4,914 results match your criteria Trachoma


Impact of mass drug administration of azithromycin for trachoma elimination on prevalence and azithromycin resistance of genital infection.

Sex Transm Infect 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Applied Diagnostic Research and Evaluation Unit, St George's, University of London, London, UK

Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) of 20 mg/kg (maximum 1 g in adults) azithromycin for ocular (CT) infection is a key component of the WHO trachoma elimination strategy. However, this dose may be suboptimal in infection and may encourage emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to azithromycin.

Objectives: To determine the effect of MDA for trachoma elimination on prevalence, strain type and azithromycin resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2018-053938DOI Listing

Genetic Screen in Chlamydia muridarum Reveals Role for an Interferon-Induced Host Cell Death Program in Antimicrobial Inclusion Rupture.

MBio 2019 Apr 9;10(2). Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA

Interferon-regulated immune defenses protect mammals from pathogenically diverse obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of the genus Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is especially important in controlling the virulence of species and thus impacts the modeling of human chlamydial infection and disease in mice. How IFN-γ contributes to cell-autonomous defenses against species and how these pathogens evade IFN-γ-mediated immunity in their natural hosts are not well understood. We conducted a genetic screen which identified 31 -ensitive (Igs) mutants of the mouse model pathogen Genetic suppressor analysis and lateral gene transfer were used to map the phenotype of one of these mutants, Igs4, to a missense mutation in a putative chlamydial inclusion membrane protein, TC0574. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00385-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456753PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Community-level Association between Clinical Trachoma and Ocular Chlamydia Infection after MASS Azithromycin Distribution in a Mesoendemic Region of Niger.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2019 Apr 8:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

b Francis I. Proctor Foundation , University of California , San Francisco , USA.

Purpose: The clinical sign trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) is used to monitor indication for and response to mass azithromycin distribution in trachoma-endemic communities. Here, we assess the relationship between TF, trachomatous inflammation - intense (TI), and infection with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis over time during annual mass azithromycin distribution.

Methods: We used data from a cluster-randomized trial of mass azithromycin distribution for trachoma control in a mesoendemic region of Niger. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2019.1597129DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Efficacy of mass drug administration with ivermectin for control of scabies and impetigo, with coadministration of azithromycin: a single-arm community intervention trial.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Centre for International Child Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: In small community-based trials, mass drug administration of ivermectin has been shown to substantially decrease the prevalence of both scabies and secondary impetigo; however, their effect at large scale is untested. Additionally, combined mass administration of drugs for two or more neglected diseases has potential practical advantages, but efficacy of potential combinations should be confirmed.

Methods: The azithromycin ivermectin mass drug administration (AIM) trial was a prospective, single-arm, before-and-after, community intervention study to assess the efficacy of mass drug administration of ivermectin for scabies and impetigo, with coadministration of azithromycin for trachoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30790-4DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

A Cross-Sectional Study of the Availability of Azithromycin in Local Pharmacies and Associated Antibiotic Resistance in Communities in Kilosa District, Tanzania.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Mass drug administration (MDA) for trachoma control using azithromycin has generated concern for the development of resistant organisms. However, the contribution from azithromycin available in local pharmacies has not been studied. In Kilosa district, Tanzania, MDA stopped over 4 years ago, and this study sought to determine the availability of azithromycin in local pharmacies and correlate it with azithromycin resistance in children born after MDA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0747DOI Listing

Stromal Fibroblasts Drive Host Inflammatory Responses That Are Dependent on Chlamydia trachomatis Strain Type and Likely Influence Disease Outcomes.

MBio 2019 03 19;10(2). Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Center for Immunobiology and Vaccine Development, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California, USA

ocular strains cause a blinding disease known as trachoma. These strains rarely cause urogenital infections and are not found in the upper genital tract or rectum. Urogenital strains are responsible for a self-limited conjunctivitis and the sequelae of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and hemorrhagic proctitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00225-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6426598PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Neglected tropical diseases: elimination and eradication.

Clin Med (Lond) 2019 Mar;19(2):157-160

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

The term neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) describes a disparate group of diseases which affect populations living in poverty and are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Global programmes for the control of NTDs benefit large-scale donations made by pharmaceutical companies. A number of NTDs have internationally agreed targets for their control, elimination and eradication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.19-2-157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454364PMC

Various Manifestations Of Trachoma In Internally Displaced Rural Population - A Free Eye Camp Based Survey.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2019 Jan-Mar;31(1):32-35

Army Field Hospital - Khaleefa Gulnawaz Teaching Hospital Bannu, Pakistan.

