1,240 results match your criteria Toxicity Theophylline


Severe amnestic syndrome due to theophylline toxicity.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 5;14(5). Epub 2021 May 5.

Neurology, University Hospital Galway, Galway, Ireland.

We report a case of severe amnestic syndrome following theophylline overdose. A woman in her early 30s was admitted to hospital where she developed status epilepticus following an intentional overdose of theophylline and lansoprazole. She developed a profound acidosis and required intubation in the intensive care unit. Read More

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New Framework for a Non-Animal Approach Adequately Assures the Safety of Cosmetic Ingredients - A Case Study on Caffeine.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Apr 24:104931. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Beiersdorf, Unnastrasse 48, 20253, Hamburg, Germany.

This case study on the model substance caffeine demonstrates the viability of a 10-step read-across (RAX) framework in practice. New approach methodologies (NAM), including RAX and physiologically-based kinetic (PBK) modelling were used to assess the consumer safety of caffeine. Appropriate animal systemic toxicity data were used from the most relevant RAX analogue while assuming that no suitable animal toxicity data were available for caffeine. Read More

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Symptomatic Supraventricular Tachycardia Resistant to Adenosine Therapy in a Patient with Chronic Theophylline Use.

Case Rep Cardiol 2021 27;2021:2806193. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Carondelet Medical Group, USA.

Theophylline is a potent adenosine receptor antagonist with indirect adrenergic effects that can lead to arrhythmias and metabolic abnormalities such as hypokalemia. Therapeutic toxicity cases have declined over the years mainly due to decreased recommended therapeutic doses and overall decreased usage of this medication due to newer available COPD treatment options. We present a clinical case of symptomatic supraventricular tachycardia resistant to adenosine therapy in a patient with theophylline use. Read More

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Acute on Chronic Theophylline Toxicity in an Elderly Patient.

Cureus 2021 Feb 22;13(2):e13484. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Cardiology, Orlando Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, Orlando, USA.

Theophylline toxicity has become rare in the 21st century, as the drug has fallen out of favor due to serious life-threatening adverse events, narrow therapeutic window and readily available therapeutic alternatives. The wide array of clinical symptoms related to theophylline toxicity makes this diagnosis challenging for the treating physician. We report a case of an elderly gentleman who presented with respiratory failure and seizures due to severe theophylline toxicity. Read More

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February 2021

Post-tuberculous lung disease: should we be using Theophylline?

J Thorac Dis 2021 Feb;13(2):1230-1238

Division of Pulmonology, Western Cape Department of Health, Tygerberg Hospital, Bellville, South Africa.

Tuberculosis affects 10 million people and over 320,000 South Africans every year. A significant proportion of patients treated for tuberculosis develop post-tuberculous lung disease (PTBLD), a disease of chronic respiratory impairment for which there is a lack of affordable treatment options. PTBLD a heterogenous disorder that shares phenotypical features with chronic obstructive lung disease, bronchiectasis, lung fibrosis and destruction as well as pulmonary hypertension. Read More

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February 2021

Potential mechanisms underlying the effects of lipid emulsion against theophylline-induced toxicity.

Am J Emerg Med 2020 Nov 24. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, 15 Jinju-daero 816 beon-gil, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do 52727, Republic of Korea; Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju-si, 52727, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

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November 2020

Current state of drug analysis in Japanese emergency departments: a nationwide survey.

Acute Med Surg 2020 Jan-Dec;7(1):e566. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Yonemori Hospital Kagoshima Japan.

Aim: In 1999, the Japanese Society for Clinical Toxicology proposed 15 toxicants that would be useful for analysis: methanol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, bromovalerylurea, tricyclic acid, acetaminophen, salicylic acid, theophylline, organic phosphorus pesticides, carbamate pesticides, glufosinate, paraquat, arsenic, cyanide, and methamphetamine. We aimed to reveal the current state of drug analysis for acute poisoning in the emergency department of Japanese hospitals.

Methods: From 1 April, 2017, we undertook a questionnaire survey in the emergency departments of 546 hospitals designated as educational institutions for emergency physicians. Read More

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October 2020

Home Treatment of Older People with Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection (COVID-19): A structured Summary of a Study Protocol for a Multi-Arm Multi-Stage (MAMS) Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerability of Several Experimental Treatments to Reduce the Risk of Hospitalisation or Death in outpatients aged 65 years or older (COVERAGE trial).

Trials 2020 Oct 13;21(1):846. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

CHU Bordeaux, Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Division of Tropical Medicine and Clinical International Health, F-33000, Bordeaux, France.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of several repurposed drugs to prevent hospitalisation or death in patients aged 65 or more with recent symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) and no criteria for hospitalisation.

