3,050 results match your criteria Toxicity Toluene


Advancement in Benthic Microbial Fuel Cells toward Sustainable Bioremediation and Renewable Energy Production.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 6;18(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

Anthropogenic activities are largely responsible for the vast amounts of pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cyanides, phenols, metal derivatives, sulphides, and other chemicals in wastewater. The excess benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) can cause severe toxicity to living organisms in wastewater. A novel approach to mitigate this problem is the benthic microbial fuel cell (BMFC) setup to produce renewable energy and bio-remediate wastewater aromatic hydrocarbons. Read More

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Effects of crude oil and aromatic compounds on growth and bioluminescence of Vibrio campbellii FS5.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Apr 23;193(5):291. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Environmental Assessment and Technology for Hazardous Waste Management Research Center, Faculty of Environmental Management, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, 90112, Thailand.

Fifteen native luminescent bacteria were isolated from the Gulf of Thailand, and their sensitivity for the detection of toxicity of crude oil and its aromatic components was investigated. Of these isolates, Vibrio campbellii strain FS5 was one of the two most highly inhibited bacteria at all crude oil concentrations. This bacterium showed a decrease in luminescence intensity of between 10. Read More

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Conventional and high resolution chemical characterization to assess refinery effluent treatment performance.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 27;278:130383. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Concawe, Boulevard du Souverain 165, 1160, Brussels, Belgium.

Refinery effluents represent an emission source of hydrocarbons (HCs) and other constituents to the environment. Thus, characterisation of effluent quality in terms of concentrations of key parameters relative to permitted standards is important and for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), the specific composition of the HC mixture can affect its toxicity to aquatic organisms. Therefore, this study was designed to analyse TPH, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes (BTEX), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), (bio) chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total suspended solids and selected metals before, and after, treatment steps to demonstrate removal efficiencies across 13 refineries with variable wastewater treatment systems. Read More

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A Clinical-Stage Cysteine Protease Inhibitor blocks SARS-CoV-2 Infection of Human and Monkey Cells.

ACS Chem Biol 2021 04 31;16(4):642-650. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.

Host-cell cysteine proteases play an essential role in the processing of the viral spike protein of SARS coronaviruses. K777, an irreversible, covalent inactivator of cysteine proteases that has recently completed phase 1 clinical trials, reduced SARS-CoV-2 viral infectivity in several host cells: Vero E6 (EC< 74 nM), HeLa/ACE2 (4 nM), Caco-2 (EC = 4.3 μM), and A549/ACE2 (<80 nM). Read More

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An in vitro model to assess the peripheral vestibulotoxicity of aromatic solvents.

Neurotoxicology 2021 May 17;84:105-113. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité, Rue du Morvan, CS 60027, F-54519, Vandœuvre Cedex, France.

Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that a number of aromatic solvents widely used in the industry can affect hearing and balance following chronic exposure. Animal studies demonstrated that long-term exposure to aromatic solvents directly damages the auditory receptor within the inner ear: the cochlea. However, no information is available on their effect on the vestibular receptor, which shares many structural features with the cochlea and is also localized in inner ear. Read More

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Distinct roles of PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ in a toluene diisocyanate-induced murine asthma model.

Toxicology 2021 04 9;454:152747. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

TDI-induced asthma is characterized by neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation and often associated with poor responsiveness to steroid treatment. Both PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ have been demonstrated to play important proinflammatory roles in ovalbumin-induced asthma. We've already reported that blocking pan PI3K effectively attenuated TDI-induced allergic airway inflammation. Read More

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Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzofuran, and dibenzofuran in fuel-rich oxidation of toluene using a flow reactor.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Mar 10;23(11):6509-6525. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Research Institute for Energy Conversion, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-8564, Japan.

Recently, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) have been attracting considerable attention owing to their high toxicity. Understanding their formation mechanism during combustion processes is important to control their emission. However, there are few studies that have quantitatively investigated OPAH formation in the fuel-rich oxidation of hydrocarbons, despite the availability of several studies on PAH formation. Read More

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Effects of Toluene on the Development of the Inner Ear and Lateral Line Sensory System of Zebrafish.

Biomed Environ Sci 2021 Feb;34(2):110-118

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the ototoxicity of toluene in the early development of zebrafish embryos/larvae.

