20,932 results match your criteria Toxicity Vitamin


Natural products as safeguards against monosodium glutamate-induced toxicity.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2020 Apr;23(4):416-430

Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Monosodium glutamate is a sodium salt of a nonessential amino acid, L-glutamic acid, which is widely used in food industry. Glutamate plays an important role in principal brain functions including formation and stabilization of synapses, memory, cognition, learning, as well as cellular metabolism. However, ingestion of foodstuffs rich in monosodium glutamate can result in the outbreak of several health disorders such as neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, obesity and diabetes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2020.43060.10123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239414PMC

Optimization of hydrogenobyrinic acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli using multi-level metabolic engineering strategies.

Microb Cell Fact 2020 Jun 1;19(1):118. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, 300308, China.

Background: Hydrogenobyrinic acid is a key intermediate of the de-novo aerobic biosynthesis pathway of vitamin B. The introduction of a heterologous de novo vitamin B biosynthesis pathway in Escherichia coli offers an alternative approach for its production. Although E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-020-01377-2DOI Listing

Redox Interactions of Vitamin C and Iron: Inhibition of the Pro-Oxidant Activity by Deferiprone.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 31;21(11). Epub 2020 May 31.

Postgraduate Research Institute of Science, Technology, Environment and Medicine, CY-3504 Limassol, Cyprus.

Ascorbic acid (AscH) is one of the most important vitamins found in the human diet, with many biological functions including antioxidant, chelating, and coenzyme activities. Ascorbic acid is also widely used in a medical practice especially for increasing the iron absorption and as an adjuvant therapeutic in the iron chelation therapy, but its mode of action and implications in the iron metabolism and toxicity are not yet clear. In this study, we used UV-Vis spectrophotometry, NMR spectroscopy, and EPR spin trapping spectroscopy to investigate the antioxidant/pro-oxidant effects of ascorbic acid in reactions involving iron and the iron chelator deferiprone (L1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113967DOI Listing

Effects of foliar application of graphene oxide on cadmium uptake by lettuce.

J Hazard Mater 2020 May 19;398:122859. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shantou University, No. 243 Daxue Road, Shantou, Guangdong Province, 515063, China. Electronic address:

Although graphene oxide (GO) has been widely used to enhance soil quality and crop yield, there is currently little information regarding the effects of foliar application of GO on cadmium (Cd) toxicity to plants. In this study, we investigated the response to GO in lettuce cultivated under Cd stress in hydroponic conditions. Lettuce was grown from seeds in a nutrient solution supplemented with 2 mg/L Cd and the leaves were sprayed with 0, 30, and 60 mg/L GO. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122859DOI Listing

Spontaneous Axonal Dystrophy in the Brain and Spinal Cord in Naïve Beagle Dogs.

Toxicol Pathol 2020 Jun 1:192623320926475. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Global Pathology and Investigative Toxicology, Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT, USA.

Axonal dystrophy (AD) is a common age-related neurohistological finding in vertebrates that can be congenital or induced by xenobiotics, vitamin E deficiency, or trauma/compression. To understand the incidence and location of AD as a background finding in Beagle dogs used in routine toxicity studies, we examined central nervous system (CNS) and selected peripheral nervous system (PNS) tissues in twenty 18- to 24-month-old and ten 4- to 5-year-old control males and females. Both sexes were equally affected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623320926475DOI Listing

An overview on performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs) confiscated in Italy in the period 2017-2019.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2020 Jun 1:1-6. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Health Surveillance and Bioethics, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore F. Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

The illegal market of counterfeit and falsified medicines and supplements containing unlabeled pharmaceuticals is expanding worldwide. They are usually referred to by the term "performance and image enhancing drugs" (PIEDs) and are mainly steroids, stimulants, hormones, and drugs for erectile dysfunction. PIEDs are easily accessible through the online or black markets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2020.1770277DOI Listing

Study on the pharmacological character of an insulin-mimetic small molecular compound of vanadyl trehalose.

