5,144 results match your criteria Trachoma


No Serological Evidence of Trachoma or Yaws Among Residents of Registered Camps and Makeshift Settlements in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

1Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Successful achievement of global targets for elimination of trachoma as a public health problem and eradication of yaws will require control efforts to reach marginalized populations, including refugees. Testing for serologic evidence of transmission of trachoma and yaws in residents of registered camps and a Makeshift Settlement in Cox's Bazar District, Bangladesh, was added to a serosurvey for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) conducted April-May 2018. The survey was primarily designed to estimate remaining immunity gaps for VPDs, including diphtheria, measles, rubella, and polio. Read More

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Forecasting trachoma control and identifying transmission-hotspots.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Francis I Proctor Foundation, UCSF, USA.

Background: Tremendous progress towards elimination of trachoma as a public health problem has been made. However, there are areas where the clinical indicator of disease, trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), remains prevalent. We quantify the progress that has been made, and forecast how TF prevalence will evolve with current interventions. Read More

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Baseline Mapping of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Africa: The Accelerated WHO/AFRO Mapping Project.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

7The Taskforce for Global Health, Decatur, Georgia.

Mapping is a prerequisite for effective implementation of interventions against neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Before the accelerated WHO/AFRO NTD Mapping Project was initiated in 2014, mapping efforts in many countries were frequently carried out in an ad hoc and nonstandardized fashion. In 2013, there were at least 2,200 different districts (of the 4,851 districts in the WHO African region) that still required mapping, and in many of these districts, more than one disease needed to be mapped. Read More

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Supporting drug development for neglected tropical diseases using mathematical modelling.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology and London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research, Imperial College London, UK.

Drug-based interventions are at the heart of global efforts to reach elimination as a public health problem (trachoma, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis) or elimination of transmission (onchocerciasis) for five of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases tackled via the World Health Organization preventive chemotherapy strategy. While for some of these diseases there is optimism that currently available drugs will be sufficient to achieve the proposed elimination goals, for others-particularly onchocerciasis-there is a growing consensus that novel therapeutic options will be needed. Since in this area no high return of investment is possible, minimizing wasted money and resources is essential. Read More

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Changing Indications for Penetrating Keratoplasty in Bahrain in a Tertiary Referral Centre.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 13;15:1503-1510. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Manama, Bahrain.

Purpose: To study the changing indications for Penetrating keratoplasty in Bahrain and to compare them with published data.

Patients And Methods: A Retrospective review of available records of patients who underwent penetrating keratoplasty at a tertiary center in Bahrain (1996-2015). The trend of each indication was analyzed. Read More

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Serology, infection, and clinical trachoma as tools in prevalence surveys for re-emergence of trachoma in a formerly hyperendemic district.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 16;15(4):e0009343. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: To eliminate trachoma as a public health problem, countries must achieve a district-level prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) <5% in children ages 1-9 years. Re-emergence of TF could trigger additional rounds of mass drug/antibiotic administration (MDA), so accurate tools for use in surveys assessing trachoma prevalence are essential.

Methodology & Principal Findings: We surveyed 2401 children ages 1-9 years from 50 villages in Kongwa, Tanzania, 2 years post-MDA and 1. Read More

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Prevalence of trachoma in Pernambuco State, Brazil (2014-2015).

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2021 12;63:e29. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto Aggeu Magalhães, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

To estimate the prevalence of cases of trachoma in the population at social risk aged 1-9 years in Pernambuco State and its mesoregions. This was a cross-sectional study in which secondary data from the National Household Survey on Trachoma (2014-2015) were analyzed. The study covered 96 census tracts distributed across the mesoregions of Pernambuco State (Metropolitan Region of Recife, Zona da Mata, Agreste, Sertao do Sao Francisco and Sertao Pernambucano). Read More

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Comparison of platforms for testing antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Togo.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 31;11(1):7225. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE B23 Room 10-113, Atlanta, GA, 30029, USA.

Trachoma, caused by repeated ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), is targeted for elimination as a public health problem. Serological testing for antibodies is promising for surveillance; determining useful thresholds will require collection of serological data from settings with different prevalence of the indicator trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF). Dried blood spots were collected during trachoma mapping in two districts each of Togo and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Read More

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Complex emergencies and the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases in Africa: developing a practical approach for implementing safe and effective mapping and intervention strategies.

Confl Health 2021 Mar 31;15(1):18. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Sightsavers, Haywards Heath, UK.

Background: Complex emergencies resulting from conflict and political instability are a major challenge for national neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) control and elimination programmes, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, there are no formal guidelines for national programmes to use and plan activities in these humanitarian situations, therefore the aim of this study was to develop a new methodological approach for making decisions about the implementation of safe and effective mapping and mass drug administration (MDA) intervention strategies.

