45 results match your criteria Toxicity Toxaphene and Organochlorine


Transcriptome and physiological effects of toxaphene on the liver-gonad reproductive axis in male and female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2020 12 19;36:100746. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States of America; UF Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States of America; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States of America. Electronic address:

Toxaphene is an organochlorine pesticide and environmental contaminant that is concerning due to its atmospheric transport and persistence in soil. In Florida, toxaphene and other organochlorine pesticides were used heavily in agriculture on the north shore of Lake Apopka and they are still detectable in soil. Wild largemouth bass that inhabit the lake and the marshes along the north shore have been exposed to a variety of organochlorine pesticides including dieldrin, methoxychlor, and p,p'-DDE, among others. Read More

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December 2020

Organochlorine pesticides: Agrochemicals with potent endocrine-disrupting properties in fish.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2020 05 26;507:110764. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, UF, USA; Genetics Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA. Electronic address:

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are persistent environmental contaminants that act as endocrine disruptors and organ system toxicants. These pesticides (e.g. Read More

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The organochlorine pesticide toxaphene reduces non-mitochondrial respiration and induces heat shock protein 70 expression in early-staged zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Feb 9;228:108669. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, UF Genetics Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Electronic address:

Toxaphene is a restricted-use pesticide produced by reacting chlorine gas with camphene. It was heavily used as a pesticide for agricultural purposes in the 1960-1970s, but despite being banned >30 years ago, it can remain elevated in the soil due to its resistance to metabolic degradation; this has led to longstanding concerns about elevated levels of toxaphene and other organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the environment. The objective of this study were to determine the effects of waterborne exposure to toxaphene on early life stages of zebrafish. Read More

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February 2020

A prospective study of cancer risk among Agricultural Health Study farm spouses associated with personal use of organochlorine insecticides.

Environ Health 2017 09 6;16(1):95. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Organochlorine insecticides (OCs) have historically been used worldwide to control insects, although most have now been banned in developed countries. Evidence for an association between OC exposures and cancer predominantly comes from occupational and population based-studies among men. We evaluated the association between the use of specific OCs and cancer among the female spouses of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Read More

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September 2017

Are Fish Consumption Advisories for the Great Lakes Adequately Protective against Chemical Mixtures?

Environ Health Perspect 2017 04 4;125(4):586-593. Epub 2016 Oct 4.

Department of Physical & Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The North American Great Lakes are home to > 140 types of fish and are famous for recreational and commercial fishing. However, the presence of toxic substances has resulted in the issuance of fish consumption advisories that are typically based on the most restrictive contaminant.

Objectives: We investigated whether these advisories, which typically neglect the existence of a mixture of chemicals and their possible additive adverse effects, are adequately protective of the health of humans consuming fish from the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes. Read More

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Fumio Matsumura--accomplishments at the University of California, Davis, and in the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

Authors:
James N Seiber

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2015 May 14;120:64-7. Epub 2014 Nov 14.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Electronic address:

Fumio Matsumura joined the University of California, Davis, faculty in 1987 where he served as founding director of the Center for Environmental Health Sciences, associate director of the U.C. Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program, and chair of the Department of Environmental Toxicology. Read More

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Remediation of lindane using engineered nanoparticles.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2011 Feb;7(1):172-4

Eco-Auditing Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute (CSIR), Lucknow 226001, India.

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, toxaphene and hexachlorocyclohexane) are chemical pollutants found in all environmental media. There is an urgent need to stop the usage and develop innovative strategies for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. The present work was aimed to evaluate the (i) interaction of fullerene with lindane and its role in the remediation of lindane from contaminated systems and (ii) compare the interaction of fullerene with lindane and trichloroethylene. Read More

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February 2011

Current status and regulatory aspects of pesticides considered to be persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Taiwan.

Authors:
Wen-Tien Tsai

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2010 10 12;7(10):3615-27. Epub 2010 Oct 12.

Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan.

