13,767 results match your criteria Typhoid Fever


Mechanisms of typhoid toxin neutralization by antibodies targeting glycan receptor binding and nuclease subunits.

iScience 2021 May 20;24(5):102454. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Nearly all clinical isolates of Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever, are antibiotic resistant. All Typhi isolates secrete an AB exotoxin called typhoid toxin to benefit the pathogen during infection. Here, we demonstrate that antibiotic-resistant Typhi secretes typhoid toxin continuously during infection regardless of antibiotic treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Rapid detection of ceftriaxone resistance in clinical isolates of extensively drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Jun;71(6):1639-1643

Department of Microbiology, PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: To see the efficacy of rapid colour test for the sensitivity of ceftriaxone against clinical isolates of salmonella typhi.

Methods: The cross-sectional validation study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology, Pakistan Navy Ship Shifa Hospital, Karachi, from Nov 2018 to April 2019, and comprised clinical isolates of salmonella typhi that were obtained from five different hospitals in Karachi and Hyderabad. The isolates were tested using the rapid colour test. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Safety and immunogenicity of Vi-typhoid conjugate vaccine co-administration with routine 9-month vaccination in Burkina Faso: A randomised controlled phase 2 trial.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Center for Vaccine Development and Global Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: In 2017, the World Health Organisation (WHO) pre-qualified a single-dose typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) and identified TCV co-administration studies as a research priority. We tested co-administration of Typbar TCV® (Bharat Biotech International) with measles-rubella (MR) and yellow fever (YF) vaccines.

Methods: We conducted a randomised, double-blind, and controlled, phase 2 trial in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Enteric fever presenting as catatonia syndrome - Case report.

Trop Doct 2021 Jun 3:494755211020883. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Assistant Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Enteric or typhoid fever is an emerging tropical infectious disease and a global public health problem with a documented spectrum of neuro-psychiatric manifestations especially from endemic countries. Although neuro-psychiatric manifestations are reported in nearly 50-75% of patients at any phase of enteric fever, the chance of their misdiagnosis and deferred diagnosis of the prime illness is quite common. Atypical symptoms are commonly attributed to be a part of 'typhoid toxaemia', the acute febrile phase of the illness. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Seroprevalence and Clinical Features of Scrub Typhus among Febrile Patients Attending a Referral Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2021 May 13;6(2). Epub 2021 May 13.

Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur 44618, Nepal.

(1) Background: Scrub typhus (ST) is endemic to Nepal. It is often underdiagnosed and misdiagnosed due to non-specific clinical presentation coupled with limited microbiological facilities, leading to adverse clinical outcomes. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of scrub typhus in febrile patients attending Sukraraj Tropical and Infectious Disease Hospital (STIDH), Nepal, from August 2018 to April 2019. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Robust immunity induced by multi-epitope DnaK peptides, potential vaccine candidates against Salmonella: an in vitro study.

Immunol Lett 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi, 110054.

Enteric fever is a common yet serious issue, most troublesome in underdeveloped and developing nations affecting all age group primarily children. Pitfalls of existing vaccines along with rapidly rising Multi-Drug-Resistant Salmonella strains necessitate the need for the development of new vaccine candidates having potential to provide complete protection. Several vaccine strategies are being pursued to stimulate protective immunity against typhoid, including conjugate vaccines for the elicitation of cellular and humoral responses as both arms of immunity are essential for complete protection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparison of the performance of Tubex® TF, widal immunodiagnostic assay and blood culture in diagnosis of enteric fever in a private tertiary care hospital Peshawar, Pakistan.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Mar;71(3):909-911

Department of Statistics, Islamia College, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

Objective: To determine and compare the performance of TUBEX®TF, Widal test and blood culture in the diagnosis of enteric fever.

Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Northwest General Hospital and Research Centre, Hayatabad, Peshawar, Pakistan, and comprised medical record from January to December 2018 related to patients who presented with fever. Typhidot, Widal test and blood culture had been performed as part of evaluation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Repurposing Infectious Diseases Vaccines Against Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 13;11:688755. Epub 2021 May 13.

The Anticancer Fund, Strombeek-Bever, Belgium.

Vaccines used to prevent infections have long been known to stimulate immune responses to cancer as illustrated by the approval of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine to treat bladder cancer since the 1970s. The recent approval of immunotherapies has rejuvenated this research area with reports of anti-tumor responses with existing infectious diseases vaccines used as such, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Here, we have reviewed and summarized research activities using approved vaccines to treat cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Typhoidal cells are not always indicative of typhoid fever.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 06;21(6):888

Clinical Laboratory, Qingdao Women and Children's Hospital, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Kenyan school book knowledge for water, sanitation, hygiene and health education interventions: Disconnect, integration or opportunities?

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2021 May 15;235:113756. Epub 2021 May 15.

