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    Emerging insights into the biology of typhoid toxin.
    Curr Opin Microbiol 2017 Feb 14;35:70-77. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536, United States. Electronic address:
    Typhoid toxin is a unique A2B5 exotoxin and an important virulence factor for Salmonella Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever. In the decade since its initial discovery, great strides have been made in deciphering the unusual biological program of this toxin, which is fundamentally different from related toxins in many ways. Purified typhoid toxin administered to laboratory animals causes many of the symptoms of typhoid fever, suggesting that typhoid toxin is a central factor in this disease. Read More

    Typhoid Fever on the Half Shell.
    Tex Med 2017 Feb 1;113(2):39-41. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Protecting the public from communicable infectious disease outbreaks is one of the most important, and most challenging, functions of public health. Foodborne outbreaks are not uncommon, and they can be especially difficult. This true story of the epidemiologic investigation into a typhoid fever outbreak illustrates the critical importance of timely reporting by front-line clinicians, extensive interprofessional teamwork, and statewide coordination. Read More

    Preclinical efficacy and safety of the Ty21a vaccine strain for intravesical immunotherapy of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
    Oncoimmunology 2017 7;6(1):e1265720. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois , Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Intravesical Bacillus-Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunotherapy can reduce recurrence/progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), although significant adverse events and treatment failure argue for alternative options. Here, we examined whether another attenuated live vaccine, Vivotif/Ty21a, used since more than 30 y against typhoid fever, may be safely used intravesically to improve bladder-tumor treatment. Mice-bearing MB49 orthotopic bladder-tumors treated with intravesical Ty21a or BCG were compared for survival and bacteria recovery. Read More

    Incidence of invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicentre population-based surveillance study.
    Lancet Glob Health 2017 Mar;5(3):e310-e323
    International Vaccine Institute, SNU Research Park, Seoul, South Korea.
    Background: Available incidence data for invasive salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Standardised, multicountry data are required to better understand the nature and burden of disease in Africa. We aimed to measure the adjusted incidence estimates of typhoid fever and invasive non-typhoidal salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the causative agents. Read More

    Approach to Fever in the Returning Traveler.
    N Engl J Med 2017 02;376(6):548-560
    From the Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom (G.E.T., N.P.J.D.); Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (G.E.T.); and the Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand (N.P.J.D.).

    Salmonella Typhi Lipopolysaccharide O-antigen Modifications Impact on Serum Resistance and Antibody Recognition.
    Infect Immun 2017 Feb 6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Centre for Immunology and Infection, Hull York Medical School and the Department of Biology, University of York, York, UK
    Salmonella Typhi is a human restricted Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, responsible for causing an estimated 27 million cases of typhoid fever annually leading to 217,000 deaths, and current vaccines do not offer full protection. The O-antigen side chain of the lipopolysaccharide is an immunodominant antigen, can define host-pathogen interactions, and is under consideration as a vaccine target for some Gram-negative species. The composition of the O-antigen can be modified by activity of glycosyltransferase (gtr) operons acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Read More

    Safety of live vaccinations on immunosuppressive therapy in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, solid organ transplantation or after bone-marrow transplantation - A systematic review of randomized trials, observational studies and case reports.
    Vaccine 2017 Mar 3;35(9):1216-1226. Epub 2017 Feb 3.
    Department of Public Health, Division of Infectious Diseases/Travel Clinic, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, Hirschengraben 84, 8001 Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:
    Background: Live vaccines are generally contraindicated on immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, data are limited to corroborate this practice.

    Objectives: To estimate the safety of live vaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) or solid organ transplantation (SOT) on immunosuppressive treatment and in patients after bone-marrow transplantation (BMT). Read More

    Blood culture-PCR to optimise typhoid fever diagnosis after controlled human infection identifies frequent asymptomatic cases and evidence of primary bacteraemia.
    J Infect 2017 Jan 24. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics and the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Background: Improved diagnostics for typhoid are needed; a typhoid controlled human infection model may accelerate their development and translation. Here, we evaluated a blood culture-PCR assay for detecting infection after controlled human infection with S. Typhi and compared test performance with optimally performed blood cultures. Read More

