707,205 results match your criteria Toxicity Warfarins and Superwarfarins


Britanin Exhibits Potential Inhibitory Activity on Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines Through PI3K/Akt/NF-κB Signaling Pathways.

Planta Med 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Engineering Research Center of Molecular and Neuro Imaging of the Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, China.

Britanin, a natural pseudoguaiacane sesquiterpene lactone, has significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but little is known about its tumor inhibitory activity and the underlying mechanism. Here, we demonstrated and that britanin inhibited the growth of human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, PC-3-LUC, and DU-145). Through study, the results showed that britanin significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration, and motility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1211-4656DOI Listing

Ni(II) curcumin complexes for cellular imaging and photo-triggered in vitro anticancer activity.

Eur J Med Chem 2020 Jul 18;204:112632. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati, 781014, Assam, India. Electronic address:

Nickel(II) complexes [Ni(cur)(L)](OAc) (1-3) where L is N,N-donor heterocyclic bases namely 1,10-phenanthroline (phen in 1), dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq in 2), dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz in 3) and Hcur is curcumin were prepared, fully characterized and light-induced in vitro anticancer activity studied. Three nickel(II) complexes containing acetylacetonato (Hacac) ligand, viz.[Ni(acac)(L)](OAc) (4-6) where L is phen (in 4), dpq (in 5), dppz (in 6) were prepared and used as controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2020.112632DOI Listing

The mechanisms of arsenic-induced ovotoxicity, ultrastructural alterations, and autophagic related paths: An enduring developmental study in folliculogenesis of mice.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Aug 8;204:110973. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Department of Bioinformatics, College of Life Sciences, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi, 030801, PR China.

Arsenic (As) exerts a wide range of adverse effects on biological systems, including the reproductive organs in males and females. However, the mechanisms of As-induced reproductive toxicity are mostly obscure. Recently, we showed that autophagy is an essential route for AsO-induced reprotoxicity through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-sperm (HPG-S) axis in pubertal and matured F1-male mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110973DOI Listing

Effects of lead, cadmium and zinc on protein changes in Silene vulgaris shoots cultured in vitro.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Aug 8;204:111086. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, Building 37, 02-776, Warsaw, Poland.

In the present research, Silene vulgaris as a representative species growing on both unpolluted and heavy metal (HM) polluted terrains were used to identify ecotype-specific responses to metallic stress. Growth, cell ultrastructure and element accumulations were compared between non-metallicolous (NM), calamine (CAL) and serpentine (SER) specimens untreated with HMs and treated with Pb, Cd and Zn ions under in vitro conditions. Moreover, proteins' modifications related to their level, carbonylation and degradations via vacuolar proteases were verified and linked with potential mechanisms to cope with ions toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111086DOI Listing

Exogenous plant growth regulator alleviate the adverse effects of U and Cd stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and improve the efficacy of U and Cd remediation.

Chemosphere 2020 Aug 6;262:127809. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

College of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010, Sichuan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are widely used in agricultural activities and have the potential to improve plant growth and plant tolerance against metal stress. PGR-assisted phytoextraction is now an effective and inexpensive method for enhancing the plant removal of toxic metals from soil. In this study, we conducted experiments to determine the effects of PGR treatments on soil uranium (U) and cadmium (Cd) removal by sunflowers as well as their stress response to U and Cd contamination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127809DOI Listing

Farmer's behavior in pesticide use: Insights study from smallholder and intensive agricultural farms in Bangladesh.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jul 25;747:141160. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Entomology Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh; Department of Statistics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Since independence and over the years, pesticides have become a dominant feature of Bangladesh agriculture. To protect farmers' health, environment and to improve sustainability of chemical pest control quantitative understanding of farmers' behavior in pesticide use is critical. However, study on the levels of knowledge and awareness of farmers and the practices of pesticide use are often limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141160DOI Listing