Background: The objective of the study is to observe frequency of various clinical manifestations of trachoma in rural population. This observational study was conducted at Khalifa Gul Nawaz Teaching Hospital (KGNTH), Bannu, Pakistan from April 2016 to Jan 2017.

Methods: Patients visiting for ocular complaints underwent initial screening that included demographic details and documentation of unaided as well as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) which was followed by detailed slit lamp examination of anterior segment including eversion of upper lid for assessment of changes in upper tarsal conjunctivas by consultant ophthalmologist. Read More

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March 2019
4 Reads

Long-term results of surgical excision of conjunctival retention cyst using trypan blue with methylcellulose.

Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2019 Jun 6;14:28-31. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, Stein Eye Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose: Conjunctival retention cysts may recur if not completely removed. However, the cyst wall often ruptures during surgical excision, making complete removal difficult. In order to ensure complete cyst excision, we used a method of staining the inner cyst wall using trypan blue augmented by Methyl cellulose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajoc.2019.01.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377388PMC

Prevalence of Trachoma in Four Local Government Areas of Jigawa State, Nigeria.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):86-92

j Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , United Kingdom.

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of trachoma and water and sanitation coverage in four local government areas (LGAs) of Jigawa State, Nigeria: Birnin Kudu, Buji, Dutse and Kiyawa.

Methodology: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in each LGA using Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) protocols. From each LGA, 25 villages were selected using probability-proportional-to-population size sampling; in each village, 25 households were selected using the random walk technique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1467468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444196PMC
December 2018

Prevalence of Trachoma in Kogi State, Nigeria: Results of four Local Government Area-Level Surveys from the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):33-40

e Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases , World Health Organization , Geneva , Switzerland.

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of trachoma in four Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kogi State, Nigeria.

Methods: In June 2014, we conducted population-based, cross-sectional surveys according to Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) protocols in selected LGAs of Kogi State. In each LGA, 25 clusters were selected with probability proportional to size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2017.1409359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444201PMC
December 2018
2 Reads
1.271 Impact Factor

Prevalence of trachoma in the Afar Region of Ethiopia: results of seven population-based surveys from the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):3-10

b Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.

Purpose: Trachoma is to be eliminated as a public health problem by 2020. To help the process of planning interventions where needed, and to provide a baseline for later comparison, we set out to complete the map of trachoma in Afar, Ethiopia, by estimating trachoma prevalence in evaluation units (EUs) of grouped districts ("woredas").

Methods: We conducted seven community-based surveys from August to October 2013, using standardised Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) survey methodologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2017.1362008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319167PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Epidemiology of trachoma and its implications for implementing the "SAFE" strategy in Somali Region, Ethiopia: results of 14 population-based prevalence surveys.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):25-32

c Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.

Purpose: Ethiopia is highly trachoma endemic. Baseline mapping was needed in Ethiopia's Somali Region to guide elimination efforts.

Methods: Cross-sectional community-based surveys were conducted in 34 suspected trachoma-endemic woredas, grouped as 14 evaluation units (EUs), using a standardised mapping methodology developed for the Global Trachoma Mapping Project. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09286586.2017.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2017.1409358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444207PMC
December 2018
5 Reads

Prevalence of and risk factors for trachoma in Kwara state, Nigeria: Results of eight population-based surveys from the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):53-61

e Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases , World Health Organization , Geneva , Switzerland.

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for trachoma in selected local government areas (LGAs) of Kwara State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Population-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in eight LGAs of Kwara State using Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) protocols. In each LGA, 25 villages were selected using probability-proportional-to-size sampling; 25 households were selected from each village using compact segment sampling. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09286586.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1437188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444274PMC
December 2018
11 Reads
1.271 Impact Factor

Completing Baseline Mapping of Trachoma in Uganda: Results of 14 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Conducted in 2014 and 2018.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):162-170

g RTI International , Dar es Salaam , Tanzania.

Purpose: We aimed to estimate the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years, trichiasis in adults aged ≥15 years, and water and sanitation (WASH) indicators in 12 suspected-endemic districts in Uganda.

Methods: Surveys were undertaken in 14 evaluation units (EUs) covering 12 districts. Districts were selected based on a desk review in 2014 (four districts) and trachoma rapid assessments in 2018 (eight districts). Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09286586.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1546879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444199PMC
December 2018
10 Reads

Completing Baseline Mapping of Trachoma in Nepal: Results of 27 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Conducted in 2013 and 2014.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):115-120

h Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.