    [Bacteremia caused by ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella serotype Kentucky: a case report and the review of literature].
    Mikrobiyol Bul 2016 Oct;50(4):598-605
    Ankara Atatürk Training and Research Hospital, Medical Microbiology Laboratory, Ankara, Turkey.
    Salmonella infections can be seen in four clinical types, namely gastroenteritis, bacteremia/sepsis, enteric fever and carriage. These infections can result in uncomplicated diarrhea in most cases, but can lead to invasive disease requiring antimicrobial therapy and can be life-threatening in elderly or immunocomprimised patients. Broad-spectrum cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones are crucial options in the treatment of the invasive infections. Read More

    Poverty-related diseases (PRDs): unravelling complexities in disease responses in Cameroon.
    Trop Med Health 2017 14;45. Epub 2017 Jan 14.
    Health and Society (HSO) group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8130, , 6700 EW Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Background: In Cameroon, poverty-related diseases (PRDs) are a major public health concern. Research and policies addressing PRDs are based on a particular understanding of the interaction between poverty and disease, usually an association between poverty indicators and health indicators for a specific country or region. Such indicators are useful but fail to explain the nature of the linkages between poverty and disease or poverty and health. Read More

    Typhoid-associated acute kidney injury masquerading as a relapse of Takayasu arteritis.
    Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2017 Jan-Feb;28(1):178-180
    Department of Nephrology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Renal dysfunction is common in Takayasu arteritis. Uncommonly, renal failure in a case of Takayasu arteritis can be due to an unrelated disease, and if the disease is a rare complication, it is even more difficult to diagnose. We report a 21-year-old male with type IV Takayasu arteritis presenting with fever and renal failure, who was diagnosed to have enteric fever- related glomerulonephritis which was successfully treated. Read More

    Study of molecular interactions between Chitosan and Vi Antigen.
    J Mol Graph Model 2017 Mar 31;72:148-155. Epub 2016 Dec 31.
    Laboratory Quality Control, College of Pharmacy, Federal University of Pará, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Chitosan has attracted much interest due to its special physical and chemical properties related to drug administration. Nanoparticles delivery systems from Vi Antigen are a promising approach in the struggle against typhoid fever. In this paper, we reported the obtainment and the characterization of Vi Antigen by Infrared spectroscopy as well as Molecular Modeling and Computational Chemistry studies of the Chitosan-Vi Antigen interaction through theoretical models. Read More

    Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology of Ziziphus jujuba Mills.
    Phytother Res 2017 Jan 13. Epub 2017 Jan 13.
    Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Alcalá, Ctra. de Madrid-Barcelona (Autovía A2) Km. 33,600, 28805, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.
    Ziziphus jujuba Mills, 'annab' in Iran, 'ber' in India or 'pomme sourette' in France, is a species whose fruit (known warmly as 'the fruits of life' in China) has been consumed for centuries for its nutritional value. The food industry used it as a food additive and flavoring. The dry seeds, the crude leaves and the stem bark are still used in ethnopharmacology to treat digestive disorders and gastric ulcers as antitussive, laxative and hypotensive drugs; even now, it is used in China to treat children who suffer from typhoid fever, furuncle and ecthyma. Read More

    Food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of institutional food-handlers in Ghana.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Jan 6;17(1):40. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University for Development Studies, P. O. Box 24, Navrongo Campus, Ghana.
    Background: In large scale cooking, food is handled by many individuals, thereby increasing the chances of food contamination due to improper handling. Deliberate or accidental contamination of food during large scale production might endanger the health of consumers, and have very expensive repercussions on a country. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices among institutional food- handlers in Ghana. Read More

    Whole Genome Sequence Analysis of Salmonella Typhi Isolated in Thailand before and after the Introduction of a National Immunization Program.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jan 6;11(1):e0005274. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Centre for Systems Genomics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.
    Vaccines against Salmonella Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, are commonly used by travellers, however, there are few examples of national immunization programs in endemic areas. There is therefore a paucity of data on the impact of typhoid immunization programs on localised populations of S. Typhi. Read More

    A large and persistent outbreak of typhoid fever caused by consuming contaminated water and street-vended beverages: Kampala, Uganda, January - June 2015.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Jan 5;17(1):23. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    Background: On 6 February 2015, Kampala city authorities alerted the Ugandan Ministry of Health of a "strange disease" that killed one person and sickened dozens. We conducted an epidemiologic investigation to identify the nature of the disease, mode of transmission, and risk factors to inform timely and effective control measures.