Trial Design: Phase III, multi-arm (5) and multi-stage (MAMS), randomized, open-label controlled superiority trial. Participants will be randomly allocated 1:1:1:1:1 to the following strategies: Arm 1: Control arm Arms 2 to 5: Experimental treatment arms Planned interim analyses will be conducted at regular intervals. Read More

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October 2020

Sensory satellite glial Gq-GPCR activation alleviates inflammatory pain via peripheral adenosine 1 receptor activation.

Sci Rep 2020 08 25;10(1):14181. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Denver (UCD), Anschutz Medical Campus (AMC), 12700E 19th Ave., Room 6440D, Mail stop C317, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Glial fibrillary acidic protein expressing (GFAP) glia modulate nociceptive neuronal activity in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the central nervous system (CNS). Resident GFAP glia in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) known as satellite glial cells (SGCs) potentiate neuronal activity by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines and neuroactive compounds. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that SGC Gq-coupled receptor (Gq-GPCR) signaling modulates pain sensitivity in vivo using Gfap-hM3Dq mice. Read More

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Theophylline toxicity: Successful management of a patient with distributive shock secondary to drug overdose.

Am J Emerg Med 2020 11 6;38(11):2491.e1-2491.e2. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Sri Gokulam hospital, Salem, Tamilnadu, India.

Presenting a case of acute theophylline and salbutamol overdose with distributive shock. Twenty one years old lady presented with history of consumption of 3 gram of theophylline and 40 mg of salbutamol. On admission she had altered sensorium with the systolic blood pressure of 60 mmHg, unrecordable diastolic blood pressure and heart rate of 147/min. Read More

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November 2020

Efficacy of L-carnitine and propranolol in the management of acute theophylline toxicity.

Toxicol Res (Camb) 2020 Feb 11;9(1):45-54. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Forensic Medicine& Clinical Toxicology-Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt.

Theophylline toxicity results in substantial morbidity and mortality particularly due to its narrow therapeutic index. The development of new treatments for acute theophylline toxicity is a point of research interest. The aim of the present work was to assess the efficacy of L-carnitine (LC) and propranolol in the management of patients with acute theophylline toxicity. Read More

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February 2020

Fine-tuning the regulation of Cas9 expression levels for efficient CRISPR-Cas9 mediated recombination in Streptomyces.

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 May 4;47(4-5):413-423. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Chemistry, School of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Manchester Centre for Synthetic Biology of Fine and Speciality Chemicals (SYNBIOCHEM), Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester, M1 7DN, UK.

CRISPR-Cas9 has proven as a very powerful gene editing tool for Actinomyces, allowing scarless and precise genome editing in selected strains of these biotechnologically relevant microorganisms. However, its general application in actinomycetes has been limited due to its inefficacy when applying the system in an untested strain. Here, we provide evidence of how Cas9 levels are toxic for the model actinomycetes Streptomyces coelicolor M145 and Streptomyces lividans TK24, which show delayed or absence of growth. Read More

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Combined use of dbcAMP and IBMX minimizes the damage induced by a long-term artificial meiotic arrest in mouse germinal vesicle oocytes.

Mol Reprod Dev 2020 02 13;87(2):262-273. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Regulation & Breeding of Grassland Livestock, School of Life Sciences, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China.

Phosphodiesterase (PDE)-mediated reduction of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) activity can initiate germinal vesicle (GV) breakdown in mammalian oocytes. It is crucial to maintain oocytes at the GV stage for a long period to analyze meiotic resumption in vitro. Meiotic resumption can be reversibly inhibited in isolated oocytes by cAMP modulator forskolin, cAMP analog dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP), or PDE inhibitors, milrinone (Mil), Cilostazol (CLZ), and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Read More

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February 2020

Ny-Ålesund-oriented organic pollutants in sewage effluent and receiving seawater in the Arctic region of Kongsfjorden.

Environ Pollut 2020 Mar 13;258:113792. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Graduate School of FEED of Eco-Friendly Offshore Structure, Changwon National University, Changwon, Gyeongsangnamdo, 51140, South Korea; School of Civil, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon, Gyeongsangnamdo, 51140, South Korea. Electronic address:

Ny-Ålesund, one of four permanent settlements on Spitsbergen in Svalbard, is a research town that includes scientific institutes from many countries. Because of daily-used chemicals (e.g. Read More

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Multi-Layer Controls of Cas9 Activity Coupled With ATP Synthase Over-Expression for Efficient Genome Editing in .

