Purpose: Surveys are needed to guide trachoma control efforts in Mozambique, with WHO guidelines for intervention based on the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years and the prevalence of trichiasis in adults aged 15 years and above. We conducted surveys to complete the map of trachoma prevalence in Mozambique.
Methods: Between July 2012 and May 2015, we carried out cross-sectional surveys in 96 evaluation units (EUs) covering 137 districts. Read More
Objective: In some Pacific Island countries, such as Solomon Islands and Fiji, active trachoma is common, but ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) are rare. On Tarawa, the most populous Kiribati island, both the active trachoma sign "trachomatous inflammation-follicular" (TF) and TT are present at prevalences warranting intervention. We sought to estimate prevalences of TF, TT, ocular Ct infection, and anti-Ct antibodies on Kiritimati Island, Kiribati, to assess local relationships between these parameters, and to help determine the need for interventions against trachoma on Kiribati islands other than Tarawa. Read More
a Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu , Universidade Estadual Paulista , Botucatu , Sao Paulo State , Brazil.
The purpose of this article is to analyze the outcomes of two surgical techniques to treat major trichiasis. A retrospective chart review of 67 patients (89 eyelids) with major trichiasis was performed who underwent surgical treatment using one of two techniques: intermarginal split lamella with graft (ISLG group) or lid lamella resection (LLR group). There were 30 lids in the ISLG group with mean patient age of 71. Read More
Purpose: Trachoma was suspected to be endemic in parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We aimed to estimate prevalences of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), trichiasis, and water and sanitation (WASH) indicators in suspected-endemic Health Zones.
Methods: A population-based prevalence survey was undertaken in each of 46 Health Zones across nine provinces of DRC, using Global Trachoma Mapping Project methods. Read More
Introduction: The World Health Organization recommends TT surveys to be conducted in adults aged 15+ years (TT 15 survey) and certifies elimination of TT as a public health problem when there is less than 1 unknown case per 1,000 people of all ages. There is no standard survey method to accurately confirm this elimination prevalence threshold of 0.1% because rare conditions require large and expensive prevalence survey samples. Read More
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effect of frontalis aponeurosis flap advancement in children with congenital severe blepharoptosis.
Methods: A total of 23 cases (25 eyes) of children who had congenital severe blepharoptosis and poor levator function (≤4 mm) and received frontalis aponeurosis flap advancement treatment in the Plastic Surgery Department of the Children's Hospital of Fudan University from January 1, 2013, to January 1, 2015, were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the postoperative effects.
Results: All patients (age range, 6-27 months) were followed up for an average duration of 15. Read More
Background: Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted the first population-based trachoma prevalence survey in the Casamance region of Senegal to enable the Senegalese National Eye Care Programme (NECP) to plan its trachoma control activities. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines state that any individual with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) should be offered surgery, but that surgery should be prioritised where the prevalence is >0. Read More
Background: In order to decrease the prevalence of trachoma within the country, the Republic of South Sudan has implemented components of the SAFE strategy in various counties since 2001. Five counties in Eastern Equatoria state were surveyed in order to monitor progress of programmatic interventions and determine if additional rounds of Mass Drug Administration with azithromycin were needed.
Methodology/ Principal Findings: Five counties (Budi, Lafon, Kapoeta East, Kapoeta South and Kapoeta North) were surveyed from April to October 2015. Read More
Importance: Australia is the only developed country to still have pockets of endemic trachoma. The research provides up-to-date, population-based prevalence data of later complications of trachoma amongst a national sample of Indigenous adults.
Background: To report the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in Indigenous Australians aged 40 years and older. Read More
Introduction: The goal of this study is to assess functional and aesthetic results of anterior lamellar resection with lid margin splitting of the upper lid in the treatment of cicatricial trachomatous entropion.
Patients And Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study of a series of 26 consecutive patients treated between January 2014 and December 2015. All patients were operated for cicatricial trachomatous entropion in our tertiary center using the technique of the anterior lamellar resection with lid margin splitting of the upper eyelid. Read More
Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2017 May 22. Epub 2017 May 22.
*Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinic, Iowa City, Iowa, †Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, ‡Department of Ophthalmology, Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, and §Department of Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, U.S.A.
Purpose: To describe the role and efficacy of scleral contact lenses (SCLs) in the treatment of progressive keratopathy in patients who have undergone periocular surgical procedures, to investigate the financial impact of these surgical interventions, and to demonstrate the role of oculoplastic surgery in improving scleral contact lens fit.