Combined effects of heavy metals (Cd, As, and Pb): Comparative study using conceptual models and the antioxidant responses in the brackish water flea.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Aug 8:108863. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Convergence Engineering, Sangmyung University, Seoul 03016, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The combined effect of toxic inducers has emerged as a challenging topic, particularly due to their inconsistent impacts on the environment. Using toxic unit (TU) based on LC value, we investigated the 48 h acute toxicities of the following combinations: Cd + As, Cd + Pb, As + Pb, and Cd + As + Pb, and binary and ternary combined effects were interpreted using concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) model. The molecular effects of these combinations were further examined on the basis of gene expression (four GST and two SOD isoforms) and antioxidant enzymes activity (SOD and GST). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2020.108863DOI Listing

Exposure evaluation of diisononyl phthalate in the adults of Drosophila melanogaster: Potential risks in fertility, lifespan, behavior, and modes of action.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Aug 8:108847. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Beijing Key Lab for Source Control Technology of Water Pollution, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address:

Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) as a phthalate plasticizer is widely used in daily life and production, which shows endocrine disruption effects and has several adverse effects on the normal physiological function. Here, the effects of DINP (0.1%, 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2020.108847DOI Listing

Effects of copper oxide nanoparticle on gill filtration rate, respiration rate, hemocyte associated immune parameters and oxidative status of an Indian freshwater mussel.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Aug 8:108855. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700019, West Bengal, India. Electronic address:

Waterbodies of India support a wide range of molluscs including Lamellidens marginalis, a pearl forming edible mussel of ecological significance. Report of copper oxide nanoparticle toxicity in Indian molluscs is limited in scientific literature. L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2020.108855DOI Listing

The geometry of the toxicity of silver nanoparticles to freshwater mussels.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Aug 8:108841. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, 105 McGill, Montréal, Québec H2Y 2E7, Canada; Chemistry Department, Montréal University, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada. Electronic address:

The question about the influence of the geometry of silver nanoparticle (nAg) towards toxicity in aquatic organisms is largely unanswered. The purpose of this study was to examine if different geometries of nAg could initiate biophysical stress in the soft tissues of mussels. Freshwater Dreissenna bugensis mussels were exposed for 48 h at 15 °C to 10 and 50 μg/L of ionic Ag and to 3 forms of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated nAg of similar size: sphere, cube and prism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2020.108841DOI Listing

Role of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) against Cr(III)-induced toxicity in bacteria.

J Hazard Mater 2020 Aug 2;403:123604. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Key Laboratory of Reservoir Aquatic Environment, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 400714, China; College of Life Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address:

The toxicity of Cr(VI) was widely investigated, but the defense mechanism against Cr(III) in bacteria are seldom reported. Here, we found that Cr(III) inhibited bacterial growth and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). After exposure to Cr(III), loss of sodA not only led to the excessive generation of ROS, but also enhanced the level of lipid peroxidation and reduced the GSH level, indicating that the deficiency of Mn-SOD decreased the bacterial resistance ability against Cr(III). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123604DOI Listing

Efficient degradation of typical pharmaceuticals in water using a novel TiO/ONLH nano-photocatalyst under natural sunlight.

J Hazard Mater 2020 Aug 4;403:123582. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control (SKLESPC), Beijing Key Laboratory for Emerging Organic Contaminants Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. Electronic address:

Photocatalytic degradation of typical pharmaceuticals in natural sunlight and in actual water is of great significance. In this study, the oxygen or nitrogen linked heptazine-base polymer (ONLH) was successfully incorporated with TiO nanoparticles and formed a TiO/ONLH nanocomposite which was responded to the natural sunlight. Under natural sunlight, the TiO/ONLH can effectively degrade ten types of pharmaceuticals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123582DOI Listing

Direct inhibition of photosynthesis by Cd dominates over inhibition caused by micronutrient deficiency in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Jul 22;155:252-261. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Czech Academy of Sciences, Biology Centre, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Department of Plant Biophysics & Biochemistry Branišovská 31/1160, 37005, České Budějovice, Czech Republic; University of South Bohemia, Department of Experimental Plant Biology, Branišovská 31/1160, 37005, České Budějovice, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

