854 results match your criteria Toxicity Tetrodotoxin


New Invasive Nemertean Species () in England with High Levels of Tetrodotoxin and a Microbiome Linked to Toxin Metabolism.

Mar Drugs 2018 Nov 16;16(11). Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Barrack Road, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, UK.

The marine nemertean originates from the Pacific Ocean but in recent years has been discovered in northern Europe. The species has been associated with high levels of the marine neurotoxin Tetrodotoxin, traditionally associated with Pufferfish Poisoning. This study reports the first discovery of two organisms of in the UK, showing the geographical extent of this species is wider than originally described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md16110452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266807PMC
November 2018
5 Reads

The Acute Toxicity of Tetrodotoxin and Tetrodotoxin⁻Saxitoxin Mixtures to Mice by Various Routes of Administration.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Oct 23;10(11). Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson 7042, New Zealand.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin associated with human poisonings through the consumption of pufferfish. More recently, TTX has been identified in bivalve molluscs from diverse geographical environments, including Europe, and is therefore recognised as an emerging threat to food safety. A recent scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain recognised the need for further data on the acute oral toxicity of TTX and suggested that, since saxitoxin (STX) and TTX had similar modes of action, it was possible that their toxicities were additive so could perhaps be combined to yield one health-based guideline value. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins10110423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266834PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Genetic structure of the grey side-gilled sea slug (Pleurobranchaea maculata) in coastal waters of New Zealand.

PLoS One 2018 16;13(8):e0202197. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand.

Pleurobranchaea maculata is a rarely studied species of the Heterobranchia found throughout the south and western Pacific-and recently recorded in Argentina-whose population genetic structure is unknown. Interest in the species was sparked in New Zealand following a series of dog deaths caused by ingestions of slugs containing high levels of the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin. Here we describe the genetic structure and demographic history of P. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0202197PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6095540PMC
August 2018
6 Reads

Rapid analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins and tetrodotoxins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a porous graphitic carbon column.

Food Chem 2018 Dec 2;269:166-172. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Dpt. of Pharmacology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain. Electronic address:

Although paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) have traditionally been analyzed by liquid chromatography with either pre- or post-column derivatization, and these methods have been validated successfully through inter-laboratory studies, mass spectrometry methods have also been described in literature for use in monitoring programs. However, methods using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) need to be improved in terms of sensitivity, analyte recovery and retention time stability because of undesirable matrix effects. Furthermore, tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been found in northern European bivalves, so it is important to analyze TTX compounds alongside PSTs because characteristics of their toxicity are similar. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03088146183114
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.07.008DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads
3.390 Impact Factor

Detection of the Potential Inactivation of Tetrodotoxin by Lactic Acid Bacterial Exopolysaccharide.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Jul 12;10(7). Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Hochiminh City International University, Vietnam National University-Hochiminh City, Quarter 6, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Hochiminh 700000, Vietnam.

Screening for compounds that can neutralize the toxicity of tetrodotoxin (TTX) or reduce its negative effects is necessary. Our study tested the TTX detoxification capacity of exopolysaccharide (EPS) extracted from lactic acid bacteria. EPS of N3 isolated from the Vung Tau sea (Vietnam), PN05, and PN04 were used in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6071066PMC
July 2018
4 Reads

Chronic inflammatory pain induced GABAergic synaptic plasticity in the adult mouse anterior cingulate cortex.

Mol Pain 2018 Jan-Dec;14:1744806918783478. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

1 Department of Neurophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan.

Background Chronic pain is a persistent unpleasant sensation that produces pathological synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. Both human imaging study and animal studies consistently demonstrate that the anterior cingulate cortex is a critical cortical area for nociceptive and chronic pain processing. Thus far, the mechanisms of excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity have been well characterized in the anterior cingulate cortex for various models of chronic pain. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1744806918783478
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1744806918783478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096674PMC
December 2018
6 Reads

Preliminary Results on the Evaluation of the Occurrence of Tetrodotoxin Associated to Marine Vibrio spp. in Bivalves from the Galician Rias (Northwest of Spain).

Mar Drugs 2018 Mar 6;16(3). Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Department Analytical and Food Chemistry, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain.

