1,121 results match your criteria Travel Medicine and Vaccination


Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination Uptake and Associated Factors among Mothers Who Gave Birth in the Last 12 Months in Errer District, Somali Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia.

Biomed Res Int 2020 7;2020:4023031. Epub 2020 May 7.

Departments of Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Science, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Ethiopia.

Background: Maternal tetanus is defined as tetanus acquired during pregnancy or within 6 weeks after the end of conception. As tetanus is a vaccine-preventable disease, immunization of pregnant mothers with a TT (tetanus toxoid) dose is one of the most effective ways to protect against the disease. Some studies showed that 94% of neonatal mortality reduction could be achieved through immunization of pregnant and childbearing-age mothers with at least two doses of TT vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4023031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231084PMC

Antibody and cellular responses to HIV vaccine regimens with DNA plasmid as compared with ALVAC priming: An analysis of two randomized controlled trials.

PLoS Med 2020 May 22;17(5):e1003117. Epub 2020 May 22.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Background: DNA plasmids promise a pragmatic alternative to viral vectors for prime-boost HIV-1 vaccines. We evaluated DNA plasmid versus canarypox virus (ALVAC) primes in 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in southern Africa with harmonized trial designs. HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) 111 tested DNA plasmid prime by needle or needleless injection device (Biojector) and DNA plasmid plus gp120 protein plus MF59 adjuvant boost. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003117DOI Listing

Yellow fever vaccination: how much do travelers from Eastern India know?

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 May 15:1-5. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Community Medicine and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, India.

: International tourism has grown tremendously in the past 2-3 decades in India resulting in exposure of travelers to varied spectrum of diseases prevalent in different parts of the world. Immunization plays a prominent role in protection of the exposed individuals. The objective of the present study was to assess the awareness and knowledge regarding yellow fever and other travel vaccinations amongst travelers of eastern India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1757988DOI Listing

The immune response to influenza in older humans: beyond immune senescence.

Immun Ageing 2020 7;17:10. Epub 2020 May 7.

1Health Sciences North Research Institute, 41 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, ON P3E 5J1 Canada.

Despite widespread influenza vaccination programs, influenza remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Age-related changes in multiple aspects of the adaptive immune response to influenza have been well-documented including a decline in antibody responses to influenza vaccination and changes in the cell-mediated response associated with immune senescence. This review will focus on T cell responses to influenza and influenza vaccination in older adults, and how increasing frailty or coexistence of multiple (≥2) chronic conditions contributes to the loss of vaccine effectiveness for the prevention of hospitalization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12979-020-00181-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204009PMC

Strengthening screening for infectious diseases and vaccination among migrants in Europe: What is needed to close the implementation gaps?

Travel Med Infect Dis 2020 May 7:101715. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Family Medicine and School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Canada.

Migration to the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) affects the epidemiology of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), HIV, hepatitis B/C, and parasitic diseases. Some sub-populations of migrants are also considered to be an under-immunised group and thus at risk of vaccine-preventable diseases. Providing high-risk migrants with timely and efficacious screening and vaccination, and understanding how best to implement more integrated screening and vaccination programmes into European health systems ensuring linkage to care and treatment, is key to improving the health of migrants and their communities, alongside meeting national and regional targets for infection surveillance, control, and elimination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101715DOI Listing

Prevention of yellow fever in travellers: an update.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 May 7. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

For centuries, yellow fever virus infection generated substantial fear among explorers, tourist travellers, workers, military personnel, and others entering areas of transmission. Currently, there is transmission only in some areas of tropical South America and sub-Saharan Africa. When symptomatic, yellow fever infection causes severe liver dysfunction and coagulopathy with elevated mortality rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30170-5DOI Listing

Tracking Australian Hajj Pilgrims' Health Behavior before, during and after Hajj, and the Effective Use of Preventive Measures in Reducing Hajj-Related Illness: A Cohort Study.

Pharmacy (Basel) 2020 May 4;8(2). Epub 2020 May 4.

National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance (NCIRS), The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.

