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    Randomized double-masked trial of eyelid cleansing treatments for blepharitis.
    Ocul Surf 2017 Nov 8. Epub 2017 Nov 8.
    Department of Ophthalmology, New Zealand National Eye Centre, The University of Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:
    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of a dedicated eyelid cleanser and diluted baby shampoo in the management of blepharitis.

    Methods: Forty-three participants with clinical blepharitis signs were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-masked, paired-eye trial. A dedicated eyelid cleanser (TheraTears(®) SteriLid(®)) was applied to the eyelids of one eye (randomized) and diluted baby shampoo (Johnson's(®) No More Tears(®)) to the fellow eye, twice daily for 4 weeks. Read More

    Ocular features of multiple system atrophy.
    J Clin Neurosci 2017 Oct 21. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA; Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:
    The aim of this paper is to gain better understanding of the ocular manifestations of multiple system atrophy (MSA), a neurodegenerative disorder rarely studied in terms of its ophthalmologic features. We performed a retrospective case series (1/1/05-12/31/14) to search for patients seen at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, who had mention of MSA in the medical record and an eye examination, which yielded 285 cases. Of the 285, we identified 39 cases of true MSA. Read More

    Surveillance Surveys for Reemergent Trachoma in Formerly Endemic Districts in Nepal From 2 to 10 Years After Mass Drug Administration Cessation.
    JAMA Ophthalmol 2017 Nov;135(11):1141-1146
    Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International, Washington, DC.
    Importance: To verify districts for elimination of blinding trachoma, the World Health Organization requires a population-based surveillance survey for follicular trachoma (TF) and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) 2 years after mass drug administration (MDA) activities have ceased. However, it is unknown if 2 years provides enough time to discover reemergence.

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of trachoma from surveys among 4 districts in Nepal (Dailekh, Dang, Surkhet, and Kanchanpur) that had surveillance intervals of 2, 4, 8, and 10 years, respectively, after cessation of MDA. Read More

    Temporal horizontal H-figure sliding skin flap for central eyelid reconstructive surgery in dogs: a retrospective study.
    J Small Anim Pract 2017 Sep 25. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Via Livornese (lato monte), 56122 San Piero a Grado, Pisa, Italy.
    Objective: To describe a modified H-figure sliding skin flap for treating eyelid central neoplasms and to evaluate the cosmetic and functional results of this reconstructive blepharoplasty.

    Material And Methods: Eight dogs affected by eyelid neoplasia involving more than one-third of the central part of the margin underwent an en bloc rectangular surgical removal of the neoplasia. Reconstructive surgery was performed using a temporal horizontal H-figure sliding skin flap. Read More

    The Epidemiology of Trachoma in Mozambique: Results of 96 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2017 Sep 14:1-10. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    l Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: Surveys are needed to guide trachoma control efforts in Mozambique, with WHO guidelines for intervention based on the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years and the prevalence of trichiasis in adults aged 15 years and above. We conducted surveys to complete the map of trachoma prevalence in Mozambique.

    Methods: Between July 2012 and May 2015, we carried out cross-sectional surveys in 96 evaluation units (EUs) covering 137 districts. Read More

    Prevalence of signs of trachoma, ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection and antibodies to Pgp3 in residents of Kiritimati Island, Kiribati.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 12;11(9):e0005863. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Clinical Research Department, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Objective: In some Pacific Island countries, such as Solomon Islands and Fiji, active trachoma is common, but ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) are rare. On Tarawa, the most populous Kiribati island, both the active trachoma sign "trachomatous inflammation-follicular" (TF) and TT are present at prevalences warranting intervention. We sought to estimate prevalences of TF, TT, ocular Ct infection, and anti-Ct antibodies on Kiritimati Island, Kiribati, to assess local relationships between these parameters, and to help determine the need for interventions against trachoma on Kiribati islands other than Tarawa. Read More

    Outcomes of two surgical techniques for major trichiasis treatment.
    Orbit 2017 Aug 30:1-5. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    a Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu , Universidade Estadual Paulista , Botucatu , Sao Paulo State , Brazil.
    The purpose of this article is to analyze the outcomes of two surgical techniques to treat major trichiasis. A retrospective chart review of 67 patients (89 eyelids) with major trichiasis was performed who underwent surgical treatment using one of two techniques: intermarginal split lamella with graft (ISLG group) or lid lamella resection (LLR group). There were 30 lids in the ISLG group with mean patient age of 71. Read More

    Trachoma in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Results of 46 Baseline Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2017 Aug 29:1-9. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    k Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: Trachoma was suspected to be endemic in parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We aimed to estimate prevalences of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), trichiasis, and water and sanitation (WASH) indicators in suspected-endemic Health Zones.