    Methods: We defined a suspected case as onset of fever (≥37. Read More

    Typhoid perforation: Post-operative Intensive Care Unit care and outcome.
    Afr J Paediatr Surg 2016 Oct-Dec;13(4):175-180
    Department of Anaesthesia, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.
    Background: Typhoid perforation ileitis is a serious complication of typhoid fever, a common and unfortunate health problem in a resource-poor country like Nigeria. Following bowel perforation, treatment is usually by simple closure or bowel resection and anastomosis after adequate aggressive fluid resuscitation and electrolyte correction. Postoperatively, some of these patients do require management in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) on account of sepsis or septic shock and to improve survival. Read More

    Frosted Branch Angiitis in a Patient with Typhoid Fever.
    Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2016 Dec 23:1-3. Epub 2016 Dec 23.
    c Uvea and Ocular Pathology, Medical and Vision Research Foundations , Chennai , India.
    Frosted branch angiitis (FBA), a rare form of retinal vasculitis presenting as bilateral perivascular sheathing, resembling the appearance of frosted tree branches in winter, was first reported by Ito et al.(1) in 1976, in a young immunocompetent boy. FBA predominantly affects healthy young patients, the youngest reported in an 11-month-old infant(2) and oldest in a 42-year-old patient. Read More

    The Cytolethal Distending Toxin Produced by Nontyphoidal Salmonella Serotypes Javiana, Montevideo, Oranienburg, and Mississippi Induces DNA Damage in a Manner Similar to That of Serotype Typhi.
    MBio 2016 Dec 20;7(6). Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA
    Select nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) serotypes were recently found to encode the Salmonella cytolethal distending toxin (S-CDT), an important virulence factor for serotype Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever. Using a PCR-based assay, we determined that among 21 NTS serotypes causing the majority of food-borne salmonellosis cases in the United States, genes encoding S-CDT are conserved in isolates representing serotypes Javiana, Montevideo, and Oranienburg but that among serotype Mississippi isolates, the presence of S-CDT-encoding genes is clade associated. HeLa cells infected with representative strains of these S-CDT-positive serotypes had a significantly higher proportion of cells arrested in the G2/M phase than HeLa cells infected with representative strains of S-CDT-negative serotypes Typhimurium, Newport, and Enteritidis. Read More

    Identification of Five Novel Salmonella Typhi-Specific Genes as Markers for Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever Using Single-Gene Target PCR Assays.
    Biomed Res Int 2016 15;2016:8905675. Epub 2016 Nov 15.
    Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine (INFORMM), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
    Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever which is a disease characterised by high mortality and morbidity worldwide. In order to curtail the transmission of this highly infectious disease, identification of new markers that can detect the pathogen is needed for development of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. Read More

    Near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM analysis of the Salmonella T3S injectisome basal body.
    Nature 2016 Dec 14. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and the Center for Blood Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3, Canada.
    The type III secretion (T3S) injectisome is a specialized protein nanomachine that is critical for the pathogenicity of many Gram-negative bacteria, including purveyors of plague, typhoid fever, whooping cough, sexually transmitted infections and major nosocomial infections. This syringe-shaped 3.5-MDa macromolecular assembly spans both bacterial membranes and that of the infected host cell. Read More

    Histopathology of vaccine-preventable diseases.
    Histopathology 2017 Jan;70(1):109-122
    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    The widespread use of vaccines has been one of the most important medical advances in the last century, saving trillions of dollars and millions of lives. Despite local eradication of some infections, travellers returning from affected areas may cause outbreaks through reintroduction of pathogens to individuals who are unable to receive vaccines for medical reasons or who have declined vaccination for non-medical reasons. Infections that would otherwise be uncommonly encountered by anatomical pathologists should therefore remain in the differential diagnosis for immunocompromised and unvaccinated patients. Read More