This study assessed Australian Hajj pilgrims' knowledge, attitude and practices throughout their Hajj journey to understand their health behaviors, use of preventative measures and development of illness symptoms. A prospective cohort study with data collection at three phases (before, during and after Hajj) was conducted among Australian pilgrims between August and December 2015. Baseline data were collected from 421 pilgrims before Hajj, with 391 providing follow-up data during Hajj and 300 after their home return. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020078DOI Listing

Geospatial clustering, seasonal trend and forecasting of Kyasanur Forest Disease in the state of Goa, India, 2015-2018.

Trop Med Health 2020 28;48:27. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Directorate of Health Services, Panaji, Goa India.

Introduction: Five states in India are reporting sporadic outbreaks of Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD). Goa experienced an outbreak of KFD in 2015. It remains as an important differential diagnosis for tropical fever in the endemic regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41182-020-00213-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7187534PMC

Outbreak dynamics of COVID-19 in China and the United States.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2020 Apr 27. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19, a global pandemic. In an unprecedented collective effort, massive amounts of data are now being collected worldwide to estimate the immediate and long-term impact of this pandemic on the health system and the global economy. However, the precise timeline of the disease, its transmissibility, and the effect of mitigation strategies remain incompletely understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10237-020-01332-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185268PMC

Adverse Events Following Immunization With Combined vs Concurrent Monovalent Hepatitis A and Typhoid Vaccines in Children.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2020 Apr 25. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Research School of Population Health, College of Health and Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Combined hepatitis A and typhoid vaccine is available in Australia, but licensed for use from age 16 years; however it is used "off-label" in children. The combined vaccine is well tolerated in children aged 2-16 years and the risk of adverse events is similar to those receiving concurrent monovalent vaccines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piaa031DOI Listing

Feasibility and acceptability of the multi-component P3-MumBubVax antenatal intervention to promote maternal and childhood vaccination: A pilot study.

Vaccine 2020 May 19;38(24):4024-4031. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, 50 Flemington Road, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia; Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, 50 Flemington Road, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia; Royal Children's Hospital, 50 Flemington Road, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Pregnancy is a critical time for vaccine decision-making, but coverage remains suboptimal for maternal influenza (45-60%) and pertussis vaccination (65-80%) in Australia. The multi-component P3-MumBubVax intervention has been designed for Australian midwives to optimise antenatal vaccine discussions and improve maternal and childhood vaccine uptake. A pilot study was conducted to assess intervention feasibility and acceptability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.04.010DOI Listing
May 2020
3.624 Impact Factor

[Caring for women planning pregnancy or who are already pregnant: an infectious disease doctor's view].

Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek 2019 Dec;25(4):125-131

Vaccination and travel medicine center, Department of Infectious Diseases University Hospital Hradec Králové Czech Republic, e-mail:

The article discusses possible prevention and prophylaxis of infectious diseases affecting the course of pregnancy with respect to the mother, fetus and newborn. Also mentioned are diseases for which there is no vaccination. The options for prevention targeted at the periods before and during pregnancy and after delivery are explained. Read More

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December 2019

Burden of measles using disability-adjusted life years, Umbria 2013-2018.

Acta Biomed 2020 Apr 10;91(3-S):48-54. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Local Health Unit Umbria 1, Department of Prevention, Travel Medicine Unit, Perugia, Italy .

Background And Aim: The low measles vaccination coverage contributes to the re-emerging of measles in Italy. This study aimed to estimate the measles burden, expressed in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), in Umbria, for the period 2013-2018.

Methods: Data on measles cases in Umbria were obtained from the MoRoNet. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i3-S.9412DOI Listing

A high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in pregnant, South-South migrating African women: The need for routine screening, vaccination and follow up.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2020 Apr 2:101650. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Public and Global Health, Travel Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Switzerland; Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101650DOI Listing

Qualitative Variation among Commercial Immunoassays for Detection of Measles-Specific IgG.

J Clin Microbiol 2020 May 26;58(6). Epub 2020 May 26.

