221 results match your criteria Toxicity Toxaphene


Transcriptome and physiological effects of toxaphene on the liver-gonad reproductive axis in male and female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2020 12 19;36:100746. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States of America; UF Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States of America; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States of America. Electronic address:

Toxaphene is an organochlorine pesticide and environmental contaminant that is concerning due to its atmospheric transport and persistence in soil. In Florida, toxaphene and other organochlorine pesticides were used heavily in agriculture on the north shore of Lake Apopka and they are still detectable in soil. Wild largemouth bass that inhabit the lake and the marshes along the north shore have been exposed to a variety of organochlorine pesticides including dieldrin, methoxychlor, and p,p'-DDE, among others. Read More

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December 2020

Genotoxicity in fishes environmentally exposed to As, Se, Hg, Pb, Cr and toxaphene in the lower Colorado River basin, at Mexicali valley, Baja California, México.

Ecotoxicology 2020 May 14;29(4):493-502. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Carretera Transpeninsular Tijuana-Ensenada No. 3917, Fraccionamiento Playitas, CP 22860, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico.

The environmental exposure to As, Se, Hg, Pb, Cr and toxaphene was assessed for 11 freshwater fish species in irrigation channels, agricultural return flow drains, a drain collecting lagoon and sections of the Colorado River at the Mexicali valley in Baja California, México, during August 2015-April 2016. Arsenic (2.90 ng ml) and Se (1. Read More

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Organochlorine pesticides: Agrochemicals with potent endocrine-disrupting properties in fish.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2020 05 26;507:110764. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, UF, USA; Genetics Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA. Electronic address:

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are persistent environmental contaminants that act as endocrine disruptors and organ system toxicants. These pesticides (e.g. Read More

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The organochlorine pesticide toxaphene reduces non-mitochondrial respiration and induces heat shock protein 70 expression in early-staged zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Feb 9;228:108669. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, UF Genetics Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Electronic address:

Toxaphene is a restricted-use pesticide produced by reacting chlorine gas with camphene. It was heavily used as a pesticide for agricultural purposes in the 1960-1970s, but despite being banned >30 years ago, it can remain elevated in the soil due to its resistance to metabolic degradation; this has led to longstanding concerns about elevated levels of toxaphene and other organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the environment. The objective of this study were to determine the effects of waterborne exposure to toxaphene on early life stages of zebrafish. Read More

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February 2020

Chlorinated insecticides (toxaphene and endrin) affect oxytocin, testosterone, oestradiol and prostaglandin secretion from ovarian and uterine cells as well as myometrial contractions in cow in vitro.

Chemosphere 2018 May 3;198:432-441. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima Street 10, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland.

We examined the direct effects of toxaphene and endrin, chlorinated insecticides that are widespread in the environment, on myometrial contractions and on the secretion of hormones involved in regulating these contractions. Granulosa, luteal, endometrial and myometrial cells, and myometrial strips from non-pregnant cows were incubated with both insecticides at environmentally relevant doses. Toxaphene inhibited and endrin stimulated the secretion of testosterone and oestradiol from granulosa cells. Read More

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A prospective study of cancer risk among Agricultural Health Study farm spouses associated with personal use of organochlorine insecticides.

Environ Health 2017 09 6;16(1):95. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Organochlorine insecticides (OCs) have historically been used worldwide to control insects, although most have now been banned in developed countries. Evidence for an association between OC exposures and cancer predominantly comes from occupational and population based-studies among men. We evaluated the association between the use of specific OCs and cancer among the female spouses of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Read More

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September 2017

Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis among Licensed Male Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

Environ Health Perspect 2017 07 14;125(7):077010. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA

Background: The occupation of farming has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA); pesticides may account for this association, but there are few studies.

Objectives: We investigated associations between RA and use of pesticides in the Agricultural Health Study.

Methods: The study sample was drawn from male pesticide applicators enrolled in 1993–1997 who provided questionnaire data at baseline and at least once during follow-up (over a median 18 y; interquartile range 16–19). Read More

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Toxaphene-induced mouse liver tumorigenesis is mediated by the constitutive androstane receptor.