Physiol Res 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Science College, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

To investigate the effect of vanadyl trehalose (VT) on oxidative stress and reduced glutathione/glutathione-S-transferase (GSH/GSs) pathway gene expression in mouse gastrointestinal tract, as well as the protective effects of vitamin C (VC) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Thirty male Kunming mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group (group A), VT group (group B), VC + VT group (group C), GSH + VT group (group D) and VC + GSH + VT group (group E). The content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and the expressions of glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), glutathione synthetase (GSS), regulated through glutathione reductase (GSR) and glutathione-S-transferase pi (GSTpi) in stomach and duodenum in vanadyl trehalose treated group were lower than those in group A (P<0. Read More

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Photoactivatable Surface-Functionalized Diatom Microalgae for Colorectal Cancer Targeted Delivery and Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Anticancer Complexes.

Pharmaceutics 2020 May 25;12(5). Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Chemistry, Fribourg University, Chemin du Musée 9, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland.

Systemic toxicity and severe side effects are commonly associated with anticancer chemotherapies. New strategies based on enhanced drug selectivity and targeted delivery to cancer cells while leaving healthy tissue undamaged can reduce the global patient burden. Herein, we report the design, synthesis and characterization of a bio-inspired hybrid multifunctional drug delivery system based on diatom microalgae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12050480DOI Listing

Nanoencapsulation approaches for oral delivery of vitamin A.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2020 May 15;193:111121. Epub 2020 May 15.

LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Portugal, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313, Porto, Portugal.

Vitamin A is essential to human health. Encapsulation in lipid nanoparticles was used to overcome vitamin A poor water solubility in beverages. This work aimed to develop and characterize lipid nanoparticles, containing vitamin A, for food fortification, assuring its stability and oral bioaccessibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2020.111121DOI Listing

Nanoparticle delivery of a pH-sensitive prodrug of doxorubicin and a mitochondrial targeting VES-HR synergistically kill multi-drug resistant breast cancer cells.

Sci Rep 2020 May 26;10(1):8726. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3E5, Canada.

Multi-drug resistance (MDR) remains a major obstacle in cancer treatment while being heavily dependent on mitochondrial activity and drug efflux. We previously demonstrated that cationic lipids, such as the vitamin E succinate modified octahistidine-octaarginine (VES-HR) conjugate, target mitochondria, resulting in depolarized mitochondria and inhibited drug efflux in MDR breast cancer cells. We hypothesized that the effective cell uptake, efflux inhibition, and mitochondrial depolarization properties of VES-HR would synergistically enhance the toxicity of a pH-sensitive prodrug of doxorubicin (pDox) when co-encapsulated in nanoparticles (NPs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65450-xDOI Listing

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities, Cytotoxicity of Del Bark Extracts and Isolated Compounds.

Molecules 2020 May 21;25(10). Epub 2020 May 21.

Université de Lorraine, CNRS, L2CM, F-54000 Nancy, France.

Water extract of bark is used traditionally by the population in Djibouti for its anti-infectious activity. The evaluation of in vitro antibacterial, antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity as well as chemical characterization of bark water and methanolic extracts were presented. The water extract has a toxicity against the MRC-5 cells at 256 μg/mL while the methanolic extract has a weak toxicity at the same concentration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102392DOI Listing
May 2020
2.416 Impact Factor

Evaluation of blood oxidant/antioxidant changes and testicular toxicity after subacute exposure to cadmium in albino rats: Therapeutic effect of Nigella sativa seed extracts.

Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar. Nigeria.

Aim And Objective: Cells and tissues of the body are prone to oxidative damage as a result of increased level of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen radical beyond the detoxifying ability of the endogenous antioxidant system. This study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of methanolic extracts of Nigella sativa (MENS) against cadmium-induced blood oxidative stress and testicular toxicity in albino rats.