    The Type III Secretion System Effector SptP of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi.
    J Bacteriol 2017 Feb 30;199(4). Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom
    Strains of the various Salmonella enterica serovars cause gastroenteritis or typhoid fever in humans, with virulence depending on the action of two type III secretion systems (Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 [SPI-1] and SPI-2). SptP is a Salmonella SPI-1 effector, involved in mediating recovery of the host cytoskeleton postinfection. SptP requires a chaperone, SicP, for stability and secretion. Read More

    Geographical distribution of typhoid risk factors in low and middle income countries.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 Dec 5;16(1):732. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    International Vaccine Institute, SNU Research Park, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanack-gu, Seoul, South Korea.
    Background: While the global burden of typhoid fever has been often brought up for attention, the detailed surveillance information has only been available for the limited number of countries. As more efficacious vaccines will be available in the near future, it is essential to understand the geographically diverse patterns of typhoid risk levels and to prioritize the right populations for vaccination to effectively control the disease.

    Methods: A composite index called the typhoid risk factor (TRF) index was created based on data with the Global Positioning System (GPS). Read More

    Antimicrobial resistance and molecular subtypes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates from Kolkata, India over a 15 years period 1998-2012.
    Int J Med Microbiol 2017 Jan 25;307(1):28-36. Epub 2016 Nov 25.
    Microbiology Division, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, P-33 C.I.T Road, Kolkata, West Bengal 700010, India. Electronic address:
    Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), remains an unresolved public health problem in India. Emergence of antimicrobial resistant strains poses a great concern for typhoid treatment and influences reshaping of current S. Read More

    Severe thrombocytopenia in a child with typhoid fever: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2016 Nov 30;10(1):333. Epub 2016 Nov 30.
    Sydney Children's Hospital, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: Although thrombocytopenia is common in typhoid fever, its course, response to treatment, and need for specific therapies such as platelet transfusion are not well characterized.

    Case Presentation: We report a case of typhoid fever in a 4-year-old Asian male returned traveler, admitted with prolonged fever and found to have severe thrombocytopenia (platelets 16 × 10(9)/L). Despite appropriate antibiotic therapy, his platelet recovery was slow, but did not lead to complications and he did not require platelet transfusion. Read More

    Low and declining attack rates of imported typhoid fever in the Netherlands 1997-2014, in spite of a restricted vaccination policy.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 Dec 1;16(1):731. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service (GGD) of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 100, PO Box 2200, 1000 CE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: Typhoid fever mainly occurs in (sub) tropical regions where sanitary conditions remain poor. In other regions it occurs mainly among returning travelers or their direct contacts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current Dutch guidelines for typhoid vaccination. Read More

    Antimicrobial susceptibility to azithromycin among Salmonella enterica Typhi and Paratyphi A isolates from India.
    J Med Microbiol 2016 Dec 10;65(12):1536-1539. Epub 2016 Nov 10.
    1​Department of Microbiology, Division Bacteriology, Sanjay Gandhi Post-graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014, India.
    Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS) and multidrug resistance in typhoidal Salmonella isolates in areas of endemicity are significant therapeutic problems. Guidelines for azithromycin disc diffusion and MIC interpretive criteria for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were published recently by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in 2015. We investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of azithromycin in 100 isolates of Salmonella Typhi (n=80), Paratyphi A (n=18) and B (n=2) recovered from bloodstream infections from January 2013 to December 2015. Read More

    A case of clinical and microbiological failure of azithromycin therapy in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi despite low azithromycin MIC.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Jan 25;54:62-63. Epub 2016 Nov 25.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. Electronic address:
    Typhoid fever remains a serious problem in many developing countries. Due to resistance to multiple first line drugs, azithromycin has evolved as an important drug in the treatment of typhoid. While therapy with azithromycin is highly effective, no clinically validated mean inhibitory concentration (MIC) break points or disc diffusion cutoff guidelines are available so far. Read More

