3,172 results match your criteria Toxicity Toluene


Progress and Recent Strategies in the Synthesis and Catalytic Applications of Perovskites Based on Lanthanum and Aluminum.

Materials (Basel) 2022 May 4;15(9). Epub 2022 May 4.

Departamento de Ciencias, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campus de Arrosadía, 31006 Pamplona, Spain.

Lanthanum aluminate-based perovskite (LaAlO) has excellent stability at high temperatures, low toxicity, and high chemical resistance and also offers wide versatility to the substitution of La and Al, thus, allowing it to be applied as a catalyst, nano-adsorbent, sensor, and microwave dielectric resonator, amongst other equally important uses. As such, LaAlO perovskites have gained importance in recent years. This review considers the extensive literature of the past 10 years on the synthesis and catalytic applications of perovskites based on lanthanum and aluminum (LaAlO). Read More

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Ethoxyquin and Butylated Hydroxy Toluene Distrub the Hematological Parameters and Induce Structural and Functional Alterations in Liver of Rats.

Arch Razi Inst 2021 Dec 30;76(6):1765-1776. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt.

The current experiment aimed to assess the effect of the synthetic antioxidants ethoxyquin (EQ) and/or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the liver function tests, hematological parameters, and liver histoarchitecture in rats. A total of 50 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups of 10 animals per group. The first group served as the control and did not receive any treatments, and the second group served as the vehicle control and was orally administrated 1 ml of corn oil day after day for consecutive 45 and 90 days. Read More

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December 2021

Comparative chemical analysis, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity of Petroleum refinery wastewater and its contaminated river using prokaryotic and eukaryotic assays.

Protoplasma 2022 Apr 25. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Biology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria.

Concern on the toxicity of final wastewater generated by the petroleum refining industry has increased in recent years due to the potential health threats associated with their release into the waterways. This study determined the mutagenic and genotoxic potential of petroleum refinery wastewater and a receiving river using the Ames fluctuation test on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 and TA98, SOS chromotest on Escherichia coli PQ37, and piscine peripheral micronucleus (MN) assay. Analyses of the physicochemical parameters, heavy metal, and organic contents of the samples were also performed. Read More

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Blood serum levels of selected biomarkers of oxidative stress among printing workers occupationally exposed to low-levels of toluene and xylene.

Toxicol Ind Health 2022 May 24;38(5):299-307. Epub 2022 Apr 24.

Department of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, School of health, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Resistant Tuberculosis Institute, 48538Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Printing workers (PWs) are exposed to a mixture of solvents, yet the health risks associated with such exposuer are unknown. This study aimed to compare the serum levels of selected biomarkers of oxidative stress among occupationally exposed PWs to low-level of toluene and xylenes and unexposed controls. Associations between levels of such biomarkers and occupational exposures to toluene and xylene were also investigated. Read More

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Toxic benzyl alcohol inhalation: Altered mental status with metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia.

Am J Emerg Med 2022 Apr 11. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Emergency Department, Japanese Red Cross Society Aichi Medical Center Nagoya Daini Hospital, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, 2-9 Myoken-Cho, Showa-Ku, Nagoya City, Aichi, Japan.

This report presents the case of a patient whose inhalation exposure to benzyl alcohol led to clinical manifestations similar to toluene intoxication, including sudden altered mental status, metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, and hyperammonemia. Toxicity from benzyl alcohol inhalation is quite rare, and hyperammonemia associated with renal tubular dysfunction in poisoning cases has not been reported in the past. Read More

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Microbial bioremediation of produced water under different redox conditions in marine sediments.

Water Res 2022 Jun 7;218:118428. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby 2800, Denmark. Electronic address:

The discharge of produced water from offshore oil platforms is an emerging concern due to its potential adverse effects on marine ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the feasibility and capability of using marine sediments for the bioremediation of produced water. We utilized a combination of porewater and solid phase analysis in a series of sediment batch incubations amended with produced water and synthetic produced water to determine the biodegradation of hydrocarbons under different redox conditions. Read More

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Transgenerational reproductive toxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its metabolite 4-ADNT in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2022 May 15;92:103865. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Information Materials and Intelligent Sensing Laboratory of Anhui Province, Institutes of Physical Science and Information Technology, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, PR China; Key Laboratory of High Magnetic Field and Ion Beam Physical Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Control Technology, High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031, PR China. Electronic address:

2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as an energetic compound widely used in military applications has aroused great concerns in recent years due to its large-scale contamination in soil and water; however, its toxicity is still largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity and the transgenerational effects of TNT on Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Read More

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(J. Thomps. Dandy): Antioxidant and protective properties as a medicinal plant on toluene-induced oxidative stress damages in liver and kidney of rats.