Purpose: Trachoma is endemic in parts of Nepal; implementation of the surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, environmental improvement (SAFE) strategy started in 2002. Some suspected-endemic districts had not previously been mapped. We aimed to estimate the prevalences of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis in those districts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1489972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444275PMC
December 2018
1 Read
1.271 Impact Factor

Prevalence of Trachoma and Access to Water and Sanitation in Benue State, Nigeria: Results of 23 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):79-85

m London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research , London , United Kingdom.

Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of trachoma in each local government area (LGA) of Benue State, Nigeria.

Methods: Two-stage cluster sampling was used to conduct a series of 23 population-based prevalence surveys. LGAs were the evaluation units surveyed. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09286586.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1467466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444203PMC
December 2018
8 Reads
1.271 Impact Factor

Prevalence of trachoma in the Republic of Chad: results of 41 population-based surveys.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):143-154

i Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of trachoma in suspected-endemic areas of Chad, and thereby determine whether trachoma is a public health problem requiring intervention.

Methods: We divided the suspected-endemic population living in secure districts into 46 evaluation units (EUs), and used the standardized methodologies of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project. A two-stage cluster-sampling procedure was adopted. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09286586.2018.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1546877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444194PMC
December 2018
6 Reads

Prevalence of Trachoma in 47 Administrative Districts of Zambia: Results of 32 Population-Based Prevalence Surveys.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):171-180

s Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.

Purpose: A number of previous administrative-district-level baseline trachoma prevalence estimates in Zambia required verification. We used methodologies and systems for trachoma surveys considered to represent international best practice in order to generate reliable estimates of the prevalence of trachoma.

Methods: Between March 2016 and July 2017, we undertook 32 population-based prevalence surveys covering 47 administrative districts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1546880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444202PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

A Population-Based Trachoma Prevalence Survey Covering Seven Districts of Sangha and Likouala Departments, Republic of the Congo.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):155-161

e Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.

Purpose: We set out to estimate the prevalence of trachoma and access to water and sanitation in seven suspected-trachoma-endemic districts of northern Congo, surveyed as a single evaluation unit.

Methods: From a complete list of rural villages in the seven districts, we systematically selected 22 with probability proportional to village size. In selected villages, we included all households where there were fewer than 25 in total, or used compact segment sampling to select a group of approximately 20 households by random draw. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1546878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444200PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Progress Towards Elimination of Trachoma as a Public Health Problem in Eritrea: Results of a Systematic Review and Nine Population-based Prevalence Surveys Conducted in 2014.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):121-130

k Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.

Purpose: To assess Eritrea's progress towards elimination of trachoma as a public health problem, we reviewed and compiled current knowledge on the distribution and burden of trachoma in Eritrea, then undertook further population-based surveys where indicated, with support from the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP).

Methods: For the systematic review, undertaken in March 2014, we searched (1) PubMed, using the terms ((blind* or trachoma or trichiasis) AND Eritrea); (2) the online database of rapid assessments of avoidable blindness; (3) our own grey literature collections; and (4) the Global Atlas of Trachoma database. In June and July 2014, we conducted nine population-based prevalence surveys, for each of which 30 villages were systematically selected with probability proportional to population size; in each village, 30 households were systematically selected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1545036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444204PMC
December 2018
1 Read

A search for trachoma in Timor-Leste: no evidence to justify undertaking population-based prevalence surveys.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):131-137

j Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases , World Health Organization , Geneva , Switzerland.

Purpose: We sought evidence to justify undertaking population-based trachoma surveys in Timor-Leste, believing that in the absence of such evidence, the country could be categorized as not needing interventions to eliminate trachoma.

Methods: We undertook a systematic review of published literature on trachoma in Timor-Leste, with results updated to 28 April 2018. We also undertook a series of clinic- and field-based screening exercises, consisting of: (1) in October 2015, conjunctival examination of all children attending a school in Vila, Atauro Island; (2) from 1 November 2016 to 30 April 2017, examination for trichiasis, by specifically-trained frontline eye workers, of all individuals presenting to the ophthalmic clinics of six referral hospitals and five district eye clinics; and (3) house-to-house case searches in a total of 110 households, drawn from three communities that were reported by investigators from the 2016 Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) to include residents with trachoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1545037DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Use of an inexpensive magnifier with light source in the diagnosis of trichiasis among community-based case finders in Nigeria.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):138-142

c Kilimanjaro Centre for Community Ophthalmology, Division of Ophthalmology , University of Cape Town , Cape Town , South Africa.

