoid Fever.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Blood cultures (BCs) detect an estimated 50% of typhoid fever cases. There is need for validated clinical criteria to define cases that are BC negative, both to help direct empiric antibiotic treatment and to better evaluate the magnitude of protection conferred by typhoid vaccines. To derive and validate a clinical rule for defining BC-negative typhoid fever, we assessed, in a cluster-randomized effectiveness trial of Vi-polysaccharide (ViPS) typhoid vaccine in Kolkata, India, 14,797 episodes of fever lasting at least 3 days during 4 years of comprehensive, BC-based surveillance of 70,865 persons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0968DOI Listing

Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A infections in Cambodian children, 2012 - 2016.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Cambodia Oxford Medical Research Unit, Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia; Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objectives: Enteric fever remains an important diagnostic and treatment challenge in febrile children living in the tropics. In the context of a national Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A outbreak, this retrospective study objective was to compare features of S. Typhi and S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.054DOI Listing

Modulation of Extracellular ISG15 Signaling by Pathogens and Viral Effector Proteins.

Cell Rep 2020 06;31(11):107772

Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA. Electronic address:

ISG15 is a ubiquitin-like modifier that also functions extracellularly, signaling through the LFA-1 integrin to promote interferon (IFN)-γ release from natural killer (NK) and T cells. The signals that lead to the production of extracellular ISG15 and the relationship between its two core functions remain unclear. We show that both epithelial cells and lymphocytes can secrete ISG15, which then signals in either an autocrine or paracrine manner to LFA-1-expressing cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297157PMC

Factors associated with occurrence of salmonellosis among children living in Mukuru slum, an urban informal settlement in Kenya.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jun 17;20(1):422. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Centre for Microbiology Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Off Mbagathi Road, PO Box 54840-00200, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: In Kenya, typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis present a huge burden of disease, especially in poor-resource settings where clean water supply and sanitation conditions are inadequate. The epidemiology of both diseases is poorly understood in terms of severity and risk factors. The aim of the study was to determine the disease burden and spatial distribution of salmonellosis, as well as socioeconomic and environmental risk factors for these infections, in a large informal settlement near the city of Nairobi, from 2013 to 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05134-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302364PMC

In vitro and in vivo anti-salmonella properties of hydroethanolic extract of Detarium microcarpum Guill. & Perr. (Leguminosae) root bark and LC-MS-based phytochemical analysis.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Jun 11;260:113049. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box, 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Typhoid fever treatment remains a challenge in endemic countries. Detarium microcarpum is traditionally used to manage typhoid.

Aim Of The Study: The study aims to explore the efficacy of hydroethanolic extract of Detarium microcarpum root bark in rats infected with salmonella. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113049DOI Listing
June 2020
2.998 Impact Factor

Toxin Glycan Binding: Lectin Keys Unlocking Host and Tissue Specificity.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 06;27(6):851-853

Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Electronic address:

In this issue of Cell Host and Microbe, Lee et al. define the glycan binding specificity of a variant of typhoid toxin produced by a non-typhoidal Salmonellae serotype. The authors elegantly demonstrate that tissue and host specificity of the toxin are related to specific glycan binding characteristics of the toxin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.05.019DOI Listing

Evaluation of a Rapid Point-of-Care Multiplex Immunochromatographic Assay for the Diagnosis of Enteric Fever.

mSphere 2020 Jun 10;5(3). Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

There is a critical need for an improved rapid diagnostic for enteric fever. We have previously demonstrated that serum IgA responses targeting serovar Typhi hemolysin E (HlyE) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are able to discriminate patients with acute typhoid from healthy controls in areas where enteric fever is endemic (healthy endemic controls) and from patients with other bacterial infections. We now have data demonstrating that IgA antibody responses against these antigens also work well for identifying patients with acute Paratyphi A infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00253-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289704PMC

Changes in some haematological parameters in typhoid fever patients attending Landmark University Medical Center, Omuaran-Nigeria.

