1,264 results match your criteria Toxicity Theophylline


A Smart Hydrogel from Salvia Spinosa Seeds: pH Responsiveness, On-off Switching, Sustained Drug Release, and Transit Detection.

Curr Drug Deliv 2022 May 9. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Jouf University, Aljouf, Sakaka 2014, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The use of synthetic and semi-synthetic materials in drug delivery systems has associated drawbacks like their costly synthesis, toxicity, and biocompatibility issues. Therefore, it needs to introduce novel materials to overcome such issues. Naturally occurring and water-swellable polysaccharides are advantageous to overcome the above-mentioned issues. Read More

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A pH-sensitive, stimuli-responsive, superabsorbent, smart hydrogel from psyllium () for intelligent drug delivery.

RSC Adv 2021 May 1;11(32):19755-19767. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Institute of Chemistry, University of Sargodha Sargodha 40100 Pakistan +923468614959.

Herein, we report a polysaccharide-based hydrogel isolated from psyllium husk (a well-known dietary fiber) and evaluated for its swelling properties in deionized water (DW) at different physiological pH values, , 1.2, 6.8 and 7. Read More

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Analysis of drug adverse events in elderly patients based on the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2022 Apr 25. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Laboratory of Regulatory Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Musashino University, Nishi-tokyo, Japan.

What Is Known And Objective: Compared with the general adult population, pharmacokinetics and changes in drug responsiveness occur to a greater extent in the elderly. Interactions may occur between drugs used in combination to treat various diseases and may cause adverse events (AEs). We conducted a cross-sectional risk assessment of AEs in elderly patients based on information gathered from Japanese medical practices with the goal of obtaining information that will contribute to optimizing pharmacotherapy. Read More

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Fluvoxamine used to treat COVID-19 resulting in theophylline toxicity from CYP 1A2 drug-drug interaction.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 Apr 1:1-2. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Minnesota Poison Control System, Hennepin Healthcare, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

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Chinese herbal component, Praeruptorin E, enhances anti-asthma efficacy and prevents toxicity of aminophylline by targeting the NF-κB/PXR/CYP3A4 pathway.

Ann Transl Med 2022 Feb;10(4):225

Hainan Province Key Laboratory for Drug Preclinical Study of Pharmacology and Toxicology Research, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Background: Aminophylline is widely used for the treatment of asthma, but the therapeutic dose is very close to the toxic dose, which makes this drug prone to accumulation poisoning. In the present study, we explored whether the Chinese herbal component, Praeruptorin E (PE), enhances anti-asthma efficacy and prevents the toxicity of aminophylline.

Methods: First, an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of asthma, immunohistochemistry, pathological staining, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were used to detect the lung condition of asthmatic mice. Read More

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February 2022

Paraxanthine Supplementation Increases Muscle Mass, Strength, and Endurance in Mice.

Nutrients 2022 Feb 20;14(4). Epub 2022 Feb 20.

Radiant Research Services Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore 560058, India.

Paraxanthine is a natural dietary ingredient and the main metabolite of caffeine in humans. Compared to caffeine, paraxanthine exhibits lower toxicity, lesser anxiogenic properties, stronger locomotor activating effects, greater wake promoting properties, and stronger dopaminergic effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of paraxanthine supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and endurance performance in comparison to the control and other ingredients commonly used by athletes: L-theanine, alpha-GPC, and taurine. Read More

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February 2022

Evaluation of the utility of the Beta Human Liver Emulation System (BHLES) for CFSAN's regulatory toxicology program.

Food Chem Toxicol 2022 Mar 20;161:112828. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Office of Applied Research and Safety Assessment, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Laurel, MD, 20708, USA.

Microphysiological systems (MPS), such as organ-on-a-chip platforms, are an emerging alternative model that may be useful for predicting human physiology and/or toxicity. Due to the interest in these platforms, the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition partnered with Emulate to evaluate the utility of the Beta Human Liver Emulation System (BHLES) for its regulatory science program. Using known hepatotoxic compounds (usnic acid, benzbromarone, tamoxifen, and acetaminophen) and compounds that have no reported human cases of liver toxicity (dimethyl sulfoxide, theophylline, and aminohippurate) the platform's performance was evaluated. Read More

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Alkylmorpholines: Potent Dermal and Transdermal Skin Permeation Enhancers.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Dec 28;14(1). Epub 2021 Dec 28.

Department of Organic Technology, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague, Czech Republic.

