26,309 results match your criteria Trigeminal Nerve


NMDAR1-Src-Pannexin1 signal pathway in the trigeminal ganglion contributed to orofacial ectopic pain following inferior alveolar nerve transection.

Neuroscience 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; Department of Prosthodontics, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a glutamate-gated receptor channel that plays a role in peripheral neuropathic pain. Src, a protein tyrosine kinase, can regulate the activation of NMDARs in chronic pain conditions. Pannexin 1 (Panx1), a plasma membrane channel, plays an important role in neuropathic pain and functionally interacts with NMDARs in the pathological condition of epilepsy. Read More

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Neuroanatomical organization of methionine-enkephalinergic system in the brain of the Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 May 3;115:101963. Epub 2021 May 3.

Neuroendocrinology Research Laboratory, Department of Studies in Zoology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, 580 003, India.

Enkephalins are a class of opioid peptides implicated in several physiological and neuroendocrine responses in vertebrates. In this study, using immunocytochemical or immunofluorescence technique, we examined the neuroanatomical distribution of methionine enkephalin (M-ENK) immunoreactivity in the central nervous system (CNS) of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. In the telencephalon, no M-ENK-like-immunoreactive (M-ENK-L-ir) perikarya, but sparsely distributed fibres were detected in the glomerular layer and the granule cell layer of the olfactory bulb. Read More

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Migraine Triggers: An Overview of the Pharmacology, Biochemistry, Atmospherics, and Their Effects on Neural Networks.

Cureus 2021 Apr 1;13(4):e14243. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Neurology, Flowers Medical Group, Dothan, USA.

We define a migraine trigger to be an endogenous agent or agency such as the menses or an exogenous agent or agency such as red wine or a drop in barometric pressure, and their ability to reduce the threshold of a migraine attack in those predisposed to migraine. This definition excludes agents with idiosyncratic mechanisms that may trigger a migrainous (migraine-like) headache in non-migraineurs such as benign cough headaches or headaches due to altitude-sickness. We also assume as axiomatic that migraine has as its basis the activation of the trigeminovascular pathway (TVP) and the key role of serotonin and the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Read More

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Cluster Headache: A Review and Update in Treatment.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2021 May 5;21(7):31. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurology, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, 3800 Reservoir Rd, PHC-7, Washington, DC, 20007, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The treatment of cluster headache has evolved to include a handheld neuromodulation device and a monoclonal antibody in addition to more traditional agents.

Recent Findings: Galcanezumab is an approved treatment for episodic cluster headache. The non-invasive vagal nerve stimulator has been shown to be effective as a treatment for episodic cluster headache. Read More

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Long-Term Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation as a Treatment for Ocular Pain.

Neuromodulation 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Surgical and Research Services, Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Miami, Florida, USA.

Objectives: Ocular pain symptoms (e.g., hypersensitivity to light and wind, "burning" sensations) can be debilitating and difficult to treat. Read More

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Effect of dental malocclusion on cerebellar neuron activation via the dorsomedial part of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus.

Eur J Oral Sci 2021 May 4:e12788. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Stomatology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China.

Occlusion has been proposed to play a role for body posture and balance, both of which are mediated mainly by the cerebellum. The dorsomedial part of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus (Vpdm) has direct projection to the cerebellum. The experimental unilateral anterior crossbite (UAC) has an impact on the motor nuclei in the brain stem via trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vme). Read More

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Headache from clinically confirmed hemicrania continua arising from the sternocleidomastoid muscle: a case report.

BMC Neurol 2021 May 3;21(1):184. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Background: A patient with a history of cluster headaches, now in remission, presented with confirmed hemicrania continua that resolved with a local anaesthetic injection into the Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia arising from a soft tissue source in the neck.

Case Presentation: A 66-year-old man with a history of cluster headaches presented with a six-month history of a new constant right-sided headache. Read More

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Asystole Triggered by the Mouth Opening With a Dental Mouth Gag Under General Anesthesia During Pediatric Oral Surgery: Report of a Rare Case.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Chief Professor, Division of Dento-oral Anesthesiology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai, Miyagi, Japan.

