252,450 results match your criteria Tuberculous Meningitis
Int J Surg Case Rep 2018 Nov 24;54:55-59. Epub 2018 Nov 24.
Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital - Faculty of Medicine Universitas, Jl. Pangeran Diponegoro No. 71, Salemba, Central Jakarta, 10430, Indonesia. Electronic address:
Introduction: Both gluteal abscess and sacral tuberculosis are rare entities in spinal tuberculosis cases. Even in endemic country, this atypical presentation may be the cause of delayed diagnosis and treatment.
Presentation Of Case: A 51-year-old woman was admitted with painless massive lump on both of her thighs that have been enlarging for the past 6 months. Read More
J Neurol Sci 2018 Nov 17;396:232-234. Epub 2018 Nov 17.
Center for Pulmonary Diseases, National Hospital Organization Tokyo National Hospital, Japan. Electronic address:
J Ethnopharmacol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Plant Transgenic Laboratory, P.O. Box 436, Rana Pratap Marg,Lucknow-226 001, U.P., India. Electronic address:
Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The genus Psoralea (Fabaceae) harbours 105 accepted species that are extensively used by local peoples and medicinal practitioners of China, India, and other countries for treatment of tooth decay, psoriasis, leucoderma, leprosy, kidney problems, tuberculosis, indigestion, constipation and impotence. Presently, pharmacological research reports are available on only few species namely Bituminaria bituminosa (Syn: P. bituminosa), P. Read More
World Neurosurg 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology and Minia University Hospital, Mohammed Badway str., 61111, El-Minia, Egypt; Minia University Spine Unit (MUSU), Faculty of Medicine, Minia University. Minia University Hospital, Mohammed Badway str., 61111, El-Minia, Egypt. Electronic address:
Background Data: Complexity in ventral surgical exposure, presence of scapula and large para-scapular musculature during posterior surgery are the main obstacles in operative treatment of Upper Thoracic Spine Compressive Lesions (UTSCL) like trauma, tuberculosis and neoplasm. Recently, the advantages of combined ventro-dorsal surgery could be successfully gained using 1-stage posterior salvage technique with enough accessibility to all three spinal columns.
Purpose: Retrospective evaluation of 35 patients with UTSCL treated by Posterior Extensive Circumferential Decompressive Reconstructive (PECDR) procedure. Read More
Dev Comp Immunol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, United States. Electronic address:
Owing to the high incidence of multi-drug resistance and challenges posed by the complex and long duration of treatments, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections remain a significant clinical burden, which would benefit from development of novel immuno-therapeutic-based treatment strategies. Among early immune effectors, invariant or innate-like (i)T cells are attracting attention because of their potential regulatory activity, which can shape anti-mycobacterial immune responses. Unlike conventional T cells, iT cells express a semi-invariant T cell receptor, and respond rapidly and robustly to molecular patterns presented by MHC class I-like molecules. Read More
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2018 11 30;56(4):364-370. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Secretaría de Salud, Hospital General de México “Dr. Eduardo Liceaga”, Unidad de Neumología y Cirugía de Tórax. Ciudad de México, México
Background: Tuberculosis is a public health problem, extrapulmonary presentations have increased, it is difficult to diagnose because of the low bacillary load.
Objective: To identify risk factors and to evaluate the efficiency of diagnostic methods in pleural, meningeal, peritoneal and pericardial tuberculosis.
Methods: Prospective study of cases and controls. Read More
Biochemistry 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Detailed information on hit-target interaction is very valuable for drug discovery efforts and indispensable for rational hit to lead optimization. We developed a new approach combining NMR in whole-cells (in-cell NMR) and docking to characterize hit-target interaction at the atomic level. By using in-cell NMR, we validated target engagement of the anti-tuberculosis imidazopyridine amide (IPA) series with the subunit b of the cytochrome bc1:aa3, the major respiratory terminal oxidase in mycobacteria. Read More
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2018 11 30;56(4):414-417. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital de Especialidades "Dr. Bernardo Sepúlveda Gutiérrez", Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Nefrológicas. Ciudad de México, México
Background: Kidney transplantation presents a susceptible point, and is related to infections; tuberculosis is a common and endemic etiology in a country like Mexico, where the most frequent presentation is the respiratory condition, the extrapulmonary is extremely rare and it is derived from immunosuppression conditions.