Methods: The study focussed on the 47 World Health Organization's African Region (AFR) countries. Read More

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Reducing suspicion of sexual abuse in paediatric chlamydial conjunctivitis using genotyping.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Mar 29;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Ophthalmology, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, West Midlands, UK.

is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes urogenital tract infections, and ocular infections including trachoma, neonatal conjunctivitis and adult chlamydial inclusion conjunctivitis. A positive diagnosis in children often raises suspicions of sexual abuse. While outer membrane protein A () genotypes A-C are non-invasive and are associated with trachoma; genotypes D-K are often associated with sexually transmitted urogenital infections or sexually acquired chlamydial conjunctivitis. Read More

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Tracing Ocular Conditions in 15,921 Interwar Refugees, Veria, Greece (1926-1940).

Acta Med Acad 2020 Dec;49(3):292-296

Department of History of Medicine and Medical Deontology, Medical School, University of Crete, Greece.

Objective: This historical epidemiological study aims to investigate ocular conditions in Greek refugees during the Interwar period (1926-1940) in the region of Imathia, Greece.

Materials And Methods: The archival material encompasses 15,921 patients who were admitted to the Refugee Hospital of Veria, Imathia, Greece. Descriptive statistics were estimated. Read More

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December 2020

Patient perceived barriers to surgical follow-up: Study of 6-month post-operative trichiasis surgery follow-up in Tanzania.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(3):e0247994. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Background: Post-surgical follow-up is a challenge in low- and middle-income countries. Understanding barriers to trachomatous trichiasis (TT) surgical follow-up can inform program improvements. In this study, patient perceived barriers and enabling factors to follow-up after TT surgery are identified. Read More

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Rethinking disease eradication: putting countries first.

Authors:
Teshome Gebre

Int Health 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

International Trachoma Initiative, The Task Force for Global Health, PO Box 10001, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

There have been various infectious disease eradication programs implemented in various parts of the world with varying degrees of success since the early 1900s. Of all those programs, the one that achieved monumental success was the Smallpox Eradication Program (SEP). Most of the global health leaders and authorities that came up with the new idea of disease eradication in the 1980s tried to design and shape the new programs based on their experience in the SEP. Read More

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Targeted antibiotics for trachoma: a cluster-randomized trial.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco.

Background: Current guidelines recommend community-wide mass azithromycin for trachoma, but a targeted treatment strategy could reduce the volume of antibiotics required.

Methods: 48 Ethiopian communities were randomized to mass, targeted, or delayed azithromycin distributions. In the targeted arm, only children aged 6 months to 5 years with evidence of ocular chlamydia received azithromycin, distributed thrice over the following year. Read More

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Significance of Crosslinking Approaches in the Development of Next Generation Hydrogels for Corneal Tissue Engineering.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Feb 28;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Trinity Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, D02 R590 Dublin, Ireland.

Medical conditions such as trachoma, keratoconus and Fuchs endothelial dystrophy can damage the cornea, leading to visual deterioration and blindness and necessitating a cornea transplant. Due to the shortage of donor corneas, hydrogels have been investigated as potential corneal replacements. A key factor that influences the physical and biochemical properties of these hydrogels is how they are crosslinked. Read More

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February 2021

WASH Upgrades for Health in Amhara (WUHA): study protocol for a cluster-randomised trial in Ethiopia.

BMJ Open 2021 02 22;11(2):e039529. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA

Introduction: Facial hygiene promotion and environmental improvements are central components of the global trachoma elimination strategy despite a lack of experimental evidence supporting the effectiveness of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) measures for reducing trachoma transmission. The objective of the WUHA (WASH Upgrades for Health in Amhara) trial is to evaluate if a comprehensive water improvement and hygiene education programme reduces the prevalence of ocular chlamydia infection in rural Africa.

Methods And Analysis: Forty study clusters, each of which had received at least annual mass azithromycin distributions for the 7 years prior to the start of the study, are randomised in a 1:1 ratio to the WASH intervention arm or a delayed WASH arm. Read More

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February 2021

Modelling trachoma post-2020: opportunities for mitigating the impact of COVID-19 and accelerating progress towards elimination.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 03;115(3):213-221

Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted planned annual antibiotic mass drug administration (MDA) activities that have formed the cornerstone of the largely successful global efforts to eliminate trachoma as a public health problem.

Methods: Using a mathematical model we investigate the impact of interruption to MDA in trachoma-endemic settings. We evaluate potential measures to mitigate this impact and consider alternative strategies for accelerating progress in those areas where the trachoma elimination targets may not be achievable otherwise. Read More

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Twelve-Year Longitudinal Trends in Trachoma Prevalence among Children Aged 1-9 years in Amhara, Ethiopia, 2007-2019.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

2Trachoma Control Program, The Carter Center, Atlanta, Georgia.

