1,746 results match your criteria Tufted Hair Folliculitis
Biochemistry 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Intraneuronal aggregation of TDP-43 is seen in 97% of all ALS cases and occurs by a poorly understood mechanism. We developed a simple in vitro model system for the study of full length TDP-43 aggregation in solution and in protein droplets. We found that soluble, YFP-tagged full-length TDP-43 (yTDP-43) dimers can be produced by refolding into low salt HEPES buffer; these solutions are stable for several weeks. Read More
Zootaxa 2018 Oct 29;4508(1):85-100. Epub 2018 Oct 29.
Department of Limnology and Bio-Oceanography, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria..
Based on adults, mature pupae, and larvae sampled at the same sites on mainland Greece and on the Greek islands of Kerkyra (Corfu) and Crete, the previously unknown larval stages of Rhyacophila tsurakiana Malicky 1984, R. gudrunae Malicky 1972, and R. biegelmeieri Malicky 1984 could be associated and identified. Read More
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2018 Mar-Dec;32:2058738418814688
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, San Gallicano Dermatological Institute IRCCS, Rome, Italy.
Folliculitis decalvans is a rare clinical disorder classified as primary neutrophilic scarring alopecia with a slight preference for the male gender. Here, we report the use of autologous fat transplantation as a source of stem cell therapy for hair re-growth assisted by inflammatory action of the fat itself in a female patient. The patient underwent adipose transplantation in April and September 2017. Read More
Br Dent J 2018 Nov;225(10):945
Elife 2018 11 20;7. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
The stochastic multicolor labeling method 'Brainbow' is a powerful strategy to label multiple neurons differentially with fluorescent proteins; however, the fluorescence levels provided by the original attempts to use this strategy were inadequate. In the present study, we developed a stochastic multicolor labeling method with enhanced expression levels that uses a tetracycline-operator system (Tetbow). We optimized Tetbow for either plasmid or virus vector-mediated multicolor labeling. Read More
J Neurotrauma 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Virginia Commonwealth University, Anatomy and Neurobiology PO Box 980709, Richmond, Virginia, United States ;
Olfactory receptor axons re-innervate the olfactory bulb (OB) after chemical or transection lesion. Diffuse brain injury damages the same axons, but the time course and regulators of OB re-innervation are unknown. Gelatinases (MMP2, 9) and their substrate osteopontin (OPN) are candidate mediators of synaptogenesis following CNS insult, including olfactory axon damage. Read More
Folia Primatol (Basel) 2018 7;89(6):415-422. Epub 2018 Nov 7.
Hair is a useful source of biological information. For example, the bulb can be a source of high-quality genetic material, whereas the shaft can be useful for measuring heavy metals and some hormones, such as cortisol. The stable isotope composition of hair is another valuable source of biological information. Read More
Eur J Neurosci 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.
CNRS, UMR 5292, INSERM, U1028, Lyon, France.
Optogenetics is based on the selective expression of exogenous opsins by neurons allowing experimental control of their electrical activity using visible light. The interpretation of the results of optogenetic experiments is based on the assumption that light stimulation selectively acts on those neurons expressing the exogenous opsins without perturbing the activity of naive ones. Here, we report that light stimulation, of wavelengths and power in the range of those normally used in optogenetic experiments, consistently reduces the firing activity of naive Mitral Cells (MCs) and Tufted Neurons in the olfactory bulb as well as in Medium Spiny Neurons (MSNs) in the striatum. Read More
Eur J Pediatr Surg 2018 Oct 29. Epub 2018 Oct 29.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
Objective: To evaluate the outcome and safety of corticosteroids and vincristine (VCR) in the treatment of kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA).
Materials And Methods: Clinical studies involving corticosteroids and VCR therapies in treating KHE/TA were identified by using PubMed, Cochrane Library, OVID, EBSCO, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang databases from their establishment date to December 2017. Randomized controlled trials, case-control, or case series with more than five cases were included. Read More
J Med Primatol 2018 Oct 21. Epub 2018 Oct 21.
Institute of Health Sciences, Paulista University, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Background: The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is one of the most studied Neotropical primates regarding reproduction. However, little has been reported on the black-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix penicillata), which may produce fertile hybrids with other Callithrix. This is the first study to evaluate sperm freezing from black-tufted-ear marmoset. Read More
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2018 Oct 18. Epub 2018 Oct 18.
