45 results match your criteria Trigonitis

The use of intravesical hyaluronic acid in the management of symptomatic premenopausal women with pseudomembranous trigonitis: Are symptoms related to cystoscopy and pathological findings?

Low Urin Tract Symptoms 2022 Jan 2;14(1):57-63. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Third Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Attiko Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Objectives: To determine the effectiveness and safety of intravesical hyaluronic acid (HA) in symptomatic women with trigonitis and to correlate the severity of symptoms with the endoscopic and histological findings.

Methods: Thirty-seven patients (aged 20-46 years) were enrolled. All patients had cystoscopy and biopsy of the bladder trigone followed by intravesical instillations of sodium HA once weekly for 10 weeks and then once monthly for the next 10 months. Read More

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January 2022

[Laser technology applications in functional urology and urogynecology.]

Arch Esp Urol 2020 Oct;73(8):709-723

Servicio de Urología. Hospital Universitario La Paz. Madrid. España.

Objective:  LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) technology consists of the emission of a high-energy light beam. In medicine, it is used to cut, coagulate, fragment and evaporate biological or synthetic tissues. In the field of Functional Urology and Urogynecology its use has been widely explored. Read More

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October 2020

Direct Detection of Tissue-Resident Bacteria and Chronic Inflammation in the Bladder Wall of Postmenopausal Women with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection.

J Mol Biol 2019 10 17;431(21):4368-4379. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA; Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Electronic address:

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most commonly reported infections in adult women and have high rates of recurrence, especially in postmenopausal women. Recurrent UTI (RUTI) greatly reduces quality of life, places a significant burden on the healthcare system, and contributes to antimicrobial resistance. Because treatment of RUTI by long-term antibiotic therapy is often ineffective or poorly tolerated in elderly women, new therapies must be developed. Read More

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October 2019

Is trigonitis a neglected, imprecise, misunderstood, or forgotten diagnosis?

Low Urin Tract Symptoms 2019 Sep 15;11(4):182-188. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Urology Department, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

To consolidate our understanding of "trigonitis" and its relevance in current urologic practice, we reviewed the literature on this entity. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (1905 to present) were systematically reviewed for any English language articles addressing the following terms: trigonitis, cystitis trigoni, cystitis cystica, squamous metaplasia, pseudomembranous trigonitis, vaginal metaplasia, infection or inflammation of the trigone, and trigonitis in recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI). Abstracts or articles not focused on trigonitis, or those only repeating findings from other original articles on trigonitis, and studies in children or men were excluded. Read More

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September 2019

Electrofulguration in the advanced management of antibiotic-refractory recurrent urinary tract infections in women.

Int J Urol 2019 06 3;26(6):662-668. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of electrofulguration in women with recurrent urinary tract infections.

Methods: After institutional review board approval, a retrospective study of women who underwent electrofulguration alone was carried out. All patients had recurrent urinary tract infections defined as three or more urinary tract infections/year, and a preoperative office cystoscopy showing inflammatory lesions, categorized by location: urethra, bladder neck, trigone and beyond the trigone. Read More

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Impact of Allergy and Resistance on Antibiotic Selection for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women.

Urology 2018 03 28;113:26-33. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

University of Texas at Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX. Electronic address:

Objectives: To review the impact of antibiotic allergy and resistance in older women with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs) as determinants for a suitable oral antibiotic treatment choice.

Methods: A prospectively maintained database of women 65 years old and older with documented RUTIs (≥3 UTI/y) and trigonitis on cystoscopy was reviewed. Demographic data, known drug allergies, renal function, antibiotic susceptibility of most recent urine culture, allergy, or resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), fluoroquinolones, and nitrofurantoin were obtained. Read More

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Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Due to Bacterial Persistence or Reinfection in Women-Does This Factor Impact Upper Tract Imaging Findings?

J Urol 2016 Aug 13;196(2):422-8. Epub 2016 Feb 13.

Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. Electronic address:

Purpose: We compared the rates of upper tract imaging abnormalities of recurrent urinary tract infections due to bacterial persistence or reinfection.

