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    Podoconiosis, trachomatous trichiasis and cataract in northern Ethiopia: A comparative cross sectional study.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 10;11(2):e0005388. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Wellcome Trust Brighton and Sussex Centre for Global Health Research, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, United Kingdom.
    Background: Rural populations in low-income countries commonly suffer from the co-morbidity of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Podoconiosis, trachomatous trichiasis (both NTDs) and cataract are common causes of morbidity among subsistence farmers in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. We explored whether podoconiosis was associated with cataract or trachomatous trichiasis (TT) among this population. Read More

    Long-term outcome of allogeneic cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation for symblepharon caused by severe ocular burns.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Jan 31;17(1). Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shandong Eye Institute, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 5 Yanerdao Road, 266071, Qingdao, China.
    Background: The therapeutic effects of allogeneic cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) for symblephara at different degrees caused by ocular burns were evaluated in this study.

    Methods: A series of interventional cases were involved in this retrospective study. Eighty eyes (80 patients) with symblephara underwent CLET and the success rates of surgical treatment as well as corneal conditions and risk factors for recurrent symblepharon were analyzed. Read More

    Eyelash Epilation in the Absence of Trichiasis: Results of a Population-Based Prevalence Survey in the Western Division of Fiji.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jan 23;11(1):e0005277. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Clinical Research Department, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years) was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Read More

    Delivery of Eye and Vision Services in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Healthcare Centers.
    Front Public Health 2016 19;4:276. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University , Brisbane, QLD , Australia.
    Background: Routine eye and vision assessments are vital for the detection and subsequent management of vision loss, which is particularly important for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who face higher rates of vision loss than other Australians. In order to guide improvements, this paper will describe patterns, variations, and gaps in these eye and vision assessments for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    Methods: Clinical audits from 124 primary healthcare centers (sample size 15,175) from five Australian states and territories were conducted during 2005-2012. Read More

    Identifying Patient Perceived Barriers to Trichiasis Surgery in Kongwa District, Tanzania.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jan 4;11(1):e0005211. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.
    Background: Trachomatous trichiasis (TT), inturned eyelashes from repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness in the world. Though surgery will correct entropion caused by trachoma, uptake of TT surgery remains low. In this case-control study, we identify barriers that prevent TT patients from receiving sight-saving surgery. Read More

    Mapping Trachoma in the Solomon Islands: Results of Three Baseline Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 12;23(sup1):15-21. Epub 2016 Dec 12.
    b Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: We sought to complete the baseline trachoma map of the Solomon Islands by establishing prevalences of active trachoma and trichiasis in the provinces of Choiseul, Western, Rennell-Bellona, and Temotu.

    Methods: Using the standardized methodology developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we conducted cross-sectional community-based surveys from September to November 2013. Choiseul and Western provinces were each mapped as separate evaluation units (EUs); Rennell-Bellona and Temotu were combined to form a third EU. Read More

    Prevalence of Trachoma in Benishangul Gumuz Region, Ethiopia: Results of Seven Population-Based Surveys from the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 5;23(sup1):70-76. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    b Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: Trachoma is a major cause of blindness in Ethiopia, and targeted for elimination as a public health problem by the year 2020. Prevalence data are needed to plan interventions. We set out to estimate the prevalence of trachoma in each evaluation unit of grouped districts ("woredas") in Benishangul Gumuz region, Ethiopia. Read More

    The Prevalence of Trachoma in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia: Results of 11 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Completed as Part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 5;23(sup1):94-99. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    c Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of trachoma in each district ("woreda") of Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    Methods: We conducted 11 cross-sectional community-based surveys in evaluation units covering 34 rural woredas from January to March 2013 using the standardized methodology developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

    Results: Teams visited 8034 households in 275 villages. Read More

    Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Trachoma in Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region, Ethiopia: Results of 40 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Carried Out with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 5;23(sup1):84-93. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    b Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: We sought to estimate the prevalence of trachoma at sufficiently fine resolution to allow elimination interventions to begin, where required, in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia.