Heliyon 2020 May 22;6(5):e04002. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Microbiology, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Nigeria.

Background: Typhoid or enteric fever is caused by . It is largely a disease of developing nations due to poor standard of hygiene and unavailability of potable water. The most prominent feature of the infection is fever which gradually rises to a high plateau. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256300PMC

Alexandroupolis (Dedeagatch): A city born of infections and the first documented death of the Italian civilian Giuseppe Bigheti.

Infez Med 2020 Jun;28(2):273-277

History of Medicine and Anatomy Department, School of Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.

The choice of Dedeagatch as the place where the station of the Adrianoupolis-Constantinople railway line was to be built was the reason for the foundation of the Greek city of Alexandroupolis (originally under the Ottoman government). The population grew in its early years mainly due to the settlement by railway and construction workers. Meanwhile, poverty, poor hygiene and environmental conditions led to a series of epidemics and various sporadic cases of infections such as malaria, typhoid fever, scarlet fever and tubercolosis, infections which marked the early history of Alexandroupolis. Read More

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Chikungunya in Indonesia: Epidemiology and diagnostic challenges.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Jun 1;14(6):e0008355. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

*Indonesia Research Partnership on Infectious Disease (INA-RESPOND), Jakarta, Indonesia.

Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is often overlooked as an etiology of fever in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Lack of diagnostic testing capacity in these areas combined with co-circulation of clinically similar pathogens such as dengue virus (DENV), hinders CHIKV diagnosis. To better address CHIKV in Indonesia, an improved understanding of epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnostic approaches is needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289446PMC

Cephalosporin-resistant typhoid.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2020 27;8:2050313X20917835. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Paediatrics, Bai Jerbai Wadia Hospital for Children, Mumbai, India.

Typhoid fever is endemic in developing countries like India. An increasing prevalence of resistance to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones by Salmonella isolates is seen. We present an 8-month-old boy with invasive disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050313X20917835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233889PMC

Extensively Drug-Resistant (XDR) Typhoid: Evolution, Prevention, and Its Management.

Biomed Res Int 2020 2;2020:6432580. Epub 2020 May 2.

Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.

Typhoid fever is the result of a human host-restricted serotype typhi infection that causes enteric fever. Around 21 million people contract typhoid annually, with Pakistan's inhabitants at most risk amongst Asian countries where typhoid remains prevalent. Decades of indiscriminate antibiotic usage has driven the evolution of multidrug-resistant strains and more recently, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of serotype typhi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6432580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212280PMC

Case Report: Serovar Paratyphi B Infection in a Febrile Ill Child during Enhanced Passive Surveillance in an Urban Slum in Mirpur, Dhaka.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

icddr,b, (International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease, Research, Bangladesh), Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Paratyphoid fever is one of the major causes of morbidity of febrile illnesses in endemic regions. We report a case of high-grade fever in an infant who was positive for serovar Paratyphi B (. Paratyphi B) both in blood and stool cultures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0958DOI Listing

Underdiagnoses of Rickettsia in patients hospitalized with acute fever in Indonesia: observational study results.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 May 24;20(1):364. Epub 2020 May 24.

Hasan Sadikin Hospital - Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

Background: Reports of human rickettsial infection in Indonesia are limited. This study sought to characterize the epidemiology of human rickettsioses amongst patients hospitalized with fever at 8 tertiary hospitals in Indonesia.

Methods: Acute and convalescent blood from 975 hospitalized non-dengue patients was tested for Rickettsia IgM and IgG by ELISA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05057-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7245627PMC

Update on Extensively Drug-Resistant Salmonella Serotype Typhi Infections Among Travelers to or from Pakistan and Report of Ceftriaxone-Resistant Salmonella Serotype Typhi Infections Among Travelers to Iraq - United States, 2018-2019.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 May 22;69(20):618-622. Epub 2020 May 22.

Ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Typhi), the bacterium that causes typhoid fever, is a growing public health threat. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhi is resistant to ceftriaxone and other antibiotics used for treatment, including ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1). In March 2018, CDC began enhanced surveillance for ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi in response to an ongoing outbreak of XDR typhoid fever in Pakistan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6920a2DOI Listing

Morbidity and Mortality of Typhoid Intestinal Perforation Among Children in Sub-Saharan Africa 1995-2019: A Scoping Review.

World J Surg 2020 May 19. Epub 2020 May 19.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Typhoid fever incidence and complications, including intestinal perforation, have declined significantly in high-income countries, with mortality rates <1%. However, an estimated 10.9 million cases still occur annually, most in low- and middle-income countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-020-05567-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236653PMC

Genomic profiling of antimicrobial resistance genes in clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhi from patients infected with Typhoid fever in India.

Sci Rep 2020 May 19;10(1):8299. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Biophysics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India.

The development of multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi currently forms a major roadblock for the treatment of enteric fever. This poses a major health problem in endemic regions and extends to travellers returning from developing countries. The appearance of fluoroquinolone non-susceptible strains has resulted in use of ceftriaxone as drug of choice with azithromycin being recommended for uncomplicated cases of typhoid fever. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64934-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237477PMC
May 2020
5.078 Impact Factor

New Roles for Two-Component System Response Regulators of Serovar Typhi during Host Cell Interactions.

Microorganisms 2020 May 13;8(5). Epub 2020 May 13.

Département de microbiologie, infectiologie, immunologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada.

In order to survive external stresses, bacteria need to adapt quickly to changes in their environment. One adaptive mechanism is to coordinate and alter their gene expression by using two-component systems (TCS). TCS are composed of a sensor kinase that activates a transcriptional response regulator by phosphorylation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285189PMC

Salmonella Typhoid Toxin PltB Subunit and Its Non-typhoidal Salmonella Ortholog Confer Differential Host Adaptation and Virulence.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 06 11;27(6):937-949.e6. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Electronic address:

Typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonelleae (NTS) cause typhoid fever and gastroenteritis, respectively, in humans. Salmonella typhoid toxin contributes to typhoid disease progression and chronic infection, but little is known about the role of its NTS ortholog. We found that typhoid toxin and its NTS ortholog induce different clinical presentations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.04.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7292776PMC
June 2020
12.328 Impact Factor

Persistence and Host Immunity is Dictated by the Anatomical Microenvironment.

Infect Immun 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA

The intracellular bacterial pathogen is able to evade the immune system and persist within the host. In some cases, these persistent infections are asymptomatic for long periods and represent a significant public health hazard as potential chronic carriers, yet the mechanisms that control persistence are incompletely understood. Using a mouse model of chronic typhoid fever combined with MHC class II tetramers to interrogate endogenous, -specific CD4+ helper T cells, we show certain host microenvironments may favorably contribute to a pathogen's ability to persist We demonstrate that the environment in the hepatobiliary system may contribute to the persistence of Typhimurium through liver resident immunoregulatory CD4+ helper T cells, alternatively activated macrophages, and impaired bactericidal activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00026-20DOI Listing

Hyperexpression of type III secretion system of Salmonella Typhi linked to a higher cytotoxic effect to monocyte-derived macrophages by activating inflammasome.

Microb Pathog 2020 Sep 6;146:104222. Epub 2020 May 6.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Molecular Infectious Disease Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Inflammasome activation is an important host response to infectious diseases, but the difference in inflammasome activation between typhoid fever and non-typhoidal Salmonella infection has been rarely studied. To determine whether inflammasome activation in macrophages after S. Typhi and S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104222DOI Listing
September 2020

Case report of eventration of diaphragm due to an unknown febrile illness causing phrenic nerve palsy and other multiple nerve palsies.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2020 Jun 25;54:74-78. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Dhulikhel Hospital, Nepal.

Introduction: Diaphragmatic eventration can be congenital or acquired. Diagnosis is delayed due to no symptoms or very mild ones and is generally done by imaging modalities. This condition is managed by plication of the affected part of diaphragm by various surgical approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2020.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201156PMC

Francisella tularensis as the cause of protracted fever.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 May 7;20(1):327. Epub 2020 May 7.