    A Comparative Evaluation of Different Diagnostic Modalities in the Diagnosis of Typhoid Fever Using a Composite Reference Standard: A Tertiary Hospital Based Study in Central India.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Oct 1;10(10):DC01-DC04. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
    Student, DEHS , USA .
    Introduction: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella spp. is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and endemic in many developing countries including India and other South-East Asian countries. Blood culture is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis. Read More

    Enteric fever in Barcelona: Changing patterns of importation and antibiotic resistance.
    Travel Med Infect Dis 2016 Nov - Dec;14(6):577-582. Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    Barcelona Institute for Global Health, ISGlobal-CRESIB, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: Enteric fever's incidence is decreasing among residents of high-income countries, although it's rising in travelers coming from low-resource endemic settings. The study's aim is to describe epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of patients with enteric fever.

    Methods: Retrospective descriptive study of enteric fever cases diagnosed at a Tropical Medicine Unit in Barcelona, 1993-2012. Read More

    Vi capsular polysaccharide: Synthesis, virulence, and application.
    Crit Rev Microbiol 2016 Nov 21:1-13. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
    a Department of Microbiology , Third Military Medical University , Chongqing , China.
    Vi capsular polysaccharide, a linear homopolymer of α-1,4-linked N-acetylgalactosaminuronate, is characteristically produced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The Vi capsule covers the surface of the producing bacteria and serves as an virulence factor via inhibition of complement-mediated killing and promoting resistance against phagocytosis. Furthermore, Vi also represents a predominant protective antigen and plays a key role in the development of vaccines against typhoid fever. Read More

    Receptor-Mediated Sorting of Typhoid Toxin during Its Export from Salmonella Typhi-Infected Cells.
    Cell Host Microbe 2016 Nov;20(5):682-689
    Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06536, USA. Electronic address:
    Typhoid toxin is an essential virulence factor of Salmonella Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever. Typhoid toxin is secreted into the lumen of Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV), after which it is packaged into vesicle carrier intermediates and released extracellularly through incompletely understood mechanisms. Following export, the toxin targets cells by interacting with human-specific Neu5Ac-terminated glycan receptors. Read More

    Prevalence of malaria, typhoid, toxoplasmosis and rubella among febrile children in Cameroon.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 Nov 8;16(1):658. Epub 2016 Nov 8.
    The Biotechnology Centre, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
    Background: The current roll-out of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in many endemic countries has resulted in the reporting of fewer cases of malaria-attributed illnesses. However, lack of knowledge of the prevalence of other febrile illnesses and affordable diagnostic tests means that febrile patients are not managed optimally. This study assessed the prevalence of commonly treatable or preventable febrile illnesses in children between 6 months and 15 years using rapid diagnostic tests at the point-of-care. Read More

    Diagnosis of Persistent Fever in the Tropics: Set of Standard Operating Procedures Used in the NIDIAG Febrile Syndrome Study.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Nov 3;10(11):e0004749. Epub 2016 Nov 3.
    Division of Tropical and Humanitarian Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva Switzerland.
    In resource-limited settings, the scarcity of skilled personnel and adequate laboratory facilities makes the differential diagnosis of fevers complex [1-5]. Febrile illnesses are diagnosed clinically in most rural centers, and both Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) and clinical algorithms can be valuable aids to health workers and facilitate therapeutic decisions [6,7]. The persistent fever syndrome targeted by NIDIAG is defined as presence of fever for at least one week. Read More

    Development of a live attenuated bivalent oral vaccine against Shigella sonnei shigellosis and typhoid fever.
    J Infect Dis 2016 Oct 31. Epub 2016 Oct 31.
    Protein Potential, LLC, 9800 Medical Center Dr., Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Shigella sonnei (Ss) and Salmonella Typhi cause significant morbidity and mortality. We exploited the safety record of the oral, attenuated S. Typhi vaccine (Ty21a) by utilizing it as a vector to develop a bivalent oral vaccine to protect against Ss shigellosis and typhoid fever. Read More

    Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Subsequently on Public Health: A Review for Generalists with Particular Reference to Pakistan.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016 Oct 27;13(11). Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Centre for Climate Research and Development, COMSAS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad Campus, Park Road, Chak Shahzad, Islamabad 45550, Pakistan.
    Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Read More