Materials And Methods: Twenty five (25) male albino rats, weighing (200±20g), were randomly grouped into five groups (A-E). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1386207323666200526134923DOI Listing

Uptake and toxicity of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in Brassica chinensis L.

Chemosphere 2020 Aug 30;252:126640. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

College of Oceanology and Food Science, Quanzhou Normal University/Key Laboratory of Inshore Resources Biotechnology, Quanzhou, 362000, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Food Quality and Safety-State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Ministry of Science and Technology, 50 Zhongling Street, Nanjing, 210014, China. Electronic address:

This work focuses on the bioaccumulation and toxic effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the leafy vegetable Shanghaiqing (SHQ) (Brassica chinensis L.). The accumulated DEHP amount in the edible part and roots of SHQ increased as the DEHP concentration in the soil increased. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126640DOI Listing

Iron chaperone PCBP1 protects murine liver from lipid peroxidation and steatosis.

Hepatology 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Genetics and Metabolism Section, NIDDK, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Iron is essential yet also highly chemically reactive and potentially toxic. The mechanisms that allow cells to use iron safely are not clear; defects in iron management are a causative factor in the cell death pathway known as ferroptosis. Poly rC binding protein 1 (PCBP1) is a multifunctional protein that serves as a cytosolic iron chaperone, binding and transferring iron to recipient proteins in mammalian cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31328DOI Listing

Cardiac toxicity of heavy metals (cadmium and mercury) and pharmacological intervention by vitamin C in rabbits.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 May 21. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Zoology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan.

Mercury and cadmium are highly dangerous metals that can lead to disastrous effects in animals and humans. The aim of the current research was to elucidate the poisonous effects of mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride individually and in combination on biochemical profiles of plasma and their accumulation in heart. The therapeutic effect of vitamin C against these metals in rabbits was also studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09011-9DOI Listing
May 2020
2.828 Impact Factor

UPLC/MS/MS-Based Metabolomics Study of the Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Rats Induced by Thunb.

ACS Omega 2020 May 28;5(18):10489-10500. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, No. 11, Bei San Huan Dong Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100078, P. R. China.

Thunb. (PM) is one of the most frequently used natural products in China. Its hepatotoxicity has been proven and reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c00647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227050PMC

Dual Receptor-Targeted and Redox-Sensitive Polymeric Micelles Self-Assembled from a Folic Acid-Hyaluronic Acid-SS-Vitamin E Succinate Polymer for Precise Cancer Therapy.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 24;15:2885-2902. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Poor site-specific delivery and insufficient intracellular drug release in tumors are inherent disadvantages to successful chemotherapy. In this study, an extraordinary polymeric micelle nanoplatform was designed for the efficient delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) by combining dual receptor-mediated active targeting and stimuli response to intracellular reduction potential.

Methods: The dual-targeted redox-sensitive polymer, folic acid-hyaluronic acid-SS-vitamin E succinate (FHSV), was synthesized via an amidation reaction and characterized by H-NMR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S249205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188338PMC

Detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue using the alkali-activated cementitious materials mixed with ascorbic acid.

J Environ Manage 2020 Jul 27;265:110350. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, China; College of Resource and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, China. Electronic address:

The existence of leachable Cr(Ⅵ) in chromite ore processing residue (COPR) makes it hazardous waste. Therefore, resourceful utilization of COPR is necessary to protect the ecosystem and living biota from hazardous effect of Cr(Ⅵ) caused by its leaching. In this study, detoxification and immobilization of COPR was carried out through introduction of ascorbic acid (AA) in alkali-activated cementitious materials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110350DOI Listing

Potential Protective Effects of Naringin on Oculo-Pulmonary Injury Induced by PM (Wood Smoke) Exposure by Modulation of Oxidative Damage and Acetylcholine Esterase Activity in a Rat Model.

Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 2020 20;92:100586. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Toxicology and Safety Unit, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo, Nigeria.