Purpose: Trichiasis case finding is challenging in many trachoma endemic countries. We sought to determine how the use of an inexpensive hand-held magnifier with light source aids in the diagnosis of people with trichiasis.

Methods: We undertook a study on the use of the "Wilson", an inexpensive hand-held magnifier with light source between two groups of trained case finders: community drug distributors (CDD) volunteers and non-health volunteers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1546876DOI Listing
December 2018

Prevalence of Trachoma in Senegal: Results of Baseline Surveys in 17 Districts.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):41-52

g Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.

Purpose: Senegal is endemic for trachoma, an infectious and potentially blinding eye disease. To complete the country's district-level baseline map of trachoma, we conducted population-based surveys in 17 health districts that were suspected-endemic but had yet to be surveyed.

Methods: We randomly selected 30 clusters (villages) per district and 30 households per village, and estimated the district-level prevalences of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years, and trichiasis in persons aged ≥15 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2017.1418897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444198PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Impact Survey Results after SAFE Strategy Implementation in 15 Local Government Areas of Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara States, Nigeria.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):103-114

n Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , United Kingdom.

Purpose: To determine prevalence of trachoma after interventions in 15 local government areas (LGAs) of Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara States, Nigeria.

Methods: A population-based impact survey was conducted in each LGA using Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) protocols. In each LGA, 25 villages were selected, except in Arewa LGA, where we selected 25 villages from each of four subunits to obtain finer-resolution prevalence information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1481984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444276PMC
December 2018
17 Reads
1.271 Impact Factor

Prevalence of trachoma in four marakez of Elmenia and Bani Suef Governorates, Egypt.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):70-78

o Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.

Purpose: In 2015, to determine where interventions are needed to eliminate trachoma as a public health problem from Egypt, we initiated population-based prevalence surveys using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project platform in four suspected-endemic marakez (districts; singular: markaz) of the governorates of Elmenia and Bani Suef.

Methods: In each markaz, 30 households were selected in each of 25 villages. Certified graders examined a total of 3682 children aged 1-9 years in 2993 households, noting the presence or absence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trachomatous inflammation-intense (TI) in each eye. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1446536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444193PMC
December 2018
7 Reads

Prevalence of trachoma in Yemen: results of population-based prevalence surveys of 42 evaluation units in nine governorates.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):62-69

i Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.

Purpose: In suspected trachoma-endemic areas of Yemen, we sought to determine the prevalence of the sign trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years, and the potential individual and household risk factors for TF in that age group. We also sought to determine the prevalence of trichiasis in adults aged ≥15 years.

Methods: We conducted a cluster-sampled survey in each of 42 evaluation units (EUs) comprising 166 rural districts of nine Governorates (Adh Dhale'a, Al Hodeihah, Al Jawf, Hadramoot, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahj, Ma'rib, Taiz) using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project systems and methodologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1441426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444195PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Trachoma in Viet Nam: results of 11 surveillance surveys conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):93-102

k Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.

Purpose: Following interventions against trachoma in Viet Nam, impact surveys conducted in 2003-2011 suggested that trachoma was no longer a public health problem. In 2014, we undertook surveillance surveys to estimate prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis.

Methods: A population-based prevalence survey was undertaken in 11 evaluation units (EUs) encompassing 24 districts, using Global Trachoma Mapping Project methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1477964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444206PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Prevalence of trachoma in 13 Local Government Areas of Taraba State, Nigeria.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):18-24

k Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , United Kingdom.

Purpose: The purpose of these surveys was to determine the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children aged 1-9 years and trichiasis prevalence in persons aged ≥15 years, in 13 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Taraba State, Nigeria.

Methods: The surveys followed Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) protocols. Twenty-five households were selected from each of 25 clusters in each LGA, using two-stage cluster sampling providing probability of selection proportional to cluster size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2017.1368670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444197PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Prevalence of trachoma in the area councils of the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria: results of six population-based surveys.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):11-17

k Clinical Research Department , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , United Kingdom.

Purpose: The World Health Organization's (WHO's) global trachoma elimination programme recommends mapping of trachoma at district level for planning of elimination activities in affected populations. This study aimed to provide data on trachoma prevalence for the Area Councils of Nigeria's Federal Capital Territory (FCT).