    Methods: We carried out cross-sectional population-based surveys in 14 rural zones. A 2-stage cluster randomized sampling technique was used. Read More

    Mapping Trachoma in Kaduna State, Nigeria: Results of 23 Local Government Area-Level, Population-Based Prevalence Surveys.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 5;23(sup1):46-54. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    k Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Introduction: To prepare for global elimination of trachoma by 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends mapping of trachoma at district-level to enable planning of elimination activities in affected populations. The aim of our study was to provide data on trachoma for each local government area (LGA) of Kaduna State, Nigeria, as such data were previously unavailable.

    Method: As part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP), a population-based cross-sectional trachoma survey was conducted in each of the 23 LGAs of Kaduna State, between May and June 2013. Read More

    Prevalence of Trachoma in Niger State, North Central Nigeria: Results of 25 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Carried Out with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 5;23(sup1):63-69. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    j Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of trachoma in each of the 25 local government areas (LGAs) of Niger State, Nigeria.

    Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in each Niger State LGA between March and April 2014, as part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP). GTMP protocols were used in planning and conduct of the surveys. Read More

    Prevalence of Trachoma in Gambella Region, Ethiopia: Results of Three Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 5;23(sup1):77-83. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    b Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: In Ethiopia, trachoma is a major public health problem, accounting for 11.5% of all cases of blindness. In Gambella, one of the country's most remote regions, the 2005-2006 National Survey of Blindness, Low Vision and Trachoma estimated a region-level prevalence of active trachoma of 19. Read More

    Population-Based Trachoma Mapping in Six Evaluation Units of Papua New Guinea.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 28;23(sup1):22-31. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    c Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years, and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in those aged ≥15 years, in suspected trachoma-endemic areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG).

    Methods: We carried out six population-based prevalence surveys using the protocol developed as part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

    Results: A total of 19,013 individuals were sampled for inclusion, with 15,641 (82. Read More

    Long-Term Results for Entropion Repair by Tarsal Margin Rotation With Posterior Lamella Superadvancement.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Nov 15. Epub 2016 Nov 15.
    *Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center; and †Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.
    Purpose: To report the long-term stability of tarsal margin rotation and posterior lamellar superadvancement (TMR PLS) for the repair of upper eyelid cicatricial entropion.

    Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed from January 2000 through December 2014 to identify all patients who had TMR PLS at the authors' institution. Charts were reviewed for demographic information, recurrence of entropion or trichiasis, and surgical complications. Read More

    Prevalence of Trachoma in Bauchi State, Nigeria: Results of 20 Local Government Area-Level Surveys.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 15;23(sup1):39-45. Epub 2016 Nov 15.
    l Clinical Research Department, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) and trichiasis in each of the 20 local government areas (LGAs) of Bauchi State, Nigeria.

    Methods: We undertook a population-based prevalence survey in each LGA in Bauchi State, employing the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. We used a 2-stage, systematic and quasi-random sampling strategy. Read More

    National Trachoma Assessment in the Lao People's Democratic Republic in 2013-2014.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 15;23(sup1):8-14. Epub 2016 Nov 15.
    d Department of Clinical Research , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: Population-based prevalence surveys were undertaken to determine whether trachoma is a public health problem in Laos requiring implementation of the SAFE strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, environmental improvement).

    Methods: The country was divided into 19 evaluation units (EUs), each containing a population of roughly 100,000-350,000 people. Of these, 16 were believed most likely to harbor trachoma (based on historical evidence), and were mapped using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methods. Read More

    The Epidemiology of Trachoma in Darfur States and Khartoum State, Sudan: Results of 32 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 Dec;23(6):381-391
    c Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: To complete the baseline trachoma map of Sudan by estimating the prevalence of trachoma and associated risk factors in the five Darfur States and Khartoum State.

    Methods: Using a standardized methodology developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we undertook a cross sectional, community-based survey in each of 32 evaluation units (EUs) covering all accessible districts.

    Results: We enumerated a total of 84,568 individuals, with 73,489 people (86. Read More

    Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Trachoma in Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia: Results of 79 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 Dec 7;23(6):392-405. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
    b Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: To complete the baseline trachoma map in Oromia, Ethiopia, by determining prevalences of trichiasis and trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) at evaluation unit (EU) level, covering all districts (woredas) without current prevalence data or active control programs, and to identify factors associated with disease.

    Methods: Using standardized methodologies and training developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we conducted cross-sectional community-based surveys from December 2012 to July 2014.