Background: Millions of households in the world depend on wood and biomass for cooking and heating. This dependence leads to undesirable toxic effects, such as ocular and pulmonary toxicity.

Objectives: The present study examined the potential oculoprotective and pulmonary protective activity of naringin (NRG), a naturally occurring flavonoid, against wood smoke (WS)-induced toxicity in a rat model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.curtheres.2020.100586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214769PMC

Exogenous vitamin C triggered structural changes of redox-activated dual core-crosslinked biodegradable nanogels for boosting the antitumor efficiency.

J Mater Chem B 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, P. R. China.

Premature leakage of drugs during blood circulation and slow drug release at the tumor site are two major challenges that nanocarriers have to overcome to achieve successful cancer therapy. Herein, a dual core-crosslinked, redox-sensitive polymeric nanogel (sDL) was constructed by the self-assembly of two star-shaped amphiphilic copolymers (4sP(EG-b-LLA)-N3, 4sP(EG-b-DLA)-N3) in the presence of a redox-sensitive crosslinker (d-ss-Bu), where hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used as the shell and the functional hydrophobic poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactide) (PDLA) were used as the dual crosslinked core via stereocomplex formation and chemical interactions. The dual core-crosslinked structure of the nanogels allowed for almost 2-fold enhanced doxorubicin (DOX)-loading capacity, favorable structural stability to restrict the premature leakage of therapeutic drug and smaller particle size to accelerate the internalization efficiency compared to non-crosslinked nanocarriers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0tb00356eDOI Listing

A label-free multifunctional nanosensor based on N-doped carbon nanodots for vitamin B and Co detection, and bioimaging in living cells and zebrafish.

J Mater Chem B 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Institute of Environmental Science, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China.

Multifunctional N-doped carbon nanodots (N-CNDs) with a fluorescence (FL) quantum yield (QY) of 13.6% have been synthesized via a facile one-step hydrothermal process using Artemisia annua and 1,2-ethylenediamine as precursors. As-prepared N-CNDs showed excellent FL properties and were developed as a multifunctional sensing platform for vitamin B12 (VB12) and Co2+ determination, and bioimaging in living cells and zebrafish. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0tb00443jDOI Listing

Mitigation of arsenic driven utero-ovarian malfunction and changes of apoptotic gene expression by dietary NAC.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Aug 8;199:110675. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science and Management and Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Division, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, 721102, West Bengal, India. Electronic address:

An oral painless dietary therapy is also indispensable in the management of arsenic toxicity despite of its conventional painful therapeutic management. The present study focused on the management of arsenic mediated female reproductive dysfunctions by dietary therapy of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Here, sodium arsenite was given at the dose of 10 mg/kg body weight orally for the first 8 day. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110675DOI Listing

Oxidative Stress and BPA Toxicity: An Antioxidant Approach for Male and Female Reproductive Dysfunction.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 May 10;9(5). Epub 2020 May 10.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, Federico II University of Naples, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples, Italy.

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a non-persistent anthropic and environmentally ubiquitous compound widely employed and detected in many consumer products and food items; thus, human exposure is prolonged. Over the last ten years, many studies have examined the underlying molecular mechanisms of BPA toxicity and revealed links among BPA-induced oxidative stress, male and female reproductive defects, and human disease. Because of its hormone-like feature, BPA shows tissue effects on specific hormone receptors in target cells, triggering noxious cellular responses associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050405DOI Listing

Reformulating Small Molecules for Cardiovascular Disease Immune Intervention: Low-Dose Combined Vitamin D/Dexamethasone Promotes IL-10 Production and Atheroprotection in Dyslipidemic Mice.

Front Immunol 2020 24;11:743. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Grupo Inmunomodulación (GIM), Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas, Facultad de Medicina, Corporación Académica para el Estudio de Patologías Tropicales (CAEPT), Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia.