Tetrodotoxins (TTX) are a potent group of natural neurotoxins putatively produced by symbiotic microorganisms and affecting the aquatic environment. These neurotoxins have been recently found in some species of bivalves and gastropods along the European Coasts (Greece, UK, and The Netherlands) linked to the presence of high concentrations of , in particular . This study is focused on the evaluation of the presence of species and TTX in bivalves (mussels, oysters, cockles, clams, scallops, and razor clams) from Galician Rias (northwest of Spain). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md16030081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5867625PMC
March 2018
5 Reads

Of poisons and parasites-the defensive role of tetrodotoxin against infections in newts.

J Anim Ecol 2018 Jul 30;87(4):1192-1204. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Classical research on animal toxicity has focused on the role of toxins in protection against predators, but recent studies suggest these same compounds can offer a powerful defense against parasites and infectious diseases. Newts in the genus Taricha are brightly coloured and contain the potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX), which is hypothesized to have evolved as a defense against vertebrate predators such as garter snakes. However, newt populations often vary dramatically in toxicity, which is only partially explained by predation pressure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12816DOI Listing
July 2018
5 Reads

Direct evidence for high affinity blockade of Na1.6 channel subtype by huwentoxin-IV spider peptide, using multiscale functional approaches.

Neuropharmacology 2018 05 21;133:404-414. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Service d'Ingénierie Moléculaire des Protéines (SIMOPRO), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif sur Yvette, France; Institut des Neurosciences Paris-Saclay (Neuro-PSI), UMR CNRS/Université Paris-Sud 9197, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91198, Gif sur Yvette, France. Electronic address:

The Chinese bird spider huwentoxin-IV (HwTx-IV) is well-known to be a highly potent blocker of Na1.7 subtype of voltage-gated sodium (Na) channels, a genetically validated analgesic target, and thus promising as a potential lead molecule for the development of novel pain therapeutics. In the present study, the interaction between HwTx-IV and Na1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.02.016DOI Listing
May 2018
58 Reads

Voltage-Gated Na+ Channels are Modulated by Glucose and Involved in Regulating Cellular Insulin Content of INS-1 Cells.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 24;45(2):446-457. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science & Technology Normal University, Nanchang, China.

Background/aims: Islet beta cells (β-cells) are unique cells that play a critical role in glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin in response to increased glucose levels. Voltage-gated ion channels in β-cells, such as K+ and Ca2+ channels, contribute to insulin secretion. The response of voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) in β-cells to the changes in glucose levels remains unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000486921DOI Listing
March 2018
13 Reads

Difference in Uptake of Tetrodotoxin and Saxitoxins into Liver Tissue Slices among Pufferfish, Boxfish and Porcupinefish.

Mar Drugs 2018 Jan 8;16(1). Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Shimonoseki Marine Science Museum "Kaikyokan", Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi 750-0036, Japan.

Although pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae contain high levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX) mainly in the liver, some species of pufferfish, boxfish of the family Ostraciidae, and porcupinefish of the family Diodontidae do not. To clarify the mechanisms, uptake of TTX and saxitoxins (STXs) into liver tissue slices of pufferfish, boxfish and porcupinefish was examined. Liver tissue slices of the pufferfish (toxic species and non-toxic species , and ) incubated with 50 µM TTX accumulated TTX (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md16010017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5793065PMC
January 2018
54 Reads

[Tetrodotoxin (TTX) Monitoring of Biological Specimens and Toxin Profile in a Food Poisoning Case Caused by the Scavenging Gastropod Nassarius (Alectrion) glans "Kinshibai"].

Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 2017 ;58(6):253-259

Nagasaki Prefectural Institute of Environment and Public Health.

In November 2015, a patient presented with symptoms of toxicity after eating whole boiled samples of the scavenging gastropod Nassarius (Alectrion) glans "Kinshibai" in Nagasaki. This food poisoning case was the third recorded in Japan. The case was investigated by evaluation of the toxin profile of the gastropod, and monitoring of tetrodotoxin (TTX) levels in serum and urine sampled from the affected individual. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3358/shokueishi.58.253DOI Listing
January 2018
7 Reads

The Effects of Quinine on Neurophysiological Properties of Dopaminergic Neurons.

Neurotox Res 2018 07 29;34(1):62-73. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.