    The unrecognized burden of typhoid fever.
    Expert Rev Vaccines 2017 Mar 16;16(3):249-260. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    c Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Atlanta , GA , USA.
    Introduction: Typhoid fever (TF), caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is the most common cause of enteric fever, responsible for an estimated 129,000 deaths and more than 11 million cases annually. Although several reviews have provided global and regional TF disease burden estimates, major gaps in our understanding of TF epidemiology remain. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the gaps in current estimates of TF disease burden and offer suggestions for addressing them, so that affected communities can receive the full potential of disease prevention offered by vaccination and water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions. Read More

    Enteric Fever.
    Indian J Pediatr 2017 Mar 29;84(3):227-230. Epub 2016 Oct 29.
    Department of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College & Associated Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, 110001, India.
    Enteric fever is an important public-health problem in India. The clinical presentation of typhoid fever is very variable, ranging from fever with little other morbidities to marked toxemia and associated multisystem complications. Fever is present in majority of patients (>90 %) irrespective of their age group. Read More

    Antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities of Pleopeltis polylepis.
    J Ethnopharmacol 2016 Dec 26;194:981-986. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Electronic address:
    Aim Of The Study: Pleopeltis polylepis (Polypodaceae) is a fern used in the traditional Mexican medicine to treat fever, bleeding, typhoid, cough, pertussis, chest pain, and renal and hepatic diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the bioactivities of different extracts, fractions and isolated compounds from this species to scientifically validate its medicinal applications.

    Materials And Methods: Aerial parts of P. Read More

    Typhoid Fever in South Africa in an Endemic HIV Setting.
    PLoS One 2016 25;11(10):e0164939. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.
    Background: Typhoid fever remains an important disease in Africa, associated with outbreaks and the emerging multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) haplotype, H58. This study describes the incidence of, and factors associated with mortality due to, typhoid fever in South Africa, where HIV prevalence is high.

    Methods And Findings: Nationwide active laboratory-based surveillance for culture-confirmed typhoid fever was undertaken from 2003-2013. Read More

    Diagnosis of imported Ugandan typhoid fever based on local outbreak information: A case report.
    J Infect Chemother 2016 Nov 11;22(11):770-773. Epub 2016 Jun 11.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513, Japan.
    Re-emerging multidrug-resistant typhoid fever is becoming a worldwide threat, especially in East Africa. At the beginning of 2015, an outbreak of typhoid fever started in the capital city of Uganda, and 1940 suspected cases were reported by 5 March 2015. In this report, we describe a case of typhoid fever caused by a MDR strain with HIV infection and hemoglobin S-syndrome thalassemia in an Ugandan from Kampala City. Read More

    British merchant seafarers 1900-2010: A history of extreme risks of mortality from infectious disease.
    Travel Med Infect Dis 2016 Sep - Oct;14(5):499-504. Epub 2016 Jul 7.
    Norwegian Centre for Maritime Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Background: This study established trends in major infectious disease mortality in British merchant shipping from 1900 to 2010 as compared with the British male working population and the Royal Navy.

    Methods: A population mortality study of six infectious diseases using annual government mortality returns and death inquiry files for British merchant shipping and the Royal Navy, and official mortality data for the general male working aged population.

    Findings: Relative mortality risks for each disease were increased significantly in British merchant shipping when compared with the general population; malaria by 58. Read More

    BcsZ inhibits biofilm phenotypes and promotes virulence by blocking cellulose production in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
    Microb Cell Fact 2016 Oct 19;15(1):177. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. Read More

    History of Antibiotics Research.
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2016 ;398:237-272
    Department Microbial Drugs and German Center for Infection Research, Helmholtz-Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstraße 7, 38124, Braunschweig, Germany.
    For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. Read More

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and gallbladder cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis.
    Cancer Med 2016 Nov 11;5(11):3310-3235. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
    Escuela de Medicina, Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases, ACCDiS, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    In Chile, where gallbladder cancer (GBC) rates are high and typhoid fever was endemic until the 1990s, we evaluated the association between Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) antibodies and GBC. We tested 39 GBC cases, 40 gallstone controls, and 39 population-based controls for S. Read More

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