    Results: Teams visited 46,244 households in 2037 clusters from 252 woredas (79 EUs). Read More

    Marginal Entropion: A Frequently Overlooked Eyelid Malposition.
    Turk J Ophthalmol 2015 Oct 5;45(5):203-207. Epub 2015 Oct 5.
    Katip Çelebi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, İzmir, Turkey.
    Objectives: To evaluate the clinical findings and outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with marginal entropion.

    Materials And Methods: Patients with impairment of the natural square-shaped eyelid margin morphology, anterior migration of mucocutaneous junction and mild lid inversion toward the ocular surface were diagnosed as having marginal entropion. Patients with shortened fornices, cicatricial changes or subconjunctival fibrosis were excluded. Read More

    Economic Analysis of Children's Surgical Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Analysis.
    PLoS One 2016 28;11(10):e0165480. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Duke Global Health Institute and Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States of America.
    Background: Understanding the economic value of health interventions is essential for policy makers to make informed resource allocation decisions. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize available information on the economic impact of children's surgical care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

    Methods: We searched MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase, and Web of Science for relevant articles published between Jan. Read More

    Prevalence of Trachoma in Katsina State, Nigeria: Results of 34 District-Level Surveys.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 24;23(sup1):55-62. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    k Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: To determine the local government area (LGA)-level prevalence of trachoma in all 34 LGAs of Katsina State.

    Methods: A population-based prevalence survey was conducted in each LGA of Katsina State, using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. We used a 3-stage cluster random sampling strategy to select 25 households from each of 25 clusters. Read More

    Progress of Trachoma Mapping in Mainland Tanzania: Results of Baseline Surveys from 2012 to 2014.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 Dec 24;23(6):373-380. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    i RTI International , Dar es Salaam , Tanzania.
    Purpose: Following surveys in 2004-2006 in 50 high-risk districts of mainland Tanzania, trachoma was still suspected to be widespread elsewhere. We report on baseline surveys undertaken from 2012 to 2014.

    Methods: A total of 31 districts were surveyed. Read More

    Baseline Trachoma Surveys in Kaskazini A and Micheweni Districts of Zanzibar: Results of Two Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 Dec 24;23(6):412-417. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    j RTI International , Dar es Salaam , Tanzania.
    Purpose: Based on health care records and trachoma rapid assessments, trachoma was suspected to be endemic in Kaskazini A and Micheweni districts of Zanzibar. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in each of those districts.

    Methods: The survey was undertaken in Kaskazini A and Micheweni districts on Unguja and Pemba Islands, respectively. Read More

    [Effects of epicanthoplasty on trichiasis of the lower eyelids with epicanthus].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 Sep;96(36):2906-2908
    Plastic and Cosmetic Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital Affiliated Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, China.
    Objective: To investigate the effects of epicanthoplasty on the trichiasis caused by the entropion of lower eyelid with epicanthus. Methods: Epicanthoplasty was used to correct the trichiasis of lower eyelid with epicanthus from February 2010 to October 2015. Total of 72 patients were enrolled in this study, among whom 42 were male and 30 were female, and aged 8 to 58 years. Read More

    Mathematical Modelling of Trachoma Transmission, Control and Elimination.
    Adv Parasitol 2016 14;94:1-48. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    The World Health Organization has targeted the elimination of blinding trachoma by the year 2020. To this end, the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma (GET, 2020) alliance relies on a four-pronged approach, known as the SAFE strategy (S for trichiasis surgery; A for antibiotic treatment; F for facial cleanliness and E for environmental improvement). Well-constructed and parameterized mathematical models provide useful tools that can be used in policy making and forecasting in order to help to control trachoma and understand the feasibility of this large-scale elimination effort. Read More

    Assessment of Trachoma in Cambodia: Trachoma Is Not a Public Health Problem.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 11;23(sup1):3-7. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
    d Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: To determine whether trachoma is a public health problem requiring intervention in Cambodia.

    Methods: Based on historical evidence and reports, 14 evaluation units (EUs) in Cambodia, judged to be most likely to harbor trachoma, were selected. The Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology was used to carry out rigorous surveys to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis in each EU. Read More

    Completion of Baseline Trachoma Mapping in Malawi: Results of Eight Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 11;23(sup1):32-38. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
    e Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: Following a first phase of trachoma mapping in Malawi with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we identified and mapped trachoma districts previously suspected to be non-endemic, although adjacent to districts with estimated trachoma prevalences indicating a public health problem.