Quinine is an antimalarial drug that is toxic to the auditory system by commonly inducing hearing loss and tinnitus, presumably due to its ototoxic effects on disruption of cochlear hair cells and blockade of ion channels of neurons in the auditory system. To a lesser extent, quinine also causes ataxia, tremor, and dystonic reactions. As dopaminergic neurons are implicated to play a role in all of these diseases, we tested the toxicity of quinine on induced dopaminergic (iDA) neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and primary dopaminergic (DA) neurons of substantia nigra from mice brain slices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-017-9855-1DOI Listing
July 2018
3 Reads

Selective pressure on the protein-coding genes of the pufferfish is correlated with phenotypic traits.

Mar Genomics 2018 Feb 19;37:182-186. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The pufferfish accumulates neurotoxic tetrodotoxin in its body and inflates by filling its stomach with water. These traits are unique to this species, and may be a result of adaptation post-divergence of Tetraodontidae. However, evolution of the protein-coding genes in the pufferfish has not yet been well elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.margen.2017.11.015DOI Listing
February 2018
6 Reads

Bupivacaine Indirectly Potentiates Glutamate-induced Intracellular Calcium Signaling in Rat Hippocampal Neurons by Impairing Mitochondrial Function in Cocultured Astrocytes.

Anesthesiology 2018 Mar;128(3):539-554

From the Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Chinese Integrative Medicine, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China (Y.X., N.Z., W.Z., L.-M.R.); and the Department of Pharmacy, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, China (N.Z.).

Background: Bupivacaine induces central neurotoxicity at lower blood concentrations than cardiovascular toxicity. However, central sensitivity to bupivacaine is poorly understood. The toxicity mechanism might be related to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in hippocampal cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000002003DOI Listing
March 2018
9 Reads

Hollow Silica Nanoparticles Penetrate the Peripheral Nerve and Enhance the Nerve Blockade from Tetrodotoxin.

Nano Lett 2018 01 11;18(1):32-37. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Laboratory for Biomaterials and Drug Delivery, Department of Anesthesiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States.

The efficacy of tetrodotoxin (TTX), a very potent local anesthetic, is limited by its poor penetration through barriers to axonal surfaces. To address this issue, we encapsulated TTX in hollow silica nanoparticles (TTX-HSN) and injected them at the sciatic nerve in rats. TTX-HSN achieved an increased frequency of successful blocks, prolonged the duration of the block, and decreased the toxicity compared to free TTX. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b02461DOI Listing
January 2018
14 Reads

Ultrasound-triggered local anaesthesia.

Nat Biomed Eng 2017 9;1:644-653. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

Department of Anesthesiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

On-demand relief of local pain would allow patients to control the timing, intensity and duration of nerve block in a safe and non-invasive manner. Ultrasound would be a suitable trigger for such a system, as it is in common clinical use and can penetrate deeply into the body. Here, we demonstrate that ultrasound-triggered delivery of an anaesthetic from liposomes allows the timing, intensity and duration of nerve block to be controlled by ultrasound parameters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-017-0117-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5687284PMC
August 2017
8 Reads

Rescue of glutamate transport in the lateral habenula alleviates depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in ethanol-withdrawn rats.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Feb 8;129:47-56. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA. Electronic address:

Alcoholism and psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety are often comorbid. Although the mechanisms underlying this comorbidity are unclear, emerging evidence suggests that maladaptation of the glial glutamate transporter GLT-1 may play a role. Findings from animal and human studies have linked aversive states, including those related to drugs of abuse and depression, to aberrant activity in the lateral habenula (LHb). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.11.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5714683PMC
February 2018
11 Reads

Kappa opioid receptors regulate hippocampal synaptic homeostasis and epileptogenesis.

Epilepsia 2018 01 8;59(1):106-122. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Department of Pharmacology & Physiology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA.

Objective: Homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) serves as a gain control mechanism at central nervous system (CNS) synapses, including those between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3. Improper circuit control of DG-CA3 synapses is hypothesized to underlie epileptogenesis. Here, we sought to (1) identify compounds that preferentially modulate DG-CA3 synapses in primary neuronal culture and (2) determine if these compounds would delay or prevent epileptogenesis in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.13941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5774867PMC
January 2018
9 Reads

Metaplasticity at CA1 Synapses by Homeostatic Control of Presynaptic Release Dynamics.