Toxicol Rep 2022 29;9:699-712. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, Kampala International University Teaching Hospital, P.O. Box 71, Ishaka, Bushenyi, Uganda.

(; J. Thomps.) Dandy (Liliaceae) is a pantropical plant known for its medicinal values and pharmacological properties. Read More

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Occupational Exposure of Hairdressers to Airborne Hazardous Chemicals: A Scoping Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 03 31;19(7). Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Amsterdam UMC, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Coronel Institute of Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Exposure to hazardous chemicals released during hairdressing activities from hair care products puts hairdressers at risk of adverse health effects. Safety assessments of hair products are mainly focused on consumers, but exposure for professional hairdressers might be substantially higher.

Objective: To identify and assess available research data on inhalation exposures of professional hairdressers. Read More

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Evaluation of cytokines in exhaled breath condensate in an occupationally exposed population to pneumotoxic pollutants.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Apr 9. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Coordinación Para La Innovación Y Aplicación de La Ciencia Y La Tecnología (CIACYT), Avenida Sierra Leona No. 550, Colonia Lomas Segunda Sección, 78210, San Luis Potosi, CP, Mexico.

The quarrying is considered a precarious occupation with high toxicity, is an informal economic activity that employs low technology, limited protection, and poses a risk to workers and their families. In quarrying, silica dust is generated and there is also occupational exposure to significant mixtures of pneumotoxic pollutants, including mineral dust (crystalline silica, carbon or cement, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), solvents, and others, which are aggravated by the lack of use of protective equipment, causing irreversible damage to the worker's respiratory health. Thus, the objective of this work focused on the evaluation of the respiratory health of artisan stonemasons in San Luis Potosí, Mexico through the study of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) (pH, pro-inflammatory cytokines) as well as the study of the exposure to pollutants present in the work area (PAHs, toluene, and 2. Read More

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[Measurement Analysis and Superposed Effect of Residential Indoor Air Pollutants in Xi'an].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2022 Apr;43(4):1814-1820

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

To understand the levels of indoor air pollution and protect public health, our research group conducted monitoring of the concentrations of indoor pollutants (formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, xylene, total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), -butyl acetate, ethylbenzene, styrene, and undecane) and a health effect assessment for 830 households of Xi'an City from December 2017 to December 2020. Simultaneously, the superposed effect of pollutants was analyzed. The results showed that the exceedance rates of formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, TVOC, and xylene were 92. Read More

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Toxicopathological changes induced by combined exposure to noise and toluene in New Zealand White rabbits.

Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2022 Apr 7;73(1):31-42. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Drug Applied Research Centre, Tabriz, Iran.

Noise and toluene can have significant adverse effects on different systems in the human body, but little is known about their combination. The aim of this study was to see how their combined action reflects on serum levels of inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), body weight, and pathological changes in the heart, lung, stomach, and spleen tissues. To do that we exposed New Zealand rabbits to 1000 mg/L toluene and 100 dB of white noise in a chamber specifically designed for the purpose over two consecutive weeks. Read More

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Tea polyphenols alleviates acetochlor-induced apoptosis and necroptosis via ROS/MAPK/NF-κB signaling in Ctenopharyngodon idellus kidney cells.

Aquat Toxicol 2022 May 28;246:106153. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, PR China. Electronic address:

Overuse of acetochlor pollutes soil and rivers, causing threats to the ecosystem. Studies found that acetochlor exposure could damage multiple organs and tissues in fish and mammal. Tea polyphenols (TP), a natural antioxidant that extracted from tea, has been widely used in food and feed additions. Read More

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The plant streptolysin S (SLS)-associated gene B confers nitroaromatic tolerance and detoxification.

J Hazard Mater 2022 07 26;433:128779. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics of the Ministry of Education/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding, College of Agriculture, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China; Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology of Jiangsu Province/Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops of Jiangsu Province/Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety of the Ministry of Education, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China. Electronic address:

Nitroaromatic compounds, as the important chemical feedstock, have caused widespread environmental contaminations, and exhibited high toxicity and mutagenic activity to nearly all living organisms. The clean-up of nitroaromatic-contaminated soil and water has long been a major international concern. Here, we uncovered the role of a novel nitroreductase family gene, streptolysin S (SLS)-associated gene B (SagB), in enhancing nitroaromatic tolerance and detoxification of plants, and its potential application in phytoremediation of nitroaromatic contaminations. Read More

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Recent advances in toxicological research and potential health impact of microplastics and nanoplastics in vivo.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Mar 26. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Department of Physics and Chemistry, Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 6, Huayue Road, Hedong District, Tianjin, 300011, People's Republic of China.