1 Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas , Campinas, Brazil .
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne parasitic protozoan infection that affects mammals and involves a complex epidemiology. Although dogs are considered the main reservoir in zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the possible presence of other mammalian species acting as reservoirs has been associated as a possible cause of lack of success in the control of human VL in many endemic areas. The knowledge about natural infections of some species is still scarce, such as nonhuman primates (NHP), especially from the genus Callithrix (marmosets). Read More
Turk J Pediatr 2018 ;60(2):188-190
Molecular Dermatology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
Sepaskhah M, Hajizadeh J, Sari-Aslani F, Jowkar F. Tufted angioma arising at the site of hepatitis B vaccination: A case report. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 188-190. Read More
Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Nov 15;35(6):808-816. Epub 2018 Oct 15.
Department of Dermatology, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Universidad Autónoma, Madrid, Spain.
Background: Recent reports indicate that tufted angioma is a rare vascular neoplasm that manifests more frequently at birth than previously thought. Few studies specifically address congenital presentation.
Objectives: We analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics, clinical course, and treatment of congenital tufted angioma (cTA) and evaluated variables that were indicative of problematic lesions. Read More
J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Oct 10. Epub 2018 Oct 10.
Department of Pharmacology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pa. Electronic address:
Background: Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are olfactory disorders caused by inflammation of the nasal passage and paranasal sinuses. Although patients with chronic rhinosinusitis have smaller olfactory bulbs (OBs), there is limited knowledge regarding the influence of chronic nasal inflammation on OB neurons.
Objective: Repeated intranasal administration of LPS that induced persistent nasal inflammation in mice caused a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and gliosis and synaptic loss in the OBs within 3 weeks. Read More
JAAD Case Rep 2018 Oct 3;4(9):893-895. Epub 2018 Oct 3.
Division of Dermatology, Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, Augusta, Georgia.
J Theor Biol 2018 Oct 2;462:109-121. Epub 2018 Oct 2.
University of Utah, Department of Mathematics, 155 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, United States. Electronic address:
We introduce a novel detailed conductance-based model of the bursting activity in external tufted (ET) cells of the olfactory bulb. We investigate the mechanisms underlying their bursting, and make experimentally-testable predictions. The ionic currents included in the model are specific to ET cells, and their kinetic and other parameters are based on experimental recordings. Read More
Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Oct 4. Epub 2018 Oct 4.
The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Rabies virus (RABV) does not persist in the environment as it is a very fragile agent. The primary hosts are mammalian species in the orders Carnivora and Chiroptera. Since the late 1980s, RABV has been isolated from non-human primates, Callithrix jacchus (the white-tufted marmoset), in four coastal states (Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará, Piauí and Pernambuco) in north-eastern Brazil, where this species is indigenous. Read More
J Neurosci 2018 Nov 3;38(46):9870-9882. Epub 2018 Oct 3.
Institut des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Intégratives, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université de Strasbourg, 67084 Strasbourg, France, and
Calretinin (CR)-expressing periglomerular (PG) cells are the most abundant interneurons in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb. They are predominately generated postnatally from the septal and dorsal subventricular zones that continue producing them well into adulthood. Yet, little is known about their properties and functions. Read More
Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Oct;131(19):2378-2379
Department of Dermatology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212001, China.
Neuroscience 2018 Nov 9;391:50-59. Epub 2018 Sep 9.
Department of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Preventive Medicine, Airforce Medical University, 169(#) ChangLe West Road, Xi'an 710032, China; Department of Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8001, USA. Electronic address:
The olfactory circuitry in mice involves a well-characterized, vertical receptor type-specific organization, but the localized inhibitory effect from granule cells on action potentials that propagate laterally in secondary dendrites of mitral cell remains open to debate. To understand the functional dynamics of the lateral (horizontal) circuits, we analyzed odor-induced signaling using transgenic mice expressing a genetically encoded Ca indicator specifically in mitral/tufted and some juxtaglomerular cells. Optical imaging of the dorsal olfactory bulb (dOB) revealed specific patterns of glomerular activation in response to odor presentation or direct electric stimulation of the olfactory nerve (ON). Read More
PLoS One 2018 4;13(9):e0203061. Epub 2018 Sep 4.
Lab of Systematic Evolution and Biogeography of Woody Plants, College of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.