J Appl Toxicol 2017 08 20;37(8):967-975. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

Department of Environmental Health, Indiana University Bloomington, IN, 47405, USA.

Toxaphene was shown to increase liver tumor incidence in B6C3F1 mice following chronic dietary exposure. Preliminary evidence supported a role for the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) in the mode of action of toxaphene-induced mouse liver tumors. However, these results could not rule out a role for the pregnane X receptor (PXR) in liver tumor formation. Read More

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Are Fish Consumption Advisories for the Great Lakes Adequately Protective against Chemical Mixtures?

Environ Health Perspect 2017 04 4;125(4):586-593. Epub 2016 Oct 4.

Department of Physical & Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The North American Great Lakes are home to > 140 types of fish and are famous for recreational and commercial fishing. However, the presence of toxic substances has resulted in the issuance of fish consumption advisories that are typically based on the most restrictive contaminant.

Objectives: We investigated whether these advisories, which typically neglect the existence of a mixture of chemicals and their possible additive adverse effects, are adequately protective of the health of humans consuming fish from the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes. Read More

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Mechanistic Investigation of Toxaphene Induced Mouse Liver Tumors.

Toxicol Sci 2015 Oct 16;147(2):549-61. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

*Department of Environmental Health, Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana 47405; and

Chronic exposure to toxaphene resulted in an increase in liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice. This study was performed to investigate the mode of action of toxaphene induced mouse liver tumors. Following an initial 14 day dietary dose range-finding study in male mice, a mechanistic study (0, 3, 32, and 320 ppm toxaphene in diet for 7, 14, and 28 days of treatment) was performed to examine the potential mechanisms of toxaphene induced mouse liver tumors. Read More

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October 2015

Residential surface soil guidance values applied worldwide to the original 2001 Stockholm Convention POP pesticides.

J Environ Manage 2015 Sep 12;160:16-29. Epub 2015 Jun 12.

Case Western Reserve University, Department of Civil Engineering, 10900 Euclid Ave., Cleveland OH 44106-7201, USA. Electronic address:

Surface soil contamination is a worldwide problem. Many regulatory jurisdictions attempt to control human exposures with regulatory guidance values (RGVs) that specify a soil's maximum allowable concentration. Pesticides are important soil contaminants because of their intentional toxicity and widespread surface soil application. Read More

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September 2015

Fumio Matsumura--accomplishments at the University of California, Davis, and in the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

Authors:
James N Seiber

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2015 May 14;120:64-7. Epub 2014 Nov 14.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Electronic address:

Fumio Matsumura joined the University of California, Davis, faculty in 1987 where he served as founding director of the Center for Environmental Health Sciences, associate director of the U.C. Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program, and chair of the Department of Environmental Toxicology. Read More

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Risk ranking priority of carcinogenic and/or genotoxic environmental contaminants in food in Belgium.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2014 7;31(5):872-88. Epub 2014 Apr 7.

a Staff Direction for Risk Assessment, Administration of Control Policy , Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain , Brussels , Belgium.

This paper focuses on the risks of environmental carcinogenic and/or genotoxic contaminants in food. It describes, for each contaminant studied, the carcinogenicity and genotoxicity, the toxicological reference values, the exposure and the risk characterisation. The compounds studied were classified into 3 categories based on a risk assessment. Read More

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January 2015

A genome-wide screen identifies yeast genes required for tolerance to technical toxaphene, an organochlorinated pesticide mixture.

PLoS One 2013 18;8(11):e81253. Epub 2013 Nov 18.

Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America.

Exposure to toxaphene, an environmentally persistent mixture of chlorinated terpenes previously utilized as an insecticide, has been associated with various cancers and diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Nevertheless, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for these toxic effects have not been established. In this study, we used a functional approach in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae to demonstrate that toxaphene affects yeast mutants defective in (1) processes associated with transcription elongation and (2) nutrient utilization. Read More

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Model predictions of toxaphene degradation in the atmosphere over North America.

Authors:
R Li J Jin

Environ Toxicol Chem 2013 Dec 10;32(12):2663-71. Epub 2013 Oct 10.