Cell Rep 2017 Oct;21(5):1293-1303

Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1H 8M5, Canada; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1H 8M5, Canada; Canadian Partnership for Stroke Recovery, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1H 8M5, Canada; University of Ottawa Brain and Mind Research Institute's Centre for Neural Dynamics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1H 8M5, Canada. Electronic address:

Hebbian and homeostatic forms of plasticity operate on different timescales to regulate synaptic strength. The degree of mechanistic overlap between these processes and their mutual influence are still incompletely understood. Here, we report that homeostatic synaptic strengthening induced by prolonged network inactivity compromised the ability of CA1 synapses to exhibit LTP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2017.10.025DOI Listing
October 2017
14 Reads

An amphibian chemical defense phenotype is inducible across life history stages.

Sci Rep 2017 Aug 15;7(1):8185. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Pepperdine University, Natural Science Division, Pacific Coast Highway Malibu, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Inducible phenotypic responses to environmental variation are ubiquitous across the tree of life, but it remains an open question whether amphibian chemical defense phenotypes are inducible. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a key chemical defense trait in North American and Eurasian newts (Salamandridae). We tested if TTX can be induced by exposing populations of adult and larval California newts (Taricha torosa) to sustained stressful conditions while longitudinally quantifying TTX concentrations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-08154-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5558003PMC
August 2017
10 Reads

An in silico perspective on the toxicodynamic of tetrodotoxin and analogues - A tool for supporting the hazard identification.

Toxicon 2017 Nov 11;138:107-118. Epub 2017 Aug 11.

Department of Food and Drug, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin naturally found in terrestrial and marine animals targeting the voltage-gated sodium channels. Historically, TTX has raised food safety concerns mainly in the Asian countries due to the consumption of the typical pufferfish-derived delicacy fugu. However, the diffusion of TTX is getting wider today, reasonably threating in a close future a broader number of consumers than before. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.08.008DOI Listing
November 2017
21 Reads

Noxious newts and their natural enemies: Experimental effects of tetrodotoxin exposure on trematode parasites and aquatic macroinvertebrates.

Toxicon 2017 Oct 27;137:120-127. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

University of Colorado Boulder, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Ramaley N122, CB334, Boulder, CO 80309, USA. Electronic address:

The dermal glands of many amphibian species secrete toxins or other noxious substances as a defense strategy against natural enemies. Newts in particular possess the potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX), for which the highest concentrations are found in species within the genus Taricha. Adult Taricha are hypothesized to use TTX as a chemical defense against vertebrate predators such as garter snakes (Thamnophis spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.07.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5578716PMC
October 2017
8 Reads

A novel function of vitellogenin subdomain, vWF type D, as a toxin-binding protein in the pufferfish Takifugu pardalis ovary.

Toxicon 2017 Sep 23;136:56-66. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 4-5-7 Konan, Minato, Tokyo 108-8477, Japan. Electronic address:

Marine pufferfish of the Tetraodontidae family contain high levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the liver and ovary. TTX is suggested to transfer from the liver to the ovary in female pufferfish during maturation. TTX in pufferfish eggs may act as a repellent against predators and as a sexual pheromone to attract male pufferfish. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.06.006DOI Listing
September 2017
4 Reads

Long-term nicotine exposure dampens LPS-induced nerve-mediated airway hyperreactivity in murine airways.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 Sep 25;313(3):L516-L523. Epub 2017 May 25.

Division of Ear, Nose, and Throat Diseases, Department of Clinical Sciences, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; and.

Nicotine is a major component of cigarette smoke. It causes addiction and is used clinically to aid smoke cessation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of nicotine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and to explore the potential involvement of neuronal mechanisms behind nicotine's effects in murine models in vivo and in vitro. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00222.2016DOI Listing
September 2017
14 Reads

Native (Ruditapes decussatus) and non-indigenous (R. philippinarum) shellfish species living in sympatry: Comparison of regulated and non-regulated biotoxins accumulation.

Mar Environ Res 2017 Aug 11;129:147-155. Epub 2017 May 11.