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are capable of persisting in the environment, transporting between phase media and accumulating to high levels, implying that they could pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. Consequently, most OCPs are designated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and even as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The objective of this paper was to review the current status of pesticide POPs in Taiwan, including aldrin, chlordane, chlordecone, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, α/β-hexachlorocyclohexanes, lindane, mirex, pentachloro-benzene, and toxaphene. Read More

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October 2010

Persistent organochlorine pollutants and toxaphene congener profiles in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia, USA.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2009 Jul 9;28(7):1390-9. Epub 2009 Feb 9.

Marine Sciences Department, Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia 31404, USA.

Although the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia (USA) is severely contaminated by persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), little information regarding POPs in higher-trophic-level biota in this system is available. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; including DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex), and chlorinated monoterpenes (toxaphene) were measured using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) in blubber of free-ranging and stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Mean total PCBs (78. Read More

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Environmental contaminants in white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica asiatica) from the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, USA.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2009 Aug 27;57(2):387-96. Epub 2008 Dec 27.

Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, 700 University Boulevard, MSC 218, Kingsville, TX 78363, USA.

Our study determined if white-winged doves (WWDs; Zenaida asiatica asiatica) breeding in locations where environmentally persistent contaminants occur in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas have levels of contaminants that can hinder reproduction. During summer 2003, 70 (32 males, 38 females) adult WWDs were collected from 8 at-risk sites. Liver tissues were analyzed for ten major and trace elements and muscle tissues were analyzed for 20 organochlorine compounds, 21 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, and toxaphene. Read More

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Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility.

Environ Pollut 2009 Feb 11;157(2):582-91. Epub 2008 Oct 11.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), 4200 New Haven Road, Columbia, MO 65201, USA.

Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Read More

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February 2009

Environmental contaminants in freshwater fish and their risk to piscivorous wildlife based on a national monitoring program.

Environ Monit Assess 2009 May 2;152(1-4):469-94. Epub 2008 Jul 2.

U.S. Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, 4200 New Haven Rd., Columbia, MO 65201, USA.

Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental concentrations were measured in piscivorous and benthivorous fish at 111 sites from large U.S. river basins. Read More

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Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries.

Sci Total Environ 2007 Jun 5;378(3):376-402. Epub 2007 Apr 5.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), Columbia, MO 65201, USA.

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Read More

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Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in Northern Pike (Esox lucius) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2007 May 29;52(4):549-62. Epub 2007 Mar 29.

Columbia Environmental Research Center, United States Geological Survey, Columbia, MO 65201, USA.

As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with organochlorine pesticide (total p,p'-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite of biomarkers including somatic indices, hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, vitellogenin concentrations, steroid hormone (17B- ustradiol and 16-kebtestosteront) concentrations, splenic macrophage aggregates (MAs), oocyte atresia, and other microscopic anomalies in various tissues were documented in YRB pike. Mean condition factor (0. Read More

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Synthesis of low and high chlorinated toxaphene and comparison of their toxicity by zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo test.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2006 Nov;25(11):2884-9

University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry (170), Garbenstrasse 28, DE-70599 Stuttgart, Germany.

Toxaphene, also known as camphechlor, is a persistent organochlorine pesticide of complex composition. It is technically produced by photochlorination of camphene with elemental chlorine gas under ultraviolet irradiation. In the present work, a novel, laboratory-scale synthesis using sulfuryl chloride as a chlorinating reagent is described. Read More

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November 2006

Environmental contaminants in fish and their associated risk to piscivorous wildlife in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2006 Nov 23;51(4):661-72. Epub 2006 Sep 23.

US Geological Survey (USGS), Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), 4200 New Haven Rd., Columbia, MO 65201, USA.

Organochlorine chemical residues and elemental contaminants were measured in northern pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) from 10 sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB) during 2002. Contaminant concentrations were compared to historical YRB data and to toxicity thresholds for fish and piscivorous wildlife from the scientific literature. A risk analysis was conducted to screen for potential hazards to piscivorous wildlife for contaminants that exceeded literature-based toxicity thresholds. Read More

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November 2006

Up-regulation of the alligator CYP3A77 gene by toxaphene and dexamethasone and its short term effect on plasma testosterone concentrations.

Aquat Toxicol 2006 Jun 18;78(3):272-83. Epub 2006 Apr 18.