The trigeminovagal reflex manifests as a sudden onset of bradycardia, hypotension, and cardiac arrest in response to the stimulation of the trigeminal nerve. The incidence of trigeminovagal reflex in maxillofacial surgical procedures is approximately 1.6%. Read More

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An Effective Phytoconstituent Aconitine: A Realistic Approach for the Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 14;2021:6676063. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80055 Portici Naples, Italy.

Trigeminal neuralgia pain remains a challenge to treat. Natural compounds may be promising options for relieving pain. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of aconitine in a rat model of trigeminal neuralgia pain. Read More

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Optimal Surgical Approach for the Dumbbell-Shaped Trigeminal Schwannoma.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, Center of Brain Science, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Abstract: Dumbbell-shaped trigeminal schwannoma afflicts the middle and posterior cranial fossa. Surgical approach for gross total resection remains highly challenging. The authors present a case of dumbbell-shaped trigeminal schwannoma treated successfully by using frontotemporal intradural approach with the removal of temporal pole. Read More

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Magnetic resonance neurography in the management of trigeminal neuralgia: a cohort study of 55 patients.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Radiology Professor, Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore the usefulness of magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) in the diagnosis and management of trigeminal neuralgia (TN).

Study Design: In total, 55 patients clinically diagnosed with TN were imaged with 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

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Trigeminal Nerve Control of Cerebral Blood Flow: A Brief Review.

Front Neurosci 2021 13;15:649910. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Translational Brain Research Laboratory, The Feinstein Institutes for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY, United States.

The trigeminal nerve, the fifth cranial nerve, is known to innervate much of the cerebral arterial vasculature and significantly contributes to the control of cerebrovascular tone in both healthy and diseased states. Previous studies have demonstrated that stimulation of the trigeminal nerve (TNS) increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) via antidromic, trigemino-parasympathetic, and other central pathways. Despite some previous reports on the role of the trigeminal nerve and its control of CBF, there are only a few studies that investigate the effects of TNS on disorders of cerebral perfusion (i. Read More

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An age-dependent outcome analysis of microvascular decompression and percutaneous thermocoagulation in trigeminal neuralgia.

BMC Neurol 2021 Apr 29;21(1):182. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131, Mainz, Germany.

Background: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe pain condition and the most common facial neuralgia. While microvascular decompression (MVD) presents an excellent treatment in neurovascular compression cases, percutaneous thermocoagulation (PT) of the ganglion Gasseri is an alternative option. This study aimed to evaluate post-operative complication rate and outcome of both treatment strategies related to the patient's age. Read More

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Microglia and Inhibitory Circuitry in the Medullary Dorsal Horn: Laminar and Time-Dependent Changes in a Trigeminal Model of Neuropathic Pain.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 27;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Anatomy, Histology and Neuroscience, Medical School, Autónoma University of Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Craniofacial neuropathic pain affects millions of people worldwide and is often difficult to treat. Two key mechanisms underlying this condition are a loss of the negative control exerted by inhibitory interneurons and an early microglial reaction. Basic features of these mechanisms, however, are still poorly understood. Read More

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Mitochondrial Bioenergetic, Photobiomodulation and Trigeminal Branches Nerve Damage, What's the Connection? A Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 21;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Surgical and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Genoa, 16132 Genoa, Italy.

Background: Injury of the trigeminal nerve in oral and maxillofacial surgery can occur. Schwann cell mitochondria are regulators in the development, maintenance and regeneration of peripheral nerve axons. Evidence shows that after the nerve injury, mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction occurs and is associated with pain, neuropathy and nerve regeneration deficit. Read More

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Pretreatment with High Mobility Group Box-1 Monoclonal Antibody Prevents the Onset of Trigeminal Neuropathy in Mice with a Distal Infraorbital Nerve Chronic Constriction Injury.

Molecules 2021 Apr 2;26(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553, Japan.

