22,632 results match your criteria Toxicity Vitamin


Differential toxicity of potentially toxic elements to human gut microbes.

Chemosphere 2022 May 17:134958. Epub 2022 May 17.

Global Centre for Environmental Remediation, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.

Specific microorganisms in the human gut (i.e., gut microbes) provide mutually beneficial outcomes such as microbial balance by inhibiting the growth of pathogenic organisms, immune system modulation, fermentation of ingested products, and vitamin production. Read More

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Poisoning by : Effects on vascular smooth muscle cells in the pathogenesis of enzootic calcinosis.

Vet Pathol 2022 May 19:3009858221098430. Epub 2022 May 19.

Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Vascular mineralization is a hallmark of enzootic calcinosis. Histopathological, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical investigations were performed on the external carotid arteries of seven sheep naturally poisoned by . Histologically, moderate to marked hyperplasia of the tunica intima was observed without mineralization. Read More

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Growth Response in Oryctolagus cuniculus to Selenium Toxicity Exposure Ameliorated with Vitamin E.

Biomed Res Int 2022 9;2022:8216685. Epub 2022 May 9.

School of Computer Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, China.

The adverse impacts of high temperature during the summer season on the rabbit industry have gained increased global attention. In this study, the comparative effects of biological (BIO) and chemical (CH) nanoselenium (nano-Se) combined with vitamin E on the growth and immune performances of rabbits were observed. A total of 200 white male rabbits of similar age (90 days) were divided into five treatment groups (T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4), 40 animals in each treatment. Read More

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LipNanoCar Technology - A Versatile and Scalable Technology for the Production of Lipid Nanoparticles.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2022 ;1357:43-82

Associate Laboratory, i4HB-Institute for Health and Bioeconomy at Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Brisbane, Australia.

The extensive knowledge in the miniemulsion technique used in biocatalysis applications by the authors allowed the development of drug delivery systems that constitutes the LipNanoCar technology core for the production of lipid nanoemulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles. The LipNanoCar technology, together with adequate formulations of different oils, fatty acids, surfactants, and temperature, allows the entrapment of several bioactive and therapeutic compounds in lipid nanoparticles for cosmetic, nutrition, and pharmaceutical applications.The LIpNanoCar technology allowed lipid nanoparticles production with average sizes ranging from 100 to 300 nm and Zeta Potentials between -55 and -20 mV. Read More

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Should Clinicians Prescribe Non-FDA Regulated Dietary Supplements When Caring for Children With Hypovitaminosis D?

AMA J Ethics 2022 May 1;24(5):E353-360. Epub 2022 May 1.

Attending pediatric gastroenterologist and physician nutrition specialist at Nationwide Children's Hospital in Columbus, Ohio.

Hypovitaminosis D is a prevalent micronutrient deficiency that can be severe and hard to treat in children with short bowel syndrome, a condition treated with substantial bowel resection. Surgically altered bowel anatomy then results in iatrogenic digestion and absorption limitations that require short- and long-term management and follow-up. Care of children with hypovitaminosis D standardly includes prescription dietary micronutrient supplementation, sometimes in irregularly high doses. Read More

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Vitamin D: sources, physiological role, biokinetics, deficiency, therapeutic use, toxicity, and overview of analytical methods for detection of vitamin D and its metabolites.

Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2022 May 16:1-38. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.

Vitamin D has a well-known role in the calcium homeostasis associated with the maintenance of healthy bones. It increases the efficiency of the intestinal absorption of dietary calcium, reduces calcium losses in urine, and mobilizes calcium stored in the skeleton. However, vitamin D receptors are present ubiquitously in the human body and indeed, vitamin D has a plethora of non-calcemic functions. Read More

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Health-related toxicity of emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances: Comparison to legacy PFOS and PFOA.

Environ Res 2022 May 13;212(Pt C):113431. Epub 2022 May 13.

Future Industries Institute (FII), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, South Australia, Australia. Electronic address:

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are highly persistent, manufactured chemicals used in various manufacturing processes and found in numerous commercial products. With over 9000 compounds belonging to this chemical class, there is increasing concern regarding human exposure to these compounds due to their persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic nature. Human exposure to PFAS may occur from a variety of exposure sources, including, air, food, indoor dust, soil, water, from the transfer of PFAS from non-stick wrappers to food, use of cosmetics, and other personal care products. Read More

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Treatment of Vitamin D Deficiency with Calcifediol: Efficacy and Safety Profile and Predictability of Efficacy.

