330 results match your criteria Trench Fever
Open Microbiol J 2018 31;12:148-153. Epub 2018 May 31.
Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Viale Europa, 88100, Catanzaro, Italy.
Background: Bartonella species are intracellular bacteria capable of producing several diseases in humans. The three most common and wellknown diseases are cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by B. henselae, trench fever, caused by and Carrion's Disease, caused by . Read More
Acta Trop 2018 Feb 7;178:115-118. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
Cukurova University, Medical Faculty, Medical Parasitology, Adana, Turkey.
Pediculus humanus capitis is a small ectoparasitic insect that has lived and feds on human beings for thousands of years. Molecular techniques have been used for Pediculus species identification and evolutionary, phylogenic, and ecological studies. A total of 23 adults of P. Read More
Emerg Infect Dis 2017 11;23(11):1876-1879
In 2015, we investigated Bartonella quintana and typhus group rickettsiae in body lice from homeless persons in Bogotá, Colombia. We found B. quintana-infected body lice and seroprevalence of this microorganism in 19% of homeless persons and typhus group rickettsiae in 56%. Read More
PLoS One 2017 20;12(9):e0184621. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IRD, INSERM, AP-HM, URMITE, IHU - Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.
In poor African countries, where no medical and biological facilities are available, the identification of potential emerging pathogens of concern at an early stage is challenging. Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have a short life, feed only on human blood and do not transmit pathogens to their progeny. They are, therefore, a perfect tool for the xenodiagnosis of current or recent human infection. Read More
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care 2017 Jul/Aug;16(4):321-323. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
2 Divisions of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.
Bacillary angiomatosis (BA) is a rare complication of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection in the post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, and few cases of BA-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) have been described. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who presented with mass lesions involving the skin, subcutaneous tissues, muscle, and bone. The diagnosis of Bartonella quintana BA was confirmed by serum polymerase chain reaction. Read More
Insect Mol Biol 2017 06 20;26(3):266-276. Epub 2017 Jan 20.
Department of Veterinary & Animal Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA.
Human body and head lice are highly related haematophagous ectoparasites but only the body louse has been shown to transmit Bartonella quintana, the causative agent of trench fever. The mechanisms by which body lice became a vector for B. quintana, however, are poorly understood. Read More
Int J Mol Sci 2016 Dec 1;17(12). Epub 2016 Dec 1.
State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changping, Beijing 102206, China.
Trench fever, caused by , is recognized as a re-emerging and neglected disease. Rapid and sensitive detection approaches are urgently required to monitor and help control infections. Here, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which amplifies target DNA at a fixed temperature with high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity, was employed to detect . Read More
Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2017 01 21;8(1):25-30. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
Vector Control Research Centre, Indian Council of Medical Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India, Indira Nagar, Pondicherry 605 006, India.
Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a zoonotic viral haemorrhagic fever and has been endemic to Karnataka State, India. Outbreaks of KFD were reported in new areas of Wayanad and Malappuram districts of Kerala, India during 2014-2015. Investigation of the outbreaks was carried out in these districts during May 2015. Read More
Biomed Res Int 2016 27;2016:8962685. Epub 2016 Jul 27.
Research Unit on Emerging Infectious and Tropical Diseases (URMITE), UMR CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Faculty of Medicine, Aix-Marseille University, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France.
Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse) that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words of "Pediculus humanus", "lice infestation", "pediculosis", and "treatment"; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest. Read More
Lancet Infect Dis 2016 08 30;16(8):e164-72. Epub 2016 Jun 30.
Medicine Service, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA. Electronic address:
In 1915, a British medical officer on the Western Front reported on a soldier with relapsing fever, headache, dizziness, lumbago, and shin pain. Within months, additional cases were described, mostly in frontline troops, and the new disease was called trench fever. More than 1 million troops were infected with trench fever during World War 1, with each affected soldier unfit for duty for more than 60 days. Read More
Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 08 27;95(2):452-6. Epub 2016 Jun 27.
Ministry of Health Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda. Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire.
In August 2012, laboratory tests confirmed a mixed outbreak of epidemic typhus fever and trench fever in a male youth rehabilitation center in western Rwanda. Seventy-six suspected cases and 118 controls were enrolled into an unmatched case-control study to identify risk factors for symptomatic illness during the outbreak. A suspected case was fever or history of fever, from April 2012, in a resident of the rehabilitation center. Read More
Retin Cases Brief Rep 2017 Summer;11(3):207-210
*Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of Espirito Santo (UFES), Espirito Santo, Brazil; and †Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Purpose: To report an unusual case of neuroretinitis caused by Bartonella quintana and its spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic (SD-OCT) features.