Case Report: 33-year-old man with kidney disease of undetermined etiology, kidney transplant in 2003 (donor mother) with adequate evolution; presented with chronic graft nephropathy, with baseline creatinine of 1.8 mg / dL, immunosuppression with prednisone 10 mg every 24 hours, mycophenolate mofetil 500 mg every 8 hours and ciclosporin 100 mg every 12 hours; surgical intervention was performed due to acute abdomen, appendectomy and omentectomy with histopathological finding of tuberculosis, Dotbal, antiproliferative in suspension was started and decrease of calcineurin inhibitor. Read More
FEBS J 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the pathogen responsible for tuberculosis, a leading cause of illness and death worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-32 plays a major role in host defenses against pathogens such as Mtb. IL-32 exists in six alternatively spliced isoforms, but anti-tuberculosis effects have been reported only for some of them. Read More
Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, IMRIC Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.
The global burden of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains poorly characterized, with spill-over impacts on multiple species. The "One Health" concept is especially relevant given the bidirectional risk of cattle infecting humans with Mycobacterium bovis and humans infecting cattle with M. tuberculosis. Read More
Respirology 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Tuberculosis and Chest Service, Centre for Health Protection, Department of Health, Hong Kong, China.
Infect Disord Drug Targets 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Drug Discovery and Development, RCG Consulting, 16024 Golden Lakes Drive. United States.
The number of drugs available for treatment of active tuberculosis are diminishing due to increased multidrug resistance selection in Mycobacterium tuberculosis leading to multiple (MDR) and extensively (XDR) resistant strains. Also, TB is treated with multiple drugs to minimize further resistance development, mandating a sustained effort to identify new lead compounds for treating drug resistant TB, and shortening time to cure for all TB infections. High throughput screening, a well-known approach to discovery of new leads, is conducted in two basic modes 1) using whole cells and screening for inhibition of growth, or whole cell reporter cells that signals when a specific pathway is perturbed, and 2) in vitro non-cell based enzyme or other functional assays for direct ligand-target binding. Read More
Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1888:219-231
Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
Designing effective antibiotic combination regimens is critical for countering drug resistance in pathogens. Yet the large combinatorial search-space makes the identification of effective combinations a significant challenge. There is a great need for computational approaches that can rapidly prioritize potential combination regimens based on the antagonistic and synergistic interactions among the constituent antibiotics. Read More
Respirol Case Rep 2019 Feb 28;7(2):e00390. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Respiratory Department Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre Kuala Lumpur Malaysia.
Pleural anthracosis is rare and, in most cases, is diagnosed incidentally or at autopsy. We report a 67-year-old man with pleural anthracosis. He was initially referred for possible tuberculous pleural effusion and had recurrent admissions for symptomatic pleural effusion, which increased with each subsequent episode. Read More
Front Immunol 2018 16;9:2613. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
AIDS Institute, Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a major mechanism of protection against viral infections . Identification of HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with potent ADCC activity may help develop an effective HIV-1 vaccine. In present study, we isolated such human mAb, designated E10, from an HIV-1-infected patient sample by single B cell sorting and single cell PCR. Read More
Infect Drug Resist 2018 12;11:2219-2229. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
Mycobacteriology Research Section, Department of Infection and Immunity, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia,
Background: In Saudi Arabia, cross-border transmission of multidrug-resistant (MDR) complex (MTBC) strains might be particularly fostered by high immigration rates. Herein, we aimed to elucidate the transmission dynamics of MDR-MTBC strains and reveal a detailed prediction of all resistance-conferring mutations for the first- and second-line drugs.