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Measurement of measles virus-specific IgG is used to assess presumptive evidence of immunity among immunocompetent individuals with uncertain immune or vaccination status. False-negative test results may lead to unnecessary quarantine and exclusion from activities such as employment, education, and travel or result in unnecessary revaccination. In contrast, false-positive results may fail to identify susceptible individuals and promote spread of disease by those who are exposed and unprotected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00265-20DOI Listing

COVID-19: what has been learned and to be learned about the novel coronavirus disease.

Int J Biol Sci 2020 15;16(10):1753-1766. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Institute of Translational Medicine, and Centre of Reproduction, Development and Aging, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau, China.

The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has thus far killed over 3,000 people and infected over 80,000 in China and elsewhere in the world, resulting in catastrophe for humans. Similar to its homologous virus, SARS-CoV, which caused SARS in thousands of people in 2003, SARS-CoV-2 might also be transmitted from the bats and causes similar symptoms through a similar mechanism. However, COVID-19 has lower severity and mortality than SARS but is much more transmissive and affects more elderly individuals than youth and more men than women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7098028PMC

Safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of influenza vaccination with a high-density microarray patch: Results from a randomized, controlled phase I clinical trial.

PLoS Med 2020 Mar 17;17(3):e1003024. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Vaxxas Pty Ltd, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background: The Vaxxas high-density microarray patch (HD-MAP) consists of a high density of microprojections coated with vaccine for delivery into the skin. Microarray patches (MAPs) offer the possibility of improved vaccine thermostability as well as the potential to be safer, more acceptable, easier to use, and more cost-effective for the administration of vaccines than injection by needle and syringe (N&S). Here, we report a phase I trial using the Vaxxas HD-MAP to deliver a monovalent influenza vaccine that was to the best of our knowledge the first clinical trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of lower doses of influenza vaccine delivered by MAPs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7077342PMC

The spread of the COVID-19 coronavirus: Health agencies worldwide prepare for the seemingly inevitability of the COVID-19 coronavirus becoming endemic.

Authors:
Philip Hunter

EMBO Rep 2020 04 17;21(4):e50334. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

London, UK.

While it is too late to confine the COVID-19 coronovirus outbreak to China, a wealth of data spurs epidemiological and vaccine research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embr.202050334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132190PMC

Humoral response to a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in kidney transplant recipients.

Vaccine 2020 Apr 13;38(17):3339-3350. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: Vaccination against S. pneumoniae is recommended by national guidelines. Moderate immunogenicity of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been reported in adult kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.02.088DOI Listing

Safety and immunogenicity of fully liquid and lyophilized formulations of an investigational trivalent group B streptococcus vaccine in healthy non-pregnant women: Results from a randomized comparative phase II trial.

Vaccine 2020 Apr 10;38(16):3227-3234. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

GSK, Rockville, MD, United States. Electronic address:

Background: We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of liquid and lyophilized formulations of an investigational trivalent group B streptococcus (GBS) vaccine in non-pregnant women and assessed the formulations' equivalence in terms of serotype-specific immune response.

Methods: This phase II, randomized, comparative, observer-blind trial enrolled healthy non-pregnant women 18-40 years of age. Women received a single dose of fully liquid (n = 529) or lyophilized (n = 521) trivalent GBS vaccine on day 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.02.085DOI Listing

New emerging targets in cancer immunotherapy: CD27 (TNFRSF7).

ESMO Open 2020 03;4(Suppl 3)

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

Cluster of differentiation 27 (CD27) is a member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily and plays a key role in T-cell activation by providing a costimulatory signal. Bound to its natural ligand CD70, CD27 signalling enhances T-cell proliferation and differentiation to effector and memory T cells and therefore has potential as an immune modulatory target in cancer treatment. The CD27 agonistic antibody varlilumab showed promising efficacy in haematological as well as solid cancers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/esmoopen-2019-000629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082637PMC

HPV vaccination intent and willingness to pay for 2-,4-, and 9-valent HPV vaccines: A study of adult women aged 27-45 years in China.

Vaccine 2020 Mar 29;38(14):3021-3030. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence-Based Practice, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Objective: This study aims to investigate acceptance and willingness to pay for HPV vaccination among adult women in China.