Transdermal drug delivery is an attractive non-invasive method offering numerous advantages over the conventional routes of administration. The main obstacle to drug transport is, however, the powerful skin barrier that needs to be modulated, for example, by transdermal permeation enhancers. Unfortunately, there are still only a few enhancers showing optimum properties including low toxicity and reversibility of enhancing effects. Read More

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December 2021

Synthesis of Purine-Based Ionic Liquids and Their Applications.

Molecules 2021 Nov 18;26(22). Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Chemistry, CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

Bio-based ionic liquids (ILs) are being increasingly sought after, as they are more sustainable and eco-friendly. Purines are the most widely distributed, naturally occurring -heterocycles, but their low water-solubility limits their application. In this work, four purines (theobromine, theophylline, xanthine, and uric acid) were combined with the cation tetrabutylammonium to synthesize bio-based ILs. Read More

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November 2021

Discovery of a Series of Theophylline Derivatives Containing 1,2,3-Triazole for Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Pharmacol 2021 26;12:753676. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

The Eighth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, China.

Chemotherapy is the most common clinical treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but low efficiency and high toxicity of current chemotherapy drugs limit their clinical application. Therefore, it is urgent to develop hypotoxic and efficient chemotherapy drugs. Theophylline, a natural compound, is safe and easy to get, and it can be used as a modified scaffold structure and hold huge potential for developing safe and efficient antitumor drugs. Read More

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October 2021

Roles of human cytochrome P450 1A2 in coumarin 3,4-epoxidation mediated by untreated hepatocytes and by those metabolically inactivated with furafylline in previously transplanted chimeric mice.

J Toxicol Sci 2021 ;46(11):525-530

Laboratory Animal Research Department, Central Institute for Experimental Animals.

Coumarin is a naturally occurring component of food products but is of clinical interest for its potential hepatotoxicity in humans. In the current study, the pharmacokinetics of coumarin in humanized-liver mice after oral and intravenous administrations (30 mg/kg) were investigated for its transformations to metabolically active coumarin 3,4-epoxide (as estimated by the levels of o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) and to excretable 7-hydroxycoumarin. After oral administration, control mice metabolized coumarin to o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid at roughly the same rate as that to 7-hydroxycoumarin (total of unconjugated and conjugated forms). Read More

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January 2022

Evaluating the therapeutic effect and toxicity of theophylline in infertile men with asthenoteratozoospermia: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial study.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2021 Oct 26:1-8. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Arak, Iran.

Theophylline as a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterase inhibitor (cAMP-PDEI) elevates cAMP levels. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect and toxicity of theophylline on the sperm parameters, oxidative stress (OS), and inflammation in asthenoteratozoospermic men. Sixty asthenoteratozoospermic patients were divided into groups of placebo and theophylline (200 mg/day). Read More

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October 2021

Application of modified Michaelis - Menten equations for determination of enzyme inducing and inhibiting drugs.

BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2021 10 11;22(1):57. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B.2373, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

Background: Pharmacokinetics (PK) is the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) of drugs. Some drugs undergo zero-order kinetics (ethyl alcohol), first order kinetics (piroxicam) and mixed order kinetics (ascorbic acid). Drugs that undergo Michaelis-Menten metabolism are characterized by either increased or decreased metabolism constant (Km) and maximum velocity (Vmax) of enzyme reaction. Read More

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October 2021

An assessment of mutagenicity, genotoxicity, acute-, subacute and subchronic oral toxicity of paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine).

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Dec 28;158:112579. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

LSRO Solutions, LLC, 2286 Dunster Lane, Rockviell, MD, 20845, USA.

Paraxanthine or 1,7-dimethylxanthine is a natural dietary component and the main metabolite of caffeine in humans. A battery of toxicological studies was conducted in accordance with international guidelines to investigate mutagenicity, genotoxicity and acute and repeated-dose oral toxicity in rats of synthetic paraxanthine (ENFINITY™, Ingenious Ingredients, L.P. Read More

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December 2021

Systematic review on the use of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination following acute oral overdose.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Dec 23;59(12):1196-1227. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Emergency Department CISSS Montérégie Centre, Greenfield Park, Canada.

Introduction: The use of activated charcoal in poisoning remains both a pillar of modern toxicology and a source of debate. Following the publication of the joint position statements on the use of single-dose and multiple-dose activated charcoal by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists, the routine use of activated charcoal declined. Over subsequent years, many new pharmaceuticals became available in modified or alternative-release formulations and additional data on gastric emptying time in poisoning was published, challenging previous assumptions about absorption kinetics. Read More

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December 2021

Development of a -Acetylneuraminic Acid-Based Sensing and Responding Switch for Orthogonal Gene Regulation in Cyanobacterial Strains.