Methods: Zebrafish were utilized to explore the ototoxicity of toluene. Locomotion analysis, immunofluorescence, and qPCR were used to understand the phenotypes and molecular mechanisms of toluene ototoxicity. Read More

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February 2021

Adaptive Laboratory Evolution Restores Solvent Tolerance in Plasmid-Cured Pseudomonas putida S12: a Molecular Analysis.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 04 13;87(9). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Institute of Biology Leiden, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands

S12 is inherently solvent tolerant and constitutes a promising platform for biobased production of aromatic compounds and biopolymers. The megaplasmid pTTS12 of S12 carries several gene clusters involved in solvent tolerance, and the removal of this megaplasmid caused a significant reduction in solvent tolerance. In this study, we succeeded in restoring solvent tolerance in plasmid-cured S12 using adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE), underscoring the innate solvent tolerance of this strain. Read More

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Benzene Exposure and Cancer Risk from Commercial Gasoline Station Fueling Events Using a Novel Self-Sampling Protocol.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 15;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Tens of millions of individuals go to gasoline stations on a daily basis in the United States. One of the constituents of gasoline is benzene, a Group 1 carcinogen that has been strongly linked to both occupational and non-occupational leukemias. While benzene content in gasoline is federally regulated, there is approximately a thirty-year data gap in United States research on benzene exposures from pumping gasoline. Read More

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February 2021

Depletion kinetics and concentration- and time-dependent toxicity of a tertiary mixture of amitraz and its major hydrolysis products in honeybees.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 10;272:129923. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Food Quality & Safety, Institute for Postharvest and Food Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Rishon LeZiyyon, 7505101, Israel. Electronic address:

Although amitraz is one of the acaricides most commonly applied within beehives, to date, its time-dependent oral toxicity in honeybees has not been investigated, due to amitraz's instability in aqueous media. In aqueous media such as honey, amitraz rapidly forms a continuously changing tertiary mixture with two of its major hydrolysis products, DMF and DMPF. The contribution of each hydrolysis product to the overall oral toxicity of this acaricide is not known. Read More

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Miniaturised marine tests as indicators of aromatic hydrocarbon toxicity: Potential applicability to oil spill assessment.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Apr 15;165:112151. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Geoffrey Pope, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD, UK.

Assessing oil spill toxicity in real time is challenging due to dynamic field exposures and lack of simple, rapid, and sensitive tests. We investigated the relative sensitivity of two commercially available marine toxicity tests to aromatic hydrocarbons using the target lipid model (TLM). State of the art passive dosing in sealed vials was used to assess the sensitivity of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) and rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis). Read More

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The concentration of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene in ambient air of the gas stations in Iran: A systematic review and probabilistic health risk assessment.

Toxicol Ind Health 2021 Mar 28;37(3):134-141. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Social Determinants in Health Promotion Research Center, 14656Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) has been reported in gas stations. Exposure to BTEX can result in adverse health outcomes in workers such as cancer and neurological effects. The health risk assessments of exposure to BTEX could be useful in choosing suitable control measures. Read More

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Integrated analysis of multi-omics data on epigenetic changes caused by combined exposure to environmental hazards.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Jun 13;36(6):1001-1010. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Molecular and Life Science, Hanyang University, Ansan, Republic of Korea.

Humans are easily exposed to environmentally hazardous factors in industrial sites or daily life. In addition, exposure to various substances and not just one harmful substance is common. However, research on the effects of combined exposure on humans is limited. Read More

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Hyaluronate-functionalized hydroxyapatite nanoparticles laden with methotrexate and teriflunomide for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Feb 7;171:502-513. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research University, Pushp Vihar, Sector 3, New Delhi 110017, India.. Electronic address:

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune inflammatory disorder is currently incurable. Methotrexate and Teriflunomide are routinely prescribed drugs but their uses are limited due to severe hepatotoxicity. Hyaluronic acid (HYA) is a targeting ligand for CD44 receptors overexpressed on inflamed macrophages. Read More

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February 2021

Biodegradation and physiological response mechanism of a bacterial strain to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene contamination.

Chemosphere 2021 May 28;270:129280. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

State Key Laboratory of NBC Protection for Civilian, Beijing, 102205, China.

