4,855 results match your criteria Trachoma


Serological and PCR-based markers of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis transmission in northern Ghana after elimination of trachoma as a public health problem.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 14;12(12):e0007027. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Clinical Research Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Validation of elimination of trachoma as a public health problem is based on clinical indicators, using the WHO simplified grading system. Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection and anti-Ct antibody responses (anti-Pgp3) have both been evaluated as alternative indicators in settings with varying levels of trachoma. There is a need to evaluate the feasibility of using tests for Ct infection and anti-Pgp3 antibodies at scale in a trachoma-endemic country and to establish the added value of the data generated for understanding transmission dynamics in the peri-elimination setting. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of a Single Dose of Azithromycin for Trachoma in Low-Prevalence Communities.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Dec 13:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

a Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Atlanta , GA , USA.

Purpose: Trachoma, caused by repeated ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide and is targeted for elimination as a public health problem. We sought to determine whether a one-time azithromycin mass treatment would reduce trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) levels below the elimination threshold of 5% in communities with disease prevalence between 5 and 9.9%. Read More

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December 2018

The History of Trachoma and Current Prevalence (Spotlight on Iran): A Review Article.

Iran J Public Health 2018 Oct;47(10):1458-1465

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Background: Trachoma as a common cause of infectious blindness is caused by . This study aimed to review the available data from variety of sources and provide an overview of the epidemiological situation of Trachoma in Iran focused on the past seventy five years.

Methods: A literature search of English and Farsi articles regarding trachoma in Iran from the electronic databases and paper documents was performed. Read More

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October 2018

Water Filtered Infrared A and Visible Light (wIRA/VIS) Irradiation Reduces Infectivity Independent of Targeted Cytokine Inhibition.

Front Microbiol 2018 15;9:2757. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

is the major cause of infectious blindness and represents the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Considering the potential side effects of antibiotic therapy and increasing threat of antibiotic resistance, alternative therapeutic strategies are needed. Previous studies showed that water filtered infrared A alone (wIRA) or in combination with visible light (wIRA/VIS) reduced infectivity. Read More

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November 2018

The epidemiology of nonviral microbial keratitis in a tertiary care center in Muscat, Oman.

Oman J Ophthalmol 2018 Sep-Dec;11(3):213-219

Department of Ophthalmology, Al-Nahdah Hospital, Muscat, Oman.

Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology, risk factors, etiology, and outcome of microbial keratitis in a tertiary care center in Muscat, Oman.

Methods: The electronic records of all patients diagnosed with keratitis or corneal ulcer between January 2013 and January 2016 in Al-Nahdha Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who presented with a corneal ulcer requiring admission and who underwent culture and sensitivity studies were included in the study. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Celebrating 20 years of progress: accelerating towards elimination.

Community Eye Health 2018 ;31(103):73

Special Projects and Campaigns: International Coalition for Trachoma Control London, UK.

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January 2018

Behavioural change interventions for sustained trachoma elimination.

Bull World Health Organ 2018 Oct 10;96(10):723-725. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Sightsavers, London, England.

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October 2018

A systematic review of historical and contemporary evidence of trachoma endemicity in the Pacific Islands.

PLoS One 2018 15;13(11):e0207393. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Clinical Research Department, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Trachoma is endemic in several Pacific Island countries. The aims of this study were to (a) identify future trachoma mapping needs in the Pacific and (b) to examine whether any temporal trends in trachoma prevalence could be ascertained from the historical literature on trachoma in the Pacific Islands.

Methods: Human studies of trachoma and eye care in the Pacific Islands were identified from a systematic search of PubMed, EMbase, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Safety of azithromycin in infants under six months of age in Niger: A community randomized trial.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Nov 12;12(11):e0006950. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Background: Mass azithromycin distribution reduces under-5 child mortality. Trachoma control programs currently treat infants aged 6 months and older. Here, we report findings from an infant adverse event survey in 1-5 month olds who received azithromycin as part of a large community-randomized trial in Niger. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment: magnitude, temporal trends and projections in South and Central Asia.