Methods: A retrospective medical record review was performed to identify patients who both received SCLs and were examined by the oculoplastics service at the University of Iowa between January 1990 and December 2015. Inclusion criteria also required a minimum of 12 months of patient follow up after being fit with a SCL. Read More
Background: Trachoma, a leading cause of blindness, is targeted for global elimination as a public health problem by 2020. In order to contribute to this goal, countries should demonstrate reduction of disease prevalence below specified thresholds, after implementation of the SAFE strategy in areas with defined endemicity. Zimbabwe had not yet generated data on trachoma endemicity and no specific interventions against trachoma have yet been implemented. Read More
Aims: We sought to evaluate trachoma prevalence in all suspected-endemic areas of Benin.
Methods: We conducted population-based surveys covering 26 districts grouped into 11 evaluation units (EUs), using a two-stage, systematic and random, cluster sampling design powered at EU level. In each EU, 23 villages were systematically selected with population proportional to size; 30 households were selected from each village using compact segment sampling. Read More
Purpose: Unfavorable outcomes after trachomatous trichiasis (TT) surgery are undermining the global trachoma elimination effort. This analysis investigates predictors of postoperative TT (PTT), eyelid contour abnormalities (ECAs), and granuloma in the 2 most common TT surgery procedures: posterior lamellar tarsal rotation (PLTR) and bilamellar tarsal rotation (BLTR).
Design: Secondary data analysis from a randomized, controlled, single-masked clinical trial. Read More
Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intraocular bacteria causing trachoma, adult and neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis, was the leading cause of blindness in the last century worldwide. Improvement in socioeconomic and living conditions, availability of antibiotics, and introduction of National Trachoma Control Programmes reduced the prevalence in developed countries, but it persisted in resource-poor settings of Africa and Asia, including India. In 2016, as per the WHO report, trachoma is restricted to 42 countries, causing blindness/visual impairment in ~1. Read More
Background: Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection causes trachoma, the leading infectious cause of blindness. A Ct D/UW3 proteome microarray and sera from Gambian adults with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) or healthy matched controls previously identified several novel antigens, which suggested differential recognition in adults with TT.
Methods: We re-analysed this serological microarray data using more robust microarray analysis techniques accounting for typical problems associated with highly dimensional data. Read More
Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of trachoma in 44 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kano State, Nigeria.
Methods: A population-based prevalence survey was conducted in each Kano LGA. We used a two-stage systematic and quasi-random sampling strategy to select 25 households from each of 25 clusters in each LGA. Read More
Background: Rural populations in low-income countries commonly suffer from the co-morbidity of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Podoconiosis, trachomatous trichiasis (both NTDs) and cataract are common causes of morbidity among subsistence farmers in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. We explored whether podoconiosis was associated with cataract or trachomatous trichiasis (TT) among this population. Read More
Background: The therapeutic effects of allogeneic cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) for symblephara at different degrees caused by ocular burns were evaluated in this study.
Methods: A series of interventional cases were involved in this retrospective study. Eighty eyes (80 patients) with symblephara underwent CLET and the success rates of surgical treatment as well as corneal conditions and risk factors for recurrent symblepharon were analyzed. Read More
Background: The WHO definition of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) is "at least one eyelash touching the globe, or evidence of recent epilation of in-turned eyelashes", reflecting the fact that epilation is used as a self-management tool for TT. In Fiji's Western Division, a high TT prevalence (8.7% in those aged ≥15 years) was reported in a 2012 survey, yet a 2013 survey found no TT and Fijian ophthalmologists rarely see TT cases. Read More
Background: Routine eye and vision assessments are vital for the detection and subsequent management of vision loss, which is particularly important for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who face higher rates of vision loss than other Australians. In order to guide improvements, this paper will describe patterns, variations, and gaps in these eye and vision assessments for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
Methods: Clinical audits from 124 primary healthcare centers (sample size 15,175) from five Australian states and territories were conducted during 2005-2012. Read More
Background: Trachomatous trichiasis (TT), inturned eyelashes from repeated infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness in the world. Though surgery will correct entropion caused by trachoma, uptake of TT surgery remains low. In this case-control study, we identify barriers that prevent TT patients from receiving sight-saving surgery. Read More
Purpose: We sought to complete the baseline trachoma map of the Solomon Islands by establishing prevalences of active trachoma and trichiasis in the provinces of Choiseul, Western, Rennell-Bellona, and Temotu.