Materials And Methods: Following institutional review board approval we reviewed a prospectively maintained database of women with documented recurrent urinary tract infections (3 or more per year) and trigonitis. We searched for demographic data, urine culture findings and findings on radiology interpreted upper tract imaging, including renal ultrasound, computerized tomography or excretory urogram. Read More

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A prospective study to evaluate the efficacy of Cistiquer in improving lower urinary tract symptoms in females with urethral syndrome.

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2014 Dec 18;66(4):225-32. Epub 2014 Jul 18.

Unit of Urology, Uroresearch Association Department of Sciences and Medico‑Surgical Biotechnologies Sapienza University of Rome I.C.O.T. Hospital, Latina, Italy -

Aim: The aim of the study was to compare Cistiquer, a new phytotherapeutic product developed for chronic bladder inflammatory diseases, and intra-vesical administration of gentamicin plus betametasone, in females with urethral syndrome.

Methods: Between september 2013 and may 2014, 60 women with urethral syndrome and trigonitis were incuded in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with intra-vesical administration of betametasone 8 mg plus gentamicin 80 mg (group A), and oral administration of Cistiquer (group B) for 7 weeks. Read More

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December 2014

Pseudomembranous trigonitis in a male with Klinefelter syndrome: a case report and evidence of a hormonal etiology.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2014 26;7(6):3375-9. Epub 2014 May 26.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, KK Women's and Children's Hospital Singapore.

Klinefelter syndrome is a clinical syndrome with a distinct 47, XXY karyotype. Patients are characterized by a tall eunuchoid stature, small testes, hypergonotrophic hypogonadism, gynecomastia, learning difficulties and infertility. These patients have also been found to have raised estrogen levels. Read More

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Is routine cystoscopy justified in female stress urinary incontinence?

Acta Chir Iugosl 2011 ;58(3):77-9

Clinic of Urology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Beograd, Serbia.

The investigation of women with SUI the Serbian urologist traditionally begins with cystoscopy to reduced risk of bladder tumor. There is no doubt regarding its ability to detect bladder cancer presented with characteristic symptoms or pathologic results of urinalyses. We discuss its routine use in patients presenting with symptomatology of SUI. Read More

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Treatment of urethral syndrome: a prospective randomized study with Nd:YAG laser.

Urol Int 2006 ;76(2):134-8

Urology Department, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Introduction: The urethral syndrome is characterized by irritative disturbances, the urgency-frequency syndrome and/or pain associated with negative urine cultures. Areas of metaplasic tissue in the trigonal-bladder neck region (trigonitis) are sometimes present. We performed a comparative randomized study to assess the efficacy of side- or end-firing neodymium (Nd):YAG laser surgery in destroying metaplasia and relieving symptoms. Read More

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Transabdominal vesical sonography of urethral syndrome and stress incontinence.

Int J Urol 2003 Jan;10(1):36-42

Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.

Background: Transabdominal ultrasonography was used to study the bladder neck morphology in women with urethral syndrome or stress urinary incontinence, in order to determine the ultrasonographic findings of these conditions.

Methods: A total of 210 female patients with a normal bladder, asymptomatic trigonitis, urethral syndrome, and stress incontinence were studied. The mucosal thickness around the bladder neck, the length of the anterior base plate of the bladder, and the anteroposterior vesical wall angle (APVA) at the bladder neck were measured on sagittal transabdominal vesical ultrasonograms with the patient in the supine position. Read More

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January 2003

Chronic pelvic pain. Laparoscopic and cystoscopic findings.

Saudi Med J 2001 Sep;22(9):769-70

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

Objective: To study the laparoscopic and cystoscopic findings in women with chronic pelvic pain referred to the Gynecology Clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital.

Methods: Women referred to Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman from October 1998-September 2000 with pelvic pain of more than 6 months duration were clinically evaluated. Laparoscopic examination was always combined with cystoscopy. Read More

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September 2001

Outflow uropathy: occupational disorder?

J La State Med Soc 1999 Aug;151(8):414-9

Department of Urogynecology and Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery, Omega Institute of Health, Metairie, La., USA.

This paper alerts physicians, health care workers, and employers to a probable connection between voluntary, infrequent voiding and urinary dysfunction. The dysfunction includes abnormal uroflow patterns, increased urethral resistance, abnormal post-void residuals, chronic trigonitis, and urethrovesical inflammatory polyps. A review of intermittent uroflow and obstructive uroflow patterns reveals that all females in this study worked long hours without voiding. Read More

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Effect of high-dose melphalan and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation on renal function in patients with multiple myeloma and renal insufficiency: a case report and review of the literature.