    Methods: A population-based prevalence survey was undertaken in each of 46 Health Zones across nine provinces of DRC, using Global Trachoma Mapping Project methods. Read More

    Use of validated community-based trachoma trichiasis (TT) case finders to measure the total backlog and detect when elimination threshold is achieved: a TT methodology paper.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 5;27:84. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    Narok County Government, Narok, Kenya.
    Introduction: The World Health Organization recommends TT surveys to be conducted in adults aged 15+ years (TT 15 survey) and certifies elimination of TT as a public health problem when there is less than 1 unknown case per 1,000 people of all ages. There is no standard survey method to accurately confirm this elimination prevalence threshold of 0.1% because rare conditions require large and expensive prevalence survey samples. Read More

    Treatment of Children With Congenital Severe Blepharoptosis by Frontalis Aponeurosis Flap Advancement Under General Anesthesia in a Single Incision.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 Sep;28(6):1495-1497
    Plastic Surgery Department, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of frontalis aponeurosis flap advancement in children with congenital severe blepharoptosis.

    Methods: A total of 23 cases (25 eyes) of children who had congenital severe blepharoptosis and poor levator function (≤4 mm) and received frontalis aponeurosis flap advancement treatment in the Plastic Surgery Department of the Children's Hospital of Fudan University from January 1, 2013, to January 1, 2015, were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the postoperative effects.

    Results: All patients (age range, 6-27 months) were followed up for an average duration of 15. Read More

    Population-based prevalence survey of follicular trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in the Casamance region of Senegal.
    BMC Public Health 2017 Jul 26;18(1):62. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Background: Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted the first population-based trachoma prevalence survey in the Casamance region of Senegal to enable the Senegalese National Eye Care Programme (NECP) to plan its trachoma control activities. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines state that any individual with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) should be offered surgery, but that surgery should be prioritised where the prevalence is >0. Read More

    Burden of trachoma in five counties of Eastern Equatoria state, South Sudan: Results from population-based surveys.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jun 14;11(6):e0005658. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Trachoma Control Program, The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Background: In order to decrease the prevalence of trachoma within the country, the Republic of South Sudan has implemented components of the SAFE strategy in various counties since 2001. Five counties in Eastern Equatoria state were surveyed in order to monitor progress of programmatic interventions and determine if additional rounds of Mass Drug Administration with azithromycin were needed.

    Methodology/ Principal Findings: Five counties (Budi, Lafon, Kapoeta East, Kapoeta South and Kapoeta North) were surveyed from April to October 2015. Read More

    Prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis in Australia: the National Eye Health Survey.
    Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2017 Jun 9. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Indigenous Eye Health Unit, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Importance: Australia is the only developed country to still have pockets of endemic trachoma. The research provides up-to-date, population-based prevalence data of later complications of trachoma amongst a national sample of Indigenous adults.

    Background: To report the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in Indigenous Australians aged 40 years and older. Read More

    [Anterior lamellar resection with lid margin split of the upper eyelid in the treatment of trachomatous entropion].
    J Fr Ophtalmol 2017 Jun 31;40(6):453-459. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Service d'ophtalmologie adulte, hôpital 20-Août-1953, CHU Ibn Rochd, quartier des hôpitaux, Casablanca, Maroc.
    Introduction: The goal of this study is to assess functional and aesthetic results of anterior lamellar resection with lid margin splitting of the upper lid in the treatment of cicatricial trachomatous entropion.

    Patients And Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of a series of 26 consecutive patients treated between January 2014 and December 2015. All patients were operated for cicatricial trachomatous entropion in our tertiary center using the technique of the anterior lamellar resection with lid margin splitting of the upper eyelid. Read More

    Utility of PROSE Device in the Management of Complex Oculoplastic Pathology.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Department of Ophthalmology, Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, Columbia University, New York, New York, U.S.A.
    Purpose: To describe the use of Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) device in the management of complex oculoplastic pathology.

    Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of individuals over 18 years of age who were referred and successfully fit with the PROSE scleral device between January 1995 and June 2015.