Institute for Hygiene and Applied Immunology, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Tularemia, a re-emerging, potential life threatening infectious disease, can present itself with nonspecific clinical symptoms including fever, chills and malaise. Taking a detailed history of exposure and a highly raised index of clinical suspicion are necessary to take the appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic steps in this setting. Here, a case report of typhoid tularaemia is presented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05051-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206669PMC

Designing a typhoid environmental surveillance study: A simulation model for optimum sampling site allocation.

Epidemics 2020 Jun 17;31:100391. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Center for Global Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene, Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Environmental surveillance can be used for monitoring enteric disease in a population by detecting pathogens, shed by infected people, in sewage. Detection of pathogens depends on many factors: infection rates and shedding in the population, pathogen fate in the sewerage network, and also sampling sites, sample size, and assay sensitivity. This complexity makes the design of sampling strategies challenging, which creates a need for mathematical modeling to guide decision making. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epidem.2020.100391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262602PMC

Reviving the "Moore Swab": a Classic Environmental Surveillance Tool Involving Filtration of Flowing Surface Water and Sewage Water To Recover Typhoidal Bacteria.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2020 Jun 17;86(13). Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

The "Moore swab" is a classic environmental surveillance tool whereby a gauze pad tied with string is suspended in flowing water or wastewater contaminated with human feces and harboring enteric pathogens that pose a human health threat. In contrast to single volume "grab" samples, Moore swabs act as continuous filters to "trap" microorganisms, which are subsequently isolated and confirmed using appropriate laboratory methods. Continuous filtration is valuable for the isolation of transiently present pathogens such as human-restricted serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A and B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00060-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301852PMC

Development of a Specific and Sensitive HPAEC-PAD Method for Quantification of Vi Polysaccharide Applicable to other Polysaccharides Containing Amino Uronic Acids.

Anal Chem 2020 May 24;92(9):6304-6311. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

GSK Vaccines Institute for Global Health, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy.

Typhoid fever is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Vaccines based on the Vi capsular polysaccharide are licensed or in development against typhoid fever. Vi content is a critical quality attribute for vaccines release, to monitor their stability and to ensure appropriate immune response. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b05107DOI Listing

An Ethnobotanical Study of Traditional Knowledge and Uses of Medicinal Wild Plants among the Marakwet Community in Kenya.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 30;2020:3208634. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Forestry and Wood Sciences, University of Eldoret, P.O. Box 1125-30100, Eldoret, Kenya.

Traditional plant knowledge and uses of medicinal wild plants were investigated among the Marakwet community in Kenya. Data were collected through interviews with seven traditional healers and 157 questionnaires for local community members. Traditional names of the plants by traditional healers and local community members were prepared as a checklist. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3208634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7149339PMC

Imported Infections in Rural Mid-West United States - A Report from a Tertiary Care Center.

Mo Med 2020 Mar-Apr;117(2):89-94

Christian Rojas-Moreno, MD, William Salzer, MD, and Gordon Christensen, MD is in the Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.

Background: There is lack of specific data on imported infections in the mid-west United States (U.S.). Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7144708PMC

Vaccines for Older Travelers.

Authors:
Wolfgang Jilg

Interdiscip Top Gerontol Geriatr 2020 9;43:158-181. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany,

People who travel to countries where they are at risk of contracting specific infections often need specific vaccines. To make correct recommendations in this respect several points have to be considered. The state of health of the traveler should be known as well as his or her destination and travel style. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000504492DOI Listing

Febrile illness after a beach day: a case of salmonella bacteremia from oral exposure to a sand dollar.

J Water Health 2020 Apr;18(2):239-243

Pediatric Emergency Medicine at UT Southwestern, Dallas, TX 75204, USA.

