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    Xeroderma pigmentosum at a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia.
    Ann Saudi Med 2017 May-Jun;37(3):240-244
    Lenah Alwatban, Department of Dermatology,, MBC 104, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre,, PO Box 3354 Riyadh 11211,, Saudi Arabia, T: +966569450282 ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0624-9910.
    Background: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective DNA repair that results in extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) rays. Depending on the type of XP, the disease may affect the skin, eyes and nervous system.

    Objectives: Describe the dermatologic manifestations in patients suffering from XP. Read More

    Cutaneous Horn of the Eyelid in 13 Cases.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Nov 2. Epub 2016 Nov 2.
    *Ocular Oncology Service and †Department of Ophthalmic Pathology, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
    Introduction: Cutaneous horn of the eyelid is uncommon. The authors evaluate the features of benign, premalignant, and malignant tumors at the base of cutaneous horn of the eyelid.

    Objective: To describe the clinical and histopathologic features of cutaneous horn of the eyelid. Read More

    Linear trichilemmomas on the ankle of a 28-year-old female.
    J Cutan Pathol 2017 Jan 21;44(1):93-97. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Department of Dermatology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
    Trichilemmomas are benign cutaneous proliferations derived from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. They most often occur on the head and neck region and show a female predominance. When multiple, they are associated with Cowden syndrome (CS), a rare disorder due to an autosomal dominant germline mutation in PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10), a tumor suppressor gene. Read More

    Multiple clear cell acanthomas and a sebaceous lymphadenoma presenting in a patient with Cowden syndrome - a case report.
    J Cutan Pathol 2017 Jan 20;44(1):79-82. Epub 2016 Oct 20.
    Department of Pathology & Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.
    Cowden syndrome (CS) is an uncommon autosomal dominant multiorgan/system genodermatosis. It is characterized by the development of multiple hamartomas of endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal origin, an increased lifetime risk of breast, thyroid, endometrial and other cancers and an identifiable germline mutation. Mucocutaneous hamartomas are the most common lesions seen and mainly include facial trichilemmomas, oral mucosal papillomas and benign acral keratoses. Read More

    Coexistent trichilemmoma and trichoblastoma without associated nevus sebaceus.
    J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2016 Apr-Jun;30(2 Suppl 2):17-20
    Department of Medical 1Department of Pathology, Division of Dermatopathology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.
    Trichilemmoma and trichoblastoma are benign adnexal neoplasms derived from the hair follicle unit. While trichilemmomas are closely associated with the epidermis, trichoblastomas are found within the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Both tumors have been reported to arise within nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn (NSJ). Read More

    Nuclear factor XIIIa staining (clone AC-1A1 mouse monoclonal) is a sensitive and specific marker to discriminate sebaceous proliferations from other cutaneous clear cell neoplasms.
    J Cutan Pathol 2016 Aug 10;43(8):649-56. Epub 2016 Jun 10.
    Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.
    Sebaceous carcinoma is a rare but serious malignancy that may be difficult to diagnose when poorly differentiated. Other epithelial tumors with clear cell change may mimic sebaceous carcinoma. Few useful or specific immunohistochemical markers for sebaceous differentiation are available. Read More

    Pigmented desmoplastic trichilemmoma.
    J Cutan Pathol 2016 Jun 15;43(6):535-537. Epub 2016 Apr 15.
    Department of pathology, Hospital Clínico Universitario, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    Desmoplastic trichilemmoma (DT), the pseudomalignant variant of conventional trichilemmoma described by Hunt et al in 1990, displays a superficial lobular growth pattern of glycogen-rich cells with peripheral nuclear palisading surrounded by a thickened basement membrane. DT differs from its conventional counterpart by showing a central hyalinized area with epithelial cords and strands mimicking invasive carcinoma. We report a case that fully satisfies the criteria for DT and, in addition, shows an extensive melanocytic cell component and prominent melanin deposition. Read More

