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    2683 results match your criteria Toxicity Thyroid Hormone

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    [Human exposure and thyroid toxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers].
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Feb;51(2):188-192
    School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong university, Shanghai 200025, China.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a kind of important Brominated Flame Retardant (BFR), are widely used in electronic products, construction materials and textiles. PBDEs have been detected in many environmental media (including air, water, dust, sediment and food), many animal and human tissues. For their environmental persistence, high bioaccumulative and multiple biotoxicitiies, PBDEs have been viewed as one of the most concerned environmental Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) at present. Read More

    Birds and flame retardants: A review of the toxic effects on birds of historical and novel flame retardants.
    Environ Res 2017 Feb 10;154:398-424. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Environment and Climate Change Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, Canada L7S 1A1. Electronic address:
    Flame retardants (FRs) are a diverse group of chemicals, many of which persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in biota. Although some FRs have been withdrawn from manufacturing and commerce (e.g. Read More

    Developmental toxicity and thyroid hormone-disrupting effects of 2,4-dichloro-6-nitrophenol in Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).
    Aquat Toxicol 2017 Feb 4;185:40-47. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085, PR China.
    In the present study, to evaluate embryonic toxicity and the thyroid-disrupting effects of 2,4-dichloro-6-nitrophenol (DCNP), embryos and adults of Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to 2, 20, and 200μg/L DCNP. In the embryo-larval assay, increased percentages of mortality and occurrence of malformations, decreased percentage of hatching, and decreased body length and body weight were observed after DCNP treatment. Moreover, the whole-body T3 levels were significantly increased at 20 and 200μg/L treatments, whereas the T4 levels were markedly decreased significantly (p<0. Read More

    Hypothesis-driven weight-of-evidence analysis of endocrine disruption potential: a case study with triclosan.
    Crit Rev Toxicol 2017 Jan 27:1-26. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    b Colgate-Palmolive Company , Piscataway , NJ , USA.
    Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent used in a range of consumer products, such as deodorants, oral care, clothing, and household items. As with many consumer products, triclosan can be rinsed down the drain and transported to wastewater treatment plants. While most is eliminated during activated sludge sewage treatment by biodegradation and adsorption, some triclosan enters the aquatic environment and may expose wildlife. Read More

    An Overview of Selenium Uptake, Metabolism, and Toxicity in Plants.
    Front Plant Sci 2016 11;7:2074. Epub 2017 Jan 11.
    Ecotoxicogenomics Lab, Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia New Delhi, India.
    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals, but lead to toxicity when taken in excessive amounts. Plants are the main source of dietary Se, but essentiality of Se for plants is still controversial. However, Se at low doses protects the plants from variety of abiotic stresses such as cold, drought, desiccation, and metal stress. Read More

    Endocrine disrupting pesticides impair the neuroendocrine regulation of reproductive behaviors and secondary sexual characters of red munia (Amandava amandava).
    Physiol Behav 2017 Jan 21;173:15-22. Epub 2017 Jan 21.
    Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, U.P., India. Electronic address:
    The exposure effects of two endocrine disrupting pesticides (EDPs), mancozeb/MCZ and imidacloprid/IMI of the group dithiocarbamate and neonicotinoid respectively, on reproductive behaviors and secondary sexual characters have been studied in a seasonally breeding wildlife bird, red munia (Amandava amandava). Adult male birds were exposed to both the pesticides individually (0.25% LD50 of each) as well as co-exposed (MIX-I: 0. Read More

    Thyroid pathology in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculata) from a reclaimed mine site on the athabasca oil sands.
    Environ Pollut 2017 Mar 16;222:42-49. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 3280 Hospital Drive NW Calgary, Alberta T2N 4Z6, Canada. Electronic address:
    Information on naturally occurring thyroid disease in wild animals in general and in small mammals specifically is extremely limited. In the present field-based work, we investigated the structure and function of thyroid glands of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculata) studied as sentinels of ecosystem sustainability on reclaimed areas post-mining on the oil sands of northeastern Alberta, because of their greater sensitivity to contaminants relative to meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) on the same sites. Extraction of bitumen in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta, results in the release of contaminants including polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), metals, and metalloids to the environment that have a measurable biological cost to wildlife living in the affected areas. Read More