ACS Synth Biol 2021 08 9;10(8):1920-1930. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Laboratory of Synthetic Microbiology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, People's Republic of China.

Advances in synthetic biology have allowed photosynthetic cyanobacteria as promising "green cell factories" for sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals. However, a limited of genetic switches developed in cyanobacteria restrict the complex and orthogonal metabolic regulation. In addition, suitable and controllable switches sensing and responding to specific inducers would allow for the separation of cellular growth and expression of exogenous genes or pathways that cause metabolic burden or toxicity. Read More

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A subset of CB002 xanthine analogs bypass p53-signaling to restore a p53 transcriptome and target an S-phase cell cycle checkpoint in tumors with mutated-p53.

Elife 2021 07 29;10. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Laboratory of Translational Oncology and Experimental Cancer Therapeutics, The Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, United States.

Mutations in TP53 occur commonly in the majority of human tumors and confer aggressive tumor phenotypes, including metastasis and therapy resistance. CB002 and structural-analogs restore p53 signaling in tumors with mutant-p53 but we find that unlike other xanthines such as caffeine, pentoxifylline, and theophylline, they do not deregulate the G2 checkpoint. Novel CB002-analogs induce pro-apoptotic Noxa protein in an ATF3/4-dependent manner, whereas caffeine, pentoxifylline, and theophylline do not. Read More

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Severe amnestic syndrome due to theophylline toxicity.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 5;14(5). Epub 2021 May 5.

Neurology, University Hospital Galway, Galway, Ireland.

We report a case of severe amnestic syndrome following theophylline overdose. A woman in her early 30s was admitted to hospital where she developed status epilepticus following an intentional overdose of theophylline and lansoprazole. She developed a profound acidosis and required intubation in the intensive care unit. Read More

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New framework for a non-animal approach adequately assures the safety of cosmetic ingredients - A case study on caffeine.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Jul 24;123:104931. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Beiersdorf, Unnastrasse 48, 20253, Hamburg, Germany.

This case study on the model substance caffeine demonstrates the viability of a 10-step read-across (RAX) framework in practice. New approach methodologies (NAM), including RAX and physiologically-based kinetic (PBK) modelling were used to assess the consumer safety of caffeine. Appropriate animal systemic toxicity data were used from the most relevant RAX analogue while assuming that no suitable animal toxicity data were available for caffeine. Read More

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Safety and Efficacy of Aminophylline in Intrathecal Methotrexate-related Neurological Toxicity in Large Pediatric Oncology Centre.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 Apr;30(4):481-484

Department of Paediatrics Critical Care Medicine, The Indus Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, receiving intrathecal methotrexate (IT-MTX), develop acute and subacute neurological dysfunction in 3-15% of cases. Altered level of consciousness, seizure, and stroke-like manifestations are among the most common presentations. MRI of the brain in an early stage is consistent with white matter leukoencephalopathy. Read More

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Symptomatic Supraventricular Tachycardia Resistant to Adenosine Therapy in a Patient with Chronic Theophylline Use.

Case Rep Cardiol 2021 27;2021:2806193. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Carondelet Medical Group, USA.

Theophylline is a potent adenosine receptor antagonist with indirect adrenergic effects that can lead to arrhythmias and metabolic abnormalities such as hypokalemia. Therapeutic toxicity cases have declined over the years mainly due to decreased recommended therapeutic doses and overall decreased usage of this medication due to newer available COPD treatment options. We present a clinical case of symptomatic supraventricular tachycardia resistant to adenosine therapy in a patient with theophylline use. Read More

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The HIV reverse transcriptase Inhibitor Tenofovir suppressed DMH/HFD-induced colorectal cancer in Wistar rats.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2021 Dec 30;35(6):940-954. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.

Colon rectal cancer (CRC) is the second commonest malignancy in developed countries and a significant cause of mortality. Tenofovir reportedly reduces the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and interferes with cell cycle and cell proliferation. The current study investigated the potential antitumor effect of tenofovir against experimentally induced CRC. Read More

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December 2021

TNF-α inhibition, antioxidant effects and chemical analysis of extracts and fraction from Brazilian guaraná seed powder.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 13;355:129563. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Departamento de Produtos Farmacêuticos, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Pres. Antônio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte, 31270-901 Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Paullinia cupana Kunth., commonly named Guaraná, is a plant from Brazil used as stimulant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of extracts and tannins-rich and methylxanthines-free fraction from guaraná in the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect in vitro. Read More

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September 2021

Acute on Chronic Theophylline Toxicity in an Elderly Patient.