Br J Ophthalmol 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Vision and Eye Research Unit, School of Medicine, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK

Background: To assess prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia.

Methods: A systematic review of medical literature assessed the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity<3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (MVI; presenting visual acuity <6/12 and ≥6/18) in Central and South Asia for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020.

Results: In Central and South Asia combined, age-standardised prevalences of blindness, MSVI and MVI in 2015 were for men and women aged 50+years, 3. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads
2.980 Impact Factor

Comment on: 'Association of Chlamydia trachomatis ompA genovar with trachoma phenotypes'.

Authors:
Hugh Taylor

Eye (Lond) 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

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November 2018
1 Read

In vitro activities of a new fluoroquinolone derivative highly active against Chlamydia trachomatis.

Bioorg Chem 2018 Oct 19;83:180-185. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086, CNRS, 15 rue Jean Antoine de Baïf, F-75205 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial human pathogen responsible for the development of trachoma, an infection leading to blindness, and is also the cause of the main bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. We designed a new inhibitor of this bacterium with, however, some prerequisites using (i) the iron dependency of the bacterium, (ii) a commercially available broad-spectrum antibiotic and (iii) a short synthetic pathway. The corresponding 8-hydroxyquinoline-ciprofloxacin conjugate was evaluated against a panel of pathogenic bacteria, including C. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Imagining eye care in India (2018 Lalit Prakash Agarwal lecture).

Indian J Ophthalmol 2018 Nov;66(11):1532-1538

Indian Oil Center for Rural Eye Health, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

India has done well in eye care delivery by recognizing visual impairment and blindness as a major medical challenge. Major contributions have come from ophthalmologists (mass cataract surgery in the early 1900s; major participation of non-government organizations), policy makers (National Program for Control of Blindness and Visual Impairment 1976; systematic development under the World Bank assisted India Cataract Project, 1995-2002), and the industry (manufacturing of affordable surgical instruments and medicines). Although the country could boast of higher cataract surgical coverage and near-total elimination of trachoma, there is increasing prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and undetected glaucoma. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Active trachoma among children of District Dera Ghazi Khan, Punjab, Pakistan: A cross sectional study.

J Pak Med Assoc 2018 Sep;68(9):1300-1303

Ameer ud Din Medical College, PGMI, Lahore.

Objective: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of trachoma among children of age one month to 15 years.

Methods: Community based cross sectional study was conducted in district Dera Ghazi Khan from January to December 2014. The simple random sampling technique was employed. Read More

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September 2018

Optimising sampling regimes and data collection to inform surveillance for trachoma control.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Oct 11;12(10):e0006531. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Informatics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

It is estimated that 190 million individuals are at risk of blindness from trachoma, and that control by mass drug administration (MDA) is reducing this risk in many populations. Programs are monitored using prevalence of follicular trachoma disease (TF) in children. However, as programs progress to low prevalence there are challenges interpreting this indirect measure of infection. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Development of a rapid colorimetric multiplex PCR-reverse line blot for the detection and typing of 14 Chlamydia trachomatis genovars.

J Med Microbiol 2018 Oct 10. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

3​Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Purpose: Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for trachoma-associated blindness as well as the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide, although the genovars for the former are typically A-C, whilst for the latter they are D-K and for the uncommon infection lymphogranuloma venereum they are L1-3. Nucleotide variations within the ompA gene facilitate the identification of C. trachomatis genovars. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Identifying a sufficient core group for trachoma transmission.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Oct 8;12(10):e0006478. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

F.I. Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States of America.