This work reveals, by imaging in vivo measurements in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri, in how far Cd stress affects macronutrient (Ca, K) and micronutrient (Fe, Zn) distribution in the leaves. We directly correlate these changes with biophysics of the photosynthetic light reactions. Plants were grown for 2 months at 10 μM Zn (=control), and supplemented with 10, 15, 50 or 75 μM Cd. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.07.018DOI Listing

Complex gene regulation between young and old soybean leaves in responses to manganese toxicity.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Aug 1;155:231-242. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Root Biology Center, State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, PR China; Guangdong Laboratory of Lingnan Modern Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, PR China. Electronic address:

Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth. However, excess manganese is toxic and inhibits crop production. Although it is widely known that physiological and molecular mechanisms underlie plant responses to Mn toxicity, few studies have been conducted to compare Mn tolerance capabilities between young and old leaves in plants; thus, the mechanisms underlying Mn tolerance in different plant tissues or organs are not fully understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.07.002DOI Listing

Low-dose Hypofractionated Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy for Adult Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma.

Pract Radiat Oncol 2020 Aug 8. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address:

Objectives: Historically, the standard of care for total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) delivered 30-36 Gray (Gy) over 5-10 weeks. Given the high-risk of relapse, a majority of patients require additional treatments. Therefore, attempts to utilize a shortened course of TSEBT have been investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prro.2020.08.001DOI Listing

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, hexyl hexanoate, CAS Registry Number 6378-65-0.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Aug 8:111635. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc., 50 Tice Boulevard, Woodcliff Lake, NJ, 07677, USA.

The existing information supports the use of this material as described in this safety assessment. Hexyl hexanoate was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, and environmental safety. Data from read-across analog hexyl isobutyrate (CAS # 2349-07-7) show that hexyl hexanoate is not expected to be genotoxic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2020.111635DOI Listing

Long-term exposure of high concentration heavy metals induced toxicity, fatality, and gut microbial dysbiosis in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

Environ Pollut 2020 Aug 1;266(Pt 3):115293. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

MOE, Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, Gansu Province, PR China.

Heavy metals (HMs) in an aquatic environment mainly affects fish, and thus, fish are convenient pollution bio-indicators. In this study, the toxic effects of HM mixture (chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu)) in 0 mg/L to 3.2 mg/L concentration range was investigated in Cyprinus carpio (28 days). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115293DOI Listing

Binary exposure to hypoxia and perfluorobutane sulfonate disturbs sensory perception and chromatin topography in marine medaka embryos.

Environ Pollut 2020 Aug 6;266(Pt 3):115284. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, China. Electronic address:

Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), an environmental pollutant of emerging concern, is previously shown to dynamically interact with hypoxia on aquatic developmental toxicities. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction remain unknown. In this follow-up study, marine medaka embryos were exposed to 0 and 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115284DOI Listing

Crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of ryanodine receptor from the honeybee, Apis mellifera.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2020 Aug 8:103454. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Tianjin Key Laboratory for Modern Drug Delivery & High-Efficiency, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China; State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Institute of Applied Ecology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. Electronic address:

Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are the molecular target of diamides, a new chemical class of insecticides. Diamide insecticides are used to control lepidopteran pests and were considered relatively safe for mammals and non-targeted beneficial insects, including honey bees. However, recent studies showed that exposure to diamides could cause long-lasting locomotor deficits of bees. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2020.103454DOI Listing

NMR structure and localization of the host defense antimicrobial peptide thanatin in zwitterionic dodecylphosphocholine micelle: Implications in antimicrobial activity.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2020 Aug 8:183432. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Singapore. Electronic address:

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are potentially vital as the next generation of antibiotics against multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens. Thanatin, an insect derived pathogen inducible 21-residue long antimicrobial peptide, demonstrates antimicrobial activity toward broad range of pathogens. Thanatin is an excellent candidate for antibiotics development due to potent in vivo activity in animal model and low toxicity to human cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2020.183432DOI Listing

Melatonin loaded lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles improved the wound healing in diabetic rats.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Aug 8. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Laboratory of Nano & Biotechnology, Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-050, Brazil. Electronic address:

Wound healing in diabetic patients remains a worldwide problem that can cause amputations and even lead to death. This work aimed to produce lecithin-chitosan nanoparticles loaded with melatonin (MEL-NP) incorporated in a topical formulation to be evaluated for healing in the in vivo animal model for diabetes. To produce nanoparticles, an ethanolic solution containing soybean lecithin and melatonin was added dropwise to an aqueous solution of chitosan under sonication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.08.027DOI Listing

Identification of novel CDK 9 inhibitors based on virtual screening, molecular dynamics simulation, and biological evaluation.