    Results: Nine cases were identified that had complex oculoplastic disease and severe corneal surface disease. Read More

    Scleral Contact Lenses in an Academic Oculoplastics Clinic: Epidemiology and Emerging Considerations.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
    *Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinic, Iowa City, Iowa, †Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, ‡Department of Ophthalmology, Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, and §Department of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, U.S.A.
    Purpose: To describe the role and efficacy of scleral contact lenses (SCLs) in the treatment of progressive keratopathy in patients who have undergone periocular surgical procedures, to investigate the financial impact of these surgical interventions, and to demonstrate the role of oculoplastic surgery in improving scleral contact lens fit.

    Methods: A retrospective medical record review was performed to identify patients who both received SCLs and were examined by the oculoplastics service at the University of Iowa between January 1990 and December 2015. Inclusion criteria also required a minimum of 12 months of patient follow up after being fit with a SCL. Read More

    The Burden of and Risk Factors for Trachoma in Selected Districts of Zimbabwe: Results of 16 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2017 May 22:1-11. Epub 2017 May 22.
    b Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Background: Trachoma, a leading cause of blindness, is targeted for global elimination as a public health problem by 2020. In order to contribute to this goal, countries should demonstrate reduction of disease prevalence below specified thresholds, after implementation of the SAFE strategy in areas with defined endemicity. Zimbabwe had not yet generated data on trachoma endemicity and no specific interventions against trachoma have yet been implemented. Read More

    Prevalence of Trachoma in Northern Benin: Results from 11 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Covering 26 Districts.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2017 Aug 25;24(4):265-273. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    a National Control Program of Communicable Diseases, Ministry of Health , Benin.
    Aims: We sought to evaluate trachoma prevalence in all suspected-endemic areas of Benin.

    Methods: We conducted population-based surveys covering 26 districts grouped into 11 evaluation units (EUs), using a two-stage, systematic and random, cluster sampling design powered at EU level. In each EU, 23 villages were systematically selected with population proportional to size; 30 households were selected from each village using compact segment sampling. Read More

    Predictors of Trachomatous Trichiasis Surgery Outcome.
    Ophthalmology 2017 Aug 21;124(8):1143-1155. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Purpose: Unfavorable outcomes after trachomatous trichiasis (TT) surgery are undermining the global trachoma elimination effort. This analysis investigates predictors of postoperative TT (PTT), eyelid contour abnormalities (ECAs), and granuloma in the 2 most common TT surgery procedures: posterior lamellar tarsal rotation (PLTR) and bilamellar tarsal rotation (BLTR).

    Design: Secondary data analysis from a randomized, controlled, single-masked clinical trial. Read More

    Chlamydial eye infections: Current perspectives.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Feb;65(2):97-102
    Section of Ocular Microbiology, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intraocular bacteria causing trachoma, adult and neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis, was the leading cause of blindness in the last century worldwide. Improvement in socioeconomic and living conditions, availability of antibiotics, and introduction of National Trachoma Control Programmes reduced the prevalence in developed countries, but it persisted in resource-poor settings of Africa and Asia, including India. In 2016, as per the WHO report, trachoma is restricted to 42 countries, causing blindness/visual impairment in ~1. Read More

    Profiling and validation of individual and patterns of Chlamydia trachomatis-specific antibody responses in trachomatous trichiasis.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Mar 13;10(1):143. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Clinical Research Department, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, UK.
    Background: Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection causes trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness. A Ct D/UW3 proteome microarray and sera from Gambian adults with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) or healthy matched controls previously identified several novel antigens, which suggested differential recognition in adults with TT.

    Methods: We re-analysed this serological microarray data using more robust microarray analysis techniques accounting for typical problems associated with highly dimensional data. Read More

    Prevalence of Trachoma in Kano State, Nigeria: Results of 44 Local Government Area-Level Surveys.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2017 Jun 28;24(3):195-203. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    l Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases , World Health Organization , Geneva , Switzerland.
    Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of trachoma in 44 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kano State, Nigeria.

    Methods: A population-based prevalence survey was conducted in each Kano LGA. We used a two-stage systematic and quasi-random sampling strategy to select 25 households from each of 25 clusters in each LGA. Read More

    Podoconiosis, trachomatous trichiasis and cataract in northern Ethiopia: A comparative cross sectional study.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 10;11(2):e0005388. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Wellcome Trust Brighton and Sussex Centre for Global Health Research, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, United Kingdom.
    Background: Rural populations in low-income countries commonly suffer from the co-morbidity of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Podoconiosis, trachomatous trichiasis (both NTDs) and cataract are common causes of morbidity among subsistence farmers in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. We explored whether podoconiosis was associated with cataract or trachomatous trichiasis (TT) among this population. Read More

    Long-term outcome of allogeneic cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation for symblepharon caused by severe ocular burns.
    BMC Ophthalmol 2017 Jan 31;17(1). Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shandong Eye Institute, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, 5 Yanerdao Road, 266071, Qingdao, China.
    Background: The therapeutic effects of allogeneic cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) for symblephara at different degrees caused by ocular burns were evaluated in this study.