Methods: Using the standardized methodology developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we conducted cross-sectional community-based surveys from September to November 2013. Choiseul and Western provinces were each mapped as separate evaluation units (EUs); Rennell-Bellona and Temotu were combined to form a third EU. Read More
Purpose: Trachoma is a major cause of blindness in Ethiopia, and targeted for elimination as a public health problem by the year 2020. Prevalence data are needed to plan interventions. We set out to estimate the prevalence of trachoma in each evaluation unit of grouped districts ("woredas") in Benishangul Gumuz region, Ethiopia. Read More
Purpose: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of trachoma in each district ("woreda") of Tigray Region, Ethiopia.
Methods: We conducted 11 cross-sectional community-based surveys in evaluation units covering 34 rural woredas from January to March 2013 using the standardized methodology developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
Results: Teams visited 8034 households in 275 villages. Read More
Purpose: We sought to estimate the prevalence of trachoma at sufficiently fine resolution to allow elimination interventions to begin, where required, in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia.
Methods: We carried out cross-sectional population-based surveys in 14 rural zones. A 2-stage cluster randomized sampling technique was used. Read More
Introduction: To prepare for global elimination of trachoma by 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends mapping of trachoma at district-level to enable planning of elimination activities in affected populations. The aim of our study was to provide data on trachoma for each local government area (LGA) of Kaduna State, Nigeria, as such data were previously unavailable.
Method: As part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP), a population-based cross-sectional trachoma survey was conducted in each of the 23 LGAs of Kaduna State, between May and June 2013. Read More
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of trachoma in each of the 25 local government areas (LGAs) of Niger State, Nigeria.
Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in each Niger State LGA between March and April 2014, as part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP). GTMP protocols were used in planning and conduct of the surveys. Read More
Purpose: In Ethiopia, trachoma is a major public health problem, accounting for 11.5% of all cases of blindness. In Gambella, one of the country's most remote regions, the 2005-2006 National Survey of Blindness, Low Vision and Trachoma estimated a region-level prevalence of active trachoma of 19. Read More
Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years, and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in those aged ≥15 years, in suspected trachoma-endemic areas of Papua New Guinea (PNG).
Methods: We carried out six population-based prevalence surveys using the protocol developed as part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
Results: A total of 19,013 individuals were sampled for inclusion, with 15,641 (82. Read More
Purpose: To report the long-term stability of tarsal margin rotation and posterior lamellar superadvancement (TMR PLS) for the repair of upper eyelid cicatricial entropion.
Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed from January 2000 through December 2014 to identify all patients who had TMR PLS at the authors' institution. Charts were reviewed for demographic information, recurrence of entropion or trichiasis, and surgical complications. Read More
Purpose: To determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) and trichiasis in each of the 20 local government areas (LGAs) of Bauchi State, Nigeria.
Methods: We undertook a population-based prevalence survey in each LGA in Bauchi State, employing the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. We used a 2-stage, systematic and quasi-random sampling strategy. Read More
Purpose: Population-based prevalence surveys were undertaken to determine whether trachoma is a public health problem in Laos requiring implementation of the SAFE strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, environmental improvement).
Methods: The country was divided into 19 evaluation units (EUs), each containing a population of roughly 100,000-350,000 people. Of these, 16 were believed most likely to harbor trachoma (based on historical evidence), and were mapped using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methods. Read More
Purpose: To complete the baseline trachoma map of Sudan by estimating the prevalence of trachoma and associated risk factors in the five Darfur States and Khartoum State.
Methods: Using a standardized methodology developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we undertook a cross sectional, community-based survey in each of 32 evaluation units (EUs) covering all accessible districts.
Results: We enumerated a total of 84,568 individuals, with 73,489 people (86. Read More
Purpose: To complete the baseline trachoma map in Oromia, Ethiopia, by determining prevalences of trichiasis and trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) at evaluation unit (EU) level, covering all districts (woredas) without current prevalence data or active control programs, and to identify factors associated with disease.
Methods: Using standardized methodologies and training developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we conducted cross-sectional community-based surveys from December 2012 to July 2014.
Results: Teams visited 46,244 households in 2037 clusters from 252 woredas (79 EUs). Read More
Objectives: To evaluate the clinical findings and outcomes of surgical treatment in patients with marginal entropion.