Ann Hematol 1999 Apr;78(4):189-91

Department of Medicine I, University of Vienna, Austria.

Multiple myeloma with IgG-lambda monoclonal gammopathy and severe renal impairment with light-chain deposit disease was diagnosed in a 51-year-old man. Following conventional therapy with VAD (vincristine, adriamycin, dexamethasone) a partial remission was achieved. Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) were then collected following mobilization with cyclophosphamide and recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and enriched for CD34-positive cells by immunoaffinity column. Read More

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[Several comments and various considerations on Von Brunn nests].

Actas Urol Esp 1994 Jan;18(1):69-75

Unidad de Urología del Sector de Granollers, ICS-Barcelona.

Subsequent to a certain amount of aggression, the vesical epithelium can induce some histological changes which would range from the most innocent morphological vicarious forms to the most aggressive neoplastic types (transitional, squamous and/or glandular tumours). Co-existence in the same urothelium of metaplastic, dysplastic and/or neoplastic lesions should not therefore be a surprise. With the intention of assessing the urothelium evolutive potential, we present a morphological study of the male cervix-trigonal epithelium abnormally involved in the steroidal hormones immunosuppression and actions. Read More

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January 1994

Immunohistochemical detection of estrogen and progesterone receptors in the normal urinary bladder and in pseudomembranous trigonitis.

J Endocrinol Invest 1992 Nov;15(10):719-25

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Oncologia Umana, University of Torino, Italy.

According to recent studies showing the presence of estrogens receptors (ERs) in the human female lower urinary tract, we performed ER and progesterone receptor (PR) assays in fresh frozen and paraffin embedded biopsies taken from the urinary bladder. Fourteen females undergoing endoscopy during staging for gynecological cancer (endometrium, cervix, ovary) and 15 women complaining of recurrent abacterial cystitis (pseudomembranous trigonitis) were enrolled in the study as Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. After informed consent, they were submitted to cystoscopy, during which two biopsies were taken: one on the trigonum and the other on the bladder lateral wall. Read More

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November 1992

[Vesical ultrasonography and internal examination of female patients with urethral syndrome].

Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi 1992 Jul;83(7):1094-100

Department of Urology, Akita University School of Medicine.

Transabdominal ultrasonography of the bladder and internal examination were performed in 80 female patients without pyuria. They were divided into 3 groups: urethral syndrome with trigonitis (49 cases), asymptomatic trigonitis (16 cases) and normal bladder (15 cases) by cystoscopy. Ultrasonography of trigonitis with or without symptoms showed focal dilation of the submucosal low echo zone and mucosal irregularity around the bladder neck. Read More

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Sensory disorders of the lower urinary tract: urodynamic evaluation.

Acta Urol Belg 1992 ;60(1):73-5

Urologic Pathology-University of Pisa.

Sensory disorders of the lower urinary tract (urethral syndrome, prostatodynia, painful pelvic-perineal syndromes, trigonitis) are clinically frequent, however this diagnosis is possible only by excluding other pathologies after clinical and instrumental evaluation. The Authors report their experience in urodynamic evaluation of sensory disorders of the lower urinary tract and they discuss about the absence of a typical urodynamic pattern of sensorial pathology. Read More

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November 1992

The fine structure of human pseudomembranous trigonitis.

Br J Urol 1989 Nov;64(5):472-7

Department of Cell and Structural Biology, University of Manchester.

The present investigation provides a histological and fine structural description of pseudomembranous trigonitis, an ill-understood metaplastic condition affecting particularly the female trigone. Normal trigonal urothelium consists of 3 cell layers (basal, intermediate and superficial), whereas pseudomembranous trigonitis constitutes many layers of stratified squamous epithelium. The basal cells contain prominent nuclei with condensed chromatin, nucleoli and nuclear bodies. Read More

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November 1989

Pseudomembranous trigonitis of the bladder: hormonal aetiology.

J Clin Pathol 1989 Sep;42(9):922-6

Department of Pathology, University of Sheffield Medical School.