As emerging pollutants, direct and indirect adverse impacts of micro(nano)plastics (MPs/NPs) are raising an increasing environmental concern in recent years due to their poor biodegradability and difficulty in recycling. MPs/NPs can act as carriers of bacteria, viruses, or pollutants (such as heavy metals and toxic organic compounds), and may potentially change the toxicity and bioavailability of pollutants. Ingested or attached MPs/NPs can also be transferred from low-trophic level organisms to high-nutrient organisms or even the human body through the food chain transfer process. Read More

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Toxicity analysis of TNT to alfalfa's mineral nutrition and secondary metabolism.

Plant Cell Rep 2022 May 19;41(5):1273-1284. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010, China.

Key Message: Alfalfa has the ability to degrade TNT. TNT exposure caused root disruption of mineral nutrient metabolism. The exposure of TNT imbalanced basal cell energy metabolism. Read More

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Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate and toluene diisocyanate: Many similarities and few differences.

Toxicol Ind Health 2022 Mar 18:7482337211060133. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

550512International Isocyanate Institute, Mountain Lakes, NJ, USA.

Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) are high production volume chemicals used for the manufacture of polyurethanes. For both substances, the most relevant adverse health effects after overexposure in the workplace are isocyanate-induced asthma, lung function decrement and, to a much lesser extent, skin effects. Over the last two decades many articles have addressed the reactivity of MDI and TDI in biological media and the associated biochemistry, which increased the understanding of their biochemical and physiological behavior. Read More

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Pifithrin-α ameliorates glycerol induced rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury by reducing p53 activation.

Ren Fail 2022 Dec;44(1):473-481

Department of Nephrology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: Rhabdomyolysis is a series of symptoms caused by the dissolution of striped muscle, and acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potential complication of severe rhabdomyolysis. The underlying causes of AKI are remarkably complex and diverse. Here, we aim to investigate whether pifithrin-α protected against rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI and to determine the involved mechanisms. Read More

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December 2022

The effect of solvent on preparation of CH NH PbI photodetectors via an antisolvent-free method.

Luminescence 2022 May 16;37(5):777-783. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

During the fabrication of lateral-structured photodetectors based on CH NH PbI film, antisolvents represented by toluene are usually used to accelerate the crystallization of perovskite. Using antisolvent not only leads to the formation of shrinkage holes at the bottom of the perovskite layer, but the toxicity of antisolvents would also hinder the industrial preparation of perovskite devices. An antisolvent-free method is a possible solution to avoid these problems. Read More

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Application of Pattern Mining Methods to Assess Exposures to Multiple Airborne Chemical Agents in Two Large Occupational Exposure Databases from France.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 02 3;19(3). Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Pollutants Metrology Department, French National Research and Safety Institute for the Prevention of Occupational Accidents and Diseases (INRS), 1 rue du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

Surveys of the French working population estimate that approximately 15% of all workers may be exposed to at least three different chemical agents, but the most prevalent coexposure situations and their associated health risks remain relatively understudied. To characterize occupational coexposure situations in France, we extracted personal measurement data from COLCHIC and SCOLA, two large administrative occupation exposure databases. We selected 118 chemical agents that had ≥100 measurements with detected concentrations over the period 2010-2019, including 31 carcinogens (IARC groups 1, 2A, and 2B). Read More

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February 2022

Teriflunomide levels in women whose male sexual partner is on teriflunomide for relapsing multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2022 Jan 28;57:103347. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

LLC, New Haven, CT, United States.

Background: For small molecules such as teriflunomide, used to treat relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS), that are potentially embryotoxic, there is a theoretical risk of transmission of the medication from males on the drug to female sexual partners. However, that risk has been undefined up to now.

Methods: Teriflunomide concentrations were assayed concomitantly in ten sexually active couples, not using barrier methods of contraception, in whom the male partner with MS was on treatment with teriflunomide 14 mg daily for at least two months. Read More

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January 2022

Larvicidal formulation containing N-tosylindole: A viable alternative to chemical control of Aedes aegypti.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2022 May 31;213:112380. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE, Brazil.

Aedes aegypti is currently a major public health problem. This mosquito is responsible for the spread of infectious diseases that have been causing epidemics worldwide. Surfactant-stabilized systems, such as microemulsions, liquid-crystalline precursors and liquid crystals, are promising sustained delivery formulations of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances. Read More

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RAGE mediates airway inflammation via the HDAC1 pathway in a toluene diisocyanate-induced murine asthma model.