Methods: Using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) protocols, in March and April 2014, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in each of the six Area Councils of FCT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2017.1367409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444205PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Impact of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec;25(sup1):1-2

d Kilimanjaro Centre for Community Ophthalmology, Division of Ophthalmology , University of Cape Town , Cape Town , South Africa.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2018.1550205DOI Listing
December 2018

Factors shaping the implementation of the SAFE strategy for trachoma using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research: a systematic review.

Glob Health Action 2019 ;12(1):1570646

b Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health , University of Zambia , Lusaka , Zambia.

Background: The SAFE strategy (surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics for active infection, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement) is the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended guideline for the elimination of blindness by trachoma by the year 2020.

Objective: While evaluations on the implementation of the SAFE strategy have been done, systematic reviews on the factors that have shaped implementation are lacking. This review sought to identify these factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2019.1570646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6383623PMC
January 2019
1.646 Impact Factor

Interventions to improve gender equity in eye care in low-middle income countries: A systematic review.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2019 Feb 15:1-11. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

b Seva Canada Society , Vancouver , Canada.

Purpose: Women bear an inequitable burden of blinding conditions compared to men primarily because they have more limited access to eye care services. This systematic review sought evidence regarding interventions to increase gender equity in eye care.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and EBSCO CINAHL, and contacted experts to identify studies in low- and middle-income countries of health services interventions for age-related cataract, childhood cataract, and trachoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2019.1574839DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Sensitivity and specificity of computer vision classification of eyelid photographs for programmatic trachoma assessment.

PLoS One 2019 11;14(2):e0210463. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States of America.

Background/aims: Trachoma programs base treatment decisions on the community prevalence of the clinical signs of trachoma, assessed by direct examination of the conjunctiva. Automated assessment could be more standardized and more cost-effective. We tested the hypothesis that an automated algorithm could classify eyelid photographs better than chance. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210463PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370195PMC
February 2019

Absence of Serological Evidence of Exposure to among Children Suggests Yaws Is No Longer Endemic in Kiribati.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Apr;100(4):940-942

Clinical Research Department, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Yaws is a neglected tropical disease targeted for eradication by 2020. Kiribati, a Pacific Island nation, was previously endemic for yaws but lacks recent data from which its current endemicity status could be determined. This study tested antibody responses to to determine if transmission of yaws is taking place among children in Kiribati. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447131PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Optimization of a rapid test for antibodies to the Chlamydia trachomatis antigen Pgp3.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Apr 10;93(4):293-298. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Serological surveillance for trachoma could allow monitoring of transmission levels in areas that have achieved elimination targets. Platforms that allow testing in basic laboratories or testing of easy-to-manage samples such as dried blood spots would contribute to the feasibility of serologic testing. Blood from 506 1-12-year-olds in 2 villages in Kongwa district, Tanzania, was tested for antibodies against the antigen Pgp3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2018.11.001DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Effect of Adding Azithromycin to Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention.

N Engl J Med 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

From the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (D.C., M.C., I.K., P.M., B.G.); the Malaria Research and Training Center, University of Science, Techniques, and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali (A.D., I.S., M.D., A.B., A. Tapily, S.C., I.T., O.D.); and Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso (I.Z., F.N., S.Y., A. Traore, H.T., J.-B.O.).

Background: Mass administration of azithromycin for trachoma control led to a sustained reduction in all-cause mortality among Ethiopian children. Whether the addition of azithromycin to the monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine used for seasonal malaria chemoprevention could reduce mortality and morbidity among African children was unclear.

Methods: We randomly assigned children 3 to 59 months of age, according to household, to receive either azithromycin or placebo, together with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine, during the annual malaria-transmission season in Burkina Faso and Mali. Read More

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http://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa1811400
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1811400DOI Listing
January 2019
19 Reads

Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection: elimination with mass drug administration.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2019 Mar 18;17(3):189-200. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

a Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology , Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions , Baltimore , MD , USA.

Introduction: Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the causative agent for trachoma, is responsible for 1.9 million cases of visual loss worldwide. Mass Drug Administration (MDA) with azithromycin to entire trachoma-endemic districts is part of the World Health Organization's public health strategy for trachoma elimination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2019.1577136DOI Listing

Community-level chlamydial serology for assessing trachoma elimination in trachoma-endemic Niger.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 28;13(1):e0007127. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Divison of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Background: Program decision-making for trachoma elimination currently relies on conjunctival clinical signs. Antibody tests may provide additional information on the epidemiology of trachoma, particularly in regions where it is disappearing or elimination targets have been met.