Persistent pain following orofacial surgery is not uncommon. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), an alarmin, is released by peripheral immune cells following nerve injury and could be related to pain associated with trigeminal nerve injury. Distal infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (dIoN-CCI) evokes pain-related behaviors including increased facial grooming and hyper-responsiveness to acetone (cutaneous cooling) after dIoN-CCI surgery in mice. Read More

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Increased expression of Netrin-4 is associated with allodynia in a trigeminal neuropathic pain model rats by infraorbital nerve injury.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(4):e0251013. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Neuropathic pain refers to pain caused by lesions or diseases of the somatosensory nervous system that is characteristically different from nociceptive pain. Moreover, neuropathic pain occurs in the maxillofacial region due to various factors and is treated using tricyclic antidepressants and nerve block therapy; however, some cases do not fully recover. Netrin is a secreted protein crucially involved in neural circuit formation during development, including cell migration, cell death, neurite formation, and synapse formation. Read More

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Metastatic prostate cancer presenting as trigeminal nerve paresthesia in the mandible.

Gen Dent 2021 May-Jun;69(3):58-60

Metastatic disease to the oral cavity is rare and often presents with ambiguous symptoms and subtle or no radiographic changes. These factors make diagnosis challenging. This article describes a case of metastatic prostate cancer to the mandible that presented as altered sensation to the gingiva, lips, and chin without radiographic evidence of pathosis noted on standard dental imaging. Read More

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Gradenigo's and Vernet's syndrome in an adult man with Candida mastoiditis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 27;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

The authors report a case of fungal otitis media complicated by extension of the infection into adjacent structures causing apical petrositis and subsequently involvement of the jugular foramen in a 71-year-old diabetic man. First described in 1907, Gradenigo's syndrome is a serious but rare clinical triad of acute otitis media, unilateral pain in the distribution of cranial nerve V (trigeminal) and ipsilateral cranial nerve VI (abducens) palsy that commonly presents without all three features and is therefore often missed. In this report, our patient was initially misdiagnosed as having a diabetic cranial neuropathy, and later he developed Vernet's syndrome. Read More

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Linalool odor-induced analgesia is triggered by TRPA1-independent pathway in mice.

Behav Brain Funct 2021 Apr 26;17(1). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Physiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima, 890-8544, Japan.

We had recently reported that linalool odor exposure induced significant analgesic effects in mice and that the effects were disappeared in olfactory-deprived mice in which the olfactory epithelium was damaged, thus indicating that the effects were triggered by chemical senses evoked by linalool odor exposure. However, the peripheral neuronal mechanisms, including linalool receptors that contribute toward triggering the linalool odor-induced analgesia, still remain unexplored. In vitro studies have shown that the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) responded to linalool, thus raising the possibility that TRPA1 expressed on the trigeminal nerve terminal detects linalool odor inhaled into the nostril and triggers the analgesic effects. Read More

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P2X receptor upregulation in trigeminal ganglion neurons through TNFα production in macrophages contributes to trigeminal neuropathic pain in rats.

J Headache Pain 2021 Apr 26;22(1):31. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Physiology, Nihon University School of Dentistry, 1-8-13 Kandasurugadai Chiyoda-ku, 101-8310, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Trigeminal neuralgia is a characteristic disease that manifests as orofacial phasic or continuous severe pain triggered by innocuous orofacial stimulation; its mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we established a new animal model of trigeminal neuralgia and investigated the role of P2X receptor (P2XR) alteration in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) via tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) signaling in persistent orofacial pain.

Methods: Trigeminal nerve root compression (TNC) was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Read More

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Cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm presenting with ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy: A case report.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Jun 6;16(6):1339-1342. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Neuroradiology Consultant, King Abdulaziz Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

The oculomotor nerve palsy is a rare neurological deficit, it is associated with numerous underlying pathologies. Including stroke, neoplasms, trauma, post-surgical inflammation, and microvascular damage from chronic disease. It can cause a set of neurological deficits, including diplopia from oculomotor nerve involvement, decreased visual acuity from optic neuropathy, facial hypoesthesia from involvement of the trigeminal nerve, and less frequently facial pain. Read More

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Nociceptive receptors are expressed differently in trigeminal nociception after lingual nerve injury and unilateral external carotid artery occlusion in rats.

Arch Oral Biol 2021 Apr 16;126:105128. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Faculty of Medicine, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand.

Objectives: To investigate the different changes in nociceptive activity between two animal models of trigeminal neuropathic pain: unilateral external carotid artery ischemic reperfusion and lingual nerve crush in rats.