IPMA - Portuguese Institute for the Sea and Atmosphere, Av. Brasília, 1449-006 Lisbon, Portugal; CCMAR - Centre of Marine Sciences, University of Algarve, Campus of Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal. Electronic address:

The native Ruditapes decussatus and the non-indigenous Ruditapes philippinarum are an important target of shellfish industries. The aim of this study was to compare an invader with a native species living in sympatry in the view of marine biotoxins accumulation. Samples were analysed for regulated and non-regulated biotoxins. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01411136173012
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2017.05.002DOI Listing
August 2017
20 Reads

Tetrodotoxin-Producing Bacteria: Detection, Distribution and Migration of the Toxin in Aquatic Systems.

Toxins (Basel) 2017 05 17;9(5). Epub 2017 May 17.

National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok 690041, Russia.

This review is devoted to the marine bacterial producers of tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent non-protein neuroparalytic toxin. In addition to the issues of the ecology and distribution of TTX-producing bacteria, this review examines issues relating to toxin migration from bacteria to TTX-bearing animals. It is shown that the mechanism of TTX extraction from toxin-producing bacteria to the environment occur through cell death, passive/active toxin excretion, or spore germination of spore-forming bacteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins9050166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5450714PMC
May 2017
11 Reads

Tetrodotoxin, Epinephrine, and Chemical Permeation Enhancer Combinations in Peripheral Nerve Blockade.

Anesth Analg 2017 06;124(6):1804-1812

From the *Laboratory for Biomaterials and Drug Delivery, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology; †Division of Medicine Critical Care, Department of Medicine; and ‡Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) have the potential to improve nerve blockade by site 1 sodium channel blockers such as tetrodotoxin (TTX). Here, we investigated the efficacy and toxicity of CPE-enhanced nerve blockade across a range of TTX concentrations using 2 CPEs (sodium octyl sulfate and octyl trimethyl ammonium bromide). We also tested the hypothesis that CPEs could be used to reduce the concentrations of TTX and/or of a second adjuvant drug (in this case, epinephrine) needed to achieve prolonged local anesthesia METHODS:: Sprague-Dawley rats were injected at the sciatic nerve with combinations of TTX and CPEs, with and without epinephrine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000002072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5438287PMC
June 2017
8 Reads

Toxicity assessment and screening of tetrodotoxin in the oblong blowfish (Takifugu oblongus) from the Tamil Nadu Coast of Bay of Bengal, India.

Asian Pac J Trop Med 2017 Mar 6;10(3):278-284. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Department of Integrative Biology, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, 632014, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess the toxicity of the pufferfish Takifugu oblongus, from Chennai coast, Tamil Nadu, India and to detect the presence of Tetrodotoxin (TTX).

Methods: The toxicity was evaluated by mouse bioassay using Swiss Albino mice which were expressed in mouse units (MU). Gross anatomical features were observed which is followed by histopathology of the dead mice tissues to establish the toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.03.007DOI Listing
March 2017
6 Reads

To stress or not to stress: Physiological responses to tetrodotoxin in resistant gartersnakes vary by sex.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2017 Jul 2;209:34-40. Epub 2017 Apr 2.

Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA.

The activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most important physiological processes in coping with any deviation in an organism's homeostasis. This activation and the secretion of glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone, allow organisms to cope with perturbations and return to optimal physiological functioning as quickly as possible. In this study, we examined the HPA axis activation in common gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) as a response to a natural toxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2015.11.017DOI Listing
July 2017
6 Reads

Glial Calcium Waves are Triggered by Seizure Activity and Not Essential for Initiating Ictal Onset or Neurovascular Coupling.

Cereb Cortex 2017 06;27(6):3318-3330

Department of Neurological Surgery, Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute, Sackler Brain and Spine Institute, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY 10065, USA.

It has been postulated that glia play a critical role in modifying neuronal activity, mediating neurovascular coupling, and in seizure initiation. We investigated the role of glia in ictogenesis and neurovascular coupling through wide-field multicell and 2-photon single cell imaging of calcium and intrinsic signal imaging of cerebral blood volume in an in vivo rat model of focal neocortical seizures. Ictal events triggered a slowly propagating glial calcium wave that was markedly delayed after both neuronal and hemodynamic onset. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cercor/article/27/6/3318/3076252
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhx072DOI Listing
June 2017
23 Reads

Profile differences in tetrodotoxin transfer to skin and liver in the pufferfish Takifugu rubripes.