The targeting of proinflammatory pathways has a prophylactic and therapeutic potential on atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD). An alternative/complementary strategy is the promotion of endogenous atheroprotective mechanisms that are impaired during atherosclerosis progression, such as the activity of tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDC) and regulatory T cells (Treg). There is a need to develop novel low cost, safe and effective tolDC/Treg-inducing formulations that are atheroprotective and that can be of easy translation into clinical settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00743DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197409PMC

Synergistic effect of fasting-mimicking diet and vitamin C against KRAS mutated cancers.

Nat Commun 2020 May 11;11(1):2332. Epub 2020 May 11.

IFOM, FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology, Milan, Italy.

Fasting-mimicking diets delay tumor progression and sensitize a wide range of tumors to chemotherapy, but their therapeutic potential in combination with non-cytotoxic compounds is poorly understood. Here we show that vitamin C anticancer activity is limited by the up-regulation of the stress-inducible protein heme-oxygenase-1. The fasting-mimicking diet selectivity reverses vitamin C-induced up-regulation of heme-oxygenase-1 and ferritin in KRAS-mutant cancer cells, consequently increasing reactive iron, oxygen species, and cell death; an effect further potentiated by chemotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16243-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214421PMC

Discovery of the First Vitamin K Analogue as a Potential Treatment of Pharmacoresistant Seizures.

J Med Chem 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Neuroene Therapeutics, Mount Pleasant, South Carolina 29464, United States.

Despite the availability of more than 25 antiseizure drugs on the market, approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy still suffer from seizures. Thus, the epilepsy therapy market has a great need for a breakthrough drug that will aid pharmacoresistant patients. In our previous study, we discovered a vitamin K analogue, , which displayed modest antiseizure activity in zebrafish and mouse seizure models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c00168DOI Listing

Premature epiphyseal growth plate arrest after isotretinoin therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma: A case series and review of the literature.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 May 9:e28236. Epub 2020 May 9.

Children's Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Vitamin A-derived retinoids have been reported to cause skeletal abnormalities ranging from hypercalcemia to premature epiphyseal closure. Isotretinoin is a retinoid used as standard therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma and has been reported to cause premature epiphyseal growth plate arrest.

Procedure: We identified patients from the Children's Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) database with high-risk neuroblastoma diagnosed from 1991 to 2018 who experienced premature epiphyseal growth plate arrest and compared their characteristics to other patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28236DOI Listing

Toward a Stable and Potent Coenzyme A-Targeting Antiplasmodial Agent: Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of -Phenethyl-α-methyl-pantothenamide.

ACS Infect Dis 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Biochemistry, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa.

Pantothenamides (PanAms) are potent antiplasmodials with low human toxicity currently being investigated as antimalarials with a novel mode of action. These structural analogues of pantothenate, the vitamin precursor of the essential cofactor coenzyme A, are susceptible to degradation by pantetheinase enzymes present in serum. We previously discovered that α-methylation of the β-alanine moiety of PanAms increases their stability in serum and identified -phenethyl-α-methyl-pantothenamide as a pantetheinase-resistant PanAm with potent, on-target, and selective antiplasmodial activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.0c00075DOI Listing

Plasma metabolite biomarkers predictive of radiation induced cardiotoxicity.

Radiother Oncol 2020 Apr 20. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington D.C., United States; Department of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington D.C., United States. Electronic address:

Purpose: Although advancements in cancer treatments using radiation therapy (RT) have led to improved outcomes, radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in survivors of cancers in the chest. Currently, there are no diagnostic tests in clinical use due to a lack of understanding of the natural history and mechanisms of RIHD development. Few studies have examined the utility of using metabolomics to prospectively identify cancer survivors who are at risk of developing cardiotoxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.04.018DOI Listing

Post-natal all-trans-retinoic acid biosynthesis.