Fourteen formalin fixed and paraffin wax embedded biopsy specimens from 10 women (age range 34-68) presenting with pseudomembranous trigonitis were studied using a combination of anti-oestrogen receptor monoclonal antibodies in an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase technique. All epithelial areas showing vaginal metaplasia exhibited staining confined to the nucleus in the basal and parabasal layers of the squamous epithelium while no staining was encountered in adjacent trigonal transitional epithelium included in nine of the biopsy specimens. The selective expression of nuclear oestrogen receptor in trigonal epithelium affected by vaginal metaplasia in a distribution similar to that reported in vaginal epithelium by other workers lends further support to oestrogen mediated aetiology in this condition and is consistent with an embryological derivation of the trigone, distinct from that of the rest of the bladder. Read More

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September 1989

[Whatever became of trigonitis].

R Vela Navarrete

Actas Urol Esp 1988 May-Jun;12(3):202-3

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November 1988

Urethral syndrome (abacterial cystitis)--search for a pathogen.

Br J Urol 1985 Oct;57(5):552-6

Thirty-one women with the recurrent urethral syndrome (abacterial cystitis) had extensive microbiological, cytological and histological investigations. A Streptococcus species was isolated from the bladder aspirate of one patient, a wall-deficient Streptococcus species from two others and both a Lactobacillus species and Ureaplasma urealyticum from another. A possible microbiological cause was therefore identified in the bladder in only 4 of the 31 patients. Read More

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October 1985

[Value of cystoscopy in the study of the urogynecological patient].

Ginecol Obstet Mex 1978 Dec;44(266):459-62

The results of 350 cystoscopic studies, are presented. In 85.7%, urinary incontinence was present, and in 72% one or more of the following symptoms were present: urgency, dysuria, urinary frequency, vesical tenesmus and nycturia. Read More

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December 1978

Dimethyl sulfoxide in treatment of inflammatory genitourinary disorders.

Urology 1978 Mar;11(3):215-20

Intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been used in the treatment of 213 patients with various inflammatory conditions involving the lower genitourinary tract, including intractable interstitial cystitis, radiation cystitis, chronic prostatitis, and chronic female trigonitis. Significant symptomatic relief has been achieved in the majority of patients so treated, and no systemic or local toxicity has been noted. Some patients failed to respond entirely, and others relapsed after DMSO treatment periods of several months, ultimately coming to augmentation cystoplasty or urinary diversion. Read More

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Estrogens for the menopause. Maximizing benefits, minimizing risks.

J C Seller

Postgrad Med 1977 Sep;62(3):73-9

There is a definite place for estrogen replacement in symptomatic menopausal women. Requisites of such therapy are a through history to establish a real need, a complete gynecologic examination with a Pap smear before therapy begins and annually afterward, use of the smallest daily dose of estrogen that gives the desired effect, and periodic attempts to reduce the dosage or stop the hormone. Endometrial biopsy should be done regularly if this is feasible, and any uterine bleeding should be investigated. Read More

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September 1977

Urological problems in aged patients.

J T Murphy

Aust Fam Physician 1977 Jan;6(1):17-8, 21, 25 PASSIM

The major urological problems encountered in geriatric patients are bladder neck obstruction, due to hyperplasia or carcinoma of the prostate in men, and urinary infection and chronic urethro-trigonitis (the urethral syndrome) in women. Senile incontinence is common to both sexes. Read More

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January 1977

Urinary tract disorders. Clinical comparison of flavoxate and phenazopyridine.

S Gould

Urology 1975 May;5(5):612-5

In nine separate clinical trials, 382 patients having symptoms of either prostatitis, acute cystitis, urethritis, and/or trigonitis were randomly assigned to treatment with flavoxate or phenazopyridine. Over-all response was evaluated in 384 patients after five days of therapy. In patients having prostatitis, response was satisfactory in 66 per cent treated with flavoxate and 31 per cent treated with phenazopyridine. Read More

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Histological findings in pseudomembranous trigonitis.

L Henry M Fox

J Clin Pathol 1971 Oct;24(7):605-8

Pseudomembranous trigonitis presents in females with the urethral syndrome and a characteristic lesion restricted to the trigone of the bladder. The histology shows ;vaginal metaplasia' of the epithelium together with underlying oedema and vascular dilatation, but no significant inflammation. Thirty-one such cases are included in the study. Read More

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October 1971