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2019 1;7:304. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology & Research Center for Clinical Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Efficient genome editing is a prerequisite of genetic engineering in synthetic biology, which has been recently achieved by the powerful CRISPR/Cas9 system. However, the toxicity of Cas9, due to its abundant intracellular expression, has impeded its extensive applications. Here we constructed a genetic cassette with triple controls of Cas9 activities at transcriptional, translational and protein levels, together with over-expression of the ATP synthase β-subunit AtpD, for the efficient genome editing in . Read More

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November 2019

Refinement of the rodent pentylenetetrazole proconvulsion assay, which is a good predictor of convulsions in repeat-dose toxicology studies.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2020 Jan - Feb;101:106653. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

AbbVie Inc., 1 North Waukegan Road, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA.

Introduction: The pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure assay in rodents is an established method for investigating drug-induced alterations in seizure threshold such as proconvulsant effects. The standard procedure in our laboratory was to administer the test item prior to 75-120 mg/kg subcutaneous PTZ. However, this dose range is associated with a high incidence of mortality, including approximately 40% or greater deaths of control animals. Read More

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November 2020

Food-Drug Interaction between the Adlay Bran Oil and Drugs in Rats.

Nutrients 2019 Oct 15;11(10). Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Graduate Institute of Food Science and Technology, Center for Food and Biomolecules, College of Bioresources and Agriculture, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 106, Taiwan.

Adlay ( L. var. Stapf) contains various phytonutrients for treating many diseases in Asia. Read More

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October 2019

Esters of terpene alcohols as highly potent, reversible, and low toxic skin penetration enhancers.

Sci Rep 2019 10 10;9(1):14617. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Skin Barrier Research Group, Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Akademika Heyrovského 1203, 50005, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.

Skin penetration/permeation enhancers are compounds that improve (trans)dermal drug delivery. We designed hybrid terpene-amino acid enhancers by conjugating natural terpenes (citronellol, geraniol, nerol, farnesol, linalool, perillyl alcohol, menthol, borneol, carveol) or cinnamyl alcohol with 6-(dimethylamino)hexanoic acid through a biodegradable ester linker. The compounds were screened for their ability to increase the delivery of theophylline and hydrocortisone through and into human skin ex vivo. Read More

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October 2019

Accuracy, discriminative properties and reliability of a human ESC-based in vitro toxicity assay to distinguish teratogens responsible for neural tube defects.

Arch Toxicol 2019 08 10;93(8):2375-2384. Epub 2019 Aug 10.

Reproductive Medicine and Gynaecological Endocrinology (RME), University Hospital, University of Basel, Vogesenstrasse 134, 4031, Basel, Switzerland.

The poor correlation of developmental toxicity studies in animals with human outcome data has emphasized the need for complementary assays based on human cells and tissues. As neural tube defects represent an important proportion of congenital malformations, we evaluated here the accuracy of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-based assay to predict chemically induced disruption of neural tube formation. As teratogenic compounds, we used cyclopamine (CPA), valproic acid (VPA), ochratoxin A (OTA) and mycophenolic acid (MMF), all suspected or known inducers of human neural tube defects, as well as theophylline and saccharin as negative control compounds. Read More

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RiboCas: A Universal CRISPR-Based Editing Tool for Clostridium.

ACS Synth Biol 2019 06 7;8(6):1379-1390. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Clostridia Research Group, BBSRC/EPSRC Synthetic Biology Research Centre (SBRC), School of Life Sciences, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences , The University of Nottingham , Nottingham NG7 2RD , U.K.

Members of the genus Clostridium represent a diverse assemblage of species exhibiting both medical and industrial importance. Deriving both a greater understanding of their biology, while at the same time enhancing their exploitable properties, requires effective genome editing tools. Here, we demonstrate the first implementation in the genus of theophylline-dependent, synthetic riboswitches exhibiting a full set of dynamic ranges, also suitable for applications where tight control of gene expression is required. Read More

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The pharmacogenetics of natural products: A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic perspective.

Pharmacol Res 2019 08 23;146:104283. Epub 2019 May 23.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, PR China; Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Changsha, PR China; Engineering Research Center of Applied Technology of Pharmacogenomics, Ministry of Education, Changsha, PR China; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Changsha, Hunan, PR China. Electronic address:

Natural products have represented attractive alternatives for disease prevention and treatment over the course of human history and have contributed to the development of modern drugs. These natural products possess beneficial efficacies as well as adverse efffects, which vary largely among individuals because of genetic variations in their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. As with other synthetic chemical drugs, the dosing of natural products can be optimized to improve efficacy and reduce toxicity according to the pharmacogenetic properties. Read More

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New Alginate/PNIPAAm Matrices for Drug Delivery.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Physical Chemistry of Polymers, "Petru Poni" Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 700487 Iași, Romania.