The seeds of Salix and Populus (Salicaceae) are characterized by having numerous long hairs which loosely accompanying the seeds and a small annular appendage which surrounding the base of the seed along with tufted hairs. In this study, the complete development and detailed structure of the hairs and annular appendage in Salix matsudana were investigated using standard techniques for plant anatomy and histochemistry. The results show that the hairs originate successively from the single epidermal cells of the placenta (in megaspore mother cell phase) and funiculus (in eight-nucleate phase), and that their development consists of a progressive increase in cell size and an absence of cell division. Read More
Front Genet 2018 15;9:317. Epub 2018 Aug 15.
Department of Neurology and Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Dual pathology in fragile X mental retardation 1 ( premutation carriers and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) patients is an emerging phenomenon. Although it includes atypical parkinsonism, neuropathological confirmation is very scarce. Here, we describe neuropathological findings for a female who suffered a severe parkinsonian syndrome with apraxia and supranuclear palsy. Read More
Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1865:217-231
Department of Animal Physiology and Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Animal Physiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.
Electroporation is an efficient method of transferring charged macromolecules into living cells in order to study their morphology, function, and connectivity within neuronal networks. Labeling cells with fluorophore-coupled macromolecules can be used to trace projections of whole neuronal ensembles, as well as the fine morphology of single cells. Here, we present a protocol to visualize pre- and postsynaptic components of a sensory relay synapse in the brain, using the olfactory system of Xenopus laevis tadpoles as a model. Read More
Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Aug 8. Epub 2018 Aug 8.
University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, UK.
High-frequency neuronal population oscillations (HFO, 130-180 Hz) are robustly potentiated by subanesthetic doses of ketamine. This frequency band has been recorded in functionally and neuroanatomically diverse cortical and subcortical regions, notably ventral striatal areas. However, the locus of generation remains largely unknown. Read More
Biosens Bioelectron 2018 Nov 11;119:215-220. Epub 2018 Aug 11.
Engineering Technology Research Center for Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Chongqing, College of Pharmacy, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, PR China. Electronic address:
The authors described a universal amperometric DNA biosensor for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of the specific IS6110 DNA sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Surprisingly, when tufted carbon nanotubes (CNTs) doped with polyaniline (PAN), a unique flower-like structure with large surface area, abundant active groups and efficient redox activity was obtained. Accordingly, CNTs-PAN nanohybrid was designed both as novel redox nanoprobe and nanocarrier to decorate signal probe, forming tracer label for the generation and amplification of electrochemical signal. Read More
Acta Neuropathol 2018 Nov 22;136(5):709-727. Epub 2018 Aug 22.
Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 32224, USA.
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative parkinsonian disorder characterized by tau pathology in neurons and glial cells. Transcriptional regulation has been implicated as a potential mechanism in conferring disease risk and neuropathology for some PSP genetic risk variants. However, the role of transcriptional changes as potential drivers of distinct cell-specific tau lesions has not been explored. Read More
Int J Dent Hyg 2018 Nov 20;16(4):512-518. Epub 2018 Aug 20.
Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís-Ma, Brasil.
Objective: To compare the effect of a single-tufted toothbrush combined or not with a conventional toothbrush to control dental biofilm in healthy orthodontic patients.
Materials And Methods: Twenty orthodontic patients were randomly assigned to receive three different treatments: Group 1-conventional toothbrush; Group 2-single-tufted toothbrush and Group 3-combination of single-tufted and conventional toothbrushes. Stained plaque index (SPI), visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded. Read More
Parasitol Res 2018 Oct 17;117(10):3245-3255. Epub 2018 Aug 17.
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville, MD, 20705-2350, USA.
Sarcocystis sarcocysts are common in many species of domestic and wild animals. Here, we report sarcocystosis in muscles from 91 free range elk (Cervus elaphus) from Pennsylvania, USA, tested by histopathology, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and DNA sequencing. Sarcocysts were detected in hematoxylin and eosin (HE)-stained sections from 83 of 91 (91. Read More
J Dermatol 2018 Oct 17;45(10):1203-1206. Epub 2018 Aug 17.
Division of Oncology, Department of Pediatric Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.
Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP) occurred uniquely in patients with kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA). We report the clinical characteristics of two patients with KHE involving the right upper arm. The patients demonstrated rapid enlargement of the lesion with severe KMP shortly after vaccination. Read More
Clin Chim Acta 2018 Nov 7;486:199-204. Epub 2018 Aug 7.
Department of Hemangioma and Vascular Malformation Surgery, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 7 Weiwu Road, Zhengzhou 450003, China. Electronic address:
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics and treatment of pediatric tufted angiomas(TA)complicated by Kasabach-Merritt Phenomenon (KMP).
Method: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data and follow-up data of 13 patients diagnosed with TA complicated by KMP. Five male and 8 female patients with an average age of 5. Read More
J Neurophysiol 2018 Oct 8;120(4):2036-2048. Epub 2018 Aug 8.
Department of Physiology and Biophysics and the Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado, School of Medicine , Aurora, Colorado.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) regulate information transfer across the main olfactory bulb by instituting a high-pass intensity filter allowing for the filtering out of weak inputs. Excitation-driven inhibition of the glomerular microcircuit via GABA release from periglomerular cells appears to underlie this effect of nAChR activation. The multiplicity of nAChR subtypes and cellular locations raises questions about their respective roles in mediating their effects on the glomerular output. Read More
Neuron 2018 Aug 2;99(4):800-813.e6. Epub 2018 Aug 2.
The Gonda Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel. Electronic address:
Sensory input reaching the brain from bilateral and offset channels is nonetheless perceived as unified. This unity could be explained by simultaneous projections to both hemispheres, or inter-hemispheric information transfer between sensory cortical maps. Odor input, however, is not topographically organized, nor does it project bilaterally, making olfactory perceptual unity enigmatic. Read More
PeerJ 2018 17;6:e5195. Epub 2018 Jul 17.
Department of Vertebrate Zoology and Anthropology, Faculty of Biology, Szczecin University, Szczecin, Poland.
The aerial and ground methods of counting birds in a coastal area during different ice conditions were compared. Ice coverage of water was an important factor affecting the results of the two methods. When the water was ice-free, more birds were counted from the ground, whereas during ice conditions, higher numbers were obtained from the air. Read More
Front Mol Neurosci 2018 5;11:229. Epub 2018 Jul 5.
Laboratory for the Molecular Biology of Neural Systems, Advanced Medical Research Center, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan.
It has been shown in a variety of mammalian species that sensory experience can regulate the development of various structures, including the retina, cortex, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb (OB). In the mammalian OB, the development of dendrites in excitatory projection neurons, such as mitral and tufted cells, is well known to be dependent on odor experience. Odor experience is also involved in the development of another OB population, a subset of inhibitory interneurons that are generated in the ventricular-subventricular zone throughout life and differentiate into granule cells (GCs) and periglomerular cells. Read More
Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Sep 17;35(5):e286-e290. Epub 2018 Jul 17.
Department of Dermatology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin is used systemically for the treatment of vascular lesions. We report the first use of topical rapamycin for the successful treatment of two cases of tufted angioma. The evidence for the use of topical rapamycin in other dermatologic conditions is summarized to aid in clinical decision making on preparations and anticipated side effects. Read More
Neuropharmacology 2018 Sep 6;140:86-99. Epub 2018 Jul 6.
UCL School of Pharmacy, Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
A-type K channels restrain the spread of incoming signals in tufted and apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons resulting in strong compartmentalization. However, the exact subunit composition and functional significance of K channels expressed in small diameter proximal dendrites remain poorly understood. We focus on A-type K channels expressed in basal and oblique dendrites of cortical layer 3 pyramidal neurons, in ex vivo brain slices from young adult mice. Read More
Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Sep 12;35(5):635-638. Epub 2018 Jul 12.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, Medical College of Xi'an, JiaoTong University, Xi'an, China.
Background: Sirolimus has been used to manage various complex vascular anomalies. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma and tufted angioma may develop Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon in infancy.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and laboratory data of eight patients with kaposiform hemangioendothelioma and tufted angioma who were initially treated using oral sirolimus in our center, including six with Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon. Read More
PLoS One 2018 11;13(7):e0198287. Epub 2018 Jul 11.
State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
Lycopsids are a minor component of current terrestrial herbaceous floras. However, lycopsid fossil diversity shows a great diversity and disparity including heterosporous woody plants, e.g. Read More
J Neurosci 2018 Aug 5;38(33):7204-7220. Epub 2018 Jul 5.