Trachoma control in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, where all districts were once endemic, began in 2001 and attained full scale-up of the Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness, and Environmental improvement (SAFE) strategy by 2010. Since scaling up, the program has distributed approximately 14 million doses of antibiotic per year, implemented village- and school-based health education, and promoted latrine construction. This report aims to provide an update on the prevalence of trachoma among children aged 1-9 years as of the most recent impact or surveillance survey in all 160 districts of Amhara. Read More

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January 2021

Community Hand-Dug Wells for Trachoma: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

2Francis I Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

The WHO recommends improving access to water as part of a comprehensive strategy for elimination of trachoma as a public health problem; however, this recommendation is not based on evidence from randomized trials. In a region of Ethiopia with hyperendemic trachoma, seven communities were randomized to a hand-dug well (HDW) and seven communities to no intervention to determine the impact of HDWs on the community prevalence of ocular chlamydia infection (primary prespecified outcome). All communities continued to receive government hygiene and sanitation services and outreach. Read More

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February 2021

Children as messengers of health knowledge? Impact of health promotion and water infrastructure in schools on facial cleanliness and trachoma in the community.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Feb 1;15(2):e0009119. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: Health promotion is essential to the SAFE strategy for trachoma elimination. Schools are a valuable venue for health promotion. However, there is little literature about the impact of health education and water infrastructure in schools on facial cleanliness and trachoma in the community. Read More

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February 2021

Building on a decade of progress in water, sanitation and hygiene to control, eliminate and eradicate neglected tropical diseases.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jan;115(2):185-187

SCI Foundation and NTD NGO Network WASH Working Group, London, United Kingdom.

Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are essential for the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The forthcoming NTD road map 'Ending the neglect to attain the Sustainable Development Goals: a road map for neglected tropical diseases 2021-2030' encourages cross-sectoral collaboration and includes cross-cutting targets on WASH. This commentary reflects on collaborative efforts between the NTD and WASH sectors over the past years and encourages strengthened partnerships to support the new road map and achieve the 2030 agenda ambition of leaving no one behind. Read More

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January 2021

Lessons learned for surveillance strategies for trachoma elimination as a public health problem, from the evaluation of approaches utilised by Guinea worm and onchocerciasis programmes: A literature review.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 01 28;15(1):e0009082. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Introduction: A number of neglected tropical diseases are targeted for elimination or eradication. An effective surveillance system is critical to determine if these goals have been achieved and maintained. Trachoma has two related but morphologically different presentations that are monitored for elimination, the active infectious form of trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis (TT), the progression of the disease. Read More

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January 2021

Ivermectin Treatment Coverage Validation in Two Onchocerciasis Endemic Districts in Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study, 2019.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2021 18;14:137-144. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Collaborative Research and Training Center for Neglected Tropical Diseases, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia.

Background: Onchocerciasis is the second leading cause of blindness globally next to trachoma, thus eliminating the infection is an important health priority. It is estimated that 15.7 million people are at risk of infection in different parts of Ethiopia. Read More

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January 2021

Medicine donation programmes supporting the global drive to end the burden of neglected tropical diseases.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jan;115(2):136-144

NTD Support Centre, Task Force for Global Health Atlanta, USA.

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are targeted for global control or elimination. Recognising that the populations most in need of medicines to target NTDs are those least able to support and sustain them financially, the pharmaceutical industry created mechanisms for donating medicines and expertise to affected countries through partnerships with the WHO, development agencies, non-governmental organisations and philanthropic donors. In the last 30 y, companies have established programmes to donate 17 different medicines to overcome the burden of NTDs. Read More

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January 2021

Implications of the COVID-19 pandemic in eliminating trachoma as a public health problem.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 03;115(3):222-228

Francis I Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Progress towards elimination of trachoma as a public health problem has been substantial, but the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted community-based control efforts.

Methods: We use a susceptible-infected model to estimate the impact of delayed distribution of azithromycin treatment on the prevalence of active trachoma.

Results: We identify three distinct scenarios for geographic districts depending on whether the basic reproduction number and the treatment-associated reproduction number are above or below a value of 1. Read More

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Acceptability and perceived utility of different diagnostic tests and sample types for trachoma surveillance in the Bijagos Islands, Guinea Bissau.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Jan 14. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.

Background: Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide and is nearing elimination as a public health problem in Guinea Bissau. It is imperative that elimination is followed by a successful postvalidation surveillance programme. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptability and perceived utility of different diagnostic tests and sample types that could be used for postvalidation trachoma surveillance in the Bijagos Islands, Guinea Bissau. Read More

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January 2021