    Benign follicular tumors.
    An Bras Dermatol 2015 Nov-Dec;90(6):780-96; quiz 797-8
    Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Benign follicular tumors comprise a large and heterogeneous group of neoplasms that share a common histogenesis and display morphological features resembling one or several portions of the normal hair follicle, or recapitulate part of its embryological development. Most cases present it as clinically nondescript single lesions and essentially of dermatological relevance. Occasionally, however, these lesions be multiple and represent a cutaneous marker of complex syndromes associated with an increased risk of visceral neoplasms. Read More

    GATA3 Expression in Normal Skin and in Benign and Malignant Epidermal and Cutaneous Adnexal Neoplasms.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2015 Dec;37(12):885-91
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.
    Initial investigations reported GATA3 to be a sensitive and relatively specific marker for mammary and urothelial carcinomas. Recently, GATA3 expression has been described in several other epithelial tumors. However, there has been only limited investigation of GATA3 expression in cutaneous epithelial tumors. Read More

    Secondary neoplasms arising from nevus sebaceus: A retrospective study of 450 cases in Taiwan.
    J Dermatol 2016 Feb 12;43(2):175-80. Epub 2015 Sep 12.
    Department of Dermatology, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Nevus sebaceus is frequently associated with the development of secondary neoplasms. Incidences of malignant transformation vary among different reports and few data is available regarding Asian populations. We aimed to determine the characteristics of secondary tumors developing from nevus sebaceus in a Taiwanese population and to review the published work. Read More

    Trichilemmoma in continuity with pigmented basal cell carcinoma; with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology.
    Dermatol Pract Concept 2015 Apr 30;5(2):57-9. Epub 2015 Apr 30.
    School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Australia.
    A case of trichilemmoma in continuity with a pigmented basal cell carcinoma is presented with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology. The distinction between the two lesions was evident dermatoscopically and was confirmed dermatopathologically. While trichilemmoma has been reported in association with basal cell carcinoma and dermatoscopy images of four previous cases of trichilemmoma have been published, no previous dermatoscopy image has been published of trichilemmoma associated with basal cell carcinoma. Read More

    Anal malignant proliferative trichilemmoma: report of a rare case with review of literature.
    Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015 1;8(3):3349-53. Epub 2015 Mar 1.
    Department of Colorectal Surgery, Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Kongjiang Road 1665, Shanghai 200092, China.
    Trichilemmoma is a rare type of benign cutaneous neoplasm, which derives from outer sheath of hair follicle. It barely develops malignant progression and has rarely been reported in anal cancer. In this article, we report a case of a 73-year-old woman who presented to the outer-patient department with complaints of a ruptured and longstanding anal phyma. Read More

    A Hyalinized Trichilemmoma of the Eyelid in a Teenager.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Jan-Feb;32(1):e9-e12
    *Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School; †David G. Cogan Laboratory of Ophthalmic Pathology, Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.; ‡Department of Ophthalmic Pathology, CBLPath, Inc., Rye Brook, New York, U.S.A.; §Oculoplastic & Orbital Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.; ‖Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
    A 16-year-old African American male, the youngest patient to date, presented with a well-circumscribed upper eyelid lesion. On excision, the dermal nodule was contiguous with the epidermis, displayed trichohyalin-like bodies in an expanded outer root sheath, and was composed chiefly of small cellular clusters separated by a prominent network of periodic acid Schiff -positive hyaline bands of basement membrane material. The tumor cells were positive for high molecular weight cytokeratins (CK) 5/6, CK14, and CK34βE12 and were negative for CK7, carcinoembryonic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen. Read More

    Trichoblastoma, syringocystadenoma papilliferum, desmoplastic trichilemmoma and tumor of the follicular infundibulum with signet-ring cells, all arising in nevus sebaceus.
    J Cutan Pathol 2015 Sep 12;42(9):645-51. Epub 2015 May 12.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.
    Herein, we describe a 63-year-old male with multiple tumors arising within a nevus sebaceus on the posterior scalp. On histopathologic examination, four distinct tumors were identified: trichoblastoma, syringocystadenoma papilliferum, desmoplastic trichilemmoma and tumor of the follicular infundibulum (TFI). Within the TFI component of the nevus sebaceus, there was intracytoplasmic accumulation of eosinophilic keratin, as shown on pancytokeratin-stained sections, imparting a signet-ring appearance to the cells. Read More