    Methods: A series of interventional cases were involved in this retrospective study. Eighty eyes (80 patients) with symblephara underwent CLET and the success rates of surgical treatment as well as corneal conditions and risk factors for recurrent symblepharon were analyzed. Read More

    Eyelash Epilation in the Absence of Trichiasis: Results of a Population-Based Prevalence Survey in the Western Division of Fiji.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jan 23;11(1):e0005277. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Clinical Research Department, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Background: The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years) was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Read More

    Delivery of Eye and Vision Services in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Healthcare Centers.
    Front Public Health 2016 19;4:276. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University , Brisbane, QLD , Australia.
    Background: Routine eye and vision assessments are vital for the detection and subsequent management of vision loss, which is particularly important for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who face higher rates of vision loss than other Australians. In order to guide improvements, this paper will describe patterns, variations, and gaps in these eye and vision assessments for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    Methods: Clinical audits from 124 primary healthcare centers (sample size 15,175) from five Australian states and territories were conducted during 2005-2012. Read More

    Identifying Patient Perceived Barriers to Trichiasis Surgery in Kongwa District, Tanzania.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jan 4;11(1):e0005211. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.
    Background: Trachomatous trichiasis (TT), inturned eyelashes from repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness in the world. Though surgery will correct entropion caused by trachoma, uptake of TT surgery remains low. In this case-control study, we identify barriers that prevent TT patients from receiving sight-saving surgery. Read More

    Mapping Trachoma in the Solomon Islands: Results of Three Baseline Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 12;23(sup1):15-21. Epub 2016 Dec 12.
    b Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: We sought to complete the baseline trachoma map of the Solomon Islands by establishing prevalences of active trachoma and trichiasis in the provinces of Choiseul, Western, Rennell-Bellona, and Temotu.

    Methods: Using the standardized methodology developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we conducted cross-sectional community-based surveys from September to November 2013. Choiseul and Western provinces were each mapped as separate evaluation units (EUs); Rennell-Bellona and Temotu were combined to form a third EU. Read More

    Prevalence of Trachoma in Benishangul Gumuz Region, Ethiopia: Results of Seven Population-Based Surveys from the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 5;23(sup1):70-76. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    b Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: Trachoma is a major cause of blindness in Ethiopia, and targeted for elimination as a public health problem by the year 2020. Prevalence data are needed to plan interventions. We set out to estimate the prevalence of trachoma in each evaluation unit of grouped districts ("woredas") in Benishangul Gumuz region, Ethiopia. Read More

    The Prevalence of Trachoma in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia: Results of 11 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Completed as Part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 5;23(sup1):94-99. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    c Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of trachoma in each district ("woreda") of Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    Methods: We conducted 11 cross-sectional community-based surveys in evaluation units covering 34 rural woredas from January to March 2013 using the standardized methodology developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

    Results: Teams visited 8034 households in 275 villages. Read More

    Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Trachoma in Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region, Ethiopia: Results of 40 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Carried Out with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 5;23(sup1):84-93. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    b Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: We sought to estimate the prevalence of trachoma at sufficiently fine resolution to allow elimination interventions to begin, where required, in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia.

    Methods: We carried out cross-sectional population-based surveys in 14 rural zones. A 2-stage cluster randomized sampling technique was used. Read More

    Mapping Trachoma in Kaduna State, Nigeria: Results of 23 Local Government Area-Level, Population-Based Prevalence Surveys.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 5;23(sup1):46-54. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    k Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Introduction: To prepare for global elimination of trachoma by 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends mapping of trachoma at district-level to enable planning of elimination activities in affected populations. The aim of our study was to provide data on trachoma for each local government area (LGA) of Kaduna State, Nigeria, as such data were previously unavailable.

    Method: As part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP), a population-based cross-sectional trachoma survey was conducted in each of the 23 LGAs of Kaduna State, between May and June 2013. Read More

    Prevalence of Trachoma in Niger State, North Central Nigeria: Results of 25 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Carried Out with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 5;23(sup1):63-69. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    j Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of trachoma in each of the 25 local government areas (LGAs) of Niger State, Nigeria.

    Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in each Niger State LGA between March and April 2014, as part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP). GTMP protocols were used in planning and conduct of the surveys. Read More

    Prevalence of Trachoma in Gambella Region, Ethiopia: Results of Three Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 5;23(sup1):77-83. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    b Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: In Ethiopia, trachoma is a major public health problem, accounting for 11.5% of all cases of blindness. In Gambella, one of the country's most remote regions, the 2005-2006 National Survey of Blindness, Low Vision and Trachoma estimated a region-level prevalence of active trachoma of 19. Read More

    Population-Based Trachoma Mapping in Six Evaluation Units of Papua New Guinea.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 28;23(sup1):22-31. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    c Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years, and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in those aged ≥15 years, in suspected trachoma-endemic areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG).

    Methods: We carried out six population-based prevalence surveys using the protocol developed as part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

    Results: A total of 19,013 individuals were sampled for inclusion, with 15,641 (82. Read More

    Long-Term Results for Entropion Repair by Tarsal Margin Rotation With Posterior Lamella Superadvancement.
    Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 Nov/Dec;33(6):434-439
    *Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center; and †Department of Ophthalmology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.
    Purpose: To report the long-term stability of tarsal margin rotation and posterior lamellar superadvancement (TMR PLS) for the repair of upper eyelid cicatricial entropion.

    Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed from January 2000 through December 2014 to identify all patients who had TMR PLS at the authors' institution. Charts were reviewed for demographic information, recurrence of entropion or trichiasis, and surgical complications. Read More

    Prevalence of Trachoma in Bauchi State, Nigeria: Results of 20 Local Government Area-Level Surveys.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 15;23(sup1):39-45. Epub 2016 Nov 15.
    l Clinical Research Department, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) and trichiasis in each of the 20 local government areas (LGAs) of Bauchi State, Nigeria.

    Methods: We undertook a population-based prevalence survey in each LGA in Bauchi State, employing the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. We used a 2-stage, systematic and quasi-random sampling strategy. Read More

    National Trachoma Assessment in the Lao People's Democratic Republic in 2013-2014.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 15;23(sup1):8-14. Epub 2016 Nov 15.
    d Department of Clinical Research , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: Population-based prevalence surveys were undertaken to determine whether trachoma is a public health problem in Laos requiring implementation of the SAFE strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, environmental improvement).

    Methods: The country was divided into 19 evaluation units (EUs), each containing a population of roughly 100,000-350,000 people. Of these, 16 were believed most likely to harbor trachoma (based on historical evidence), and were mapped using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methods. Read More

    The Epidemiology of Trachoma in Darfur States and Khartoum State, Sudan: Results of 32 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 Dec;23(6):381-391
    c Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: To complete the baseline trachoma map of Sudan by estimating the prevalence of trachoma and associated risk factors in the five Darfur States and Khartoum State.

    Methods: Using a standardized methodology developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we undertook a cross sectional, community-based survey in each of 32 evaluation units (EUs) covering all accessible districts.

    Results: We enumerated a total of 84,568 individuals, with 73,489 people (86. Read More

    Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Trachoma in Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia: Results of 79 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 Dec 7;23(6):392-405. Epub 2016 Nov 7.
    b Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: To complete the baseline trachoma map in Oromia, Ethiopia, by determining prevalences of trichiasis and trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) at evaluation unit (EU) level, covering all districts (woredas) without current prevalence data or active control programs, and to identify factors associated with disease.

    Methods: Using standardized methodologies and training developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we conducted cross-sectional community-based surveys from December 2012 to July 2014.

    Results: Teams visited 46,244 households in 2037 clusters from 252 woredas (79 EUs). Read More

    Marginal Entropion: A Frequently Overlooked Eyelid Malposition.
    Turk J Ophthalmol 2015 Oct 5;45(5):203-207. Epub 2015 Oct 5.
    Katip Çelebi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, İzmir, Turkey.
    Objectives: To evaluate the clinical findings and outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with marginal entropion.

    Materials And Methods: Patients with impairment of the natural square-shaped eyelid margin morphology, anterior migration of mucocutaneous junction and mild lid inversion toward the ocular surface were diagnosed as having marginal entropion. Patients with shortened fornices, cicatricial changes or subconjunctival fibrosis were excluded. Read More

    Economic Analysis of Children's Surgical Care in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Analysis.
    PLoS One 2016 28;11(10):e0165480. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Duke Global Health Institute and Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States of America.
    Background: Understanding the economic value of health interventions is essential for policy makers to make informed resource allocation decisions. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize available information on the economic impact of children's surgical care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

    Methods: We searched MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase, and Web of Science for relevant articles published between Jan. Read More

    Prevalence of Trachoma in Katsina State, Nigeria: Results of 34 District-Level Surveys.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 24;23(sup1):55-62. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    k Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: To determine the local government area (LGA)-level prevalence of trachoma in all 34 LGAs of Katsina State.