    Effects of Long-Term In Vivo Exposure to Di-2-Ethylhexylphthalate on Thyroid Hormones and the TSH/TSHR Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats.
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 Jan 4;14(1). Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Department of Environmental Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, China.
    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was a widely used chemical with human toxicity. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggested that DEHP-exposure may be associated with altered serum thyroid hormones (THs) levels, but the underlying molecular mechanisms were largely unknown. To explore the possible molecular mechanisms, 128 Wistar rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage at 0, 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg/day for 3 months (M) and 6 M, respectively. Read More

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is impaired by transient and moderate developmental thyroid hormone disruption.
    Neurotoxicology 2016 Dec 31;59:9-21. Epub 2016 Dec 31.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine, Old Westbury, NY 11568, USA.
    The hippocampus maintains a capacity for neurogenesis throughout life, a capacity that is reduced in models of adult onset hypothyroidism. The effects of developmental thyroid hormone (TH) insufficiency on neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, however, has not been examined. Graded degrees of TH insufficiency were induced in pregnant rat dams by administration of 0, 3 or 10ppm of 6-propylthiouracil (PTU) in drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 until weaning. Read More

    Oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, and malformation of Bufo gargarizans embryo exposed to sub-lethal cadmium concentrations.
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Jan 12;49:97-104. Epub 2016 Dec 12.
    College of Life Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China. Electronic address:
    Thyroid hormone (TH) is critical for vertebrate postembryonic development as well as embryonic development. Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) embryos were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (5, 50, 100, 200 and 500μg Cd L(-1)) for 7days. Malformations were monitored daily, and growth and development of embryos were measured at day 4 and 7, and type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were also measured to assess disruption of TH synthesis. Read More

    Development of a screening approach to detect thyroid disrupting chemicals that inhibit the human sodium iodide symporter (NIS).
    Toxicol In Vitro 2016 Dec 12;40:66-78. Epub 2016 Dec 12.
    Endocrine Toxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, United States. Electronic address:
    The U.S. EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program aims to use high-throughput assays and computational toxicology models to screen and prioritize chemicals that may disrupt the thyroid signaling pathway. Read More

    Approaches for grouping of pesticides into cumulative assessment groups for risk assessment of pesticide residues in food.
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Feb 10;83:89-99. Epub 2016 Dec 10.
    Department of Toxicology, University of Würzburg, Versbacher Strasse 9, 97078, Würzburg, Germany. Electronic address:
    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is developing approaches to cumulative risk assessment of pesticides by assigning individual pesticides to cumulative assessment groups (CAGs). For assignment to CAGs, EFSA recommended to rely on adverse effects on the specific target system. Contractors to EFSA have proposed to allocate individual pesticides into CAGs relying on NOAELs for effects on target organs. Read More

    Interindividual and interethnic variability in drug disposition: polymorphisms in organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1; SLCO1B1).
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 2016 Dec 9. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.
    OATP1B1 (SLCO1B1) is predominantly expressed at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes and is critically important for the hepatic uptake and clearance of numerous drug substrates and endogenous compounds. In general, the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP; SLCO) represent a superfamily of uptake transporters that mediate the sodium-independent transport of a diverse range of amphipathic organic compounds including bile salts, steroid conjugates, thyroid hormones, anionic peptides, numerous drugs and other xenobiotic substances. OATP1B1 is highly polymorphic and a number of relevant and ethnically dependent polymorphisms have been identified and functionally characterized. Read More

    Toxicologic effects of 28-day dietary exposure to the flame retardant 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane (TBECH) in F344 rats.
    Toxicology 2017 Feb 5;377:1-13. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    Regulatory Toxicology Research Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, Food Directorate, Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, 251 Sir Frederick Banting Driveway, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0K9, Canada.
    The brominated flame retardant TBECH is used as an additive to delay ignition and inhibit fires in construction materials and consumer goods. Trends in human exposure are not clear, although humans may be exposed to TBECH via indoor dust and air. In birds and fish there is some evidence of disruption in endocrine and reproductive parameters due to TBECH. Read More