Methods: A cluster-randomized trial of mass azithromycin distribution strategies for trachoma elimination was conducted over three years in a mesoendemic region of Niger. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007127
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366708PMC
January 2019
10 Reads

Assessment of trachoma in suspected endemic areas within 16 provinces in mainland China.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 28;13(1):e0007130. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: China used to be among the countries with a high prevalence of trachoma. At the launch of The Global Elimination of Trachoma (GET) 2020 campaign by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1996, China was placed on the list of countries endemic for trachoma based on historical data. However, empirical observation and routinely collected eye care data were suggesting that trachoma was no longer a public health problem. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366720PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

3D images as a field grader training tool for trachomatous trichiasis: A diagnostic accuracy study in Ethiopia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 01 24;13(1):e0007104. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Trachomatous trichiasis (TT) will continue to develop among those people who have had repeated infections after active trachoma is controlled. Detecting and treating affected individuals will remain necessary for years; a long "tail" of incident cases is anticipated. As the prevalence of TT declines, there will be fewer cases available for training trachoma graders (TG), necessitating alternative methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363231PMC
January 2019
9 Reads

Self-Reported Side Effects following Mass Administration of Azithromycin to Eliminate Trachoma in Amhara, Ethiopia: Results from a Region-Wide Population-Based Survey.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Mar;100(3):696-699

The Carter Center Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia.

A region-wide population-based post-mass drug administration (MDA) coverage survey was conducted 3 weeks following the 2016 trachoma MDA in Amhara, Ethiopia. The prevalence of self-reported side effects was assessed among those who self-reported receiving azithromycin. A total of 16,773 individuals from 5,129 households reported taking azithromycin during the 2016 MDA in Amhara. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402909PMC
March 2019
8 Reads

Population coverage and factors associated with participation following a mass drug administration of azithromycin for trachoma elimination in Amhara, Ethiopia.

Trop Med Int Health 2019 Apr 10;24(4):493-501. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Trachoma Control Program, The Carter Center, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Objectives: Mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin is a core component of the WHO-recommended strategy to eliminate trachoma as a public health problem, but low participation rates in MDA campaigns may undermine the effectiveness of this intervention. We explored factors associated with individual MDA participation at the individual, head of household and household levels in Amhara, Ethiopia.

Methods: We conducted four district-level, multilevel cluster random coverage surveys to collect data on self-reported MDA participation and predictors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13208DOI Listing
April 2019
21 Reads

How to improve Iranians' vision health: on the national policy of preventing Iranians' blindness.

Int J Ophthalmol 2019 18;12(1):114-122. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1445613113, Iran.

Aim: To review vision health situation of Iranian community, analyze its determinants, and discuss the adopted improvement strategies by the Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME).

Methods: This was a rapid situation analysis with a qualitative approach in three parts of recognition, orientation and implementation. The data were gathered review of upstream documents, national and international experiences, and experts and stakeholders' opinions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2019.01.18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326938PMC
January 2019
1 Read
0.500 Impact Factor

The Ocular Microbiome: Molecular Characterisation of a Unique and Low Microbial Environment.

Curr Eye Res 2019 Jan 14:1-10. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

a School of Optometry and Vision Science , University of New South Wales , Sydney , Australia.

Aim: The ocular surface is continually exposed to bacteria from the environment and traditional culture-based microbiological studies have isolated a low diversity of microorganisms from this region. The use of culture-independent methods to define the ocular microbiome, primarily involving 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing studies, have shown that the microbial communities present on the ocular surface have a greater diversity than previously reported.

Method: A review of the literature on ocular microbiome research in health and disease. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02713683.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2019.1570526DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads

Ophthalmia Neonatorum.

Authors:
Aik-Kah Tan

N Engl J Med 2019 Jan;380(2):e2

Normah Medical Specialist Center, Kuching, Malaysia

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMicm1808613DOI Listing
January 2019

Genetic Transformation of a Ocular Isolate With the Functional Tryptophan Synthase Operon Confers an Indole-Rescuable Phenotype.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 14;8:434. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Molecular Microbiology Group, Department of Clinical and Experimental Science, Southampton General Hospital, University Medical School, Southampton, United Kingdom.

is the leading cause of preventable blindness and the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection. Different strains are associated with ocular or urogenital infections, and a proposed mechanism that may explain this tissue tropism is the active tryptophan biosynthesis pathway encoded by the genomic operon in urogenital strains. Here we describe genetic complementation studies that are essential to confirm the role of tryptophan synthase in the context of an ocular genomic background. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fcimb.2018.00434
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2018.00434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302012PMC
December 2018
14 Reads