Institute for Hygiene and Public Health, Medical Faculty, University of Bonn, GeoHealth Centre, Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Schools, depending on their access to and quality of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and the implementation of healthy behaviours, can be critical for the control and spread of many infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Schools provide opportunities for pupils to learn about the importance of hygiene and WASH-related practice, and build healthy habits and skills, with beneficial medium- and long-term consequences particularly in low- and middle-income countries: reducing pupils' absenteeism due to diseases, promoting physical, mental and social health, and improving learning outcomes. WASH services alone are often not sufficient and need to be combined with educational programmes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A global resource for genomic predictions of antimicrobial resistance and surveillance of Salmonella Typhi at pathogenwatch.

Nat Commun 2021 05 17;12(1):2879. Epub 2021 May 17.

Centre for Genomic Pathogen Surveillance, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, UK.

As whole-genome sequencing capacity becomes increasingly decentralized, there is a growing opportunity for collaboration and the sharing of surveillance data within and between countries to inform typhoid control policies. This vision requires free, community-driven tools that facilitate access to genomic data for public health on a global scale. Here we present the Pathogenwatch scheme for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Morbidity and Mortality Associated with Typhoid Fever Among Hospitalized Patients in Hyderabad District, Pakistan, 2017-2018: Retrospective Record Review.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 May 17;7(5):e27268. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Public Health, Community Medicine and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Background: Hyderabad, Pakistan, was the first city to witness an outbreak of extensively drug resistant (XDR) typhoid fever. The outbreak strain is resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and third-generation cephalosporin, thus greatly limiting treatment options. However, despite over 5000 documented cases, information on mortality and morbidity has been limited. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

var. Enteritidis osteomyelitis with pulmonary involvement in an immunocompetent young woman.

IDCases 2021 18;24:e01127. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Japanese Red Cross Ise Hospital, Ise, 516-8512, Japan.

Primary bacteremia due to non-typhoid often occurs in immunocompromised individuals, but may also occur in immunocompetent individuals. Contrastingly, vertebral osteomyelitis with respiratory involvement caused by non-typhoid in immunocompetent individuals is extremely rare. A 21-year-old healthy woman with histories of eating ready-to-eat roasted beef and a recent vertebral compression fracture developed high-grade fever and was diagnosed with bacteremia, complicated by vertebral osteomyelitis with pulmonary involvement characterized as an extra-intestinal infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Risk Factors of Extensively Drug Resistant Typhoid Fever Among Children in Karachi: Case-Control Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 May 11;7(5):e27276. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Public Health, Community Medicine and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Background: Extensively drug resistant typhoid fever (XDR-TF) has been responsible for an ongoing outbreak in Pakistan, which began in November 2016.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with XDR-TF.

Methods: This age- and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during May-October 2018 in Karachi. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antibiotyping and Genotyping of Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR) Salmonella Spp. Isolated from Clinical Samples of Lahore, Pakistan.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan, 54590.

Aims: Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of XDR Salmonella among local population of Lahore and genotyping of isolates for antibiotic resistant genes.

Methods And Results: A total of 200 blood samples from suspected typhoid fever patients were collected. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of serum samples of typhoid patients of different stages.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 May 6;34:102329. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan.

Background: Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of body fluids is considered a quick, simple and easy to use method for the diagnosis of disease.

Objectives: To evaluate rapid, reliable, and non-destructive SERS-based diagnostic tool with multivariate data analysis including principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for classification of different stages of typhoid on the basis of characteristic SERS spectral features.

Methods: SERS has been used for analysis of serum samples of different stages of typhoid including early acute stage and late acute stage in comparison with healthy samples, in order to investigate capability of this technique for diagnosis of typhoid. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Salmonella Typhi acquires diverse plasmids from other Enterobacteriaceae to develop cephalosporin resistance.

Genomics 2021 May 12;113(4):2171-2176. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: Recent reports have established the emergence and dissemination of extensively drug resistant (XDR) H58 Salmonella Typhi clone in Pakistan. In India where typhoid fever is endemic, only sporadic cases of ceftriaxone resistant S. Typhi are reported. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical Perspectives of Multiple and Extensively Drug-Resistant Typhoid; result from a tertiary care hospital from Pakistan.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 04 30;15(4):530-537. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Medicine, Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan.

Introduction: Typhoid fever remains a problem in developing countries, including Pakistan. The emergence of multidrug-resistant and, since 2016, of extensively drug-resistant cases is a continuous challenge for health care workers. The COVID-19 pandemic is making management more difficult. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Seroconfirmed Typhoid Fever and Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices among Febrile Patients Attending at Injibara General Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

Biomed Res Int 2021 13;2021:8887266. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Science, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Typhoid fever (TF) is a febrile global health problem caused by serovar Typhi ( Typhi) with relatively high prevalence in low- and middle-income countries including Ethiopia. Identifying local prevalence and gaps in knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) towards TF is recommended by the World Health Organization to implement preventive measures. Therefore, this study determined the prevalence of . Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CCL17-expressing dendritic cells in the intestine are preferentially infected by Salmonella but CCL17 plays a redundant role in systemic dissemination.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Immunology and Environment, Life and Medical Sciences (LIMES) Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Introduction: Salmonella spp. are a recognized and global cause of serious health issues from gastroenteritis to invasive disease. The mouse model of human typhoid fever, which uses Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) in susceptible mouse strains, has revealed that the bacteria gain access to extraintestinal tissues from the gastrointestinal tract to cause severe systemic disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Implementation research approaches to promoting universal health coverage in Africa: a scoping review.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 May 3;21(1):414. Epub 2021 May 3.