Methods: An online survey was sent to mothers aged 27-45 years of primary school pupils in the Fujian province, China. Participants completed questions about HPV related knowledge and health beliefs, intention to take the HPV vaccine and the willingness to pay for bivalent vaccine (2vHPV), quadrivalent vaccine (4vHPV), and 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.02.042DOI Listing
March 2020
3.624 Impact Factor

Meningococcal and pneumococcal carriage in Hajj pilgrims: findings of a randomised controlled trial.

J Travel Med 2020 Mar 3. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance (NCIRS), The Children's Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.

Background: Intense congestion during the Hajj pilgrimage amplifies the risk of meningococcal carriage and disease, and there have been many meningococcal outbreaks reported amongst pilgrims. Thus, a strict vaccination policy is enforced by the host country and either polysaccharide or conjugate quadrivalent meningococcal vaccines are mandatory. However, unlike conjugate vaccines, the polysaccharide vaccine is not thought to reduce pharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa032DOI Listing

2019-nCoV (Wuhan virus), a novel Coronavirus: human-to-human transmission, travel-related cases, and vaccine readiness.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2020 01 31;14(1):3-17. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

On 31 December 2019 the Wuhan Health Commission reported a cluster of atypical pneumonia cases that was linked to a wet market in the city of Wuhan, China. The first patients began experiencing symptoms of illness in mid-December 2019. Clinical isolates were found to contain a novel coronavirus with similarity to bat coronaviruses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.12425DOI Listing
January 2020

Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: international survey and call for harmonisation.

Eur Respir J 2020 Apr 3;55(4). Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Dept of Respiratory Diseases and Allergy, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) is an often deadly complication of IPF. No focussed international guidelines for the management of AE-IPF exist. The aim of this international survey was to assess the global variability in prevention, diagnostic and treatment strategies for AE-IPF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01760-2019DOI Listing

Shedding of Yellow Fever Virus From an Imported Case in the Netherlands After Travel to Brazil.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Feb 13;7(2):ofaa020. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Department of Viroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

We report yellow fever infection in a Dutch traveler returning from Brazil. Yellow fever virus (YFV) was identified in serum and urine samples over a period of 1 month. Yellow fever virus genome sequences from the patient clustered with recent Brazilian YFV and showed with limited nucleotide changes during the resolving infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008093PMC
February 2020

Epidemiology of hepatitis A in Greece in the last decade: management of reported cases and outbreaks and lessons learned.

Epidemiol Infect 2020 Feb 13;148:e58. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Regional Public Health Laboratory (PEDY) of Thessaly, Thessaly, Greece.

Hepatitis A is a mandatory notifiable disease in Greece. Here, we present the epidemiological data for 2009-2018 and the results of outbreak investigations performed, and discuss future public health priorities.Overall, 1193 cases were reported; 320 migrants/refugees, 240 Roma, 112 travellers and 521 from the general population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268820000382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7078582PMC
February 2020

Vaccination against Japanese encephalitis with IC51: systematic review on immunogenicity, duration of protection and safety.

J Travel Med 2020 Mar;27(2)

Immunization Unit, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin 13353, Germany.

Japanese encephalitis is a disease caused by a flavivirus which is transmitted by mosquitos in endemic countries. Considering the potentially severe outcomes of the disease, vaccination is recommended for those at risk of exposure. During recent years, IC51 (IXIARO®, JESPECT®, JEVAL®) has increasingly been used to protect travellers from Europe and the USA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa016DOI Listing

Safety and Impact on Training of the Influenza Vaccines in Elite Athletes Participating in the Rio 2016 Olympics.

Clin J Sport Med 2020 Feb 6. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Social Medicine and Public Health, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and tolerance of influenza vaccines for the northern and southern hemispheres in Polish elite athletes participating in the Rio 2016 Olympics.

Design: Prospective, observational, cohort study.

Setting: Institutional level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0000000000000808DOI Listing
February 2020

Safety, immunogenicity and risk-benefit analysis of rVSV-ΔG-ZEBOV-GP (V920) Ebola vaccine in Phase I-III clinical trials across regions.