Life Sci 2020 Aug 8:118228. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

The Key Laboratory of Major Autoimmune Diseases, Anhui Institute of Innovative Drugs, School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, The key laboratory of Anti-inflammatory and Immune Medicines, Ministry of Education, Hefei 230032, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is a member of the CDK subfamily and plays a major role in the regulation of transcriptional elongation. It has attracted widespread attention as a therapeutic target for cancer. Here, we aimed to explore novel CDK 9 inhibitors by using a hybrid virtual screening strategy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118228DOI Listing

Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, and its analogues: Effective therapies against different chronic diseases.

Life Sci 2020 Aug 8:118182. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Cancer Biology Laboratory and DBT-AIST International Center for Translational and Environmental Research (DAICENTER), Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039, India. Electronic address:

Background: Chronic diseases are a major cause of mortality worldwide and despite the recent development in treatment modalities, synthetic drugs have continued to show toxic side effects and development of chemoresistance, thereby limiting their application. The use of phytochemicals has gained attention as they show minimal side effects. Diosgenin is one such phytochemical which has gained importance for its efficacy against the life-threatening diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, nervous system disorders, asthma, arthritis, diabetes and many more. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118182DOI Listing

Protective role of wogonin against cadmium induced testicular toxicity: Involvement of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic pathways.

Life Sci 2020 Aug 8:118192. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Andrology, Nanjing University Medical School Affiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

The present study was conducted to identify possible health - promoting effects of wogonin (Wog) on testicular dysfunction in rats caused by cadmium. Pre-treatment of cadmium chloride (Cd: 5 mg/kg b.wt. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118192DOI Listing

An analysis of the limitations and uncertainties of in vivo developmental neurotoxicity testing and assessment to identify the potential for alternative approaches.

Reprod Toxicol 2020 Aug 8. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy.

Limitations of regulatory in vivo developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing and assessment are well known, such as the 3Rs conflict, low throughput, high costs, high specific expertise needed and the lack of deeper mechanistic information. Moreover, the standard in vivo DNT data variability and in the experimental animal to human real life extrapolation is uncertain. Here, knowledge about these limitations and uncertainties is systematically summarized using a tabular OECD format. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2020.08.002DOI Listing

Employment of cytology for in vitro skin irritation test using a reconstructed human epidermis model, Keraskin™.

Toxicol In Vitro 2020 Aug 8:104962. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Skin irritation tests using reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) employ viability as an endpoint, but color interference or borderline results are often problematic. We examined whether the cytology of cells from treated RhE could determine skin irritancy. Six chemicals (three irritants; DnP, 1-B, pH, three non-irritants; DP, APA, HS) were evaluated in a RhE, Keraskin™. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2020.104962DOI Listing

Preparation and in vitro activity of single chain antibodies against Alzheimer's disease.

Immunol Lett 2020 Aug 8. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, College of life science, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China; Ministry of Education, Engineering Research Center for Bioreactor and Pharmaceutical Development, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China. Electronic address:

Disease-modifying passive immunotherapies focused on reducing amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition are a potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the results of Aβ passive immunotherapy clinical trials were unsatisfactory, largely due to the low efficacy of whole antibodies due to their relatively large molecular weight and low blood-brain barrier transmittance. Furthermore, the constant region fragments of whole antibodies can trigger inflammatory reactions, which raises safety concerns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2020.07.009DOI Listing

The Crucial Role of Environmental Coronas in Determining the Biological Effects of Engineered Nanomaterials.

Small 2020 Aug 11:e2003691. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China.