Design: In this study, changes in nociceptive activity were investigated in unilateral external carotid artery ischemic reperfusion and lingual nerve crush models of trigeminal neuropathic pain in rats. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) evoked by capsaicin application on the tongue of rats were recorded in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Read More

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Local administration of genistein as a local anesthetic agent inhibits the trigeminal nociceptive neuronal activity in rats.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Apr 22;172:120-128. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Laboratory of Food and Physiological Sciences, Department of Life and Food Sciences, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Azabu University, 1-17-71, Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201, Japan. Electronic address:

A modulatory role has been reported for the isoflavone, genistein, on voltage-gated Na channels in the trigeminal ganglion in vitro. However, the acute effects of genistein in vivo, particularly on nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal system, remain to be determined. The aim of the present study was to examine whether acute local genistein administration to rats attenuates the excitability of wide-dynamic range (WDR) spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis (SpVc) neurons in response to nociceptive and non-nociceptive mechanical stimulation in vivo. Read More

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The effect of IL-6/Piezo2 on the trigeminal neuropathic pain.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 23;13. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, XinHua Hospital, The Cranial Nerve Disease Center of Shanghai, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China.

The nature of trigeminal neuropathic pain (TN) attacks is regarded as the ignition of ectopic action potentials from the trigeminal root following vascular compression, which seemed to be related to transmembrane proteins and inflammation factors. This study focused on the mechanosensitive channel Piezo2 and cytokine IL-6. The chronic constriction injury of infraorbital nerve in SD rats was used to establish the TN model. Read More

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Unexpected pain with electrocortical stimulation in a teenager with temporal encephalocele.

Epilepsy Behav Rep 2021 31;16:100444. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 1685 Highland Ave, Madison, WI 53705, United States.

Temporal lobe encephalocele has emerged as a potentially unrecognized cause of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) that can be effectively treated with epilepsy surgery. Here we present a case in which a 17-year-old male with drug-resistant epilepsy and left temporal encephalocele underwent workup for epilepsy surgery, and experienced unexpected pain with electrocortical stimulation. Stimulation of stereo-EEG electrodes in the left temporal pole resulted in severe, unilateral left-sided facial pain due to inadvertent stimulation of the trigeminal nerve. Read More

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Postoperative cognitive functions in patients with benign intracranial lesions.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 22;11(1):8757. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaningerstr. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

The aim of this study was to assess pre- and postoperative cognitive functions in patients who underwent surgery for benign intracranial lesions. In total, 58 patients (21 men, 37 women, mean age 51.6 years [range 24-76 years]) with benign intracranial lesions (including benign tumors and vascular lesions) and neuralgia of the trigeminal nerve were included in this prospective study. Read More

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Orthodontic extraction of a high-risk impacted mandibular third molar contacting the inferior alveolar nerve, with the aid of a ramus mini-screw.

Quintessence Int 2021 May;52(6):538-546

An orthodontic extraction technique with a ramus mini-screw was used to remove a deeply impacted mandibular third molar contacting the inferior alveolar nerve, avoiding damage to the inferior alveolar nerve and relieving postsurgery inflammation. Case presentation: A 24-year-old man was required to extract impacted third molars for orthodontic treatment. Panoramic radiographs and CBCT images showed that his mandibular left third molar penetrated into the inferior alveolar nerve canal and a distomolar was inverted and impacted distally to the third molar. Read More

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SPECT imaging of cerebral blood flow changes induced by acute trigeminal nerve stimulation in drug-resistant epilepsy. A pilot study.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore the cortical areas targeted by acute transcutaneous trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

Methods: Ten patients with DRE underwent brain SPECT at baseline and immediately after a 20-minute TNS (0.25 ms; 120 Hz; 30 s ON and 30 s OFF) applied bilaterally to the infraorbital nerve. Read More

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The NLRP3-related inflammasome modulates pain behavior in a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 13;277:119489. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) may play an important role in neuropathic pain. Treatment for trigeminal neuropathic pain remains a challenge, as common drugs either do not demonstrate beneficial therapeutic effects or induce intolerance in patients.

Main Methods: In a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain, pain caused by the malpositioning of dental implants is similar to that experienced by humans. Read More

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