    Linear trichilemmoma following a blaschkoid pattern: a clinical dilemma.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Feb 30;30(2):299-301. Epub 2015 Jan 30.
    Department of Dermatology, STD and Leprosy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India.
    Background: Trichilemmoma are benign adnexal neoplasm with follicular outer sheath differentiation. It usually appears as single or multiple papules that resembles colour of the surrounding skin. They are most commonly seen on the face particularly on the nose and cheek. Read More

    A rare clinical presentation of Desmoplastic Trichilemmoma mimicking Invasive Carcinoma.
    An Bras Dermatol 2014 Sep-Oct;89(5):796-8
    Trichilemmoma is a benign neoplasm from the outer sheath of the pilosebaceous follicle. Desmoplastic trichilemmoma, a rare variant, is histologically characterized by a central area of desmoplasia that can clinically mimic an invasive carcinoma, requiring histopathological examination to define the diagnosis. Read More

    Human Papillomavirus Deoxyribonucleic Acid may not be Detected in Non-genital Benign Papillomatous Skin Lesions by Polymerase Chain Reaction.
    Indian J Dermatol 2014 Jul;59(4):334-8
    Department of Dermatopathology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Papillomatosis is a known histopathologic pattern usually seen in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and verruca vulgaris is the typical example. This pattern is also detected in some other benign cutaneous lesions such as nevus sebaceous (NS), seborrheic keratosis (SK), trichilemmoma (TL) and inverted follicular keratosis (IFK). The association between papillomatous lesions and HPV infection is questionable. Read More

    Frequent activating HRAS mutations in trichilemmoma.
    Br J Dermatol 2014 Nov 30;171(5):1073-7. Epub 2014 Sep 30.
    Department of Pathology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Pathology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Background: Trichilemmoma is a benign follicular epithelial tumour exhibiting outer root sheath differentiation. It is associated with Cowden syndrome and naevus sebaceus (NS), but the pathogenesis of sporadic tumours is poorly understood. Recently, NS was found to be caused by postzygotic HRAS or KRAS mutations. Read More

    Desmoplastic sebaceoma arising from nevus sebaceus: a new variant.
    J Cutan Pathol 2014 Jun 2;41(6):509-12. Epub 2014 Apr 2.
    Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan.
    Nevus sebaceus is known to have the potential to develop into various secondary tumors. We observed a sebaceoma arising from a nevus sebaceus excised from the left cheek of a 51-year-old woman. This sebaceoma showed desmoplastic change similar to that observed in desmoplastic trichoepithelioma and desmoplastic trichilemmoma. Read More

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog immunohistochemical staining and clinical criteria for Cowden syndrome in patients with trichilemmoma or associated lesions.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2013 Aug;35(6):637-40
    Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
    Trichilemmomas and mucocutaneous papillomatous papules are associated with Cowden syndrome (CS). Germline Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) mutations have been identified in 34% to 80% of those meeting clinical criteria for CS. PTEN expression has not been well evaluated in large numbers of trichilemmoma. Read More

    New mutation in the PTEN gene in a Brazilian patient with Cowden's syndrome.
    Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol 2012 Nov;56(8):592-6
    Unidade de Tireoide, Laboratório de Endocrinologia Celular e Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Cowden syndrome is characterized by hamartomatous polyps, trichilemmomas, increased risk of developing neoplasms, and is associated with germline mutations in the PTEN gene. We searched for germline mutations in PTEN in a 49-year-old female patient who presented trichilemmoma with previous history of breast carcinoma, and thyroidectomy for a thyroid nodule. We also searched for somatic mutations in breast and thyroid tumoral tissues. Read More