Nutrients 2022 May 5;14(9). Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Biochemistry, Radioimmunology and Experimental Medicine, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, 04730 Warsaw, Poland.

Calcifediol (25-OH-vitamin D3) is the prohormone of the vitamin D endocrine system. It is used to prevent and treat vitamin D deficiency. Calcifediol, as well as cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), is efficient and safe in the general population, although calcifediol has certain advantages over cholecalciferol, such as its rapid onset of action and greater potency. Read More

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Potential Biomarkers and Drugs for Nanoparticle-Induced Cytotoxicity in the Retina: Based on Regulation of Inflammatory and Apoptotic Genes.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 May 6;19(9). Epub 2022 May 6.

College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123, China.

The eye is a superficial organ directly exposed to the surrounding environment. Thus, the toxicity of nanoparticle (NP) pollutants to the eye may be potentially severer relative to inner organs and needs to be monitored. However, the cytotoxic mechanisms of NPs on the eyes remain rarely reported. Read More

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Co-exposure to boscalid and TiO (E171) or SiO (E551) downregulates cell junction gene expression in small intestinal epithelium cellular model and increases pesticide translocation.

NanoImpact 2021 Apr 10;22:100306. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

A recent published study showed that TiO (E171) and SiO (E551), two widely used nano-enabled food additives, increased the translocation of the commonly used pesticide boscalid by 20% and 30% respectively. Such increased absorption of pesticides due to the presence of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in food raises health concerns for these food additives. In this companion study, mRNA expression of genes related to cell junctions in a small intestinal epithelial cellular model after exposure to simulated digestas of fasting food model (phosphate buffer) containing boscalid (150 ppm) with or without either TiO or SiO (1% w/w) were analyzed. Read More

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Rationalizing the Use of Polyphenol Nano-formulations in the Therapy of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2022 May 12. Epub 2022 May 12.

Kirorimal College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.

Neurodegenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders among aging populations worldwide characterized by the progressive degeneration of the structure and function of brain cells and the nervous system. Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease are common neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). Classic pathological features of AD are the accumulation of the amyloid betaprotein and aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein around the brain cells. Read More

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Role of Vitamin D as Protective Agent against Induced Liver Damage in Male Rats.

Authors:
M K Hassani

Arch Razi Inst 2021 Dec 30;76(6):1815-1822. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Misan, Maysan, Iraq.

One of the main factors which played a key role in the prevention of liver disorders such as hepatic inflammation, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis would be the vitamin D axis. Therefore, the current research was designed to evaluate the role of Vitamin D (Vit D)   as a protective agent against liver damage caused by Thioacetamide (TAA). In the current study, 18 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three equal groups (n=6): in group 1(G1) the animals were considered as the control group and did not receive any supplement in drinking water; in group 2 (G2) TAA was administrated to the drinking water at a dose of 300 mg/L; in group 3 (G3) TAA was administrated to the drinking water at a dose of 300 mg/L plus vitamin D at a dose of 0. Read More

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December 2021

An analysis of nutrient facts labels of pediatric multi-vitamin and mineral supplements: Is there a risk of overexposure?

Nutr Health 2022 May 11:2601060221100926. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Health Sciences, 2008Lehman College of the City University of New York, Bronx, NY, USA.

Background: Voluntary and mandatory fortification of pediatric foods, along with widespread consumption of dietary supplements have resulted in an increased proportion of children with excessive micronutrient intake.

Aim: This study aimed to analyze the proportion of pediatric dietary supplements that exceed the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and Tolerable Upper Limit for the individual micronutrients. We further identified the proportion of supplements with large amounts of micronutrients that were marketed through child-friendly and parent-geared promotional language and graphics on the packaging. Read More

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Oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in mild cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ageing Res Rev 2022 May 7;79:101639. Epub 2022 May 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; IMPACT Strategic Research Center, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia; Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Electronic address:

This study aims to systematically review and meta-analyze the nitro-oxidative stress (O&NS)/antioxidant (ANTIOX) ratio in the peripheral blood of people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We searched PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science for articles published from inception until July 31, 2021. Forty-six studies on 3. Read More

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Asthma susceptibility in prenatal nicotine-exposed mice attributed to β-catenin increase during CD4 T cell development.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Jun 6;238:113572. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China. Electronic address:

Cigarette smoke is a common global environmental pollutant. Asthma, the most frequent allergic airway disease, is related to maternal exposure to cigarette smoke. Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal exposure to nicotine (PNE), the major active product of smoking, impairs fetal thymopoiesis and CD4 T cell development after birth. Read More

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Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using , and their biomedical applications.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2022 Apr 3;29(4):2270-2279. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Unit of Mycology and Parasitology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002, Tamilnadu, India.