    Methods: We conducted population-based surveys in eight evaluation units (EUs) comprising eight districts in Malawi (total population 3,230,272). A 2-stage cluster random sampling design allowed us to select 30 households from each of 30 clusters per EU; all residents aged 1 year and older in selected households were examined for evidence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trachomatous trichiasis (TT). Read More

    Trachoma Mapping in Gombe State, Nigeria: Results of 11 Local Government Area Surveys.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 Dec 11;23(6):406-411. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
    k Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: To determine the need or otherwise for establishment of a trachoma elimination program in Gombe State, Nigeria, by estimating the population-based prevalence of trachoma in each Local Government Area (LGA) of Gombe.

    Methods: Using a multi-stage, systematic, random, and quasi-random sampling approach and Global Trachoma Mapping Project support, we selected 25 clusters in each LGA. In each cluster, we selected 25 households and all consenting residents aged 1 year and older were examined for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis, using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme. Read More

    The World Health Organization Recommendations for Trachoma Surveillance, Experience in Nepal and Added Benefit of Testing for Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis pgp3 Protein: NESTS Study.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Sep 21;10(9):e0005003. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) now requires a second surveillance survey for trachoma after an impact assessment has found follicular trachoma (TF) <5% to determine if re-emergence has occurred. Using new WHO guidelines, we undertook surveillance surveys, and determined the prevalence of infection and antibody positivity, in two districts in Nepal.

    Methods: 20 clusters were randomly selected within each district, 15 were randomly selected for antibody testing. Read More

    Cross-Sectional Surveys of the Prevalence of Follicular Trachoma and Trichiasis in The Gambia: Has Elimination Been Reached?
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Sep 19;10(9):e0004906. Epub 2016 Sep 19.
    Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: The Gambia's National Eye Health Programme has made a concerted effort to reduce the prevalence of trachoma. The present study had two objectives. The first was to conduct surveillance following mass drug administrations to determine whether The Gambia has reached the World Health Organization's (WHO) criteria for trachoma elimination, namely a prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) of less than 5% in children aged 1 to 9 years. Read More

    Prevalence and factors associated with trachoma among children aged 1-9 years in Zala district, Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia.
    Clin Ophthalmol 2016 29;10:1663-70. Epub 2016 Aug 29.
    Department of Medical Physiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.
    Background: Trachoma is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It is common in areas where people are socioeconomically deprived. Globally, approximately 1. Read More

    Low Prevalence of Conjunctival Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in a Treatment-Naïve Trachoma-Endemic Region of the Solomon Islands.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Sep 7;10(9):e0004863. Epub 2016 Sep 7.
    Clinical Research Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: Trachoma is endemic in several Pacific Island states. Recent surveys across the Solomon Islands indicated that whilst trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) was present at levels warranting intervention, the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) was low. We set out to determine the relationship between chlamydial infection and trachoma in this population. Read More

    Genetic Polymorphisms of TLR4 and MICA are Associated with Severity of Trachoma Disease in Tanzania.
    Autoimmune Infect Dis 2016 Jun 3;2(3). Epub 2016 Jun 3.
    Department of Microbiology, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA.
    Aim: To examine the association of TLR4 Asp299Gly and MICA exon 5 microsatellites polymorphisms with severity of trachoma in a sub-Saharan East Africa population of Tanzanian villagers.

    Methods: The samples were genotyped for MICA exon 5 microsatellites and the TLR4 299 A/G polymorphism by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), and GeneScan(®), respectively. The association of TLR4 Asp299Gly and MICA exon 5 microsatellites with inflammatory trachoma (TI) and trichiasis (TI) were examined. Read More

    Conservative Management of Lower Eyelid Epiblepharon in Children.
    J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2017 Jan 18;54(1):15-16. Epub 2016 Aug 18.
    Purpose: Although much literature has focused on various techniques to repair epiblepharon, no study has addressed how frequently surgical intervention is required.

    Methods: The authors tabulated data from all patients with epiblepharon seen over the past 15 years.