    Morphofunctional Changes in the Thyroid Gland of Pubertal and Postpubertal Rats Exposed to Low Dose of DDT.
    Bull Exp Biol Med 2016 Dec 1;162(2):260-263. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Research Institute of Human Morphology, Moscow, Russia.
    Consumption of low dose DDT from birth until puberty suppressed functional activity of the thyroid gland in rats and leads to destructive changes in the organ during the postpubertal period with compensatory stimulation of secretory activity of thyrocytes aimed at normalization of thyroxin production. Read More

    Thyroid Function after Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Patients with Breast Cancer
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 10 1;17(10):4577-4581. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
    Department of Radiotherapy, Regional Clinical Hospital in Zielona Gora Zyty 26, 65-001 Zielona Gora, Poland |University of Zielona Gora, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Poland, Email:
    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess thyroid function in breast cancer patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation. The focus was on possible progressive changes and any relationships between the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, and factors such as chemotherapy, hormonotherapy and immunotherapy. Materials and Methods: Seventy females undergoing 3D conformal and IMRT radiation therapy for breast cancers were enrolled in a non-randomized prospective study. Read More

    Dietary exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE-47) inhibits development and alters thyroid hormone-related gene expression in the brain of Xenopus laevis tadpoles.
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2016 Dec 3;48:237-244. Epub 2016 Nov 3.
    Department of Biology, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX, 76129, USA. Electronic address:
    Few studies have investigated the thyroid-disrupting effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) across multiple levels of biological organization in anurans, despite their suitability for the screening of thyroid disruptors. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on development, thyroid histology and thyroid hormone-related gene expression in Xenopus laevis exposed to 0 (control), 50 (low), 500 (medium) or 5000μg BDE-47/g food (high) for 21days. Only the high dose of BDE-47 hindered growth and development; however, thyroid hormone-associated gene expression was downregulated in the brains of tadpoles regardless of dose. Read More

    Gallic acid attenuates chromium-induced thyroid dysfunction by modulating antioxidant status and inflammatory cytokines.
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2016 Dec 27;48:225-236. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Egypt.
    Hexavalent chromium-mediated oxidative stress causes severe organ damage. The present study was designed to investigate the possible thyroprotective effect and underlying mechanisms of gallic acid using rat model of potassium dichromate-induced thyroid dysfunction. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into 4 groups: control, gallic acid (20mg GA/kg b. Read More

    Exogenous iodide ameliorates perchlorate-induced thyroid phenotypes in threespine stickleback.
    Gen Comp Endocrinol 2017 Mar 1;243:60-69. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    Center for Bioengineering Innovation & Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA. Electronic address:
    Perchlorate is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that has widespread endocrine disrupting effects in vertebrates, including threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). The target of perchlorate is thyroid tissue where it induces changes in the organization, activation, and morphology of thyroid follicles and surrounding tissues. To test the hypothesis that some phenotypes of perchlorate toxicity are not mediated by thyroid hormone, we chronically exposed stickleback beginning at fertilization to perchlorate (10, 30, 100ppm) or control water with and without supplementation of either iodide or thyroxine (T4). Read More

    Triclosan exposure results in alterations of thyroid hormone status and retarded early development and metamorphosis in Cyprinodon variegatus.
    Aquat Toxicol 2016 Dec 24;181:1-10. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    Laboratory of Oceanology, MARE, B6c, Liège University, Liège, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Thyroid hormones are critically involved in somatic growth, development and metamorphosis of vertebrates. The structural similarity between thyroid hormones and triclosan, an antimicrobial compound widely employed in consumer personal care products, suggests triclosan can have adverse effects on the thyroid system. The sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus, is now used in ecotoxicological studies that have recently begun to focus on potential disruption of the thyroid axis by endocrine disrupting compounds. Read More

    Insights of a Lead Optimization Study and Biological Evaluation of Novel 4-Hydroxytamoxifen Analogs as Estrogen-Related Receptor γ (ERRγ) Inverse Agonists.
    J Med Chem 2016 Nov 9;59(22):10209-10227. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
    New Drug Development Center, Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation , Daegu 41061, Korea.
    We evaluated the in vitro pharmacology as well as the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) properties of chemical entities that not only were shown to be highly selective agonists for ERRγ but also exhibited enhanced pharmacokinetic profile compared with 3 (GSK5182). 6g and 10b had comparable potency to 3 and were far more selective for ERRγ over the ERRα, -β, and ERα. The in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles of 6g and 10b were further evaluated, as they possessed superior in vitro ADMET profiles compared to the other compounds. Read More

    Thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish following exposure to binary mixture of bisphenol AF and sulfamethoxazole.
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2016 Dec 22;48:168-174. Epub 2016 Oct 22.
    Department of Environmental Health, Graduate School at Yongin University, Yongin, 17092, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
    Thyroid endocrine disruption by bisphenol AF (BPAF) alone or in combination with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) exposure was evaluated in adult male zebrafish. Changes in thyroid gene transcription were examined using microarrays and were linked to effects on thyroxine hormone production and transcription of genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. BPAF alone or in combination with SMX affected genes related to thyroid hormone production and receptor activity, thyroid gland development, and deiodinase activity. Read More

    Life-cycle exposure to BDE-47 results in thyroid endocrine disruption to adults and offsprings of zebrafish (Danio rerio).
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2016 Dec 12;48:157-167. Epub 2016 Oct 12.
    College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Jilin Normal University, Haifeng Street, Siping, Tiexi Dist. 136000, China. Electronic address:
    2,2,4',4'-Tetrabromodi-phenyl ether (BDE-47) is predominantly concentrated in humans and wildlife and disturbs thyroid hormone homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to characterize the thyroid endocrine disruption induced by life-cycle exposure to BDE-47 in adults and offspring of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We exposed zebrafish embryos at the blastula stage to different concentrations of BDE-47 (1, 5, and 10μg/L). Read More

    Refuse leachate exposure causes changes of thyroid hormone level and related gene expression in female goldfish (Carassius auratus).
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2016 Dec 5;48:46-52. Epub 2016 Oct 5.
    Marine Life Science College, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, China. Electronic address:
    To elucidate the potential thyroid disrupting effects of refuse leachate on females, female goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to 0.5% diluted leachates from each step of a leachate treatment process (i.e. Read More

    Effects of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents on Thyroid Hormone Receptor Action and Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cerebellar Purkinje Cell Morphogenesis.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2016 26;7:115. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    Department of Integrative Physiology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine , Maebashi , Japan.
    Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are used in diagnostic imaging to enhance the quality of magnetic resonance imaging or angiography. After intravenous injection, GBCAs can accumulate in the brain. Thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system. Read More

    Relative developmental toxicity of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.
    Environ Pollut 2016 Dec 8;219:1122-1130. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    International Joint Research Centre for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), Harbin, 150090, China.
    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and might cause adverse environmental and human health effects. Little is known about the relative toxicity of different SCCP compounds especially during development. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare effects of seven SCCP groups at environmentally relevant levels, using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. Read More

    Effects of ZnO nanoparticles on perfluorooctane sulfonate induced thyroid-disrupting on zebrafish larvae.
    J Environ Sci (China) 2016 Sep 9;47:153-64. Epub 2016 Mar 9.
    The Second Middle School of Funing at Qinhuangdao, Qinhuangdao 066300, China.
    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and ZnO nanoparticles (nano-ZnO) are widely distributed in the environment. However, the potential toxicity of co-exposure to PFOS and nano-ZnO remains to be fully elucidated. The test investigated the effects of co-exposure to PFOS and nano-ZnO on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in zebrafish. Read More

    A high throughput drug screening assay to identify compounds that promote oligodendrocyte differentiation using acutely dissociated and purified oligodendrocyte precursor cells.
    BMC Res Notes 2016 Sep 5;9(1):419. Epub 2016 Sep 5.
    Translational Medicine Center, Myelin Repair Foundation, Sunnyvale, CA, 94085, USA.
    Background: Multiple sclerosis is caused by an autoimmune response resulting in demyelination and neural degeneration. The adult central nervous system has the capacity to remyelinate axons in part through the generation of new oligodendrocytes (OLs). To identify clinical candidate compounds that may promote remyelination, we have developed a high throughput screening (HTS) assay to identify compounds that promote the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) into OLs. Read More