BMC Pulm Med 2022 Feb 11;22(1):61. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

Chronic Airways Diseases Laboratory, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Background: Exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a significant pathogenic factor for asthma. We previously reported that the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a key role in TDI-induced asthma. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) has been reported to be important in asthmatic pathogenesis. Read More

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February 2022

Chloramine-T application for Trichodina sp. in Arapaima gigas juveniles: Acute toxicity, histopathology, efficacy, and physiological effects.

Vet Parasitol 2022 Mar 1;303:109667. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Nilton Lins University, Av. Nilton Lins, 3269, 69058-030, Manaus, AM, Brazil; Federal University of Amazonas, Av. General Rodrigo Octavio Jordão Ramos, 1200, 69067-005, Manaus, AM, Brazil; Technology, and Innovation Coordination, National Institute of Amazonian Research, Av. André Araújo, 2936, 69060-001, Manaus, AM, Brazil. Electronic address:

Trichodinids are problematic ectoparasites for intensive arapaima fish farming, which can make their breeding costly and unprofitable. The search for effective and safe therapeutic molecules is constant, and chloramine-T has stood out as an effective biocide to treat various pathogens in aquaculture. Here we investigated the acute toxicity (LC) of chloramine-T and its behavioural, morphological, histological, physiological, and antiparasitic effects on the control of trichodinids in arapaima juveniles. Read More

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Non-targeted analysis of unknown volatile chemicals in medical masks.

Environ Int 2022 03 2;161:107122. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Key Laboratory of Consumer Product Quality Safety Inspection and Risk Assessment for State Market Regulation, Institute of Industrial and Consumer Product Safety, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100176, China. Electronic address:

This paper reports the non-targeted analysis of unknown volatile chemicals in medical masks through headspace gas chromatography-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry. In view of the difficulties that may be encountered in the qualitative analysis of unknown substances, several typical cases and the corresponding reliable solutions are given from the perspective of comprehensive score and retention index, chemical ionization identification molecular formula, fragment ion detail comparison for distinguishing isomers, and identification of alkanes. With this method, 69 volatile substances were identified in 60 masks. Read More

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Occupational health hazards and wide spectrum of genetic damage by the organic solvent fumes at the workplace: A critical appraisal.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 31;29(21):30954-30966. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Deptt. of Life Sciences, SBSR, Sharda University, Greater Noida, UP, 201310, India.

Long-term exposure to organic solvents is known to affect human health posing serious occupational hazards. Organic solvents are genotoxic, and they can cause genetic changes in the exposed employees' somatic or germ cells. Chemicals such as benzene, toluene, and gasoline induce an excessive amount of genotoxicity results either in genetic polymorphism or culminates in deleterious mutations when concentration crosses the threshold limits. Read More

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Personal exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEXs) mixture and telomere length: a cross-sectional study of the general US adult population.

Environ Res 2022 06 29;209:112810. Epub 2022 Jan 29.

Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, The State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes (BTEXs) are a group of aromatic air pollutants from fossil fuels. There is no research on associations of the BTEXs mixture with telomere length (TL), a marker of cellular aging, in the general population.

Methods: We analyzed a subsample of 549 US adults aged 20-59 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000. Read More

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Pregnancy outcomes following maternal or paternal exposure to teriflunomide in the Danish MS population.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2022 Mar 22;59:103529. Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Valdemar Hansensvej 2, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup 2600, Denmark; Danish Multiple Sclerosis Center, Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background Teriflunomide (TFL) is an oral drug used for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Due to possible teratogenicity it is contraindicated in women of childbearing potential. Additionally, a low risk of male-mediated embryo-fetal toxicity has been described as the drug can be transmitted via semen. Read More

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A sketch of microbiological remediation of explosives-contaminated soil focused on state of art and the impact of technological advancement on hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) degradation.

Chemosphere 2022 May 22;294:133641. Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Centre for Rural Development & Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, 110016, India.

When high-energy explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are discharged into the surrounding soil and water during production, testing, open dumping, military, or civil activities, they leave a toxic footprint. The US Environmental Protection Agency has labeled RDX as a potential human carcinogen that must be degraded from contaminated sites quickly. Bioremediation of RDX is an exciting prospect that has received much attention in recent years. Read More

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Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Biopreparation in Combination with the Polymer γ-PGA for the Biodegradation of Petroleum Contaminants in Soil.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jan 6;15(2). Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Biotechnology Centre, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego 8, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.

Biodegradation is a method of effectively removing petroleum hydrocarbons from the natural environment. This research focuses on the biodegradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons, monoaromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and all three xylene isomers (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as a result of soil inoculation with a biopreparation A1 based on autochthonous microorganisms and a biopreparation A1 with the addition of γ-PGA. The research used biopreparation A1 made of the following strains: sp. Read More

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January 2022