Methods: A 12-year-old girl presented with unilateral neuroretinitis with stellate maculopathy. Bartonellosis was confirmed after serologic testing for antibodies to B. Read More
J R Army Med Corps 2016 Aug 15;162(4):310-5. Epub 2016 Apr 15.
Stoke History Group, Stoke sub Hamdon, UK.
Sydney Domville Rowland was a bacteriologist and staff member at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine when the First World War broke out in 1914. Following a request to the Director of the Lister Institute to staff and equip a mobile field laboratory as quickly as possible, Rowland was appointed to take charge of No. 1 Mobile Laboratory and took up a temporary commission at the rank of Lieutenant in the Royal Army Medical Corps. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Mar 21;10(3):e0004509. Epub 2016 Mar 21.
Department of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.
Bacteria from the genus Bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. Bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. However, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. Read More
G Ital Nefrol 2016 Feb;33 Suppl 66:33.S66.19
The first alarming reports about a new disease called "trench nephritis" affecting soldiers of the British Expeditionary Forces in Flanders appeared in British medical press in 1915th. Soon, the Medical Research Council initiated a special research investigation on trench nephritis at St. Bartholomews Hospital and the results of these studies were discussed during the Royal Society of Medicine meeting in February 1916. Read More
Parasitol Res 2016 Apr 11;115(4):1659-66. Epub 2016 Feb 11.
Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Komaba 4-6-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8904, Japan.
The control of body lice is an important issue for human health and welfare because lice act as vectors of disease such as typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Body lice exhibit avoidance behavior to some essential oils, including clove essential oil. Therefore, odorants containing clove essential oil components may potentially be useful in the development of repellents to body lice. Read More
Nephrol Ther 2015 Dec 26;11(7):569-72. Epub 2015 Sep 26.
Service de néphrologie, CHU de Rouen, 1, rue de Germont, 76031 Rouen, France; Inserm U1096, UFR médecine pharmacie, 22, boulevard Gambetta, 76183 Rouen, France. Electronic address:
Bartonella quintana is a facultative intracellular bacteria responsible of negative blood culture endocarditis whose diagnosis is often delayed. The occurrence of renal involvement has been exceptionally described in this context. We report the case of a 54-year-old man presenting with Bartonella quintana endocarditis complicated by proliferative glomerulonephritis with acute kidney injury and erythroblastopenia. Read More
Am J Trop Med Hyg 2015 Nov 21;93(5):990-3. Epub 2015 Sep 21.
Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes (URMITE), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique No. 7278 (CNRS7278), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement No. 198 (IRD198), Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité No. 1095 (InsermU1095), Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée-Infection, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France; Plague Reference Laboratory, Bunia, Democratic Republic of the Congo; Institute of Research for the Development, Dakar, Senegal
The human body louse is known as a vector for the transmission of three serious diseases-specifically, epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis, respectively-that have killed millions of people. It is also suspected in the transmission of a fourth pathogen, Yersinia pestis, which is the etiologic agent of plague. To date, human lice belonging to the genus Pediculus have been classified into three mitochondrial clades: A, B, and C. Read More
Int J Legal Med 2016 May 18;130(3):765-9. Epub 2015 Sep 18.
Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.
Pediculus humanus humanus (known as body lice) are commonly found in the folds of clothes, and can cause skin disorders when they feed on human blood, resulting in an itching sensation. Body lice are known as vectors of infectious diseases, including typhus, recurrent fever, and trench fever. An infestation with blood-sucking body lice induces severe cutaneous pruritus, and this skin disorder is known as "vagabond's disease. Read More
Microbes Infect 2015 Nov-Dec;17(11-12):879-83. Epub 2015 Sep 11.
Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergents (URMITE), UM63, CNRS7278, IRD198, Inserm 1095, Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire Méditerranée-Infection, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.
Studying ancient infectious diseases is a challenge, as written contemporary descriptions, when available, are often imprecise and do not allow for accurate discrimination among the pathogens endemic at that time. Paleomicrobiology offers a unique access to the history of these infections by identifying precisely the causative agents. Body louse-transmitted infections are amongst the most epidemic diseases in history, especially in war and famine periods. Read More
Can J Cardiol 2016 Mar 17;32(3):395.e9-e10. Epub 2015 Jun 17.
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; Diagnostic Services of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Bartonella spp are important causes of culture-negative endocarditis, generally causing a subacute insidious form of endocarditis, often leading to a delay in diagnosis. Most patients have fever and often present with signs and symptoms of heart failure. The diagnosis is frequently established only on meticulous examination of the resected heart valve with the polymerase chain reaction technique. Read More
Mol Biol Evol 2015 Oct 13;32(10):2749-59. Epub 2015 Jul 13.
Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom Milner Centre, University of Bath, Bath, UK
Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Jun 15;9(6):e0003871. Epub 2015 Jun 15.
J Clin Microbiol 2015 Aug 10;53(8):2773-6. Epub 2015 Jun 10.
Microbial Pathogenesis and Host Defense Program and Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.
A man with newly diagnosed AIDS presented with months of back pain and fever. Computed tomography (CT) results demonstrated aortitis with periaortic tissue thickening. DNA amplification of biopsy tissue revealed Bartonella quintana, and Bartonella serologies were subsequently noted to be positive. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 May 22;9(5):e0003789. Epub 2015 May 22.
Aix Marseille Université, Unité de Recherche en Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes (URMITE), UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198 (Dakar), Inserm 1095, World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborative Center for Rickettsioses and Other Arthropod-Borne Bacterial Diseases, Marseille, France.
Background: Bartonella quintana, the etiologic agent of trench fever and other human diseases, is transmitted by the feces of body lice. Recently, this bacterium has been detected in other arthropod families such as bed bugs, which begs the question of their involvement in B. quintana transmission. Read More
Pediatr Infect Dis J 2015 May;34(5):540-2
*University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy; †Department of Pediatrics, Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo," Trieste, Italy; and ‡Department of Pediatrics, Udine University Hospital, Udine, Italy.
We present 3 children affected by B. quintana infection treated at the IRCCS Burlo Garofolo of Trieste between March and April 2013. B. Read More
Indian J Med Microbiol 2015 Jan-Mar;33(1):185-6
Department of Microbiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, United Kingdom.
Acta Clin Belg 2014 Dec;69(6):418-25
This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Read More
Pathol Biol (Paris) 2014 Dec 27;62(6):342-4. Epub 2014 Aug 27.
Service de maladies infectieuses, CHU Fattouma Bourguiba, avenue Farhat Hached, 5000 Monastir, Tunisie.
Introduction: Bartonella quintana (Bq) is responsible of various clinical pictures. Neuromeningeal complications are rarely reported.
Case: A 20-year-old woman was admitted for fever, headache lasting for 5 days. Read More
Mikrobiyol Bul 2014 Jul;48(3):477-83
Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, Aydin, Turkey.
Bartonella species cause several diseases in humans such as cat stratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis hepatis, endocarditis, Carrion disease and trench fever. Cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis cases have already been reported in Turkey. Studies from our region, namely Aydin (a province located at Western Anatolia, Turkey) indicated that mean Bartonella henselae IgG seropositivity rate is 11. Read More
J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2014 ;44(2):158-62
E Mayhew Department of Humanities Imperial College London Queensgate London SW7 2AZ. Email
Ayrshire general practitioner Charles McKerrow was appointed regimental medical officer (RMO) to the 10th Battalion Northumberland Fusiliers in 1915. At this time, fundamental restructuring of the military medical service on the Western Front had two main effects: surgical capability was moved forward as close to the front as possible and specialist stretcher bearers were trained to apply emergency first aid at the place of injury and to triage casualties appropriately. The specialist stretcher bearers were the equivalent of today's combat medical technicians. Read More
Am J Trop Med Hyg 2014 Aug 16;91(2):294-301. Epub 2014 Jun 16.
Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes (URMITE), Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR)63, 7278 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) 198, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) 1095, University of Aix, Marseille, France; IRD, Campus Commun Université Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD)-IRD of Hann, Dakar, Senegal; Parasitology Section, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences (SCMB), University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Pasteur Institute of Madagascar, Ambohitrakely, Madagascar; University of Bamako, Malaria Research and Training Center (MRTC)/Département d'Epidemiologie des Affections Parasitaires (DEAP)/Faculté de Médecine de Pharmacie et d'Odontostomatologie (FMPOS)-Unité Mixte Internationale (UMI)3189, Bamako, Mali
Currently, the body louse is the only recognized vector of Bartonella quintana, an organism that causes trench fever. In this work, we investigated the prevalence of this bacterium in human lice in different African countries. We tested 616 head lice and 424 body lice from nine African countries using real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting intergenic spacer region 2 and specific B. Read More
J R Army Med Corps 2014 Jun;160 Suppl 1:i4-6
Am J Trop Med Hyg 2014 Aug 5;91(2):291-3. Epub 2014 May 5.
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR 198), IRD, Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes (URMITE) de Dakar, Campus Commun IRD-Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar (UCAD) of Hann, Dakar, Senegal; Aix Marseille Université, URMITE, Unité Mixte 63 (UM 63), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) 7278, IRD 198, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) 1095, Marseille, France.