Materials And Methods: Patients with impairment of the natural square-shaped eyelid margin morphology, anterior migration of mucocutaneous junction and mild lid inversion toward the ocular surface were diagnosed as having marginal entropion. Patients with shortened fornices, cicatricial changes or subconjunctival fibrosis were excluded. Read More
Background: Understanding the economic value of health interventions is essential for policy makers to make informed resource allocation decisions. The objective of this systematic review was to summarize available information on the economic impact of children's surgical care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
Methods: We searched MEDLINE (Pubmed), Embase, and Web of Science for relevant articles published between Jan. Read More
Purpose: To determine the local government area (LGA)-level prevalence of trachoma in all 34 LGAs of Katsina State.
Methods: A population-based prevalence survey was conducted in each LGA of Katsina State, using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. We used a 3-stage cluster random sampling strategy to select 25 households from each of 25 clusters. Read More
Purpose: Following surveys in 2004-2006 in 50 high-risk districts of mainland Tanzania, trachoma was still suspected to be widespread elsewhere. We report on baseline surveys undertaken from 2012 to 2014.
Methods: A total of 31 districts were surveyed. Read More
Purpose: Based on health care records and trachoma rapid assessments, trachoma was suspected to be endemic in Kaskazini A and Micheweni districts of Zanzibar. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in each of those districts.
Methods: The survey was undertaken in Kaskazini A and Micheweni districts on Unguja and Pemba Islands, respectively. Read More
Objective: To investigate the effects of epicanthoplasty on the trichiasis caused by the entropion of lower eyelid with epicanthus. Methods: Epicanthoplasty was used to correct the trichiasis of lower eyelid with epicanthus from February 2010 to October 2015. Total of 72 patients were enrolled in this study, among whom 42 were male and 30 were female, and aged 8 to 58 years. Read More
The World Health Organization has targeted the elimination of blinding trachoma by the year 2020. To this end, the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma (GET, 2020) alliance relies on a four-pronged approach, known as the SAFE strategy (S for trichiasis surgery; A for antibiotic treatment; F for facial cleanliness and E for environmental improvement). Well-constructed and parameterized mathematical models provide useful tools that can be used in policy making and forecasting in order to help to control trachoma and understand the feasibility of this large-scale elimination effort. Read More
Purpose: To determine whether trachoma is a public health problem requiring intervention in Cambodia.
Methods: Based on historical evidence and reports, 14 evaluation units (EUs) in Cambodia, judged to be most likely to harbor trachoma, were selected. The Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology was used to carry out rigorous surveys to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis in each EU. Read More
Purpose: Following a first phase of trachoma mapping in Malawi with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we identified and mapped trachoma districts previously suspected to be non-endemic, although adjacent to districts with estimated trachoma prevalences indicating a public health problem.
Methods: We conducted population-based surveys in eight evaluation units (EUs) comprising eight districts in Malawi (total population 3,230,272). A 2-stage cluster random sampling design allowed us to select 30 households from each of 30 clusters per EU; all residents aged 1 year and older in selected households were examined for evidence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trachomatous trichiasis (TT). Read More
Purpose: To determine the need or otherwise for establishment of a trachoma elimination program in Gombe State, Nigeria, by estimating the population-based prevalence of trachoma in each Local Government Area (LGA) of Gombe.
Methods: Using a multi-stage, systematic, random, and quasi-random sampling approach and Global Trachoma Mapping Project support, we selected 25 clusters in each LGA. In each cluster, we selected 25 households and all consenting residents aged 1 year and older were examined for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis, using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme. Read More
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) now requires a second surveillance survey for trachoma after an impact assessment has found follicular trachoma (TF) <5% to determine if re-emergence has occurred. Using new WHO guidelines, we undertook surveillance surveys, and determined the prevalence of infection and antibody positivity, in two districts in Nepal.
Methods: 20 clusters were randomly selected within each district, 15 were randomly selected for antibody testing. Read More
Background: The Gambia's National Eye Health Programme has made a concerted effort to reduce the prevalence of trachoma. The present study had two objectives. The first was to conduct surveillance following mass drug administrations to determine whether The Gambia has reached the World Health Organization's (WHO) criteria for trachoma elimination, namely a prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) of less than 5% in children aged 1 to 9 years. Read More
Background: Trachoma is endemic in several Pacific Island states. Recent surveys across the Solomon Islands indicated that whilst trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) was present at levels warranting intervention, the prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) was low. We set out to determine the relationship between chlamydial infection and trachoma in this population. Read More