Zinc and its derivatives requirement increased to enhance human immunity against the different pandemics, including covid-19. Green synthesis is an emerging field of research. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have been prepared from and characterized using absorption, vibrational and electron microscope analysis. Read More

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Pharmacological agents for the prevention of colistin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Eur J Med Res 2022 May 7;27(1):64. Epub 2022 May 7.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Colistin is a polymyxin antibiotic which has been used for treatment of Gram-negative infections, but it was withdrawn due to its nephrotoxicity. However, colistin has gained its popularity in recent years due to the reemergence of multidrug resistant Gram-negative infections and drug-induced toxicity is considered as the main obstacle for using this valuable antibiotic.

Results: In total, 30 articles, including 29 animal studies and one clinical trial were included in this study. Read More

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Amelioration of Cd-induced bioaccumulation, hematological parameters, and heat shock protein-related genes by Vitamin C on common carp.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2022 May 5;258:109362. Epub 2022 May 5.

College of Life Sciences, Tonghua Normal University, Tonghua 134002, China. Electronic address:

The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is a kind of non-essential toxic environmental pollutant with extremely long biological half-life, various toxic and sublethal effects on aquatic organisms, and many adverse effects on the organs of human and other mammals. Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient in aquatic feed, and an indispensable nutrient for maintaining physiological processes in different animals, including fish. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of administration of Vitamin C on bioaccumulation, hematological parameters and heat shock protein-related genes of common carp following Cd exposure. Read More

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Vitamin D toxicity due to self-prescription: A case report.

J Family Med Prim Care 2022 Apr 18;11(4):1561-1563. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Department Clinical Hematology, SKIMS, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Apart from maintaining healthy bones, vitamin D is also required for cell differentiation, cell growth inhibition, and immune modulation. Vitamin D deficiency is common in the Indian subcontinent. Vitamin D presenting toxicity, leading to hypercalcemia, acute kidney injury, and altered sensorium is very rare. Read More

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Toxicological effects of traffic-related air pollution on the lungs: Evidence, biomarkers and intervention.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Jun 2;238:113570. Epub 2022 May 2.

School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China. Electronic address:

Background: Numerous epidemiological studies have recently observed that exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is associated with increased risk of various respiratory diseases. Major gaps in knowledge remain regarding the toxicological effects.

Objectives: We examined the toxicological effects of the gasoline exhaust particles (GEP), a paradigm of TRAP, in rats, with an objective to provide the evidence, obtain the biomarkers, and suggest effective intervention measure. Read More

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Low dose cadmium potentiates metabolic reprogramming following early-life respiratory syncytial virus infection.

Toxicol Sci 2022 May 5. Epub 2022 May 5.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes serious pulmonary disease and death in high-risk infants and elderly. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental metal contaminant and constantly exposed to humans. Limited information is available on Cd toxicity after early life respiratory virus infection. Read More

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Investigation of Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress Induced by the Pyrethroid Bioallethrin in Human Glioblastoma Cells: The Protective Effect of Vitamin E (VE) and Its Underlying Mechanism.

Chem Res Toxicol 2022 May 5;35(5):880-889. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Medical Education and Research, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung 81362, Taiwan.

Bioallethrin belongs to the family of pyrethroid insecticides. Previous studies have shown that bioallethrin affected the function of muscarinic receptor and subsequently induced neurotoxicity in different brain models. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in the metabolic course of the human body, which can cause human damage when overactivated. Read More

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Photo-activated chromophore for infectious keratitis cross-linking and its efficacy as a treatment modality in managing microbial keratitis.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 05;70(5):1571-1577

Department of Ophthalmology, Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Government M. D. Eye Hospital, Prayagraj (Allahabad), Uttar Pradesh, India.

Purpose: To assess Photo Activated Chromophore for Infective Keratitis-Cross Linking (PACK-CXL) and its efficacy as a treatment modality in managing microbial keratitis.

Methods: Single Centre prospective interventional study in infectious keratitis. A total of eleven patients were taken who had corneal thickness (CT) more than 400μm. Read More

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Drug safety of frequently used drugs and substances for self-medication in COVID-19.