Methods: We investigated all MDR-MTBC strains collected between 2015 and 2017 from provincial mycobacteria referral laboratories and compared demographic and clinical parameters to a cohort of non-MDR-TB patients using a whole genome sequencing approach. Read More
Nat Struct Mol Biol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratories for Natural Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
In the mycobacterial electron-transport chain, respiratory complex III passes electrons from menaquinol to complex IV, which in turn reduces oxygen, the terminal acceptor. Electron transfer is coupled to transmembrane proton translocation, thus establishing the electrochemical proton gradient that drives ATP synthesis. We isolated, biochemically characterized, and determined the structure of the obligate IIIIV supercomplex from Mycobacterium smegmatis, a model for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Read More
J Atheroscler Thromb 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Aim: The Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index (CAVI) is a stiffness index of the arterial tree from the origin of the aorta to the ankle, independent of blood pressure at the time of measurement. The CAVI equation includes the coefficients "a" and "b" to adjust it to the value of Hasegawa's pulse wave velocity, which is compensated for at 80 mmHg of diastolic pressure. To verify this adjustment with the coefficients, the clinical significance of CAVI and CAVI without the coefficients (haβ) were compared in both an epidemiological study and an acute clinical study. Read More
Sci Transl Med 2018 Dec;10(470)
Center for Infection and Inflammation Imaging Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a devastating form of tuberculosis (TB), and key TB antimicrobials, including rifampin, have restricted brain penetration. A lack of reliable data on intralesional drug biodistribution in infected tissues has limited pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling efforts to optimize TBM treatments. Current methods to measure intralesional drug distribution rely on tissue resection, which is difficult in humans and generally limited to a single time point even in animals. Read More
Malar J 2018 Dec 5;17(1):452. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly, and Children, Dodoma, Tanzania.
Background: A nationwide, school, malaria survey was implemented to assess the risk factors of malaria prevalence and bed net use among primary school children in mainland Tanzania. This allowed the mapping of malaria prevalence at council level and assessment of malaria risk factors among school children.
Methods: A cross-sectional, school, malaria parasitaemia survey was conducted in 25 regions, 166 councils and 357 schools in three phases: (1) August to September 2014; (2) May 2015; and, (3) October 2015. Read More
Nat Prod Res 2018 Dec 5:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
a Department of Biomedical Science , University of Sassari , Sassari , Italy.
The increasing incidence of resistance in tuberculosis and in atypical mycobacterial infections has prompted the search for alternative agents. We explored the antimycobacterial activity of Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil against tubercular and non tubercular mycobacterials isolates. The good activity observed towards M. Read More
Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester) 2018 Dec 5:1469066718813226. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
1 Normandie Université, COBRA, UMR 6014 et FR 3038; Université de Rouen; INSA de Rouen; CNRS, IRCOF, Mont Saint Aignan Cedex, France.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection results in more than two million deaths per year and is the leading cause of mortality in people infected with HIV. A new structural class of antimycobacterials, the diarylquinolines, has been synthesized and is being highly effective against both M. tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Read More
Toxins (Basel) 2018 Dec 4;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.
The Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea.
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are known to play various roles in physiological processes, such as gene regulation, growth arrest and survival, in bacteria exposed to environmental stress. Type II TA systems comprise natural complexes consisting of protein toxins and antitoxins. Each toxin and antitoxin participates in distinct regulatory mechanisms depending on the type of TA system. Read More
An Acad Bras Cienc 2014 Jun;86(2):523-524
Laboratório de Erros Inatos do Metabolismo, Unidade Acadêmica de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciúma, SC, Brasil.
An Acad Bras Cienc 2014 Jun;86(2):855-865
Departamento de Biologia Molecular e Biotecnologia, IB e Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.
Anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatitis (ATD- induced hepatitis) has been linked to polymorphisms in genes encoding drug metabolizing enzymes. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and glutathione S-transferase (loci GSTM1 and GSTT1) are involved in the metabolism of isoniazid, the most toxic drug for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). This study was designed to determine the frequency and to evaluate whether polymorphisms at CYP2E1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes are associated with drug response, as well as to identify clinical risk factors for ATD-induced hepatitis. Read More
Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2018 Dec 3;143(24):1755-1758. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Klinische Arbeitsgemeinschaft AIDS Deutschland (KAAD), Sektion der Deutschen AIDS-Gesellschaft (DAIG).