Background: In many infectious diseases, a core group of individuals plays a disproportionate role in transmission. If these individuals were effectively prevented from transmitting infection, for example with a perfect vaccine, then the disease would disappear in the remainder of the community. No vaccine has yet proven effective against the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Antimicrobial resistance following mass azithromycin distribution for trachoma: a systematic review.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Oct 3. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Francis I Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Mass azithromycin distribution is a core component of trachoma control programmes and could reduce mortality in children younger than 5 years in some settings. In this systematic review we synthesise evidence on the emergence of antimicrobial resistance after mass azithromycin distribution. We searched electronic databases for publications up to June 14, 2018. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

Trachoma prevalence remains below threshold in five districts after stopping mass drug administration: results of five surveillance surveys within a hyperendemic setting in Amhara, Ethiopia.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Dec;112(12):538-545

Trachoma Control Program, The Carter Center, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends conducting trachoma surveillance surveys in districts where the elimination targets have been met and following a minimum 2-year period after cessation of mass drug administration (MDA) in order to determine the sustainability of low trachoma levels.

Methods: In 2015, population-based surveillance surveys were conducted in five districts of Amhara, Ethiopia. All five districts had a prior trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) prevalence among children 1-9 y of age of <5% determined by an impact survey and had not received MDA for ≥2 y. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Health risk perceptions and local knowledge of water-related infectious disease exposure among Kenyan wetland communities.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2019 Jan 24;222(1):34-48. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

GeoHealth Centre, Institute for Hygiene & Public Health, University Hospital Bonn, Germany; Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, Germany.

Background: Risk perceptions have the potential of motivating and shaping health-related behaviour, i.e. the application of protective health measures. Read More

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January 2019
4 Reads

Feasibility and safety of mass drug coadministration with azithromycin and ivermectin for the control of neglected tropical diseases: a single-arm intervention trial.

Lancet Glob Health 2018 Oct;6(10):e1132-e1138

The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Mass drug administration has made a major contribution to the public health control of several important neglected tropical diseases. For settings with more than one endemic disease, combined mass drug administration has potential practical advantages compared with separate programmes but needs confirmation of feasibility and safety. We undertook a study of mass drug administration in the Solomon Islands for trachoma and scabies control using ivermectin and azithromycin, key drugs in the control of neglected tropical diseases worldwide. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Achieving universal eye health coverage: planning and human resource lessons from trachoma.

Community Eye Health 2018 ;31(102):54

Communications Specialist: International Coalition for Trachoma Control London, UK.

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January 2018

Mass antibiotic distribution to reduce mortality among preschool children?

Arch Dis Child 2018 Sep 14. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

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September 2018

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in South-east Asia and Oceania in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections.

Br J Ophthalmol 2018 Sep 12. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Vision & Eye Research Unit, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

Background: To assess prevalence and causes of vision impairment in South-east Asia and Oceania regions from 1990 to 2015 and to forecast the figures for 2020.

Methods: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (PVA) <3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; PVA <6/18 but ≥3/60), mild vision impairment (PVA <6/12 but ≥6/18) and near vision impairment (>N5 or N8 in the presence of normal vision) were estimated for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020.

Results: The age-standardised prevalence of blindness for all ages and both genders was higher in the Oceania region but lower for MSVI when comparing the subregions. Read More

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September 2018
8 Reads
2.980 Impact Factor

Prevalence and causes of vision loss in North Africa and Middle East in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections.

Br J Ophthalmol 2018 Sep 12. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Vision and Eye Research Unit, School of Medicine, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

Background: To assess the prevalence and causes of vision impairment in North Africa and the Middle East (NAME) from 1990 to 2015 and to forecast projections for 2020.

Methods: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (PVA) <3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; PVA <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (PVA <6/12 but ≥6/18) was estimated for 2015 and 2020.

Results: The age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI for all ages and genders decreased from 1990 to 2015, from 1. Read More

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September 2018
7 Reads
2.980 Impact Factor

An impact evaluation of two rounds of mass drug administration on the prevalence of active trachoma: A clustered cross sectional survey.

PLoS One 2018 29;13(8):e0201911. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Health Education Unit, Education Department, Eugenio María de Hostos Community College, The City University of New York, New York, NY, United States.

Introduction: We investigated the impact of two round of mass drug administration on trachoma prevalence in Plateau and Nasarawa States of Nigeria. The mass drug administration was conducted as a component of the SAFE Strategy, a combination of interventions recommended for the global elimination of blinding trachoma.