In aquatic environments, a large number of ecological macromolecules (e.g., natural organic matter (NOM), extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and proteins) can adsorb onto the surface of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to form a unique environmental corona. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202003691DOI Listing

Respiratory effects of exposure to aerosol from the candidate modified-risk tobacco product THS 2.2 in an 18-month systems toxicology study with A/J mice.

Toxicol Sci 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

PMI R&D, Philip Morris Products S.A., Quai Jeanrenaud 5, CH-2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

Smoking cessation is the most effective measure for reducing the risk of smoking-related diseases. However, switching to less harmful products (modified risk tobacco products [MRTP]) can be an alternative to help reduce the risk for adult smokers who would otherwise continue to smoke. In an 18-month chronic carcinogenicity/toxicity study in A/J mice (OECD Test Guideline 453), we assessed the aerosol of Tobacco Heating System 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfaa132DOI Listing

Reduced Chronic Toxicity and Carcinogenicity in A/J Mice in Response to Life-Time Exposure to Aerosol from a Heated Tobacco Product Compared with Cigarette Smoke.

Toxicol Sci 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

PMI R&D, Philip Morris International Research Laboratories Pte. Ltd., Science Park Road II, Singapore.

We conducted an inhalation study, in accordance with OECD Test Guideline 453, exposing A/J mice to Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2 aerosol or 3R4F reference cigarette smoke (CS) for up to 18 months to evaluate chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity. All exposed mice showed lower thymus and spleen weight, blood lymphocyte counts, and serum lipid concentrations than sham mice, most likely because of stress and/or nicotine effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfaa131DOI Listing

Electroconvulsive stimulation attenuates chronic neuroinflammation.

JCI Insight 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Neurology, Hadassah - Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Electroconvulsive therapy is highly effective in neuropsychiatric disorders by unknown mechanisms. Microglial toxicity plays key role in neuroinflammatory and degenerative diseases, where there is critical shortage in therapies. This study examined the effects of electroconvulsive seizures (ECS) on chronic neuroinflammation and microglial neurotoxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.137028DOI Listing

Hypofractionated Versus Conventional Fractionated Radiotherapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery in the Modern Treatment Era: A Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial From China.

J Clin Oncol 2020 Aug 11:JCO2001024. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology and Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: No randomized trials have compared hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) with conventional fractionated radiotherapy (CFRT) after breast-conserving surgery in the Asian population. This study aimed to determine whether a 3.5-week schedule of HFRT is noninferior to a standard 6-week schedule of CFRT in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01024DOI Listing

Patient-reported outcomes in RELAY, a Phase 3 trial of ramucirumab plus erlotinib versus placebo plus erlotinib in untreated -mutated metastatic NSCLC.

Curr Med Res Opin 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Medical Oncology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

In the Phase 3 RELAY trial, ramucirumab/erlotinib demonstrated superior progression-free survival (PFS) over placebo/erlotinib in patients with -mutated metastatic NSCLC (median PFS 19.4 versus 12.4 months; HR =0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03007995.2020.1808781DOI Listing

Improving the Environmental Risk Assessment of Substances of Unknown or Variable Composition, Complex Reaction Products, or Biological Materials (UVCBs).

Environ Toxicol Chem 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, Washington, DC, USA.

Substances of unknown or variable composition, complex reaction products, or biological materials (UVCBs) pose unique risk assessment challenges to regulators and to product registrants. These substances can contain many constituents, sometimes partially unknown and/or variable, depending on fluctuations in their source material and/or manufacturing process. International regulatory agencies have highlighted the difficulties to characterize UVCBs and to assess their toxicity and environmental fate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.4846DOI Listing

Amino acid conjugates of 2-mercaptobenzimidazole provide better anti-inflammatory pharmacology and improved toxicity profile.

Drug Dev Res 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, Monash University, Parkville, Australia.