Future Microbiol 2020 Jan 7;15:85-106. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné (CERMEL), Biomedicine and Social sciences, BP 242, Lambaréné, Gabon.

To evaluate the risk-benefits balance of the rVSV-ΔG-ZEBOV-GP vaccine. We performed a systematic review to summarize data on safety, immunogenicity and efficacy. About 17,600 adults and 234 children received 11 different doses of the V920 vaccine ranging from 3000 to 100 million and 20 million plaque-forming units, respectively, during Phase I-III clinical trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fmb-2019-0237DOI Listing
January 2020

The role of travel agents in travel medicine - a study with agencies from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

J Travel Med 2020 Feb 3. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Universidade de São Paulo Hospital das Clínicas, Centro de Referência para Imunobiológicos Especiais e Ambulatório dos Viajantes, Departamento de Moléstias Infecciosas e Parasitárias, São Paulo.

A survey in Sao Paulo, Brazil, assessed travel agents' knowledge on travelers' health. Data were collected using an online questionnaire. From 200 agencies, 32 answered (34 agents). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa012DOI Listing
February 2020

The cost-effectiveness of using pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) versus pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), in South African adults.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(1):e0227945. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

TCD Outcomes Research, TCD Global, Centurion, South Africa.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Pneumococcal vaccination is part of the South African pediatric public immunization program but the potential cost-effectiveness of such an intervention for adults is unknown. This study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of two widely used pneumococcal vaccines: pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) in South African adults, 18 years and older. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0227945PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6988977PMC

Traveler Exposures to Animals: A GeoSentinel Analysis.

J Travel Med 2020 Jan 28. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Department of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health; Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine; National Emerging Infectious Disease Laboratory, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Human coexistence with other animals can result in both intentional and unintentional contact with a variety of mammalian and non-mammalian species. International travelers are at risk for such encounters; travelers risk injury, infection, and possibly death from domestic and wild animal bites, scratches, licks, and other exposures. The aim of the present analysis was to understand the diversity and distribution of animal-related exposures among international travelers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa010DOI Listing
January 2020

Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 28;9(1):221-236. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infection Control, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

A mysterious outbreak of atypical pneumonia in late 2019 was traced to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan of China. Within a few weeks, a novel coronavirus tentatively named as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was announced by the World Health Organization. We performed bioinformatics analysis on a virus genome from a patient with 2019-nCoV infection and compared it with other related coronavirus genomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1719902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7067204PMC

One-week, two-visit, double-dose, intra-dermal (2ID) rabies vaccination schedule for travelers: Time/dose sparing, effective but "off label".

Travel Med Infect Dis 2020 Jan - Feb;33:101563. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Travel and Tropical Medicine Clinic, Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101563DOI Listing
January 2020

Vaccine hesitancy and the resurgence of vaccine preventable diseases: the way forward for Malaysia, a Southeast Asian country.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jan 24:1-10. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

This study engaged health professionals in in-depth, semi-structured interviews to explore their opinions concerning the issues surrounding vaccine hesitancy in Malaysia and strategies to improve vaccination to stamp the rise of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). Opinions on how to address the resurgence of VPDs in the era of increasing vaccine hesitancy were obtained. Eight health professionals, including geriatricians, pediatricians, microbiologists, public health specialists, and family medicine specialists were interviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1706935DOI Listing
January 2020

Seroprevalence of varicella antibodies in adults without clinical history of disease.

Cad Saude Publica 2020 20;36(1):e00149119. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

Varicella in adults and immunocompromised patients can be severe. The clinical diagnosis of varicella has high accuracy and the history of disease has a high positive predictive value for protection. A significant portion of adults, however, cannot remember if they have had varicella, especially older individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00149119DOI Listing
January 2020

Burden of typhoid fever and cholera: similarities and differences. Prevention strategies for European travelers to endemic/epidemic areas.

J Prev Med Hyg 2019 Dec 20;60(4):E271-E285. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy.