Toxicon 2017 May 2;130:73-78. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Graduate School of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki, Nagasaki, 852-8521, Japan.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was intramuscularly administered to nontoxic cultured specimens of the pufferfish Takifugu rubripes to investigate differences in the toxin transfer and accumulation profiles between the skin and liver. Test fish were administered TTX at doses of 30 (Low dose; LD), 100 (Medium dose; MD), and 300 (High dose; HD) μg/individual, respectively. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis for TTX revealed that the TTX concentration in both the skin (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.03.001DOI Listing
May 2017
27 Reads

Acute Oral Toxicity of Tetrodotoxin in Mice: Determination of Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) and No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL).

Toxins (Basel) 2017 02 24;9(3). Epub 2017 Feb 24.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo 27002, Spain.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is starting to appear in molluscs from the European waters and is a hazard to seafood consumers. This toxin blocks sodium channels resulting in neuromuscular paralysis and even death. As a part of the risk assessment process leading to a safe seafood level for TTX, oral toxicity data are required. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins9030075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5371830PMC
February 2017
11 Reads

Multiple sodium channel isoforms mediate the pathological effects of Pacific ciguatoxin-1.

Sci Rep 2017 02 22;7:42810. Epub 2017 Feb 22.

Centre for Pain Research, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, 306 Carmody Rd, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Human intoxication with the seafood poison ciguatoxin, a dinoflagellate polyether that activates voltage-gated sodium channels (Na), causes ciguatera, a disease characterised by gastrointestinal and neurological disturbances. We assessed the activity of the most potent congener, Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), on Na1.1-1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep42810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5320492PMC
February 2017
8 Reads

Recent Trends in Marine Phycotoxins from  Australian Coastal Waters.

Mar Drugs 2017 Feb 9;15(2). Epub 2017 Feb 9.

Climate Change Cluster (C3), University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.

Phycotoxins, which are produced by harmful microalgae and bioaccumulate in the  marine food web, are of growing concern for Australia. These harmful algae pose a threat to  ecosystem and human health, as well as constraining the progress of aquaculture, one of the fastest  growing food sectors in the world. With better monitoring, advanced analytical skills and an  increase in microalgal expertise, many phycotoxins have been identified in Australian coastal  waters in recent years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md15020033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5334613PMC
February 2017
8 Reads

Comparison of the acute inhibitory effects of Tetrodotoxin (TTX) in rat and human neuronal networks for risk assessment purposes.

Toxicol Lett 2017 Mar 10;270:12-16. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

Neurotoxicology Research Group, Division Toxicology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.177, NL-3508 TD, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is an extremely toxic marine neurotoxin. TTX inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels, resulting in a potentially lethal inhibition of neurotransmission. Despite numerous intoxications in Asia and Europe, limited (human) toxicological data are available for TTX. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.02.014DOI Listing
March 2017
13 Reads

Assessment of Neuronal Cell-Based Cytotoxicity of Neurotoxins from an Estuarine Nemertean in the Han River Estuary.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Apr;27(4):725-730

Department of Biological Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 22212, Republic of Korea.

A heteronemertean, , was collected in Han River Estuary, South Korea. This estuarine nemertean has been known by the local fishermen for harmful effects to the glass eels, juveniles of Japanese eel , migrating to fresh water. The present study confirmed the neurotoxic effects of this heteronemertean ribbon worm at the cellular level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1611.11027DOI Listing
April 2017
12 Reads

Ultrasensitive Phototriggered Local Anesthesia.

Nano Lett 2017 02 6;17(2):660-665. Epub 2017 Jan 6.

Laboratory for Biomaterials and Drug Delivery, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School , 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States.

An injectable local anesthetic producing repeatable on-demand nerve block would be desirable for pain management. Here we present a phototriggerable device to achieve repeatable and adjustable on-demand local anesthesia in superficial or deep tissues, consisting of gold nanorods attached to low temperature sensitive liposomes (LTSL). The particles were loaded with tetrodotoxin and dexmedetomidine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b03588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5469101PMC
February 2017
7 Reads
2 Citations
13.592 Impact Factor

Possible mechanisms of hypothermia after inhibition of the median or dorsal raphe nucleus of freely moving rats.