This case report discusses a rare presentation of salmonella bacteremia after an oral exposure to a sand dollar in a pediatric patient. A 2-year-old Hispanic male presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of diarrhea and fever for 8 days after a family trip to Destin beach, Florida, during the sea turtle nesting season. The symptoms began a day after the patient took a bite on a sand dollar found on the beach that caused a small wound inside his cheek. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2020.201DOI Listing

Subsultus Tendinum in a Child with Typhoid Fever.

Indian Pediatr 2020 Apr;57(4):374-375

Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Paediatrics; Christian Medical College, Vellore, India.

A 5-year-old male child with blood culture confirmed typhoid fever presented with twitching over the left scapular region. Contrast computerized tomography and electroencephalogram were normal. Following treatment with azithromycin and clonazepam, the twitching subsided. Read More

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Knowledge and practices of community pharmacists towards non-prescription dispensing of antibiotics in Northern Nigeria.

Int J Clin Pharm 2020 Apr 8;42(2):756-764. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

National Poison Center, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia.

Background Non-prescription dispensing of antibiotics is common in Nigeria and this could contribute to the emergence of microbial resistance. Objectives To evaluate knowledge, perception and practices of community pharmacists towards dispensing antibiotics without prescription. Setting Community pharmacies in two cities in Northern Nigeria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11096-020-01019-yDOI Listing

A decision support system for multi-target disease diagnosis: A bioinformatics approach.

Heliyon 2020 Mar 29;6(3):e03657. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Department of Computer Science, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Malaria and typhoid fever are revered for their ability to individually or jointly cause high mortality rate. Both malaria and typhoid fever have similar symptoms and are famous for their co-existence in the human body, hence, causes problem of under-diagnosis when doctors tries to determine the exact disease out of the two diseases. This paper proposes a Bioinformatics Based Decision Support System (BBDSS) for malaria, typhoid and malaria typhoid diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113440PMC

The first imported case of extensively drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi infection in Taiwan and the antimicrobial therapy.

J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2020 Mar 25. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Center for Research, Diagnosis and Vaccine Development, Centers for Disease Control, Taiwan. Electronic address:

The first imported case of XDR typhoid fever in Taiwan contracted with a bacterial strain, which was most closely related to the bla-carrying strains linked to Pakistan. Meropenem, in combination with an antimicrobial with intracellular activity against Salmonella, should be used for the treatment of XDR typhoid fever. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.03.017DOI Listing

Recombinant protein production and purification of SiiD, SiiE and SiiF - Components of the SPI4-encoded type I secretion system from Salmonella Typhimurium.

Protein Expr Purif 2020 Aug 3;172:105632. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Division of Biotechnology, Department of Biology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91052, Erlangen, Germany. Electronic address:

In humans, Salmonella enterica infections are responsible for a plethora of medical conditions. These include intestinal inflammation and typhoid fever. The initial contact between Salmonella and polarized epithelial cells is established by the SPI4-encoded type I secretion system (T1SS), which secretes SiiE, a giant non-fimbrial adhesin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2020.105632DOI Listing

Overview of infection causing hepatitis other than non-A to E hepatitis virus during pregnancy.

Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2020 Mar 9. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Abnormal liver function tests during pregnancy are common. While hepatic injury during pregnancy mostly has minimal adverse influence on maternal and fetal outcomes, severe maternal and fetal morbidities, and even death, sometimes occur. Here, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of hepatitis during pregnancy caused by the less common pathogens, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex viruses (HSVs), dengue fever, malaria, leptospirosis, Q fever, typhoid fever, and other occasional infections, as well as the implications on breastfeeding of the infants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2020.02.012DOI Listing

Evaluation of Salmonella Typhi antigen YncE alongside HlyE for the detection of typhoid fever and its carriers.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2020 Apr 3. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, Malaysia.

Typhoid fever is a disease caused by Salmonella Typhi that was implicated in millions of illnesses worldwide annually. Individuals that do not recover fully from typhoid fever can become asymptomatic carriers of the disease. Host antibodies against the S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-020-00667-1DOI Listing
April 2020
3.038 Impact Factor

Infectious diseases in children and adolescents in China: analysis of national surveillance data from 2008 to 2017.