The burden of diarrheal diseases is very high, accounting for 1.7 to 5 billion cases per year worldwide. Typhoid fever (TF) and cholera are potentially life-threatening infectious diseases, and are mainly transmitted through the consumption of food, drink or water that have been contaminated by the feces or urine of subjects excreting the pathogen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2019.60.4.1333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6953460PMC
December 2019

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Uptake and the Willingness to Receive the HPV Vaccination among Female College Students in China: A Multicenter Study.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jan 16;8(1). Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Epidemiology, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315200, China.

Background: This study aimed to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake and willingness to receive HPV vaccination among female college students, in China, and its associated factors.

Methods: An online cross-sectional survey of female college students across the eastern, central, and western regions of China was undertaken between April and September 2019. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to examine factors associated with the HPV vaccine uptake and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7157221PMC
January 2020

Predicted long-term antibody persistence for a tick-borne encephalitis vaccine: results from a modeling study beyond 10 years after a booster dose following different primary vaccination schedules.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jan 17:1-6. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

GSK, Siena, Italy.

In tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)-endemic regions, long-term vaccination programs are efficient in preventing the disease. A booster dose of a polygeline-free inactivated TBE vaccine (, GSK), administered approximately 3 years post-primary vaccination according to 1 of 3 licensed vaccination schedules in adults and adolescents, resulted in antibody persistence for 10 years post-boosting. We used different power-law models (PLMs) to predict long-term persistence of anti-TBE virus neutralization test (NT) antibody titers over a period of 20 years post-booster dose, based on individual antibody NT titers measured for 10 years post-booster vaccination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1700712DOI Listing
January 2020

Panel 8: Vaccines and immunology.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Mar 18;130 Suppl 1:109839. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Wesfarmers Centre for Vaccines and Infectious Diseases Research, Telethon Kids Institute, Australia and Centre for Child Health Research, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.

Objective: To review and highlight significant advances made towards vaccine development and understanding of the immunology of otitis media (OM) since the 19th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media (ISOM) in 2015, as well as identify future research directions and knowledge gaps.

Data Sources: PubMed database, National Library of Medicine.

Review Methods: Key topics were assigned to each panel member for detailed review. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.109839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7153269PMC

Immunoprophylaxis for travellers.

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2019 12;47(282):232-239

Department of Family Medicine, Medical University, Wrocław, Poland.

When planning a journey to a destinations where infectious diseases are endemic one needs to undertake appropriate prophylactic measures in order to reduce the risk of developing a travel-related health problem. It is important that a traveller undergoes a medical examination before travel, makes sure that his travel first-aid kit includes all the necessary medicines and receives all the required and recommended travel vaccinations. There are currently two vaccination requirements and more than ten vaccination recommendations for international travellers according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Read More

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December 2019

Intradermal rabies pre-exposure vaccination schedules in older travellers: comparison of immunogenicity post-primary course and post-booster.

J Travel Med 2020 Jan 14. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Background: Intradermal (ID) rabies vaccination for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has become increasingly popular; however, there is limited evidence about the effectiveness of different ID PrEP schedules in travellers aged > 50 years or their response to ID boosters. This study aimed to compare across different ID vaccine schedules and age groups, the proportion of travellers who were seropositive after i)primary course of ID PrEP and ii)a booster.

Methods: Travellers who received ID PrEP at a travel medicine clinic in South Australia from 2000 to 2016 were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa006DOI Listing
January 2020

Yellow fever control: current epidemiology and vaccination strategies.

Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines 2020 10;6. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

3Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA USA.

Yellow fever (YF) outbreaks continue, have expanded into new areas and threaten large populations in South America and Africa. Predicting where epidemics might occur must take into account local mosquito populations and specific YF virus strain, as well as ecoclimatic conditions, sociopolitical and demographic factors including population size, density, and mobility, and vaccine coverage. Populations of and from different regions vary in susceptibility to and capacity to transmit YF virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40794-020-0101-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6954598PMC
January 2020

Travel-associated chikungunya acquired in Myanmar in 2019.