Benzimidazole is an important pharmacophore for clinically active drugs against inflammation and treatment of pain, however, it is associated with gastrointestinal side effects. Here we synthesized benzimidazole based agents with significant analgesic/anti-inflammatory potential but with less gastrointestinal adverse effects. In this study, we synthesized novel, orally bioavailable 2-mercaptobenzimidazole amino acid conjugates (4a-4o) and screened them for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ddr.21728DOI Listing

Systematic review and single centre toxicology study identified analgesics and benzodiazepines as the main causes of paediatric medication poisoning.

Acta Paediatr 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Instituto de Pesquisa Pelé Pequeno Príncipe, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

Aim: This study evaluated medication poisoning in paediatric patients through a systematic review and a retrospective documentary analysis in a Brazilian toxicological centre.

Methods: The data were systematically collected on PubMed, Scopus and SciELO databases following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. We included epidemiologic and prevalence studies that were published in English or Portuguese from 2013-2017 and covered paediatric patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.15531DOI Listing

Pharmacogenetics for severe adverse drug reactions induced by molecular-targeted therapy.

Cancer Sci 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Clinical Genomics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1, Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

Molecular-targeted drugs specifically interfere with molecules that are frequently overexpressed or mutated in cancer cells. As such, these drugs are generally considered to precisely attack cancer cells, thereby inducing fewer adverse drug reactions (ADRs). However, molecular-targeted drugs can still cause characteristic ADRs that, although rarely severe, can be life-threatening. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14609DOI Listing

The Synergistic and Neuroprotective Effects of Alcohol-Antioxidant Treatment on Blood-Brain Barrier Endothelial Cells.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Medical Biosciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Alcohol (EtOH) is reported to adversely affect one of the most crucial roles of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the regulation of its permeability, thereby compromising the stability of the homeostatic environment of the brain. The central component of the BBB, endothelial cells (ECs), regulates BBB transcellular transport while their paracellular pathways are made virtually impermeable by molecular structures called tight junctions (TJs). These TJs are composed of proteins, such as claudin-5, a protein involved in the regulation of paracellular permeability and of key interest in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14433DOI Listing

Drug efficacy and toxicity prediction: an innovative application of transcriptomic data.

Authors:
Xuhua Xia

Cell Biol Toxicol 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5, Canada.

Drug toxicity and efficacy are difficult to predict partly because they are both poorly defined, which I aim to remedy here from a transcriptomic perspective. There are two major categories of drugs: (1) restorative drugs aiming to restore an abnormal cell, tissue, or organ to normal function (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10565-020-09552-2DOI Listing

Gastric healing effect of p-coumaric acid isolated from Baccharis dracunculifolia DC on animal model.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas (PPGCF), Núcleo de Investigações Químico-Farmacêuticas (NIQFAR), Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI), Itajaí, SC, Brazil.

The p-coumaric acid is a phenolic compound present in large quantities in the extract of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, a Brazilian medicinal plant used to treat gastric ulcer. Given the necessity for finding new chemical components capable of accelerating gastric healing, in this study, the effects of the p-coumaric acid were evaluated in the acetic acid-induced ulcer model in rats, where histological, inflammatory, and oxidative parameters were analyzed. The healing property was also evaluated in the scratch assay on fibroblast cells (L929) and the cytotoxicity of p-coumaric acid was assessed in both L929 and human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells by MTT assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-020-01928-9DOI Listing

Ammonia recovery from air stripping process applied to landfill leachate treatment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Aug 10. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Engineering Center, Laboratory of Energy and Environmental Engineering - LEAE, Post-Graduation Program in Environmental Sciences, Federal University of Pelotas - UFPel, Pelotas, RS, 96085-000, Brazil.

The leachate is a type of effluent from landfills containing high concentrations of ammonia, even after normal treatment procedures are applied. Due to its characteristic, the leachate can adversely impact the environment and public health. Leachate treatment seeks to remove a series of compounds with adverse characteristics present in this type of effluent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10397-9DOI Listing

Characterization of plasma protein binding in two mouse models of humanized liver, PXB mouse and humanized TK-NOG mouse.

Xenobiotica 2020 Aug 11:1-46. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics Research Laboratories, Research, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Fujisawa city, Japan.