Methods: The study consisted of a two-stage cross-sectional clustered sample survey in which 3990 people from 793 households were screened for clinical signs of trachoma. Read More

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August 2018
14 Reads

A Longitudinal Analysis of Chlamydial Infection and Trachomatous Inflammation Following Mass Azithromycin Distribution.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Aug 28:1-8. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

a Francis I. Proctor Foundation , University of California , San Francisco , CA , USA.

Background: Mass azithromycin distributions are effective for clearing ocular strains of Chlamydia trachomatis, yet infection frequently returns in areas with hyperendemic trachoma. A better understanding of the factors associated with chlamydial reinfection could be helpful to plan trachoma elimination strategies.

Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in a trachoma-hyperendemic region of Ethiopia in 2003. Read More

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August 2018
6 Reads

Mass Azithromycin Distribution and Community Microbiome: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Aug 24;5(8):ofy182. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Francis I. Proctor Foundation, San Francisco, California.

Background: Mass distributions of oral azithromycin have long been used to eliminate trachoma, and they are now being proposed to reduce childhood mortality. The observed benefit appears to be augmented with each additional treatment, suggesting a possible community-level effect. Here, we assess whether 2 biannual mass treatments of preschool children affect the community's gut microbiome at 6 months after the last distribution. Read More

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August 2018
11 Reads

Salzmann's nodular degeneration of cornea associated with thyroid eye disease.

Orbit 2018 Aug 27:1-3. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

a David Geffen School of Medicine , University of California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.

Salzmann's nodular degeneration (SND) typically occurs in patients who are female, 50-60 years old, and have a history of corneal inflammation and irritation. Multiple case reports have documented associations between SND and trachoma, viral infections, trauma, contact lens wear, corneal surgeries and corneal exposure. The authors describe a patient with bilateral SND confirmed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging in the context of thyroid eye disease (TED) and history of LASIK. Read More

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August 2018
10 Reads

Effects of iota-carrageenan on ocular infection in vitro and in vivo.

J Appl Phycol 2018 13;30(4):2601-2610. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

1OCUVAC - Center of Ocular Inflammation and Infection, Laura Bassi Centres of Expertise, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Ocular chlamydial infections with the ocular serovars A, B, Ba, and C of represent the world's leading cause of infectious blindness. Carrageenans are naturally occurring, sulfated polysaccharides generally considered safe for food and topical applications. Carrageenans can inhibit infection caused by a variety of viruses and bacteria. Read More

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March 2018
8 Reads

Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid-encoded protein Pgp3 inhibits apoptosis via the PI3K-AKT-mediated MDM2-p53 axis.

Mol Cell Biochem 2018 Aug 21. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Institute of Pathogenic Biology, Medical College, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory for Special Pathogens Prevention and Control, Hunan Province Cooperative Innovation Center for Molecular Target New Drug Study, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common human pathogen that causes trachoma and sexually transmitted disease, has developed various strategies for inhibiting host cell apoptosis. Activation of the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/AKT-mediated MDM2 (murine double minute 2)-p53 pathway plays a prominent role in the apoptosis resistance arising from C. trachomatis infection. Read More

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Mass azithromycin distribution for hyperendemic trachoma following a cluster-randomized trial: A continuation study of randomly reassigned subclusters (TANA II).

PLoS Med 2018 Aug 14;15(8):e1002633. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Background: The World Health Organization recommends annual mass azithromycin administration in communities with at least 10% prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in children, with further treatment depending on reassessment after 3-5 years. However, the effect of stopping mass azithromycin distribution after multiple rounds of treatment is not well understood. Here, we report the results of a cluster-randomized trial where communities that had received 4 years of treatments were then randomized to continuation or discontinuation of treatment. Read More

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August 2018
4 Reads

Elimination through collaboration: success factors in a global consortium.

Int Health 2018 Aug 9. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Orbis International, 520 8th Avenue #12, New York, NY, USA.

The Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) is the largest infectious disease survey ever undertaken. With 60 partners, 2.6 million people were examined across 29 countries for the blinding neglected tropical disease (NTD) trachoma, establishing the prevalence of the disease globally. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

An eye for azithromycin: review of the literature.