Department of Plants, Soils, and Climate, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA.

Technical toxaphene, a broad-spectrum pesticide mixture, degrades in the environment, resulting in potential changes in toxicity. The present study uses a multimedia model that the authors developed to estimate toxaphene degradation in the atmosphere over North America. The predicted degradation has strong spatial and temporal variability determined by processes such as emission and transport of technical toxaphene, as well as the complex interactions among many species (e. Read More

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December 2013

Lifetime pesticide use and telomere shortening among male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

Environ Health Perspect 2013 Aug 7;121(8):919-24. Epub 2013 Jun 7.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Telomere length (TL) in surrogate tissues may be influenced by environmental exposures.

Objective: We aimed to determine whether lifetime pesticides use is associated with buccal cell TL.

Methods: We examined buccal cell TL in relation to lifetime use of 48 pesticides for 1,234 cancer-free white male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,310 licensed pesticide applicators. Read More

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Characteristic molecular signature for early detection and prediction of persistent organic pollutants in rat liver.

Environ Sci Technol 2012 Dec 21;46(23):12882-9. Epub 2012 Nov 21.

Department of Pathology, College of Medicine and Functional RNomics Research Center, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are degradation-resistant anthropogenic chemicals that accumulate in the food chain and in adipose tissue, and are among the most hazardous compounds ever synthesized. However, their toxic mechanisms are still undefined. To investigate whether characteristic molecular signatures can discriminate individual POP and provide prediction markers for the early detection of POPs exposure in an animal model, we performed transcriptomic analysis of rat liver tissues after exposure to POPs. Read More

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December 2012

Toxaphene affects the levels of mRNA transcripts that encode antioxidant enzymes in Hydra.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2012 Jun 1;156(1):37-41. Epub 2012 Apr 1.

South Sea Environment Research Department, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Geoje, Republic of Korea.

We evaluated toxaphene-induced acute toxicity in Hydra magnipapillata. The median lethal concentrations of the animals (LC(50)) were determined to be 34.5 mg/L, 25. Read More

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Toxicological risks to humans of toxaphene residues in fish.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2012 Jul 13;8(3):523-9. Epub 2012 Mar 13.

Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

A revised risk assessment for toxaphene was developed, based on the assumption that fish consumers are only exposed to toxaphene residues that differ substantially from technical toxaphene due to environmental degradation and metabolism. In vitro studies confirmed that both technical toxaphene and degraded toxaphene inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication that correlates with the mechanistic potential to cause tumor promotion. In vivo rat studies established the NOAEL for degraded and technical toxaphene at the highest dose tested in the bioassay. Read More

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Toxaphene.

Authors:

Rep Carcinog 2011 ;12:418-20

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January 2012

Great Lakes fish consumption advisories: is mercury a concern?

Ecotoxicology 2011 Oct 12;20(7):1588-98. Epub 2011 Jul 12.

Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The majority of the restrictive fish consumption advisories for the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes issued by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Canada based on the most restrictive contaminant, are attributed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins/furans. Mercury currently causes about <1-2.5% and 9-16% of the restrictive advisories for the general population (GP) and sensitive population of children under 15 and women of child-bearing age (SP), respectively (the St. Read More

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October 2011

Remediation of lindane using engineered nanoparticles.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2011 Feb;7(1):172-4

Eco-Auditing Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute (CSIR), Lucknow 226001, India.

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, toxaphene and hexachlorocyclohexane) are chemical pollutants found in all environmental media. There is an urgent need to stop the usage and develop innovative strategies for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. The present work was aimed to evaluate the (i) interaction of fullerene with lindane and its role in the remediation of lindane from contaminated systems and (ii) compare the interaction of fullerene with lindane and trichloroethylene. Read More

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February 2011

Transcriptional response of marine medaka (Oryzias javanicus) on exposure to toxaphene.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2011 Apr 8;153(3):355-61. Epub 2011 Jan 8.

South Sea Environment Research Department, Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute, Geoje 656-830, Republic of Korea.