Authors:
Joseph L Napoli

Methods Enzymol 2020 17;637:27-54. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Graduate Program in Metabolic Biology, Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Generation of the autacoid all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) from retinol (vitamin A) relies on a complex metabolon that includes retinol binding-proteins and enzymes from the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene families. Serum retinol binding-protein delivers all-trans-retinol (vitamin A) from blood to cells through two membrane receptors, Stra6 and Rbpr2. Stra6 and Rbpr2 convey retinol to cellular retinol binding-protein type 1 (Crbp1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.mie.2020.02.003DOI Listing

Subacute combined degeneration induced by nitrous oxide inhalation: Two case reports.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 May;99(18):e19926

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, 16 Jiangsu Road, Qingdao, Shandong Province.

Rationale: Nitrous oxide (N2O), commonly known as "laughing gas," is being increasingly abused by young people as a recreational drug; this can subsequently result in myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy, however, in China, few cases of neurologic deterioration by N2O abuse have been reported.

Patient Concerns: Herein, we present 2 patients who developed progressive limb weakness, numbness, and ataxia. Both of them had recreationally inhaled N2O intermittently for a long time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019926DOI Listing

E-Cigarettes, Vaping Devices, and Acute Lung Injury.

Respir Care 2020 May;65(5):713-718

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, District of Columbia.

"E-cigarettes" are a class of consumer devices designed to deliver drugs, primarily nicotine or marijuana oils, to the lung by vaporization. Regulation of the devices in the United States is relatively minimal, and research on both epidemiology and potential toxicity has focused on nicotine devices. In 2019, an outbreak of an acute respiratory illness in the United States was traced back to the contamination of e-cigarette fluids with vitamin E acetate, which had been used to disguise the dilution of marijuana oils. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.07733DOI Listing

Effects of Vitamin D Receptor, Metallothionein 1A, and 2A Gene Polymorphisms on Toxicity of the Peripheral Nervous System in Chronically Lead-Exposed Workers.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Apr 23;17(8). Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan.

Chronic exposure to lead is neurotoxic to the human peripheral sensory system. Variant genes and polymorphisms of metallothioneins (MTs) are associated with different outcomes following lead toxicity. However, no evidence of a relationship between lead neurotoxicity and polymorphisms has previously been presented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7215364PMC

Assessing the impact of arsenic metabolism efficiency on DNA methylation using Mendelian randomization.

Environ Epidemiol 2020 Apr 9;4(2):e083. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Department of Public Health Sciences, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Arsenic exposure affects >100 million people globally and increases risk for chronic diseases. One possible toxicity mechanism is epigenetic modification. Previous epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have identified associations between arsenic exposure and CpG-specific DNA methylation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EE9.0000000000000083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7147391PMC

Major Depression in Children with Transfusion-Dependent Thalassemia Is Strongly Associated with the Combined Effects of Blood Transfusion Rate, Iron Overload, and Increased Pro-inflammatory Cytokines.

Neurotox Res 2020 Jun 25;38(1):228-241. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Beta-thalassemia major patients are treated with repeated blood transfusions, which may cause iron overload, which in turn may induce immune aberrations, and show an increased risk of depression. The aim of the present study is to examine whether repeated blood transfusions, iron overload, and immune-inflammatory responses are associated with depression in children (6-12 years) with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT). The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), iron status (serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, TS%), and serum levels of CCL11, IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α were measured in TDT with (n = 54) and without (n = 57) a major depression-like episode (MDLE) and in healthy children (n = 55). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-020-00193-1DOI Listing
June 2020
3.538 Impact Factor

New therapeutic strategies for combatting gastrointestinal toxicity.

Curr Opin Support Palliat Care 2020 Jun;14(2):142-152

UniSA: Clinical and Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: An overwhelming majority of chemotherapy agents are known to cause gastrointestinal mucositis, an unwanted side effect of cancer treatment, for which no effective treatment currently exists. The pathological processes underlying the development of gastrointestinal mucositis are many and varied, with multiple pathways thought to be involved in initiation of inflammation and apoptosis. Physiological and or biochemical-based deficiencies, such as vitamin D deficiency and gut microbiome density and population, are also thought to have an impact on mucositis severity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SPC.0000000000000500DOI Listing

Calcitriol tablets with hybrid lipid-based solid dispersions with enhanced stability and content uniformity.