Department of Zoology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118525, Gainesville, FL 32611-8525, United States.

In this study we describe an alligator hepatic CYP3A gene, CYP3A77, which is inducible by dexamethasone and toxaphene. CYP3A plays a broad role in biotransforming both exogenous compounds and endogenous hormones such as testosterone and estradiol. Alligators collected from sites in Florida that are contaminated with organochlorine compounds exhibit differences in sex steroid concentrations. Read More

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Identification of new human pregnane X receptor ligands among pesticides using a stable reporter cell system.

Toxicol Sci 2006 Jun 24;91(2):501-9. Epub 2006 Mar 24.

INSERM, U540, F-34090 Montpellier, France.

Pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) is activated by various chemically unrelated compounds, including environmental pollutants and drugs. We proceeded here to in vitro screening of 28 pesticides with a new reporter system that detects human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) activators. The cell line was obtained by a two-step stable transfection of cervical cancer HeLa cells. Read More

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Polychlorinated biphenyls and toxaphene in preferred prey fish of coastal southeastern U.S. bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

Environ Toxicol Chem 2005 Dec;24(12):3128-36

Marine Science Program, Savannah State University, Georgia 31404, USA.

Legacy organochlorine (OC) contaminants continue to pose a potential risk to ecological and human health in coastal aquatic ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxaphene (TOX) were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in 77 composites of four inshore fish species commonly preyed upon by bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from estuaries near Savannah, Georgia (SAV), Brunswick, Georgia (BRN), and Jacksonville, Florida (JAX), USA. Whereas seasonal and species-specific differences were minimal, differences among mean total PCB concentrations (sigmaPCBs) by estuary (42. Read More

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December 2005

Environmental contaminants and biomarker responses in fish from the Rio Grande and its U.S. tributaries: spatial and temporal trends.

Sci Total Environ 2005 Nov 17;350(1-3):161-93. Epub 2005 Mar 17.

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), 4200 New Haven Rd., Columbia, MO 65201, USA.

We collected, examined, and analyzed 368 fish of seven species from 10 sites on rivers of the Rio Grande Basin (RGB) during late 1997 and early 1998 to document temporal and geographic trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants and to assess contaminant effects on the fish. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Rio Grande and on the Arroyo Colorado and Pecos River in Texas (TX), New Mexico (NM), and Colorado. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were the targeted species. Read More

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November 2005

Factors influencing persistent organic pollutant concentrations in the Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus).

Environ Toxicol Chem 2005 May;24(5):1079-87

Department of Environmental Health and Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29205, USA.

Assessing the trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in cetaceans is difficult because of age and gender influences on accumulation. Persistent organic pollutants bioaccumulate and are poorly metabolized; hence, concentrations may increase with age in males while females reduce their POP burden through parturition and lactation. Age and gender effects on contaminant concentrations are species specific because of life history and reproductive strategies. Read More

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Growth, nutritional composition, and hematology of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) exposed to toxaphene and tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium dendriticum) larvae.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2005 Apr 2;48(3):397-404. Epub 2005 Feb 2.

Department of Natural Resource Sciences, MacDonald Campus, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.

Toxaphene, an organochlorine pesticide, is the major contaminant of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) in the Canadian Arctic. The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of toxaphene exposure and infection by the larval stage of the cestode Diphyllobothrium dendriticum on fish growth, nutritional composition, and hematology. Hatchery-reared Arctic charr were subjected to one of four treatments: (1) oral administration of corn oil (control); (2) single oral dose of 10 microg/g wet wt toxaphene dissolved in corn oil; (3) exposure to 15 larval D. Read More

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Organochlorine insecticides: impacts on human HepG2 cytochrome P4501A, 2B activities and glutathione levels.

Toxicol In Vitro 2005 Mar;19(2):261-73

Department of Biology, Canisius College, 2001 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14208, USA.