Guidelines from 3 clinical societies and peer-reviewed publications have been reviewed for recent changes in the management of opportunistic infections. Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazol administered intravenously is an option to treat cerebral toxoplasmosis if oral therapy is not feasible. CD4 T cell cut-off for starting prophylaxis with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole is now 200/µl. Read More
Infect Genet Evol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Global Health and Tropical Medicine, GHTM, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, IHMT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, UNL, Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address:
Tuberculosis, disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is currently the leading cause of death by a single infectious agent worldwide. Early, rapid and accurate identification of M. tuberculosis and the determination of drug susceptibility is essential for the treatment and management of this disease. Read More
Eur J Med Chem 2018 Nov 26;163:169-182. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041, China. Electronic address:
The emergence of various drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains has necessitated the exploration of new drugs that lack cross-resistance with existing therapeutics. By screening the MedChemExpress bioactive compound library, ceritinib was identified as a compound with activity against Mtb H37Ra. Ceritinib had a MIC value of 9. Read More
J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Genet Mol Biol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa) Pecuária Sul. Bagé, RS, Brazil.
We propose to evaluate genome similarity by combining discrete non-decimated wavelet transform (NDWT) and elastic net. The wavelets represent a signal with levels of detail, that is, hidden components are detected by means of the decomposition of this signal, where each level provides a different characteristic. The main feature of the elastic net is the grouping of correlated variables where the number of predictors is greater than the number of observations. Read More
Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Dec;18(12):1410
Department of Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA.
Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Dec;18(12):1329-1349
Background: Although a preventable and treatable disease, tuberculosis causes more than a million deaths each year. As countries work towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target to end the tuberculosis epidemic by 2030, robust assessments of the levels and trends of the burden of tuberculosis are crucial to inform policy and programme decision making. We assessed the levels and trends in the fatal and non-fatal burden of tuberculosis by drug resistance and HIV status for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. Read More
Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Dec;18(12):1291-1293
Ministry of Health, Lusaka, Zambia; Zambia National Public Health Institute, Lusaka, Zambia.
Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov 24;18(11):1288. Epub 2018 Oct 24.
Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India.
Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov 24;18(11):1185. Epub 2018 Oct 24.
Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov 24;18(11):1161. Epub 2018 Oct 24.
Anal Chem 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Tuberculosis is currently the single most deadly infectious disease in the world and a public health priority as defined by WHO. Although the disease is in general curable, treatment success is hampered by the necessity of a long and side effect prone treatment. Low treatment efficiency may be partly due to the special growth states mycobacteria enter to avoid being killed by antibiotics and to persist longer within the host. Read More
Trop Med Int Health 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
Objective: To estimate whether WHO's End TB Strategy targets can be achieved by analyzing the incidence trend of pulmonary tuberculosis in Shanghai during 1992-2016.
Method: The age-adjusted annual incidence of tuberculosis (TB) was calculated based on data from the national TB registration system. Linear regression was applied to analyze the trend of the epidemic, together with the statistical indicator of annual percent change (APC). Read More
Trop Med Int Health 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.
Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.
Objectives: A growing evidence base implicates human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as a risk factor for TB disease. We investigated total IgG and mycobacteria-specific antibodies in a cross-sectional study nested within a rural Ugandan General Population Cohort (GPC), in relation to HIV infection and the magnitude of HCMV IgG response.
Methods: Sera from 2,189 individuals (including 27 sputum-positive TB cases) were analysed for antibodies against mycobacteria (Ag85A, PPD, LAM, ESAT6/CFP10) and HCMV, tetanus toxoid (TT) and total IgG. Read More
Genes Genomics 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Life and Health Sciences, Hoseo University, Asan, Chungnam, 31499, South Korea.