    Taurine ameliorated thyroid function in rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead.
    Vet Res Commun 2016 Dec 25;40(3-4):123-129. Epub 2016 Aug 25.
    Department of Veterinary Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Lead is a toxic heavy metal and it is used for domestic and industrial purposes. Taurine is a semi essential amino acid with bioprotective properties. Read More

    Toxic effects of copper sulfate and copper nanoparticles on minerals, enzymes, thyroid hormones and protein fractions of plasma and histopathology in common carp Cyprinus carpio.
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 2016 Oct 21;68(9):493-503. Epub 2016 Aug 21.
    Department of Aquatic Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Differences in toxicological effects of dissolved copper and copper nanoparticles were studied in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The fish were exposed to 0.25mgL(-1) copper as copper sulfate (0. Read More

    Impact of titanium dioxide on androgen receptors, seminal vesicles and thyroid hormones of male rats: possible protective trial with aged garlic extract.
    Andrologia 2016 Aug 22. Epub 2016 Aug 22.
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Sharkia, Egypt.
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2 ), a widely produced and consumed pigment in various food products, on the post-natal development of male albino rat seminal vesicle and thyroid hormones, as well as to evaluate the ameliorative effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) on TiO2 -induced alterations. Forty male rat pups (3 weeks old) were divided into four equal groups. The 1st group received distilled water orally (control group), 2nd group was given 2 ml kg(-1) AGE, 3rd group was administered TiO2 (5 g kg(-1) BW) day after day for 65 days, and the 4th group administered AGE 6 hr prior to TiO2 gavage. Read More

    The identification of the metabolites of chlorothalonil in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and their embryo toxicity and endocrine effects at environmentally relevant levels.
    Environ Pollut 2016 Nov 16;218:8-15. Epub 2016 Aug 16.
    Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, China. Electronic address:
    Chlorothalonil is a broad spectrum fungicide with high annual production and environmental contamination. Despite its high consumption, studies regarding the potential ecological risks of chlorothalonil, especially its metabolites, to aquatic organisms are still limited. In this study, we selected the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as the in vivo model and first identified the metabolite (4-hydroxychlorothalonil) of chlorothalonil in zebrafish by tandem quadrupole/orthogonal-acceleration time-of-flight (Q-TOF). Read More

    Binding interactions of perfluoroalkyl substances with thyroid hormone transport proteins and potential toxicological implications.
    Toxicology 2016 Jul 12;366-367:32-42. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Eco-toxicology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085, China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, China. Electronic address:
    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been shown to cause abnormal levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in experimental animals, but the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, a fluorescence displacement assay was used to determine the binding affinities of 16 PFASs with two major TH transport proteins, transthyretin (TTR) and thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). Most of the tested PFASs bound TTR with relative potency (RP) values of 3×10(-4) to 0. Read More

    Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in rat thyroid toxicity caused by excess fluoride and/or iodide.
    Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2016 Sep 9;46:277-85. Epub 2016 Aug 9.
    Department of Environmental Health and MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan, 430030 Hubei, PR China. Electronic address:
    Excess fluoride and iodide coexist in drinking water in many regions, but few studies have investigated the single or interactive effects on thyroid in vivo. In our study, Wistar rats were exposed to excess fluoride and/or iodide through drinking water for 2 or 8 months. The structure and function of the thyroid, cells apoptosis and the expression of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathway-related factors were analyzed. Read More

    Impact of co-exposure with butachlor and triadimefon on thyroid endocrine system in larval zebrafish.
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 2016 Sep 29;68(8):463-9. Epub 2016 Jul 29.
    Institute of Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China.
    Introduction: Butachlor (BTL) and triadimefon (TDF), the widely used herbicide and fungicide, are unavoidable enter into the aquatic environment. However, there were limited study regarding to the joint toxicity of these two pesticides on fish at present.