The aim of this study was to reveal the biodegradation characteristics and physiological response mechanism of a newly isolated bacterium to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) contamination. A Klebsiella variicola strain with high efficiency of TNT degradation was used as the test strain to analyze the changes in cell growth, morphology, and functional groups under different TNT concentrations (0, 100 mg⋅L) and the effects of TNT stress on the metabolic profile as revealed by non-targeted metabonomics. A TNT concentration of 100 mg L caused a significant increase in the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to 950 mg L, while the degradation rate of TNT reached 100% within 30 h after inoculation with Klebsiella variicola. Read More

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Soil assessment after chemical accidents using metabolic profiling and microbial community evaluation.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 18;268:129362. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Center for Environment, Health and Welfare Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study investigated the effects of accidental contamination of soils with phenol, toluene, nitric acid, and hydrogen fluoride (HF) by simulating chemical leakage in the soil with/without rain and characterizing the resulting metabolites and microbial. In the case of acid leakage, pH and cation exchange capacity were decreased, and the content of fluoride ion was increased in case of HF leakage. Using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics analysis, phytosphingosine was detected as a distinguishing metabolite in soils contaminated with phenol and HF in rain conditions. Read More

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Low-Cost Benzene Toluene Xylene Measurement Gas System Based on the Mini Chromatographic Cartridge.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Dec 28;21(1). Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research-National Research Council (IIA-CNR), Research Area of Rome 1, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo, Italy.

Benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) are an important part of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to be detected and monitored in the air, due to their toxicity towards human health. One of the most reliable technique used in BTX detection is gas chromatography (GC), which presents a high sensitivity. On the other hand, it has important drawbacks, such as high costs, the need for qualified personnel and frequent maintenance. Read More

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December 2020

Short-term laboratory and related safety outcomes for the multiple sclerosis oral disease-modifying therapies: an observational study.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2021 Apr 6;20(4):481-487. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Medicine, Division of Neurology and Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Real-world safety data for the oral multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), dimethyl fumarate (DMF), fingolimod, and teriflunomide are important. We examined laboratory test abnormalities and adverse health conditions in new users.

Methods: Linked laboratory and administrative health data were accessed for all persons with MS (PwMS) filling their first oral DMT prescription in two Canadian provinces. Read More

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Assessing toxicity of hydrophobic aliphatic and monoaromatic hydrocarbons at the solubility limit using novel dosing methods.

Chemosphere 2021 Feb 2;265:129174. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Concawe, Environmental Management Group, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Reliable delineation of aquatic toxicity cut-offs for poorly soluble hydrocarbons is lacking. In this study, vapor and passive dosing methods were applied in limit tests with algae and daphnids to evaluate the presence or absence of chronic effects at exposures corresponding to the water solubility for representative hydrocarbons from five structural classes: branched alkanes, mono, di, and polynaphthenic (cyclic) alkanes and monoaromatic naphthenic hydrocarbons (MANHs). Algal growth rate and daphnid immobilization, growth and reproduction served as the chronic endpoints investigated. Read More

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February 2021

Evaluation of potential miticide toxicity to Varroa destructor and honey bees, Apis mellifera, under laboratory conditions.

Sci Rep 2020 12 9;10(1):21529. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Plant and Bee Health Surveillance Section, Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, 17507 Fort Road NW, Edmonton, AB, T5Y 6H3, Canada.

The honey bee, Apis mellifera L., is the world's most important managed pollinator of agricultural crops, however, Varroa mite, Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman, infestation has threatened honey bee survivorship. Low efficacy and development of Varroa mite resistance to currently used Varroacides has increased the demand for innovative, effective treatment tool options that exhibit high efficacy, while minimizing adverse effects on honey bee fitness. Read More

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December 2020

Environmental disappearance of acetochlor and its bioavailability to weed: A general prototype for reduced herbicide application instruction.

Chemosphere 2021 Feb 26;265:129108. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Pesticide Science, College of Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China; State & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Green Pesticide Invention and Application, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China. Electronic address:

The consecutive application of herbicide acetochlor has resulted in the widespread drug resistance of weeds and the high risks to environment and human health. To assess environmental behaviors and minimal dosage of acetochlor application in the realistic soil, we systematically investigated the acetochlor adsorption/desorption, mobility, leaching, degradation, weed bioavailability and lethal dosage of acetochlor in three soil types including Nanjing (NJ), Yancheng (YC) and Yingtan (YT). Under the same conditions (60% moisture and darkness), acetochlor had a half-life of disappearance 3 days in NJ, 4. Read More

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February 2021

Toxicological responses of BEAS-2B cells to repeated exposures to benzene, toluene, m-xylene, and mesitylene using air-liquid interface method.

J Appl Toxicol 2020 Dec 2. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Unité de Chimie Environnementale et Interactions sur le Vivant, SFR Condorcet FR CNRS 3417, Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, Dunkirk, France.

In order to reduce exposure to toxic chemicals, the European REACH regulation (1907/2006) recommends substituting toxic molecules with compounds that are less harmful to human health and the environment. Toluene is one of the most frequently used solvents in industries despite its toxicity. The objective of this study is to better understand and compare the toxicity of toluene and its homologues in a bronchial cell model. Read More

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December 2020

Toxicological Study and Genetic Basis of BTEX Susceptibility in .