Background: Tetraspanin proteins are expressed in various immune cells, and they play an important role in tuberculosis formation. CD53 is a protein in the tetraspanin family that is expressed in many white blood cells. In particular, it plays an important role in cytokine regulation and interaction between natural killer (NK) cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Read More
J Clin Transl Res 2018 28;4(1). Epub 2018 May 28.
Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology & Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, US.
Mitochondria are critical cellular organelles for energy generation and are now also recognized as playing important roles in cellular signaling. Their central role in energy metabolism, as well as their high abundance in hepatocytes, make them important targets for drug-induced hepatotoxicity. This review summarizes the current mechanistic understanding of the role of mitochondria in drug-induced hepatotoxicity caused by acetaminophen, diclofenac, anti-tuberculosis drugs such as rifampin and isoniazid, anti-epileptic drugs such as valproic acid and constituents of herbal supplements such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Read More
Indian Dermatol Online J 2018 Nov-Dec;9(6):458-460
Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, K S Hegde Medical Academy, affiliated to NITTE (Deemed to be University), Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
Respir Med Case Rep 2019 12;26:35-38. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
Department of Tuberculosis, Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, NO.1 Yintan Road, Dongxihu District, Wuhan 430023, Hubei, China.
Background: Anhydrous ethanol, for its part, has been successfully used to treat renal cyst, hepatocellular carcinoma and ovarian chocolate cyst et al. However, in spite of the high frequency of tuberculous purulent pleural effusion, we found that only a few very early studies that attempted to assess the use of intrapleural anhydrous ethanol in tuberculous effusions with signs of empyema. We report a patient who was injected anhydrous ethanol into pleural cavity to treat chronic tuberculous empyema. Read More
J Thorac Dis 2018 Oct;10(Suppl 28):S3408-S3418
Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.
The role of thoracic surgeons in the management of pulmonary infection has evolved over time as the medical treatments have improved. We herein review historical and current management for surgically-treated pulmonary infections-lung abscesses, empyemas, and bronchopleural fistulas. In particular, we review when the surgeons need to be involved for infectious cases, our algorithm/approach to empyemas, and summary of post-operative bronchopleural fistula in tuberculosis cases. Read More
J Thorac Dis 2018 Oct;10(Suppl 28):S3392-S3397
Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, USA.
The diagnosis of lung cancer can be delayed in patients with a history of infection with pulmonary tuberculosis that present with new lesions on chest imaging, due to a high initial index of suspicion for mycobacterium tuberculosis complex rather than malignancy. This may lead to diagnosis of malignancy at a more advanced stage of the disease with subsequent increased morbidity and mortality. We reviewed the current literature to evaluate various methods of differentiating between a diagnosis of lung cancer and tuberculosis including radiography, computerized tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and various biological markers. Read More
J Thorac Dis 2018 Oct;10(Suppl 28):S3378-S3391
Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.
Tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease have plagued human civilization across time and led to immeasurable morbidity and mortality. This review article focuses on the most currently available information regarding the diagnostic workup, radiologic presentation and treatment of drug-sensitive active TB. As discussed, if adequate resources and methods are available to diagnose, evaluate, and treat patients, drug sensitive TB is an imminently curable disease. Read More
J Thorac Dis 2018 Oct;10(10):5673-5684
Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Radiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing 100142, China.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the imaging features of mass-like tuberculosis and lung cancer on conventional MR sequences to improve the diagnostic ability for pulmonary masses.
Methods: Thirty patients with suspicious pulmonary lesions were enrolled and diagnosed with tuberculosis by pathology or comprehensive clinical diagnoses. Twenty-six cases of lung cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Read More
New Microbes New Infect 2019 Jan 25;27:7-8. Epub 2018 Oct 25.
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Currently some parasitic and viral infections, tuberculosis, brucellosis and hospital-acquired infections are challenging issues in Iran. Despite decreasing the rate of some infectious diseases in Iran in recent years, improved sanitation, active surveillance, comprehensive infection control strategies and monitoring appropriate use of antibiotics are indispensable. Read More