Health Systems and Services Cluster, World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo.

Background: Implementation research has emerged as part of evidence-based decision-making efforts to plug current gaps in the translation of research evidence into health policy and practice. While there has been a growing number of initiatives promoting the uptake of implementation research in Africa, its role and effectiveness remain unclear, particularly in the context of universal health coverage (UHC). Hence, this scoping review aimed to identify and characterise the use of implementation research initiatives for assessing UHC-related interventions or programmes in Africa. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antimicrobial Resistance in Typhoidal Salmonella in Nepal: Surveillance for Enteric Fever, 2016-2019.

J Nepal Health Res Counc 2021 Apr 23;19(1):162-169. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Dhulikhel, Nepal.

Background: Enteric fever (caused by Salmonella enterica) has been associated with poor hygiene and is endemic in the South-Asian countries. The increase in resistance to first line antimicrobials has been observed, while the emergence of multi/extremely drug resistance cases have been identified in several countries. The objective of this study is to analyze the current trend of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolates in Nepal, and to identify the status of multi- and extremely- drug resistant isolates. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Classification of of the (Para-)Typhoid Fever Group by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 15;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Infectious Disease Department, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine Hamburg, 20359 Hamburg, Germany.

Typhoidal and para-typhoidal are major causes of bacteraemia in resource-limited countries. Diagnostic alternatives to laborious and resource-demanding serotyping are essential. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) is a rapidly developing and simple bacterial typing technology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Current Immunological and Clinical Perspective on Vaccinations in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Are They Safe after All?

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 8;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Neurochemistry and Neuropathology, Department of Neurology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences (PUMS), 60-355 Poznań, Poland.

Vaccines work by stimulating the immune system, and their immunogenicity is key in achieving protection against specific pathogens. Questions have been raised whether in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients they could induce disease exacerbation and whether vaccines could possibly act as a trigger in the onset of MS in susceptible populations. So far, no correlation has been found between the vaccinations against influenza, hepatitis B, tetanus, human papillomavirus, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella zoster, tuberculosis, yellow fever, or typhoid fever and the risk of MS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Enteric Fever Diagnosis: Current Challenges and Future Directions.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Enteric fever is a life-threatening systemic febrile disease caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi ( Typhi and Paratyphi). Unfortunately, the burden of the disease remains high primarily due to the global spread of various drug-resistant strains despite continuous advancement in the field. An accurate diagnosis is critical for effective control of the disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Small-Scale shRNA Screen in Primary Mouse Macrophages Identifies a Role for the Rab GTPase Rab1b in Controlling Typhi Growth.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 7;11:660689. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Typhi is a human-restricted bacterial pathogen that causes typhoid fever, a life-threatening systemic infection. A fundamental aspect of . Typhi pathogenesis is its ability to survive in human macrophages but not in macrophages from other animals (i. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

empyema an unusual infection - A case report.

IDCases 2021 30;24:e01096. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Pulmonology Department, Centro Hospitalar do Oeste, Rua Dr. Aurélio Ricardo Belo, 2560-364, Torres Vedras, Portugal.

Pleuropulmonary infections are very rare and are associated with high mortality. We present a case of empyema to in an 83-year-old male patient, with uncontrolled hematological disease. The patient presented with a one-week history of fever, productive cough with purulent sputum, dyspnea, and pleuritic pain localized to the right hemithorax. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hospital-based ciprofloxacin use evaluation in Eastern Ethiopia: a retrospective assessment of clinical practice.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 19;38:62. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O. Box 235, Harar, Ethiopia.

Introduction: ciprofloxacin is a second-generation fluoroquinolone, which has been used as one of the top three antibacterial agents prescribed in Ethiopia. However, its use has deviated from the recommendation of standard treatment guidelines resulting in a gradual increase in antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the annual use of ciprofloxacin in 2016 based on the standard Ethiopian treatment and World Health Organization guidelines, in governmental hospitals, in Eastern Ethiopia from 1 May to 30 June 2018. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Toxicological Profile of the Aqueous Extract of L.F. (Verbenaceae) Leaves: A Medicinal Plant Used in the Treatment of Typhoid Fever in Traditional Cameroonian Medicine.

J Toxicol 2021 5;2021:6646771. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon.

() is a medicinal plant widely used in Cameroon to treat typhoid fever and several other diseases. Despite its heavy use for medical purposes, no study has yet been conducted to assess its potentially toxic effects. This study aimed at evaluating the acute and subchronic toxicological profile of leaf extract in rats. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Closing the Brief Case: Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in a Central American Refugee.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 Apr 20;59(5). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Pathology, The University of Arizona College of Medicine - Tucson, Tucson, Arizona, USA

View Article and Full-Text PDF