Euro Surveill 2020 Jan;25(1)

Department of Global Health and Boston University School of Public Health and Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States.

Eighteen cases of chikungunya virus infection in travellers returning from Myanmar were reported to the GeoSentinel Surveillance Network, its subnetwork EuroTravNet and TropNet in 2019, reflecting an ongoing local outbreak. This report reinforces the importance of travellers as sentinels of emerging arboviral outbreaks and highlights the importance of vigilance for imported cases, due to the potential for dissemination of the virus into areas with competent local vectors and conducive environmental conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.1.1900721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6961262PMC
January 2020

An Analysis of the United States and United Kingdom Smallpox Epidemics (1901-5) - The Special Relationship that Tested Public Health Strategies for Disease Control.

Authors:
Bernard Brabin

Med Hist 2020 01;64(1):1-31

Clinical Division, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.

At the end of the nineteenth century, the northern port of Liverpool had become the second largest in the United Kingdom. Fast transatlantic steamers to Boston and other American ports exploited this route, increasing the risk of maritime disease epidemics. The 1901-3 epidemic in Liverpool was the last serious smallpox outbreak in Liverpool and was probably seeded from these maritime contacts, which introduced a milder form of the disease that was more difficult to trace because of its long incubation period and occurrence of undiagnosed cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/mdh.2019.74DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6945217PMC
January 2020

Prevalence of Chronic Diseases among International Travelers Seeking Pretravel Medical Advice in 2018 at Malaga, Spain.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 03;102(3):684-688

Department of Public Health and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.

Travelers with preexisting diseases or chronic conditions may be more susceptible to travel-related health risks. They may, therefore, require more attention from specialist travel medicine providers. Our objective was to examine a group of international travelers in Malaga, Spain, quantify the proportion of travelers suffering from chronic conditions, and understand the characteristics of this group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7056420PMC

Factors influencing the immune response after a double-dose 2-visit pre-exposure rabies intradermal vaccination schedule: A retrospective study.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2020 Jan - Feb;33:101554. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Center for Infectious Diseases, Queen Astrid Military Hospital, Brussels, Belgium; Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.

Background: Double-dose 2-visit intradermal rabies schedules (2ID) have recently been accepted by the World Health Organization (WHO) as Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). The aim of this study is to determine which factors influence the levels of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) after a 2ID rabies vaccination schedule.

Methods: This is a retrospective study based on electronic health record vaccination data of subjects from the Belgian Armed Forces who received the 2ID rabies PrEP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101554DOI Listing
January 2020

The impact of HPV multi-cohort vaccination: Real-world evidence of faster control of HPV-related morbidity.

Vaccine 2020 Feb 6;38(6):1345-1351. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

HPV-related Epidemiological Research Unit, Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo University Hospital, P.O. Box 5313 Majorstuen, N-0304 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Background: In 2009, both Norway and Denmark initiated routine quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination (qHPV) for 12-year-old girls; however, Denmark also introduced free-of-charge multi-cohort vaccination for older age groups in 2008. We aim to describe trends in genital warts (GWs) incidence rates (IRs) among men and women and qHPV vaccine coverage among women in Norway and Denmark in 2006-2015.

Methods: We linked multiple national health registries in Norway and Denmark via national personal identifiers to access data on GWs incidence and qHPV vaccination among women and men aged 12-35 years residing in Norway and Denmark in 2006-2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.12.016DOI Listing
February 2020

Long-term immunogenicity after yellow fever vaccination in immunosuppressed and healthy individuals.

Vaccine 2020 Apr 5;38(19):3610-3617. Epub 2020 Jan 5.

Department of Public Health / Division of Infectious Diseases, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Department of Tropical Medicine, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine & I. Department of Medicine University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: The live-attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YFV) is generally contraindicated in immunosuppressed patients. Our aim was to investigate if immunosuppressive therapy impairs the long-term protection against yellow fever virus in patients who had received YFV prior to the start of their immunosuppressive therapy.

Methods: Our study examined 35 healthy individuals and 40 immunosuppressed patients with autoimmune diseases or organ transplants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.12.042DOI Listing