Trench fever is poorly known by the staff of health facilities that manage febrile patients in Senegal. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in 5 of 274 (2%) febrile patients from two rural dispensaries and 2 of 71 (3%) head lice specimens collected from the same villages. Read More
Emerg Infect Dis 2014 May;20(5):907-8
Infect Genet Evol 2014 Apr 11;23:209-17. Epub 2014 Feb 11.
Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes: URMITE, Aix Marseille Université, UMR CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Faculté de Médecine, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France. Electronic address:
Two genera of lice parasitize humans: Pthirus and Pediculus. The latter is of significant public health importance and comprises two ecotypes: the body louse and the head louse. These ecotypes are morphologically and genetically notably similar; the body louse is responsible for three infectious diseases: Louse-borne epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Read More
Insect Mol Biol 2014 Apr 9;23(2):244-54. Epub 2014 Jan 9.
Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA.
Human head and body lice are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites that belong to a single species, Pediculus humanus. Only body lice, however, are vectors of the infectious Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella quintana. Because of their near identical genomes, yet differential vector competence, head and body lice provide a unique model system to study the gain or loss of vector competence. Read More
Mol Ecol 2014 Mar 20;23(5):1204-12. Epub 2014 Feb 20.
Aix Marseille Université, URMITE, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, Inserm 1095, Marseille, 13005, France; Institut Pasteur d'Algérie, Algiers, 16015, Algeria.
Bartonella quintana is transmitted by the infected faeces of body lice. Recently, this bacterium was detected in cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and in two humans with chronic adenopathy whose only risk factor was contact with cat fleas. In this study, a total of 960 C. Read More
Lancet Infect Dis 2013 Oct 26;13(10):900-6. Epub 2013 Jun 26.
Australian Army Malaria Institute, Enoggera, QLD, Australia; Centre for Military and Veterans' Health, School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; Department of Zoology, Oxford University, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:
The periodicity of vivax malaria relapses may be explained by the activation of latent hypnozoites acquired from a previous malarial infection. The activation stimulus could be the febrile illness associated with acute malaria or a different febrile infection. We review historical records to examine the association between relapses of Plasmodium vivax and febrile infectious diseases. Read More
Gene 2013 Oct 19;528(1):33-40. Epub 2013 Jun 19.
Division of Biological Anthropology, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge, The Henry Wellcome Building, Fitzwilliam Street, Cambridge CB2 1QH, UK.
The aim of this paper is to review the use of genetics in palaeomicrobiology, and to highlight the importance of understanding past diseases. Palaeomicrobiology is the study of disease pathogens in skeletal and mummified remains from archaeological contexts. It has revolutionarised our understanding of health in the past by enabling a deeper knowledge of the origins and evolution of many diseases that have shaped us as a species. Read More
Emerg Infect Dis 2013 May;19(5):796-8
Marseille Université, Marseille, France.
Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Read More
J Bacteriol 2013 Jun 5;195(11):2662-74. Epub 2013 Apr 5.
Microbial Pathogenesis and Host Defense Program and Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.
Bartonella quintana is a vector-borne bacterial pathogen that causes fatal disease in humans. During the infectious cycle, B. quintana transitions from the hemin-restricted human bloodstream to the hemin-rich body louse vector. Read More
Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2013 28;3. Epub 2013 Mar 28.
Department of Neurology, University of Florida, Center for Movement Disorders & Neurorestoration, McKnight Brain Institute, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.
Background: The psychological pressure on soldiers during World War I (WWI) and other military conflicts has resulted in many reported cases of psychogenic gait as well as other movement disorders. In this paper, psychogenic movement disorders captured in the WWI film footage "War Neuroses" is reanalyzed.
Methods: Two movement disorders specialists re-examined film images of 21 WWI patients with various and presumed psychogenic manifestations, pre- and post treatment. Read More
Mol Ecol 2013 Apr 20;22(8):2118-27. Epub 2013 Mar 20.
State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, People's Republic of China.
Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that causes a broad spectrum of diseases in humans including trench fever. Humans were previously considered to be the primary, if not the only, reservoir hosts for B. quintana. Read More
J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2012 Dec;42(3):541-62
The Military institute of Health and Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, Cairo 115662, Egypt.
Lice infestation on the human body (also known as pediculosis) is very common. Cases number in the hundreds of millions worldwide. Three distinct presentations of lice infection exist and each is caused by a unique parasite. Read More
Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2013 Nov 2;58(6):491-4. Epub 2013 Mar 2.
Third Faculty of Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Na Bulovce Hospital, Charles University in Prague, Budinova 2, Prague, 180 81, Czech Republic,