    Results: Eighty-nine patients were included, 61 (69%) with tearing, discharge, conjunctival injection, or eye rubbing. Read More

    Australian trachoma surveillance annual report, 2013.
    Commun Dis Intell Q Rep 2016 Jun 30;40(2):E255-66. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
    National Trachoma Surveillance Reporting Unit, The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, New South Wales.
    Australia remains the only developed country to have endemic levels of trachoma (a prevalence of 5% or greater among children) in some regions. Endemic trachoma in Australia is found predominantly in remote and very remote Aboriginal communities. The Australian Government funds the National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit to collate, analyse and report trachoma prevalence data and document trachoma control strategies in Australia through an annual surveillance report. Read More

    Bacterial corneal ulcer associated with common variable immune deficiency.
    J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect 2016 Dec 5;6(1):28. Epub 2016 Aug 5.
    Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, USA.
    Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is one of the most commonly diagnosed primary immunodeficiencies. Generally, patients have a history of recurrent sinopulmonary infections, hypogammaglobulinemia of two or more immunoglobulin isotypes, and impaired functional antibody responses. Reports of corneal involvement associated with CVID are limited. Read More

    Blinding Trachoma: Systematic Review of Rates and Risk Factors for Progressive Disease.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Aug 2;10(8):e0004859. Epub 2016 Aug 2.
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: Sight loss from trachoma is the end result of a scarring disease process starting in early childhood and characterised by repeated episodes of conjunctival inflammation (active trachoma). Subsequently, the conjunctiva becomes scarred, causing the eyelashes to turn inwards and scratch the cornea (trichiasis), damaging the corneal surface and leading to corneal opacification and visual impairment. It is thought that this process is initiated and driven by repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Read More

    Low Prevalence of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Active Trachoma in the Western Division of Fiji.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Jul 12;10(7):e0004798. Epub 2016 Jul 12.
    Clinical Research Department, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is caused by ocular infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). While the majority of the global disease burden is found in sub-Saharan Africa, the Western Pacific Region has been identified as trachoma endemic. Population surveys carried out throughout Fiji have shown an abundance of both clinically active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in all divisions. Read More

    Prevalence of Trachoma in Car-Nicobar Island, India after Three Annual Rounds of Mass Drug Administration with Azithromycin.
    PLoS One 2016 8;11(7):e0158625. Epub 2016 Jul 8.
    Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Background: A high proportion of active trachoma infection in children of Car-Nicobar Island was reported through the Trachoma Rapid Assessment survey conducted in year 2010 by the same researchers. Annual mass drug treatment with azithromycin was administered from years 2010-12 to all individuals residing in this island for reducing the burden of active trachoma infection. A cross-sectional prevalence survey was conducted in the year 2013 to assess the post-treatment burden of trachoma in this population. Read More

    Modified Hughes procedure for reconstruction of large full-thickness lower eyelid defects following tumor resection.
    Eur J Med Res 2016 Jun 30;21(1):27. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
    Background: Tarsoconjunctival flap advancement, or the Hughes procedure, is among the techniques of choice for reconstructing full-thickness lower eyelid defects so as to restore normal anatomy and function with the best possible cosmetic outcome. The purpose of this study is to report the outcome of a series of patients treated with a modified Hughes procedure following malignant tumor removal.

    Methods: This retrospective study included 45 consecutive cases of modified Hughes procedures performed between January 2013 and October 2015. Read More

    Trichiasis in ancient times.
    Clin Dermatol 2016 Jul-Aug;34(4):521-3. Epub 2016 Jan 22.
    Department of History of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Greece.
    Trichiasis, recognized since the time of Hippocrates, is a cause of ocular irritation that may result in scarring of the cornea and threaten sight. We have reviewed the original Greek medical texts made from the 1st to the 7th century ce and present the existing medical knowledge relating to trichiasis, including its clinical picture, cause, diagnosis, and treatment. Recognition of trichiasis as a stage of trachoma and its distinction from pseudotrichiasis gave the impetus for physicians of the era to use a significant number of pharmaceutical and surgical treatments. Read More

    Increased Epithelial Expression of CTGF and S100A7 with Elevated Subepithelial Expression of IL-1β in Trachomatous Trichiasis.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Jun 1;10(6):e0004752. Epub 2016 Jun 1.
    Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania.
    Purpose: To characterize the histological appearance and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases and biomarkers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in healthy control and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) conjunctival tissue.