BMJ 2020 04 2;369:m1043. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Objectives: To outline which infectious diseases in the pre-covid-19 era persist in children and adolescents in China and to describe recent trends and variations by age, sex, season, and province.

Design: National surveillance studies, 2008-17.

Setting: 31 provinces in mainland China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7114954PMC

Non-typhoidal Salmonella bloodstream infections in Kisantu, DR Congo: Emergence of O5-negative Salmonella Typhimurium and extensive drug resistance.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 04 2;14(4):e0008121. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Microbiology, National Institute for Biomedical Research, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Background: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are a major cause of bloodstream infection (BSI) in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to assess its longitudinal evolution as cause of BSI, its serotype distribution and its antibiotic resistance pattern in Kisantu, DR Congo.

Methods: As part of a national surveillance network, blood cultures were sampled in patients with suspected BSI admitted to Kisantu referral hospital from 2015-2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156106PMC

Progress in the overall understanding of typhoid fever: implications for vaccine development.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2020 Apr 17;19(4):367-382. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oxford and the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre , Oxford, UK.

Introduction: Typhoid fever continues to have a substantial impact on human health, especially in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Access to safe water, and adequate sanitation and hygiene remain the cornerstone of prevention, but these are not widely available in many impoverished settings. The emergence of antibiotic resistance affects typhoid treatment and adds urgency to typhoid control efforts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2020.1750375DOI Listing

[Research progress on chemical constituents of Citrullus colocynthis and their pharmacological effects].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2020 Feb;45(4):816-824

School of Pharmacy, Minzu University of China Beijing 100081, China.

Citrullus colocynthis is widely distributed in the desert regions of the world. C. colocynthis has shown to improve constipation, liver diseases, jaundice, typhoid fever, diabetes and asthma in traditional use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20191104.201DOI Listing
February 2020

Typhoid Outbreaks, 1989-2018: Implications for Prevention and Control.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Jun;102(6):1296-1305

Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Typhoid fever remains an important public health problem in low- and middle-income countries, with large outbreaks reported from Africa and Asia. Although the WHO recommends typhoid vaccination for control of confirmed outbreaks, there are limited data on the epidemiologic characteristics of outbreaks to inform vaccine use in outbreak settings. We conducted a literature review for typhoid outbreaks published since 1990. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253085PMC

Comparison of anti-Vi IgG responses between two clinical studies of typhoid Vi conjugate vaccines (Vi-DT vs Vi-TT).

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 03 23;14(3):e0008171. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Clinical Research Laboratory, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a causative agent for typhoid fever and especially critical in developing countries. Although clinical studies for various typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) have been performed, there are no comparative data on the immune responses of vaccines due to lack of harmonization of the serological assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156108PMC

Adverse events following immunization with typhoid conjugate vaccine in an outbreak setting in Hyderabad, Pakistan.

Vaccine 2020 Apr 20;38(19):3518-3523. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Shah Bhitai Hospital, Latifabad, Pakistan.

Pakistan is facing the world's largest outbreak of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhoid. Vaccination campaign for children aged 6 months to 10 years old with Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (Typbar-TCV®) was conducted in high-risk areas of Hyderabad during 2018. About 207,000 children were vaccinated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.03.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7166079PMC
April 2020
3.624 Impact Factor

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever co-infection in children from an urban slum of Delhi.

IDCases 2020 10;20:e00717. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Centre for Health Research and Development Society for Applied Studies (CHRD-SAS), New Delhi, India.

We report two cases of co-infection with Typhi and Paratyphi A identified by blood culture and confirmed by serotyping from an ongoing fever surveillance cohort in an urban slum in New Delhi. Co-infections such as these have important implications on diagnosis, treatment options including choice of antimicrobial(s), disease outcome and strategy for prevention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2020.e00717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7075973PMC
February 2020