Ther Adv Drug Saf 2022 21;13:20420986221094141. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Pharmacology Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, 111221, Colombia.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the behavior of self-medication has increased. The dissemination of misleading information regarding the efficacy of certain drugs or substances for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 has been the major contributing factor for this phenomenon. Alongside with the increase in self-medication behavior, the inherent risks to this act such as drug-drug interactions, adverse events, drug toxicity, and masking of symptoms have also increased. Read More

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A retrospective observational study on cases of anaplastic brain tumors treated with the Di Bella Method: A rationale and effectiveness.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2021 Nov;42(7):464-483

Di Bella Foundation, Via Marconi 51, Post code 40122, Bologna, Italy.

Despite all the new developments in cancer therapy, the life expectancy of patients with malignant anaplastic brain tumors and glioblastoma multiform (GBM) remains short. Since the establishment of the Di Bella Method (DBM) in cancer therapy, DBM was able to increase the survival rate and life quality, without overt toxicity, in comparison to what is described in the literature related to the analogous brain tumors, with the same immunohistochemical, histologic and clinical features. Therefore, we treated seven patients with malignant anaplastic brain tumors using the DBM protocol. Read More

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November 2021

Sorafenib-Loaded PLGA-TPGS Nanosystems Enhance Hepatocellular Carcinoma Therapy Through Reversing P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Multidrug Resistance.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2022 Apr 29;23(5):130. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, No. 350, Longzihu Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230012, People's Republic of China.

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a key determinant for hepatocellular carcinoma chemotherapy failure. P-glycoprotein is one of the main causes of MDR by causing drug efflux in tumor cells. In order to solve this thorny problem, we prepared a sorafenib-loaded polylactic acid-glycolic acid (PLGA) - D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) nanoparticles (SPTNs). Read More

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Organocatalytic activity of granaticin and its involvement in bactericidal function.

Sci Rep 2022 Apr 29;12(1):7046. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Life Science Research Center, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, 252-0880, Japan.

We previously discovered that actinorhodin, a benzoisochromanequinone antibiotic produced by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), serves as a catalyst facilitating the oxidation of ascorbic acid and cysteine (PNAS 48:17,152, 2014). In the present study, we screened for similar ascorbic acid-oxidizing activity in the culture broth of various Streptomyces spp., and discovered marked activity in the culture broth of Streptomyces vietnamensis. Read More

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Proteomic profiling for ovarian development and azadirachtin exposure in Spodoptera litura during metamorphosis from pupae to adults.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Jun 26;237:113548. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Key Laboratory of Crop Integrated Pest Management in South China, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China; Key Laboratory of Natural Pesticide and Chemical Biology, Ministry of Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Azadirachtin is one of the most successful botanical pesticides in agricultural pest control. To build a repertoire of proteins and pathways in response to azadirachtin exposure during ovarian development, iTRAQ-based comparative proteomic was conducted. 1423 and 1686 proteins were identified as differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) by comparing the protein abundance in adult ovary with that in pupal ovary under normal and azadirachtin exposure condition, respectively. Read More

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Oxidative stress-mediated up-regulation of ABC transporters in lung cancer cells.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2022 Apr 27:e23095. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, School of Biomedical Engineering (Suzhou), University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

This paper aimed to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in the regulation of ABC transporters in human lung cancer (A549) cells facing substrate (doxorubicin, DOX) and nonsubstrate (ethanol, ETH and hydrogen peroxide, HP) chemicals. After 24-h treatment, all the chemicals caused significant cytotoxicity as reflected by the reduction in cell viability and the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Depending on the rescuing effects of ROS scavenger including glutathione (GSH) and Vitamin C, the toxicity dependence on oxidative stress were found to be HP > ETH > DOX. Read More

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E-cigarette (E-cig) liquid composition and operational voltage define the in vitro toxicity of Δ8Tetrahydrocannabinol/Vitamin E Acetate (Δ8THC/VEA) e-cig aerosols.

Toxicol Sci 2022 Apr 27. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, 665 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA.

The 2019 United States outbreak of E-cigarette (e-cig), or Vaping, Associated Acute Lung Injury (EVALI) has been linked to presence of vitamin E-acetate (VEA) in Δ8Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8THC)-containing e-liquids, as supported by VEA detection in patient biological samples. However, the pathogenesis of EVALI and the complex physicochemical properties of e-cig emissions remain unclear, raising concerns on health risks of vaping. This study investigates the effect of Δ8THC/VEA e-liquids and e-cig operational voltage on in-vitro toxicity of e-cig aerosols. Read More

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