Ther Adv Ophthalmol 2018 Jan-Dec;10:2515841418783622. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Department of General Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras, Greece.

Azithromycin is used widely in clinical practice and recently it is available in topical solution for ophthalmic use. The purpose of the current publication is to summarize the newest information on azithromycin's clinical usefulness over ocular diseases. A PubMed (National Library of Medicine) and a ScienceDirect search was conducted using the key phrases 'azithromycin', 'meibomian', 'blepharitis', 'trachoma', 'toxoplasmosis' from 2010 to 2017. Read More

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July 2018
6 Reads

Coverage of azithromycin mass treatment for trachoma elimination in Northwestern Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study.

BMC Ophthalmol 2018 Aug 6;18(1):193. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Social and Adminstrative Pharmacy Working Group, Departement of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P.O.Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Mass drug administration with antibiotics predominantly with azithromycin is one of the four arms of the SAFE strategy. The elimination of ocular chlamydial infection is only achieved as long as the azithromycin mass treatments (AMT) are given frequently enough and at a high enough coverage. This study was conducted to assess the coverage of azithromycin mass treatment and its determinants in Awi Zone, Northwestern Ethiopia. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

A diagnostic instrument to help field graders evaluate active trachoma.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2018 Oct - Dec;25(5-6):399-402. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

c School of Medicine , University of St Andrews , St Andrews , UK.

The SAFE strategy (Surgery for trichiasis, mass treatment with Antibiotics to clear ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection, and Facial cleanliness and Environmental improvement to reduce transmission) is being used to eliminate trachoma as a public health problem. Decisions on whether or not to implement the A, F, and E components of SAFE are made on the basis of the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) in 1-9-year-olds. TF has a precise definition: at least five follicles, each of which is at least 0. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Management of trachoma in the Pacific: have we got it wrong?

Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2018 Aug 1. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand.

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Impact of Ivermectin Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis on Scabies in Eight Villages in Kongwa District, Tanzania.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Oct;99(4):937-939

Muhimbili University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Scabies was recently added to the World Health Organization list of neglected tropical diseases. The ability to treat scabies with oral ivermectin makes a mass drug administration (MDA) campaign a feasible option for scabies control. Ivermectin MDA in communities endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF) or onchocerciasis may already be having an impact on scabies. Read More

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October 2018
28 Reads

Monitoring equity in universal health coverage with essential services for neglected tropical diseases: an analysis of data reported for five diseases in 123 countries over 9 years.

Lancet Glob Health 2018 Sep 24;6(9):e980-e988. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: A service coverage index has recently been proposed to monitor progress towards universal health coverage (UHC), and baseline results for 2015 are available. However, evidence on equity in that progress is scarce. The service coverage index did not consider services for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a group of preventable diseases defined by WHO member states on the basis of the disproportionate burden they place on their poorest, remotest, and otherwise most marginalised communities. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni among a population-based sample of school-age children in Amhara region, Ethiopia.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Jul 24;11(1):431. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

The Carter Center, 453 Freedom Parkway, Atlanta, GA, 30307, USA.

Background: From 2011 to 2015, seven trachoma impact surveys in 150 districts across Amhara, Ethiopia, included in their design a nested study to estimate the zonal prevalence of intestinal parasite infections including soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and Schistosoma mansoni.

Methods: A multi-stage cluster random sampling approach was used to achieve a population-based sample of children between the ages of 6 and 15 years. Stool samples of approximately 1 g were collected from assenting children, preserved in 10 ml of a sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin solution, and transported to the Amhara Public Health Research Institute for processing with the ether concentration method and microscopic identification of parasites. Read More

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July 2018
7 Reads

Quality Assurance and Quality Control in the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Oct;99(4):858-863

Clinical Research Department, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

In collaboration with the health ministries that we serve and other partners, we set out to complete the multiple-country Global Trachoma Mapping Project. To maximize the accuracy and reliability of its outputs, we needed in-built, practical mechanisms for quality assurance and quality control. This article describes how those mechanisms were created and deployed. Read More

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October 2018
12 Reads

Inhibition of the Protein Phosphatase CppA Alters Development of Chlamydia trachomatis.