    Methods: Conjunctival biopsies were taken from 20 individuals with TT and from 16 individuals with healthy conjunctiva, which served as controls. Study participants were of varying ethnicity and were living in a trachoma-endemic region of northern Tanzania. Read More

    Immunohistochemical Analysis of Scarring Trachoma Indicates Infiltration by Natural Killer and Undefined CD45 Negative Cells.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 May 24;10(5):e0004734. Epub 2016 May 24.
    International Centre for Eye Health, Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Introduction: The phenotype and function of immune cells infiltrating the conjunctiva in scarring trachoma have yet to be fully characterized. We assessed tissue morphology and immunophenotype of cellular infiltrates found in trachomatous scarring compared to control participants.

    Methodology: Clinical assessments and conjunctival biopsy samples were obtained from 34 individuals with trachomatous scarring undergoing trichiasis surgery and 33 control subjects undergoing cataract or retinal detachment surgery. Read More

    Switch Flap for Upper Eyelid Reconstruction-How Soon Should the Flap Be Divided?
    Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2016 Apr 25;4(4):e695. Epub 2016 Apr 25.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Saga University Hospital, Saga, Japan.
    Background: The results of a cohort of patients treated at one institution for upper eyelid reconstruction with the switch flap method after a defect due to excision of malignant tumor were reviewed.

    Methods: A retrospective data file review of all patients who had undergone total upper eyelid reconstruction with the switch flap method was conducted at the Saga University Hospital between April 2000 and October 2014. The follow-up lasted for varying periods during which the preoperative and postoperative photographs were compared as well. Read More

    Acute Corneal Hydrops Complicated by Microbial Keratitis: Case Series Reveals Poor Immediate and Long-Term Prognosis.
    Cornea 2016 Jul;35(7):1019-22
    Department of Ophthalmology, New Zealand National Eye Centre, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Purpose: Acute corneal hydrops is a rare complication of keratoconus and may be a risk factor for further complications such as microbial keratitis.

    Methods: Retrospective, case series.

    Results: Six eyes developed microbial keratitis during acute corneal hydrops. Read More

    Trachoma in Indigenous Settlements in Brazil, 2000-2008.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 Dec 4;23(6):354-359. Epub 2016 May 4.
    g University of São Paulo , Brazil.
    Purpose: Trachoma, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory disease that affects the cornea and conjunctiva. Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of avoidable blindness worldwide. Its prevalence is higher among individuals of low socioeconomic status, and trachoma is common in indigenous communities. Read More

    Impact of Trichiasis Surgery on Quality of Life: A Longitudinal Study in Ethiopia.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Apr 14;10(4):e0004627. Epub 2016 Apr 14.
    International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: Trachomatous trichiasis significantly reduces vision and health related quality of life (QoL). Although trichiasis surgery is widely performed to treat trichiasis, there is little data on the effect of surgery on QoL. We measured the impact of trichiasis surgery on vision and health related QoL in a longitudinal study from Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Read More

    Setting targets for human resources for eye health in sub-Saharan Africa: what evidence should be used?
    Hum Resour Health 2016 Mar 16;14:11. Epub 2016 Mar 16.
    Kilimanjaro Centre for Community Ophthalmology International c/o Division of Ophthalmology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    With a global target set at reducing vision loss by 25% by the year 2019, sub-Saharan Africa with an estimated 4.8 million blind persons will require human resources for eye health (HReH) that need to be available, appropriately skilled, supported, and productive. Targets for HReH are useful for planning, monitoring, and resource mobilization, but they need to be updated and informed by evidence of effectiveness and efficiency. Read More

    A Simple New Technique for Treatment of Tarsal Kink Syndrome.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016 Mar 4. Epub 2016 Mar 4.
    *Royal Eye Infirmary, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, United Kingdom; and †Ophthalmology Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupoli, Alexandroupoli, Greece.
    Congenital tarsal kink syndrome is a rare type of upper eyelid entropion associated with keratitis due to trichiasis. The authors describe a new technique for treatment of congenital horizontal tarsal kink syndrome by means of absorbable everting sutures via a posterior approach. A neonate was referred to eye clinic with right eye redness and corneal opacity since birth. Read More

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