This study examined the effects of the organochlorine (OC) insecticides chlordane, o,p'-DDT, dieldrin, endosulfan, kepone, methoxychlor, and toxaphene on human HepG2 cytochrome P450 (1A-EROD and 2B-PROD) activities and glutathione (GSH) levels. Cells were exposed for 24 h at high concentrations (1, 5 or 10 mM) and for 48 h at lower concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1 mM to evaluate dose responses. Read More

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Developmental effects of embryonic exposure to toxaphene in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2004 May;138(1):81-7

Department of Zoology, University of Florida, 223 Bartram Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611-8525, USA.

A variety of organochlorine pesticides have been shown to adversely affect embryonic development. A number of abnormalities have been documented in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from highly-contaminated Lake Apopka, FL, USA that are similar to the results of experimental studies exposing embryos to pesticides. In the current study, we exposed developing alligator embryos to varying concentrations of toxaphene, a broad-spectrum pesticide found in relatively high concentration in Lake Apopka alligator egg yolk. Read More

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Achieving environmentally relevant organochlorine pesticide concentrations in eggs through maternal exposure in Alligator mississippiensis.

Mar Environ Res 2004 Aug-Dec;58(2-5):851-6

USGS-BRD Florida Integrated Science Center, Center for Aquatic Resource Studies, Gainesville, FL 32653, USA.

Alligator mississippiensis eggs from organochlorine pesticide (OCP) contaminated sites in Florida exhibit high rates of embryonic mortality compared to reference sites (P < 0.05). The objective of the present study was to use captive adult alligators to test the hypotheses that maternal exposure to OCPs results in increased OCP concentrations in eggs, and that increased exposure is associated with increased embryonic mortality. Read More

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Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon.

Science 2004 Jan;303(5655):226-9

School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.

The annual global production of farmed salmon has increased by a factor of 40 during the past two decades. Salmon from farms in northern Europe, North America, and Chile are now available widely year-round at relatively low prices. Salmon farms have been criticized for their ecological effects, but the potential human health risks of farmed salmon consumption have not been examined rigorously. Read More

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January 2004

Inhibition of E2-induced expression of BRCA1 by persistent organochlorines.

Breast Cancer Res 2002 24;4(6):R12. Epub 2002 Jul 24.

Unit of Environmental Biotechnology, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Environmental persistent organochlorines (POCs) biomagnify in the food chain, and the chemicals are suspected of being involved in a broad range of human malignancies. It is speculated that some POCs that can interfere with estrogen receptor-mediated responses are involved in the initiation and progression of human breast cancer. The tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 plays a role in cell-cycle control, in DNA repair, and in genomic stability, and it is often downregulated in sporadic mammary cancers. Read More

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Modulation of aromatase expression in human breast tissue.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2001 Dec;79(1-5):35-40

Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

Aromatase plays an important role in breast cancer development through its role in the synthesis of estrogen. Aromatase expression in breast tissue can be regulated by several mechanisms. The major promoter usage for aromatase expression in breast tumors (i. Read More

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December 2001

ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING: Chemical Characteristics of Urban Stormwater Sediments and Implications for Environmental Management, Maricopa County, Arizona.

Environ Manage 2000 Jul;26(1):99-115

U.S. Geological Survey, 520 N. Park Avenue, Suite 221, Tucson, Arizona 85719, USA

/ Investigations of the chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments in the rapidly growing Phoenix metropolitan area of Maricopa County, Arizona, showed that the inorganic component of these sediments generally reflects geologic background values. Some concentrations of metals were above background values, especially cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, indicating an anthropogenic contribution of these elements to the sediment chemistry. Concentrations, however, were not at levels that would require soil remediation according to guidelines of the U. Read More

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Estrogenic effects of organochlorine pesticides on uterine leiomyoma cells in vitro.

Toxicol Sci 2000 Apr;54(2):355-64

University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park Research Division, Smithville 78957, USA.

Although benign, uterine leiomyomas occur with high frequency and significant morbidity in reproductive-age women, and they present a significant health problem. Leiomyomas develop in the uterine myometrium and are sensitive to ovarian hormones, making them potential target sites for endocrine disruptors. Here we utilize cell lines derived from rat uterine leiomyomas to determine if a panel of 7 organochlorine pesticides have potential agonist activity in myometrial cells using cellular and molecular in vitro assays. Read More

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