    Methods: A population-based prevalence survey was conducted in each LGA of Katsina State, using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. We used a 3-stage cluster random sampling strategy to select 25 households from each of 25 clusters. Read More

    Progress of Trachoma Mapping in Mainland Tanzania: Results of Baseline Surveys from 2012 to 2014.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 Dec 24;23(6):373-380. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    i RTI International , Dar es Salaam , Tanzania.
    Purpose: Following surveys in 2004-2006 in 50 high-risk districts of mainland Tanzania, trachoma was still suspected to be widespread elsewhere. We report on baseline surveys undertaken from 2012 to 2014.

    Methods: A total of 31 districts were surveyed. Read More

    Baseline Trachoma Surveys in Kaskazini A and Micheweni Districts of Zanzibar: Results of Two Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 Dec 24;23(6):412-417. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    j RTI International , Dar es Salaam , Tanzania.
    Purpose: Based on health care records and trachoma rapid assessments, trachoma was suspected to be endemic in Kaskazini A and Micheweni districts of Zanzibar. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in each of those districts.

    Methods: The survey was undertaken in Kaskazini A and Micheweni districts on Unguja and Pemba Islands, respectively. Read More

    [Effects of epicanthoplasty on trichiasis of the lower eyelids with epicanthus].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 Sep;96(36):2906-2908
    Plastic and Cosmetic Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital Affiliated Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, China.
    Objective: To investigate the effects of epicanthoplasty on the trichiasis caused by the entropion of lower eyelid with epicanthus. Methods: Epicanthoplasty was used to correct the trichiasis of lower eyelid with epicanthus from February 2010 to October 2015. Total of 72 patients were enrolled in this study, among whom 42 were male and 30 were female, and aged 8 to 58 years. Read More

    Mathematical Modelling of Trachoma Transmission, Control and Elimination.
    Adv Parasitol 2016 14;94:1-48. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    The World Health Organization has targeted the elimination of blinding trachoma by the year 2020. To this end, the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma (GET, 2020) alliance relies on a four-pronged approach, known as the SAFE strategy (S for trichiasis surgery; A for antibiotic treatment; F for facial cleanliness and E for environmental improvement). Well-constructed and parameterized mathematical models provide useful tools that can be used in policy making and forecasting in order to help to control trachoma and understand the feasibility of this large-scale elimination effort. Read More

    Assessment of Trachoma in Cambodia: Trachoma Is Not a Public Health Problem.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 11;23(sup1):3-7. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
    d Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: To determine whether trachoma is a public health problem requiring intervention in Cambodia.

    Methods: Based on historical evidence and reports, 14 evaluation units (EUs) in Cambodia, judged to be most likely to harbor trachoma, were selected. The Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology was used to carry out rigorous surveys to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis in each EU. Read More

    Completion of Baseline Trachoma Mapping in Malawi: Results of Eight Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 11;23(sup1):32-38. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
    e Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: Following a first phase of trachoma mapping in Malawi with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we identified and mapped trachoma districts previously suspected to be non-endemic, although adjacent to districts with estimated trachoma prevalences indicating a public health problem.

    Methods: We conducted population-based surveys in eight evaluation units (EUs) comprising eight districts in Malawi (total population 3,230,272). A 2-stage cluster random sampling design allowed us to select 30 households from each of 30 clusters per EU; all residents aged 1 year and older in selected households were examined for evidence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trachomatous trichiasis (TT). Read More

    Trachoma Mapping in Gombe State, Nigeria: Results of 11 Local Government Area Surveys.
    Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016 Dec 11;23(6):406-411. Epub 2016 Oct 11.
    k Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
    Purpose: To determine the need or otherwise for establishment of a trachoma elimination program in Gombe State, Nigeria, by estimating the population-based prevalence of trachoma in each Local Government Area (LGA) of Gombe.

    Methods: Using a multi-stage, systematic, random, and quasi-random sampling approach and Global Trachoma Mapping Project support, we selected 25 clusters in each LGA. In each cluster, we selected 25 households and all consenting residents aged 1 year and older were examined for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis, using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme. Read More

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