Pharm Dev Technol 2020 May 12:1-9. Epub 2020 May 12.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, P. R. China.

Calcitriol, as the biologically active form of vitamin D, is essential for patients with renal osteopathy. The solubilization, stabilization, and content uniformity are key issues in its formulation development. In our previous study, the incomplete release of calcitriol was solved by using the hybrid lipid-based solid dispersion (SD) for calcitriol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10837450.2020.1760297DOI Listing

Double Robertsonian translocations in an infertile patient with macrocytic anemia: a case report.

Mol Cytogenet 2020 16;13:14. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

1Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Laboratory Medicine, West Virginia University, Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 USA.

Background: Constitutional heterologous double Robertsonian translocations (DRT) between chromosomes 13/14 and chromosomes 14/15 with 44 chromosomes are extremely rare. In this case report, we present the karyotype analysis of metaphases prepared from bone marrow, peripheral blood and cultured skin tissue cells. These showed only 44 chromosomes with DRT involving chromosomes 13, 14 and 15. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13039-020-00482-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7164144PMC

Ameliorative effect of edible Halopteris scoparia against cadmium-induced reproductive toxicity in male mice: A biochemical and histopathologic study.

Andrologia 2020 Apr 22:e13591. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Gynecologic and Obstetric Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal affecting the reproductive system. Halopteris scoparia (brown algae) is generally consumed as a salad in the Far East countries. This study was conducted to compare and determine the possible protective effects of H. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/and.13591DOI Listing

Dietary supplement use by older adults with chronic venous leg ulcers: A retrospective, descriptive study.

Authors:
Jodi C McDaniel

Wound Repair Regen 2020 Apr 21. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

College of Nursing, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Nearly 70% of older adults in the U.S. report using ≥1 dietary supplements (DSs) daily. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/wrr.12821DOI Listing

Review of Health Consequences of Electronic Cigarettes and the Outbreak of Electronic Cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use-Associated Lung Injury.

J Med Toxicol 2020 Apr 16. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

North Texas Poison Center, Parkland Health and Hospital System, Dallas, TX, USA.

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-operated devices to insufflate nicotine or other psychoactive e-liquid aerosols. Despite initial claims of e-cigarettes as a nicotine-cessation device, aggressive marketing of e-cigarettes has led to an explosion in adolescents' and young adults' use over the last few years. Coupled with a lack of adequate investigation and regulation of e-cigarettes, the USA is facing an outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) starting in mid-2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13181-020-00772-wDOI Listing

Daily versus stat vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy; A prospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2020 16;15(4):e0231590. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Institute of Pharmacy, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan.

Background: Despite favorable climatic conditions, vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is widespread in Pakistan. Current study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of VDD in Pakistani pregnant women and effectiveness of various regimen of Vitamin D supplementation.

Methodology: This hospital-based prospective cohort study included pregnant women at 12th to 24th weeks of gestation attending Gynae clinic from October 2018 to April 2019. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231590PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7162461PMC
April 2020
3.234 Impact Factor

Liver toxicity from vitamin A.

JGH Open 2020 Apr 30;4(2):287-288. Epub 2019 May 30.

Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology Wellington Regional Hospital Wellington New Zealand.

Hepatic toxicity secondary to hypervitaminosis A is extremely rare. We report the case of a 27-year-old Caucasian female who presented for an investigation of abdominal pain, cholestatic liver function tests, and abnormal computerized tomography findings. She had been prescribed isotretinoin for her acne and had subsequently purchased vitamin A online, which she consumed daily for over 18 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgh3.12201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7144761PMC

The potential toxic effects of hexavalent chromium on oxidative stress biomarkers and fatty acids profile in soft tissues of Venus verrucosa.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Jun 8;196:110562. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Animal Physiology Laboratory, Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax, University of Sfax, 3000, Sfax, Tunisia; Laboratory of Ecology, Biology and Physiology of Aquatic Organisms, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 2092, Tunis, Tunisia.