    Trichilemmoma arising in the nasal vestibule: report of three cases with special emphasis on the differential diagnosis.
    Head Neck Pathol 2012 Dec 6;6(4):492-5. Epub 2012 Jun 6.
    Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, Camino del Molino 2, 28942, Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain.
    Trichilemmoma is a benign cutaneous epithelial tumor with differentiation towards cells of the outer hair root sheath and usually presents as a small papule on the face of middle-aged or older adults. We herein report three cases of trichilemmoma located in the nasal vestibule, including two of the conventional type and one of the desmoplastic variant. To our knowledge, only one case of trichilemmoma arising in the nasal vestibule has been previously reported. Read More

    Trichilemmomas show loss of PTEN in Cowden syndrome but only rarely in sporadic tumors.
    J Cutan Pathol 2012 May 5;39(5):493-9. Epub 2012 Apr 5.
    Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030-4009, USA.
    Background: Trichilemmoma (TL) can occur as a solitary sporadic lesion usually on the face or as multiple facial lesions almost invariably associated with Cowden syndrome (CS). CS is a multisystem disorder caused by a germline inactivating mutation in PTEN (10q23.31), a tumor suppressor gene. Read More

    Desmoplastic trichilemmoma of the facial region mimicking invasive carcinoma.
    J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2011 Mar 25;10(1):71-3. Epub 2010 Nov 25.
    Trichilemmoma is a hamartomatous proliferation arising from cells of hair follicle. Its desmoplastic variant simulates an invasive carcinoma. In this tumor, the cell of origin seems to be located in the superficial level of the hair follicle just below the basement membrane at the sebaceous gland level. Read More

    Sebaceous neoplasms in Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University: a 9-year-retrospective study.
    J Med Assoc Thai 2010 Aug;93(8):978-91
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: Sebaceous neoplasms are adnexal neoplasms that contain a varying number ofsebocytes, i.e. large cells with lipid-laden vacuolated cytoplasm, soap-bubble in appearance, and crenate nuclei. Read More

    Value of p63 and podoplanin (D2-40) immunoreactivity in the distinction between primary cutaneous tumors and adenocarcinomas metastatic to the skin: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 79 cases.
    J Cutan Pathol 2010 Apr;37(4):403-10
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
    The distinction of metastatic carcinomas to the skin from poorly differentiated primary cutaneous carcinomas and sometimes primary benign adnexal tumors can pose a significant diagnostic challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of p63 and podoplanin (D2-40) immunoreactivity for separating primary skin tumors vs. cutaneous metastases of carcinomas from internal organs. Read More

    Atypical clinical appearance and localization of trichilemmoma. a case report.
    Pathologica 2009 Jun;101(3):133-4
    Dermatology Department, Habib Thameur Hospital, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Trichilemmoma is a benign cutaneous tumor that shows characteristics of differentiation similar to the outer hair sheath. We report the case of a woman presenting with a nodular tender mass of the back that was diagnosed as an isolated trichilemmoma. Several lines of evidence suggest that trichilemmoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any indistinct facial papule. Read More

    Mucoepidermoid (adenosquamous) carcinoma, trichoblastoma, trichilemmoma, sebaceous adenoma, tumor of follicular infundibulum and syringocystadenoma papilliferum arising within 2 persistent lesions of nevus sebaceous: report of a case.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2009 Oct;31(7):658-63
    Department of Pathology, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Nevus sebaceous of Jadassohn (SNJ) is a congenital, hamartoma of multiple skin structures and may classically evolve through several stages of maturation. Many neoplasms have been reported to arise in association with SNJ, most commonly trichoblastoma and syringocystadenoma papilliferum. The coexistence of 3 or more tumors arising simultaneously within 1 lesion of SNJ is very rare. Read More

    Detection of human papillomavirus infection in trichilemmomas and verrucae using in situ hybridization.
    J Cutan Pathol 2010 Jan 13;37(1):75-80. Epub 2009 Jul 13.
    Department of Dermatology, Wayne State University, Dearborn, MI, USA.
    Background: It is hypothesized that trichilemmomas are 'burned out' verrucae. By performing in situ hybridization using HPV type-specific probes, we explored this concept.