    Aim: To evaluate the potential thyroid-disrupting toxicity and exposed to different concentrations of BTL mixed with TDF. Read More

    A phase II trial of valproic acid in patients with advanced, radioiodine-resistant thyroid cancers of follicular cell origin.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Jan 8;86(1):128-133. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    Endocrine Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Objective: Valproic acid (VA) is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that has antiproliferative effects on several types of cancer, including thyroid cancer. In addition, VA has been reported to upregulate the sodium-iodine symporter in thyroid cancer cells and increases radioiodine uptake in preclinical studies. The aim of this study was to assess the antiproliferative effects of VA and to evaluate if VA can increase the radioiodine uptake in patients with advanced, radioiodine-negative thyroid cancer. Read More

    In vitro assessment of thyroid hormone receptor activity of four organophosphate esters.
    J Environ Sci (China) 2016 Jul 16;45:185-90. Epub 2016 Feb 16.
    State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Eco-toxicology, Research Centre for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, China. Electronic address:
    Previous animal experiments have implied that organophosphate esters (OPEs) have a disruption effect on the thyroid endocrine system. However, knowledge of the toxicological mechanism remains limited. In this study, the activities of four OPEs have been characterized against the thyroid hormone (TH) nuclear receptor (TR) using two in vitro models, with the aim of evaluating their toxicity mechanisms towards the TR. Read More

    A comparison of potency differences among thyroid peroxidase (TPO) inhibitors to induce developmental toxicity and other thyroid gland-linked toxicities in humans and rats.
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2016 Oct 24;80:283-90. Epub 2016 Jun 24.
    Orbitox, International Toxicology Consultants, 7 Avenida Vista Grande #274, Santa Fe, NM, 87508, USA. Electronic address:
    The potencies of resorcinol, 6-propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole (MMI) for inducing developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity were compared in pregnant rats, regarded as valid model for human thyroid toxicity. Profound differences on maternal thyroid hormone levels (THs), maternal toxicity as well as developmental and neurotoxicity sequelae occurred. Resorcinol affected none of those end points. Read More

    Taurine Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats Chronically Exposed to Fluoride.
    Biol Trace Elem Res 2017 Feb 22;175(2):388-395. Epub 2016 Jun 22.
    Drug Metabolism and Toxicology Research Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
    Excessive exposure to fluoride poses several detrimental effects to human health particularly the kidney which is a major organ involved in its elimination from the body. The influence of taurine on fluoride-induced renal toxicity was investigated in a co-exposure paradigm for 45 days using five groups of eight rats each. Group I rats received normal drinking water alone, group II rats were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone, group III received taurine alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg group IV rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (100 mg/kg), while group V rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (200 mg/kg). Read More

    Exposure to a PBDE/OH-BDE mixture alters juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) development.
    Environ Toxicol Chem 2017 Jan 12;36(1):36-48. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their metabolites (e.g., hydroxylated BDEs [OH-BDEs]) are contaminants frequently detected together in human tissues and are structurally similar to thyroid hormones. Read More

    Waterborne exposure to triadimefon causes thyroid endocrine disruption and developmental delay in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.
    Aquat Toxicol 2016 Aug 24;177:190-7. Epub 2016 May 24.
    Institute of Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China.
    Triadimefon (TDF) is a triazole-derivative fungicide that is detectable in the environment and target agricultural products, prompting concern over its risk to wildlife and human health. In our study, Nieuwkoop & Faber stage 51 Xenopus laevis tadpoles were exposed to different nominal concentrations TDF (0, 0.112, and 1. Read More

    Gestational and Early Postnatal Exposure to an Environmentally Relevant Mixture of Brominated Flame Retardants: General Toxicity and Skeletal Variations.
    Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 2016 Jun 10;107(3):157-68. Epub 2016 Jun 10.
    Environmental Health Science & Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are stable environmental contaminants known to exert endocrine-disrupting effects. Developmental exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is correlated with impaired thyroid hormone signaling, as well as estrogenic and anti-androgenic effects. As previous studies have focused on a single congener or technical mixture, the purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of gestational and early postnatal exposure to an environmentally relevant mixture of BFRs designed to reflect house dust levels of PBDEs and hexabromocyclododecane on postnatal developmental outcomes. Read More

    Neuro-Modulation of Immuno-Endocrine Response Induced by Kaliotoxin of Androctonus Scorpion Venom.
    J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2016 Dec 7;30(12):580-587. Epub 2016 Jun 7.
    USTHB, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, Algiers, Algeria.
    Kaliotoxin (KTX), a specific blocker of potassium channels, exerts various toxic effects due to its action on the central nervous system. Its use in experimental model could help the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the neuropathological processes related to potassium channel dysfunctions. In this study, the ability of KTX to stimulate neuro-immuno-endocrine axis was investigated. Read More