J Bacteriol 2018 Oct 10;200(19). Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Microbiology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that undergo an essential, but poorly understood, biphasic developmental cycle transitioning between the infectious elementary body and the replicative reticulate body. Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation has been increasingly recognized for its role in regulating bacterial physiology. spp. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

Determinants for not utilizing trachomatous trichiasis surgery among trachomatous trichiasis patients in Mehalsayint District, North-East Ethiopia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 07 18;12(7):e0006669. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Department of Health Information Technology, Dessie Health Science College, Dessie, Ethiopia.

Background: Globally, trachoma is the leading cause of infectious blindness. In Ethiopia, the overall Trachomatous Trichiasis (TT) surgical coverage is 41%. Identifying determinants for not utilizing TT surgery among TT patients is important to design and monitor effective intervention programs. Read More

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Anthropometry and Malaria among Children in Niger: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2018 Sep 12;99(3):665-669. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

The complex relationship between malnutrition and malaria affects morbidity and mortality in children younger than 5 years, particularly in parts of sub-Saharan Africa where these conditions occur together seasonally. Previous research on this relationship has been inconclusive. Here, we examine the association between anthropometric indicators and malaria infection in a population-based sample of children younger than 5 years in Niger. Read More

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September 2018
15 Reads

Advancing the public health applications of Chlamydia trachomatis serology.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Dec 5;18(12):e399-e407. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Division of STD Prevention, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection. Trachoma is caused by ocular infection with C trachomatis and is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. New serological assays for C trachomatis could facilitate improved understanding of C trachomatis epidemiology and prevention. Read More

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December 2018
11 Reads

Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness and diabetic retinopathy in people aged 50 years and older in the National Capital District of Papua New Guinea.

Br J Ophthalmol 2018 Jul 4. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

PNG Eye Care, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

Background/aims: To conduct an assessment of avoidable blindness, diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in adults aged 50 years and older in the National Capital District (NCD) region of Papua New Guinea (PNG).

Methods: A cross-sectional population-based survey was performed for which 25 clusters of 50 people aged ≥50 years were randomly selected from the NCD region. The standardised rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) with diabetic retinopathy (+DR) methodology was used. Read More

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July 2018
9 Reads

Trachoma elimination, approaching 2020.

Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2018 Sep;29(5):451-457

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Fayoum University, Al Fayoum, Egypt.

Purpose Of Review: To review current practices for trachoma treatment with a focus on recent studies, particularly those discussing trachoma trichiasis surgery.

Recent Findings: Azithromycin eye drops twice daily for 3 days may be as efficient as oral azithromycin in treating active trachoma. Facial cleanliness and environmental improvement programming should employ a variety of behavior change techniques to give sustained improvements. Read More

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September 2018
9 Reads

Making gains sustainable: partnering with WASH to stop the transmission of trachoma.

Community Eye Health 2018 ;31(101):24

Communications Specialist: International Coalition for Trachoma Control London, UK.

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January 2018

Strengthening the links between mapping, planning and global engagement for disease elimination: lessons learnt from trachoma.

Br J Ophthalmol 2018 Oct 15;102(10):1324-1327. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness. Until recently, reliable data on the global extent of the disease, detailed plans for elimination, and government, donor and partner engagement were all inadequate.

Methods: The trachoma community undertook a systematic, three-pronged strategy to map trachoma district by district, develop national-level trachoma elimination plans, and create a framework for governments, donors and partners to convene and coordinate in support of trachoma elimination. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

Why do patients refuse trichiasis surgery? Lessons and an education initiative from Mtwara Region, Tanzania.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 06 14;12(6):e0006464. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States of America.

Background: Trachomatous trichiasis is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness worldwide. A relatively simple surgery can spare vision. Although this surgery is usually performed free of charge in endemic regions, multiple studies indicate that surgical refusal is common. Read More

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June 2018
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