The unbound fractions in plasma (f) in two mouse models of humanized liver mice, PXB and humanized TK-NOG mice, were compared with human f values using equilibrium dialysis method. A good relationship between f values obtained from PXB mice and humans was observed; the f of 34/39 compounds (87.2%) in PXB mice were within 3-fold of human f. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00498254.2020.1808735DOI Listing

Targeted-dose of busulfan: higher risk of sinusoidal obstructive syndrome observed with systemic exposure dose above 5000 µMol.min. A historically-controlled clinical trial.

Hematol Oncol 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Hematology and Hemotherapy Department, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, Brazil.

Busulfan is given in the conditioning regimens preceding hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and plasma levels can be monitored. A targeted, individualized systemic exposure (SE) dose can be achieved by calculating the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC). The objective of this study was to determine a cut-off value for safety for the AUC for busulfan plasma levels in patients undergoing HSCT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2789DOI Listing

Plant transporters involved in combating boron toxicity: beyond 3D structures.

Biochem Soc Trans 2020 Aug 11. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, South Australia 5064, Australia.

Membrane transporters control the movement and distribution of solutes, including the disposal or compartmentation of toxic substances that accumulate in plants under adverse environmental conditions. In this minireview, in the light of the approaching 100th anniversary of unveiling the significance of boron to plants (K. Warington, 1923; Ann. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BST20200164DOI Listing

Photo-physical, theoretical and photo-cytotoxic evaluation of a new class of lanthanide(iii)-curcumin/diketone complexes for PDT application.

Dalton Trans 2020 Aug;49(31):10786-10798

Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Manipur, Langl-795004, Imphal, Manipur, India.

Herein we report the synthesis, characterization, photophysical and photocytotoxicity studies of a new class of curcumin-based lanthanide(iii) complexes of general molecular formula [La(1,10-phen)2(L)(NO3)2] (1-4), where L = 1-phenylbutane-1,3-dione (L1, 1), 1-(anthracen-9-yl)butane-1,3-dione (L2, 2), 1-(3a1,5a1-dihydropyren-1-yl)butane-1,3-dione (L3, 3) and curcumin (L4, 4). Complex 1 was characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography and it exhibited the N4O6 coordination of La(iii). The presence of the low-lying and long-lived triplet excited state enabled the luminescent complexes (2-4) to generate singlet oxygen (1O2) in high yield when the complex was activated with visible light (400-700 nm, 10 J cm-2), which could be responsible for the photo-ablation of cancer cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0dt02082fDOI Listing

Anti-migration and anti-invasion effects of 2-hydroxy-6-tridecylbenzoic acid is associated with the enhancement of CYP1B1 expression through activating the AMPK signaling pathway in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Aug 11:1-5. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

College of Food Science and Technology, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, China.

2-hydroxy-6-tridecylbenzoic acid is alkylsalicylic acid monomer compound, abundantly existed in the ginkgo biloba extracts, however, the underlying mechanism of its anti-migration and anti-invasion effects in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is not clear. Here, 2-hydroxy-6 -tridecylbenzoic acid inhibited MDA-MB-231 and 4 T-1 cells growth without toxicity to MCF-10A normal breast cells. Meanwhile, 2-hydroxy-6-tridecylbenzoic acid inhibited cells migration and invasion as well as EMT with the increase of E-cadherin expression accompanied by the decrease of N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1803310DOI Listing

Real-world impact of anti-HER2 therapy-related cardiotoxicity in patients with advanced HER2-positive breast cancer.

Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2020 Aug 10. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Medical Oncology, Royal Hobart Hospital, Hobart, Australia.

Background: Anti-HER2 therapy-related cardiotoxicity is well described in the context of clinical trials, particularly in the setting of early stage disease, but there is more limited data in advanced breast cancer and in the real world setting.

Material And Methods: A prospectively-maintained registry database with 312 consecutive patients diagnosed with HER2 positive advanced breast cancer in Australia was analysed.

Results: 287 patients (92%) received anti-HER2 therapy, 17 (6%) experienced anti-HER2 therapy-related cardiotoxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajco.13381DOI Listing
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