    The synthetic gestagen levonorgestrel directly affects gene expression in thyroid and pituitary glands of Xenopus laevis tadpoles.
    Aquat Toxicol 2016 Aug 20;177:63-73. Epub 2016 May 20.
    Department of Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Müggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin, Germany; Department of Endocrinology, Institute of Biology, Humboldt University Berlin, Germany.
    The synthetic gestagen levonorgestrel (LNG) was previously shown to perturb thyroid hormone-dependent metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis. However, so far the mechanisms underlying the anti-metamorphic effects of LNG remained unknown. Therefore, a series of in vivo and ex vivo experiments was performed to identify potential target sites of LNG action along the pituitary-thyroid axis of X. Read More

    [Research progress of health effect of polybrominated diphenyl ethers].
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2016 Jun;50(6):559-62
    Department of Occupational and Environmental, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was one of the most common brominated flame retardants, it has been widely used in products such as furnitures, polymer and plastical material, textiles, electronic products and building materials. PBDEs have potential effect such as neurodevelopmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, thyroid toxicity, immunological toxicity, embryo toxicity, liver toxicity, teratogenicity and potential carcinogenicity. This paper was aimed to review the environmental exposure way, current level, neurotoxicity, neurodevelopmental toxicity and reproductive toxicity of PBDEs. Read More

    Toxic Effects of Tetrabromobisphenol A on Thyroid Hormones in SD Rats and the Derived-reference Dose.
    Biomed Environ Sci 2016 04;29(4):295-9
    South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, MEP, Guangzhou 510655, Guangdong, China.
    The present study determined the thyroid hormone interference of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, and the derived-reference dose (RfD) of different endpoint effects on mammals based on experimental results and data collection. Based on repeated exposure toxicity tests on mammals and extensive research, the present study used BMDS240 Software to derive a benchmark dose, and analyzed the accuracy and uncertainty, and similarity with other studies. Test results on triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) demonstrated that all the indicators presented a non-monotonous dose-effect relationship clearly, except TSH in male rats exposed to 0-1000 mg/kg BW per day. Read More

    The Effects of Disturbance on Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid (HPT) Axis in Zebrafish Larvae after Exposure to DEHP.
    PLoS One 2016 25;11(5):e0155762. Epub 2016 May 25.
    Research Center for Environment and Health, Eco-Environmental Institute for Three Gorges, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, 401122, China.
    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has the potential to disrupt the thyroid endocrine system, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to different concentrations of DEHP (0, 40, 100, 200, 400 μg/L) from 2 to 168 hours post fertilization (hpf). Thyroid hormones (THs) levels and transcriptional profiling of key genes related to hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were examined. Read More

    Thyroid hormone-dependent formation of a subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) in the neonatal brain is not exacerbated under conditions of low dietary iron (FeD).
    Neurotoxicol Teratol 2016 Jul-Aug;56:41-6. Epub 2016 May 20.
    Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. Electronic address:
    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for brain development and insufficiencies can lead to structural abnormalities in specific brain regions. Administration of the goitrogen propylthiouracil (PTU) reduces TH production by inhibiting thyroperoxidase (TPO), an enzyme that oxidizes iodide for the synthesis of TH. TPO activity is iron (Fe)-dependent and dietary iron deficiency (FeD) also reduces circulating levels of TH. Read More

    Modulation in Persistent Organic Pollutant Concentration and Profile by Prey Availability and Reproductive Status in Southern Resident Killer Whale Scat Samples.
    Environ Sci Technol 2016 Jun 8;50(12):6506-16. Epub 2016 Jun 8.
    Center for Conservation Biology, Department of Biology, University of Washington , Seattle, Washington 98195, United States.
    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), specifically PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs, in the marine environment are well documented, however accumulation and mobilization patterns at the top of the food-web are poorly understood. This study broadens the understanding of POPs in the endangered Southern Resident killer whale population by addressing modulation by prey availability and reproductive status, along with endocrine disrupting effects. A total of 140 killer whale scat samples collected from 54 unique whales across a 4 year sampling period (2010-2013) were analyzed for concentrations of POPs. Read More

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