Hexavalent chromium (chromium (VI)), a highly toxic heavy metal, is a common pollutant of aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to elucidate the potential toxic effects of chromium (VI) on oxidative stress biomarkers and fatty acids profile in the gills and digestive gland of Venus verrucosa, an ecologically and economically important bivalve species. Three doses of chromium (VI) (1, 10 and 100 μg. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110562DOI Listing

Predominant role of antioxidants in ameliorating the oxidative stress induced by pesticides.

Arch Environ Occup Health 2020 Apr 9:1-14. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Scientist-C, Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi, India.

Oxidative stress has been reported as one of the adverse effects caused due to pesticides, which is the main mechanism of the toxicity in humans and animals and is a useful parameter in monitoring studies. It involves an imbalance in the equilibrium state of ROS and antioxidant defenses leading to alterations in various antioxidant enzyme levels and lipid peroxidation. The objective of the current paper is to present a review of the potential role and protective mechanism action of the antioxidant micronutrient supplementation to ameliorate the oxidative stress induced by pesticides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19338244.2020.1750333DOI Listing

Vitamin D Toxicity.

J Bras Nefrol 2020 Apr 3. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA, EUA.

Fortification of food products with vitamin D was central to the eradication of rickets in the early parts of the 20th century in the United States. In the subsequent almost 100 years since, accumulating evidence has linked vitamin D deficiency to a variety of outcomes, and this has paralleled greater public interest and awareness of the health benefits of vitamin D. Supplements containing vitamin D are now widely available in both industrialized and developing countries, and many are in the form of unregulated formulations sold to the public with little guidance for safe administration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2175-8239-JBN-2019-0192DOI Listing

pH-sensitive small molecule nanodrug self-assembled from amphiphilic vitamin B6-E analogue conjugate for targeted synergistic cancer therapy.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2020 Jul 28;191:111000. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials, Anhui Key Laboratory of Modern Biomanufacturing, School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, 111 Jiulong Road, Hefei, Anhui Province, 230601, PR China. Electronic address:

To promote the targeted cancer therapy, the pH-sensitive small molecule nanodrug self-assembled from amphiphilic vitamin B6-E analogue conjugate was successfully constructed. Herein, water-soluble vitamin B6 with pKa (5.6) was chemically conjugated to lipid-soluble vitamin E succinate (α-TOS), which showed selective cancer cell killing ability and this amphiphilic small molecule vitamin conjugate could self-assemble to be free nanoparticles (NPs) and doxorubicin-loaded NPs (α-TOS-B6-NPs-DOX). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2020.111000DOI Listing

EVALI and the Pulmonary Toxicity of Electronic Cigarettes: A Review.

J Gen Intern Med 2020 Apr 3. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, NYU Winthrop Hospital, 222 Station Plaza North, Suite 400, Mineola, NY, 11501, USA.

Electronic cigarettes are a novel and emerging product increasingly used by the general public. However, despite their popularity, they remain poorly studied and with likely serious health risks. EVALI, or "electronic cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury," is a recently described entity at the forefront of current investigations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-05813-2DOI Listing

An overview of statin-induced myopathy and perspectives for the future.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2020 May 13;19(5):601-615. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Health Promotion Sciences Maternal and Infantile Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties (PROMISE), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

: Statins remain the most commonly prescribed lipid-lowering drug class for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Their well-recognized side effects are known as statin-associated muscle symptom (SAMS). Some advances in this field have been made in recent years, but the understanding of the mechanisms has lagged. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14740338.2020.1747431DOI Listing