    Methods: Verrucae vulgaris and plantaris were positive controls, and inverted follicular keratoses (IFKs) were negative controls. Read More

    CD34-reactive tumors of the skin. An updated review of an ever-growing list of lesions.
    J Cutan Pathol 2009 Jan;36(1):89-102
    Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain.
    Over the past few years, a growing number of cutaneous tumors expressing CD34 is being reported. The list contains benign and malignant neoplasms as well as reactive and hamartomatous lesions of diverse lineages of differentiation, including fibroblastic, myofibroblastic, fibrohistiocytic, vascular, neural, adipocytic, smooth muscle, hematopoietic, melanocytic and epithelial. The more frequent diagnostic difficulties are found in spindle cell proliferations, mainly in those of the fibrocytic lineage. Read More

    CD34-reactive tumors of the skin. An updated review of an ever-growing list of lesions.
    J Cutan Pathol 2008 Dec;35(12):1079-92
    Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada, Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain.
    Over the past few years, a growing number of cutaneous tumors expressing CD34 is being reported. The list contains benign and malignant neoplasms as well as reactive and hamartomatous lesions of diverse lineages of differentiation, including fibroblastic, myofibroblastic, fibrohistiocytic, vascular, neural, adipocytic, smooth muscle, hematopoietic, melanocytic and epithelial. The more frequent diagnostic difficulties are found in spindle cell proliferations, mainly in those of the fibrocytic lineage. Read More

    Gastrointestinal polyposis with esophageal polyposis is useful for early diagnosis of Cowden's disease.
    World J Gastroenterol 2008 Oct;14(37):5755-9
    Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo, Aoba, Sendai 980-8574, Japan.
    Cowden's disease, one of the several hamartoma syndromes, is characterized by hyperplastic lesions and hamartomas distributed in the whole body. About thirty percent of patients with Cowden's disease have been reported to be complicated by malignant tumors. Based on the criteria of the International Cowden Consortium, this disease is mainly diagnosed as trichilemmoma of the face and oral mucosal papillomatosis. Read More

    A Case of Trichilemmal Carcinoma Treated with Mohs Micrographic Surgery.
    Ann Dermatol 2008 Sep 30;20(3):157-61. Epub 2008 Sep 30.
    Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan, Korea.
    Trichilemmal carcinoma is a cutaneous adnexal tumor originating from the outer root sheath of hair follicle, and it was first described by Headington in 1976. Clinically, it usually occurs as an asymptomatic solitary papule, nodule or mass on the face or scalp. This neoplasm is a malignant counterpart of trichilemmoma, and it has been reported in the literature as trichilemmal carcinoma, tricholemmal carcinoma, malignant trichilemmoma, and tricholemmocarcinoma. Read More

    Expression of the hair stem cell-specific marker nestin in epidermal and follicular tumors.
    Eur J Dermatol 2008 Sep-Oct;18(5):518-23. Epub 2008 Aug 8.
    Department of Dermatology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan.
    Nestin, a marker of neural stem cells, is expressed in the stem cells of the mouse hair follicle. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells give rise to the outer-root sheath. Nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells that are negative for the keratinocyte marker keratin 15 (K15) can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratinocytes, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes in vitro. Read More

    Cytokeratin expression in trichilemmal carcinoma suggests differentiation towards follicular infundibulum.
    In Vivo 2006 Sep-Oct;20(5):583-5
    Department of Dermatology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174, Edobashi, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan.
    An immunohistochemical study of cytokeratins (CK) in a case of trichilemmal carcinoma (TLC). CK expression showed the presence of CK 1, 10, 14 and 17, suggesting that TLC differentiates toward follicular infundibulum. In a comparison of CK expression between TLC and trichilemmoma, the absence of CK 15 and 16 in TLC may be related to transformation from trichilemmoma to TLC. Read More

    [The relationship between infestation of Demodex folliculorum and epidermal neoplasm on face].
    Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 2005 Dec;23(6):428-31
    Department of Pathology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003, China.
    Objective: To discuss the relationship between infestation of Demodex folliculorum and facial epidermal neoplasm.