Front Genet 2020 15;11:594179. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Zoology, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene, also known as BTEX, are released into environmental media by petroleum product exploratory and exploitative activities and are harmful to humans and animals. Testing the effects of these chemicals on a significantly large scale requires an inexpensive, rapidly developing model organism such as . In this study, the toxicological profile of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, and o-xylene in was evaluated. Read More

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October 2020

Effects of inhaled combined Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylenes (BTEX): Toward an environmental exposure model.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Jan 24;81:103518. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Psychology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA; Center for Urban Responses to Environmental Stressors, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Combined environmental exposures to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene (BTEX) pose clear risks to public health. Research into these risks is under-studied even as BTEX levels in the atmosphere are predicted to rise. This review focuses on the available literature using single- and combined-BTEX component inhaled solvent exposures in animal models, necessarily also drawing on findings from models of inhalant abuse and occupational exposures. Read More

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January 2021

N,N-dimethylglycine prevents toluene-induced impairment in recognition memory and synaptic plasticity in mice.

Toxicology 2020 12 18;446:152613. Epub 2020 Oct 18.

Center for Neuropsychiatric Research, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Rd. Zhunan, Miaoli, 35053, Taiwan; Department of Medical Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan; Program in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, 145, Xingda Rd., South Dist, Taichung, 40227, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Toluene intoxication produces deleterious effects on cognitive function, which has been associated with the inhibition of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). The present study determined whether N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), a nutrient supplement and a partial agonist for NMDAR glycine binding site, could counteract recognition memory deficits and hippocampal synaptic dysfunction after acute toluene exposure. Male ICR mice were treated with toluene (250-750 mg/kg) for monitoring the sociability and social novelty in three-chamber test and long-term potentiation (LTP) of hippocampal synaptic transmission. Read More

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December 2020

Hepatotoxic effects caused by simultaneous exposure to noise and toluene in New Zealand white rabbits: a biochemical and histopathological study.

Ecotoxicology 2021 Jan 20;30(1):154-163. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The aim of this experimental study was to investigate hepatotoxicity effects of noise and toluene, and in particular, to study hepatotoxicity effects of simultaneous exposure to noise and toluene by histopathological and biochemical experiments. To experiment hepatotoxicity effects of noise and toluene, 100 dB white noise and 1000 ppm toluene vapors were generated during two consecutive weeks in healthy male New Zealand White rabbits. Non-simultaneous exposure to noise and toluene increased liver enzymes and the serum levels of superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant capacity, and also decreased serum level of glutathione peroxidase. Read More

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January 2021

Enantioselective toxicity and oxidative stress effects of acetochlor on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) by mediating the signaling pathway.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 1;766:142630. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Tobacco Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Qingdao 266101, PR China. Electronic address:

Acetochlor (ACT) as a widely used chiral chloroacetamide herbicide is appropriate to evaluate the potential toxicity in soil ecosystems at enantiomeric level. The acute and subchronic toxicities of R-acetochlor (R-ACT) and S-acetochlor (S-ACT) on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were investigated in the present study. Residual analyses showed that S-ACT degraded faster than R-ACT in artificial soil with half-lives of 16. Read More

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Impact of volatile organic compounds on chromium containing atmospheric particulate: insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

Sci Rep 2020 Oct 15;10(1):17387. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, School of Engineering and Digital Sciences, Nazarbayev University, 010000, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan.

The effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on chromium-containing atmospheric particles remains obscured because of difficulties in experimental measurements. Moreover, several ambiguities exist in the literature related to accurate measurements of atmospheric chromium concentration to evaluate its toxicity. We investigated the interaction energies and diffusivity for several VOCs in chromium (III)-containing atmospheric particles using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Read More

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October 2020

Facile functionalization of Teriflunomide-loaded nanoliposomes with Chondroitin sulphate for the treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 Dec 16;250:116926. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, Pushp Vihar, Sector 3, Delhi, 110017, India. Electronic address:

This research aims to coat Teriflunomide (TEF) loaded conventional nanoliposomes (CON-TEF-LIPO) with Chondroitin sulphate (CS) to produce CS-TEF-LIPO for the effective treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Both CON-TEF-LIPO and CS-TEF-LIPO were produced, characterized and evaluated for their active targeting potential towards CD44 receptors. Cell cytotoxicity, cell viability and intracellular uptake study on differentiated U937 and MG-63 cells demonstrated the active targeting of CS-TEF-LIPO towards CD44 receptors. Read More

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December 2020