Differential gene expression profiles were established from the head and liver tissues of the marine medaka fish (Oryzias javanicus) after its exposure to toxaphene, a persistent organic pollutant and insecticide, using differential display polymerase chain reaction. Twenty-seven differentially expressed genes were identified, which were associated with the cytoskeleton, development, metabolism, nucleic acid/protein binding, and signal transduction. Among these genes, those encoding molecular biomarkers known to be involved in metabolism, ATP hydrolysis, and protein regulation were strongly induced at the transcription level, and genes encoding one structural protein subunit or involved in lipid metabolism were strongly downregulated. Read More

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Current status and regulatory aspects of pesticides considered to be persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Taiwan.

Authors:
Wen-Tien Tsai

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2010 10 12;7(10):3615-27. Epub 2010 Oct 12.

Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan.

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are capable of persisting in the environment, transporting between phase media and accumulating to high levels, implying that they could pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. Consequently, most OCPs are designated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and even as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The objective of this paper was to review the current status of pesticide POPs in Taiwan, including aldrin, chlordane, chlordecone, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, α/β-hexachlorocyclohexanes, lindane, mirex, pentachloro-benzene, and toxaphene. Read More

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October 2010

Transcriptional response of hepatic largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) mRNA upon exposure to environmental contaminants.

J Appl Toxicol 2011 Mar;31(2):108-16

Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Microarrays enable gene transcript expression changes in near-whole genomes to be assessed in response to environmental stimuli. We utilized oligonucleotide microarrays and subsequent gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to assess patterns of gene expression changes in male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) hepatic tissues after a 96 h exposure to common environmental contaminants. Fish were exposed to atrazine, cadmium chloride, PCB 126, phenanthrene and toxaphene via intraperitoneal injection with target body burdens of 3. Read More

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Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass.

Aquat Toxicol 2009 Oct 21;95(1):1-9. Epub 2009 Jun 21.

Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

Many aquatic contaminants potentially affect the central nervous system, however the underlying mechanisms of how toxicants alter normal brain function are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of emerging and prevalent environmental contaminants on the expression of brain transcripts with a role in neurotransmitter synthesis and reproduction. Adult male largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were injected once for a 96 h duration with control (water or oil) or with one of two doses of a single chemical to achieve the following body burdens (microg/g): atrazine (0. Read More

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October 2009

Liver proteome response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to several environmental contaminants: potential insights into biomarker development.

Aquat Toxicol 2009 Oct 13;95(1):52-9. Epub 2009 Aug 13.

Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Liver proteome response of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) exposed to environmental contaminants was analyzed to identify novel biomarkers of exposure. Adult male bass were exposed to cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)), atrazine, PCB 126, phenanthrene, or toxaphene via intraperitoneal injection with target body burdens of 0.00067, 3. Read More

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October 2009

Persistent organochlorine pollutants and toxaphene congener profiles in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) frequenting the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia, USA.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2009 Jul 9;28(7):1390-9. Epub 2009 Feb 9.

Marine Sciences Department, Savannah State University, Savannah, Georgia 31404, USA.

Although the Turtle/Brunswick River Estuary (TBRE) in coastal Georgia (USA) is severely contaminated by persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), little information regarding POPs in higher-trophic-level biota in this system is available. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; including DDTs, chlordanes, and mirex), and chlorinated monoterpenes (toxaphene) were measured using gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) in blubber of free-ranging and stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Mean total PCBs (78. Read More

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Environmental contaminants in white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica asiatica) from the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, USA.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2009 Aug 27;57(2):387-96. Epub 2008 Dec 27.

Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, 700 University Boulevard, MSC 218, Kingsville, TX 78363, USA.

Our study determined if white-winged doves (WWDs; Zenaida asiatica asiatica) breeding in locations where environmentally persistent contaminants occur in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas have levels of contaminants that can hinder reproduction. During summer 2003, 70 (32 males, 38 females) adult WWDs were collected from 8 at-risk sites. Liver tissues were analyzed for ten major and trace elements and muscle tissues were analyzed for 20 organochlorine compounds, 21 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, and toxaphene. Read More

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