    Methods: A retrospective analysis was made with the pathological data of 153 cases collected in the recent four years on facial basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, seborrheic keratosis and trichilemmoma. The infection rate of Demodex folliculorum in the four types of neoplasm was evaluated and the relationship between the infection rate and the location of neoplasm and age was analyzed by V2 test. Read More

    Immunohistochemical staining of cutaneous tumours with G-81, a monoclonal antibody to dermcidin.
    Br J Dermatol 2004 Jul;151(1):165-9
    Department of Dermatology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641-0012, Japan.
    Background: Recently, the novel antimicrobial peptide named dermcidin (DCD) was reported in human eccrine sweat glands.

    Objectives: We investigated the expression of DCD in a variety of cutaneous tumours in order to assess the usefulness of the monoclonal antibody (G-81), which recognizes a fragment of DCD.

    Patients/methods: We studied the immunoreactivity of the G-81 antibody on 197 cutaneous tumours. Read More

    A case of desmoplastic trichilemmoma of the lip treated with Mohs surgery.
    Dermatol Surg 2004 Jul;30(7):1062-4
    Department of Dermatology, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, New York 10025, USA.
    Background: Desmoplastic trichilemmoma is a rare pseudomalignant variant of trichilemmoma. It generally presents as a small papule on the face and is often clinically misdiagnosed as a basal cell carcinoma or verruca vulgaris. It is histologically similar to a trichilemmoma, but has a central area of desmoplasia that can mimic an invasive carcinoma. Read More

    Incidence of cytokeratin 20 expressed cells in primitive follicular structure and secondary neoplastic proliferations of nevus sebaceus.
    J Dermatol Sci 2003 Oct;33(1):17-21
    Department of Dermatology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 11-1, Kaga-2, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan.
    Background: Nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn (NSJ) is a complex hamartoma in which various kinds of secondary neoplastic or hyperplastic proliferations such as primitive follicular structure (PFS) may arise. Recently, cytokeratin (CK) 20 expressed cells in PFSs and trichoblastomas of NSJs were demonstrated.

    Objective: To clarify the nature and relationship among these proliferations, those in other secondary neoplasms and precise CK distributions in such lesional epidermis are examined. Read More

    Trichilemmal carcinoma of the upper eyelid.
    Acta Ophthalmol Scand 2003 Oct;81(5):536-8
    Oculoplastic and Orbital Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia.
    Introduction: Trichilemmal carcinoma (TLC) is a rare adnexal tumour related to the external hair sheath. We describe the first case of TLC on the upper eyelid to be treated with Mohs micrographic surgery.

    Case Report: A 65-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of a firm 4 mm left upper eyelid nodule. Read More

    Benign ocular adnexal tumours of apocrine, eccrine or hair follicle origin.
    Can J Ophthalmol 2003 Aug;38(5):357-63
    Henry C. Witelson Ophthalmic Pathology Laboratory and Registry and the Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Que.
    Background: The differential diagnosis of malignant eyelid tumours, particularly basal cell carcinoma (BCC), includes tumours of skin appendages. The incidence of these adnexal tumours has not been well established. This study aimed to determine the incidence and review the main clinicopathological features of benign tumours arising from skin appendages of the eyelid with apocrine, eccrine or hair follicle differentiation. Read More

    Trichilemmoma: an immunohistochemical study of cytokeratins.
    Br J Dermatol 2003 Jul;149(1):99-104
    Department of Dermatology, Hyogo Prefectural Tsukaguchi Hospital, 6-8-17, Minamitsukaguchi-cho, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-0012, Japan.
    Background: The histogenesis of trichilemmoma remains unclear.

    Objectives: To clarify the histogenesis of trichilemmoma by evaluating its cytokeratin (CK) expression.

    Methods: In three cases of trichilemmoma, CK expression was studied immunohistochemically using seven antikeratin antibodies against CK1, 10, 14-17 and 19, respectively. Read More

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