This paper deals with a comparative study on the interpolymeric complexes of alginate poly(-isopropyl acryl amide (PNIPAAm) and corresponding graft copolymers with various compositions in respect to their toxicity, biocompatibility and in vitro and in vivo release of theophylline (THP). Loading of the various matrices with theophylline and characterization of loaded matrices was studied by near infrared spectroscopy⁻chemical imaging (NIR⁻CI) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was appreciated that THP loading is higher than 40% and the drug is relatively homogeneous distributed within all matrices because of some specific interactions between components of the system. Read More

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February 2019

In vitro evaluation of a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for nasal administration of dimenhydrinate.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2019 10;9(5):945-955

Center for Chemistry and Biomedicine, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Institute of Pharmacy, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 80/82, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.

The objective of the study was the development and in vitro characterization of a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) for the nasal application of dimenhydrinate. Final composition of SEDDS was established based on drug solubility and stability studies. Dimenhydrinate was loaded into the SEDDS pre-concentrates to 7. Read More

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October 2019

Interaction of aminophylline with photoilluminated riboflavin leads to ROS mediated macromolecular damage and cell death in benzopyrene induced mice lung carcinoma.

Chem Biol Interact 2019 Apr 15;302:135-142. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, AMU, India. Electronic address:

Riboflavin (Rf) or vitamin B₂ is a known photosensitizer whose photophysical and photochemical properties are well established. Aminophylline (Am) is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and is currently used as a bronchodilator. Although there are several reports of haemolytic and proteolytic interaction of photoilluminated riboflavin with aminophylline, the cytotoxicity of this system against malignant tissue is not well defined and fully unravelled. Read More

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Evaluation of 12 mouse marker genes in rat toxicogenomics public data, Open TG-GATEs: Discrimination of genotoxic from non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens.

Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 2019 Feb 23;838:9-15. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Division of Molecular Target and Gene Therapy Products, National Institute of Health Sciences, 3-25-26, Tonomach, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, 210-9501, Japan.

Previously, we proposed 12 marker genes (Aen, Bax, Btg2, Ccnf, Ccng1, Cdkn1a, Gdf15, Lrp1, Mbd1, Phlda3, Plk2 and Tubb4b) to discriminate mouse genotoxic hepatocarcinogens (GTHC) from non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogens (NGTHC). This was determined by qPCR and principal component analysis (PCA), as the aim of an in vivo short-term screening for genotoxic hepatocarcinogens. For this paper, we conducted an application study of the 12 mouse marker genes to rat data, Open TG-GATEs (public data). Read More

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February 2019

A systematic review of phenytoin intoxication induced by compound phenytoin sodium, ephedrine hydrochloride and theophylline tablets in China.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(51):e13689

Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

Objective: In this study, we aimed to review the literature on phenytoin intoxication induced by compound phenytoin sodium, ephedrine hydrochloride and theophylline tablets (CPEHTT).

Method: A literature search was performed in the following databases: WANFANG DATA, HowNet, National Library Reference and Consultation Alliance, Full-text Database of Foreign Medical Journals, PubMed and Ovid. The search terms were "Compound Phenytoin Sodium, ephedrine Hydrochloride and Theophylline Tablets," and "poisoning," or "toxicity," in Chinese and in English. Read More

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December 2018

Small Heterodimer Partner Regulates Circadian Cytochromes p450 and Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity.

Theranostics 2018 22;8(19):5246-5258. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Research Center for Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, 601 Huangpu Avenue West, Guangzhou, China.

The role of small heterodimer partner (SHP) in regulation of xenobiotic detoxification remains elusive. Here, we uncover a critical role for SHP in circadian regulation of cytochromes P450 (CYPs) and drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The mRNA and protein levels of CYPs in the livers of wild-type and SHP mice were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Read More

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September 2019

Piperlongumine, a piper alkaloid targets Ras/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling axis to inhibit tumor cell growth and proliferation in DMH/DSS induced experimental colon cancer.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 13;109:1462-1477. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Biochemistry Basic Medical Science Block-II Sector-25, South Campus, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India. Electronic address:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common carcinoma of the digestive tract. The slow growing nature of CRC offers a great opportunity for prevention strategies. The concept of chemoprevention of colorectal cancer using plant derived natural products is gaining substantial attention because it is an inherently safe and cost-effective alternative to conventional cancer therapies. Read More

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January 2019

A Three-Dimensional Organoid Culture Model to Assess the Influence of Chemicals on Morphogenetic Fusion.

Toxicol Sci 2018 Dec;166(2):394-408

Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711.

Embryologic development involves cell differentiation and organization events that are unique to each tissue and organ and are susceptible to developmental toxicants. Animal models are the gold standard for identifying putative teratogens, but the limited throughput of developmental toxicological studies in animals coupled with the limited concordance between animal and human teratogenicity motivates a different approach. In vitro organoid models can mimic the three-dimensional (3D) morphogenesis of developing tissues and can thus be useful tools for studying developmental toxicology. Read More

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December 2018