Cureus 2021 Feb 22;13(2):e13484. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Cardiology, Orlando Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, Orlando, USA.

Theophylline toxicity has become rare in the 21st century, as the drug has fallen out of favor due to serious life-threatening adverse events, narrow therapeutic window and readily available therapeutic alternatives. The wide array of clinical symptoms related to theophylline toxicity makes this diagnosis challenging for the treating physician. We report a case of an elderly gentleman who presented with respiratory failure and seizures due to severe theophylline toxicity. Read More

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February 2021

Post-tuberculous lung disease: should we be using Theophylline?

J Thorac Dis 2021 Feb;13(2):1230-1238

Division of Pulmonology, Western Cape Department of Health, Tygerberg Hospital, Bellville, South Africa.

Tuberculosis affects 10 million people and over 320,000 South Africans every year. A significant proportion of patients treated for tuberculosis develop post-tuberculous lung disease (PTBLD), a disease of chronic respiratory impairment for which there is a lack of affordable treatment options. PTBLD a heterogenous disorder that shares phenotypical features with chronic obstructive lung disease, bronchiectasis, lung fibrosis and destruction as well as pulmonary hypertension. Read More

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February 2021

Translational control of enzyme scavenger expression with toxin-induced micro RNA switches.

Sci Rep 2021 01 28;11(1):2462. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Genecology Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia.

Biological computation requires in vivo control of molecular behavior to progress development of autonomous devices. miRNA switches represent excellent, easily engineerable synthetic biology tools to achieve user-defined gene regulation. Here we present the construction of a synthetic network to implement detoxification functionality. Read More

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January 2021

Potential mechanisms underlying the effects of lipid emulsion against theophylline-induced toxicity.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 07 24;45:629-630. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, 15 Jinju-daero 816 beon-gil, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do 52727, Republic of Korea; Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju-si, 52727, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

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Current state of drug analysis in Japanese emergency departments: a nationwide survey.

Acute Med Surg 2020 Jan-Dec;7(1):e566. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Yonemori Hospital Kagoshima Japan.

Aim: In 1999, the Japanese Society for Clinical Toxicology proposed 15 toxicants that would be useful for analysis: methanol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, bromovalerylurea, tricyclic acid, acetaminophen, salicylic acid, theophylline, organic phosphorus pesticides, carbamate pesticides, glufosinate, paraquat, arsenic, cyanide, and methamphetamine. We aimed to reveal the current state of drug analysis for acute poisoning in the emergency department of Japanese hospitals.

Methods: From 1 April, 2017, we undertook a questionnaire survey in the emergency departments of 546 hospitals designated as educational institutions for emergency physicians. Read More

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October 2020

Home Treatment of Older People with Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection (COVID-19): A structured Summary of a Study Protocol for a Multi-Arm Multi-Stage (MAMS) Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Tolerability of Several Experimental Treatments to Reduce the Risk of Hospitalisation or Death in outpatients aged 65 years or older (COVERAGE trial).

Trials 2020 Oct 13;21(1):846. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

CHU Bordeaux, Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Division of Tropical Medicine and Clinical International Health, F-33000, Bordeaux, France.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of several repurposed drugs to prevent hospitalisation or death in patients aged 65 or more with recent symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) and no criteria for hospitalisation.

Trial Design: Phase III, multi-arm (5) and multi-stage (MAMS), randomized, open-label controlled superiority trial. Participants will be randomly allocated 1:1:1:1:1 to the following strategies: Arm 1: Control arm Arms 2 to 5: Experimental treatment arms Planned interim analyses will be conducted at regular intervals. Read More

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October 2020

Sensory satellite glial Gq-GPCR activation alleviates inflammatory pain via peripheral adenosine 1 receptor activation.

Sci Rep 2020 08 25;10(1):14181. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Denver (UCD), Anschutz Medical Campus (AMC), 12700E 19th Ave., Room 6440D, Mail stop C317, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Glial fibrillary acidic protein expressing (GFAP) glia modulate nociceptive neuronal activity in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the central nervous system (CNS). Resident GFAP glia in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) known as satellite glial cells (SGCs) potentiate neuronal activity by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines and neuroactive compounds. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that SGC Gq-coupled receptor (Gq-GPCR) signaling modulates pain sensitivity in vivo using Gfap-hM3Dq mice. Read More

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