Behavioural Neurophysiology, Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany,
Juxtaglomerular cells (JGCs) of the olfactory bulb (OB) glomerular layer (GL) play a fundamental role in olfactory information processing. Their variability in morphology, physiology, and connectivity suggests distinct functions. The quantitative understanding of population-wise morphological and physiological properties and a comprehensive classification based on quantitative parameters, however, is still lacking, impeding the analysis of microcircuits. Read More
Am J Surg Pathol 2018 Sep;42(9):1201-1207
Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
Hepatic small vessel neoplasm (HSVN) is a recently described infiltrative vascular neoplasm of the liver, composed of small vessels. Although the infiltrative nature can mimic angiosarcoma, HSVN are thought to be benign or low-grade neoplasms because they lack cytologic atypia and increased proliferation. To characterize the molecular pathogenesis of HSVN, we performed both targeted panel sequencing and exome sequencing on 18 benign or low-grade vascular neoplasms in the liver including 8 HSVN, 6 classic cavernous hemangioma (CH), and 4 variant lesions (VL) with overlapping features between HSVN and CH. Read More
Naturwissenschaften 2018 Jun 29;105(7-8):44. Epub 2018 Jun 29.
Association Vahatra, BP 3972, 101, Antananarivo, Madagascar.
We applied a multi-isotope approach to examine aspects of niche partitioning, competition, and mobility for rodents in the Central Highlands of Madagascar. Specifically, we used carbon (δC), nitrogen (δN), and strontium (Sr/Sr) isotope ratios in bone to investigate diet and mobility for endemic tufted tail rats (Eliurus spp.), and introduced black rats (Rattus rattus) and house mice (Mus musculus) within and outside a fragment of montane humid forest in the Ambohitantely Special Reserve. Read More
Acta Med Okayama 2018 Jun;72(3):211-221
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.
Neurodegenerative diseases in which tau accumulation plays a cardinal role in the pathogenic process are called tauopathies, and when tau isoforms having four repeats of the microtubule binding sites, four-repeat tau, are selectively accumulated as pathological hallmarks, the term four-repeat tauopathy is used. The major four-repeat tauopathies are progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and argyrophilic grain disease (AGD). Historically, neuronal cytopathologies, e. Read More
Geobiology 2018 09 20;16(5):476-497. Epub 2018 Jun 20.
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
The 2.1-billion-year-old (Ga) Francevillian series in Gabon hosts some of the oldest reported macroscopic fossils of various sizes and shapes, stimulating new debates on the origin, evolution and organization of early complex life. Here, we document ten representative types of exceptionally well-preserved mat-related structures, comprising "elephant-skin" textures, putative macro-tufted microbial mats, domal buildups, flat pyritized structures, discoidal microbial colonies, horizontal mat growth patterns, wrinkle structures, "kinneyia" structures, linear patterns and nodule-like structures. Read More
J Zoo Wildl Med 2018 Jun;49(2):355-360
Brazil has a large variety of wild animal species, but limited data are available on the occurrence of Brucella abortus and Leptospira spp. antibodies in these animals. Sera from 141 captive mammals belonging to 11 different species from the Northern and Northeastern regions of Brazil were screened. Read More
Acta Neuropathol Commun 2018 Jun 11;6(1):50. Epub 2018 Jun 11.
Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research (CNDR), Institute on Aging and Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine (PSOM) at the University of Pennsylvania, HUP Maloney 3rd Floor, 36th and Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 - 4283, USA.
Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG) describes tau pathology in astrocytes in different locations and anatomical regions. In the present study we addressed the question of whether sequential distribution patterns can be recognized for ARTAG or astroglial tau pathologies in both primary FTLD-tauopathies and non-FTLD-tauopathy cases. By evaluating 687 postmortem brains with diverse disorders we identified ARTAG in 455. Read More
Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1820:157-167
Institute of Zoology and Regensburg Center of Neuroscience, Regensburg University, Regensburg, Germany.
Single extracellular stimulation electrodes are a widespread means to locally activate synaptic inputs in acute brain slices. Here we describe the fabrication and application of a multielectrode stimulator that was developed for conditions under which independent stimulation of several nearby sites is desirable. For the construction of the multielectrode we have developed a method by which electrode wires can be spaced at minimal distances of 100 μm. Read More