Neuroreport 2016 Dec;27(17):1287-1292

aGraduate School of Community & Human Services, Rikkyo University, Niiza bDepartment of International Business Management, Faculty of International Business Management, Kyoei University, Kasukabe, Saitama cDepartment of Human System Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology dDepartment of Central Nervous System, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology eDepartment of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo fGraduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima, Japan gDepartment of Psychology, College of Liberal Arts & Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Denver hDepartment of Cell and Developmental Biology, Neuroscience Program, and Rocky Mountain Taste and Smell Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

We previously reported that tetrodotoxin (TTX) perfusion into the median raphe nucleus (MRN), which contains the cell bodies of serotonin (5-HT) neurons, induced a considerable body temperature reduction under normal and low ambient temperatures (23 and 5°C, respectively) in freely moving rats but showed no such effect under high ambient temperature (35°C). In the present study, we aimed to determine the mechanism(s) of body temperature reduction after TTX perfusion into the MRN by measuring tail skin temperature (an index of heat loss), heart rate (an index of heat production), and locomotor activity (Act) under normal ambient temperature (23°C). We performed similar experiments in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), another area containing cell bodies of 5-HT neurons, to compare any functional differences with the MRN. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000000695DOI Listing
December 2016
9 Reads

Tetrodotoxin.

Curr Biol 2016 10 10;26(19):R870-R872. Epub 2016 Oct 10.

Institute of Biogeography, Trier University, 54286 Trier, Germany. Electronic address:

In this Quick Guide, Lorentz et al. discuss the function of tetrodotoxin and its distribution in the animal kingdom. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.05.067DOI Listing
October 2016
9 Reads

Characterization of brevetoxin (PbTx-3) exposure in neurons of the anoxia-tolerant freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta).

Aquat Toxicol 2016 Nov 28;180:115-122. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Florida Atlantic University, Department of Biological Sciences, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, USA.

Harmful algal blooms are increasing in frequency and extent worldwide and occur nearly annually off the west coast of Florida where they affect both humans and wildlife. The dinoflagellate Karenia brevis is a key organism in Florida red tides that produces a suite of potent neurotoxins collectively referred to as the brevetoxins (PbTx). Brevetoxins bind to and open voltage gated sodium channels (VGSC), increasing cell permeability in excitable cells and depolarizing nerve and muscle tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2016.09.016DOI Listing
November 2016
15 Reads

Pyrethroid Insecticides Directly Activate Microglia Through Interaction With Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels.

Toxicol Sci 2017 01 21;155(1):112-123. Epub 2016 Sep 21.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey

Microglia are considered to be the resident immune cells of the central nervous system and contribute significantly to ongoing neuroinflammation in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we and others identified that voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) are present on microglia cells and contribute to excessive accumulation of intracellular Naand release of major pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Based on this finding and the fact that pyrethroid pesticides act on VGSC, we hypothesized that exposure of microglia to the pyrethroid pesticides, permethrin and deltamethrin, would activate microglia and increase the release of TNF-α. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfw187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6080855PMC
January 2017
6 Reads

Modulation of Nav1.8 by Lysophosphatidic Acid in the Induction of Bone Cancer Pain.

Neurosci Bull 2016 Oct 9;32(5):445-54. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Institute of Neurobiology, Institutes of Brain Science and State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Given that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and the tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel Nav1.8 are both involved in bone cancer pain, the present study was designed to investigate whether crosstalk between the LPA receptor LPA1 (also known as EDG2) and Nav1.8 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) contributes to the induction of bone cancer pain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-016-0060-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5563765PMC
October 2016
12 Reads

Computational Structural Pharmacology and Toxicology of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels.

Curr Top Membr 2016 14;78:117-44. Epub 2016 Mar 14.

Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.

Voltage-gated sodium channels are targets for many toxins and medically important drugs. Despite decades of intensive studies in industry and academia, atomic mechanisms of action are still not completely understood. The major cause is a lack of high-resolution structures of eukaryotic channels and their complexes with ligands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.ctm.2015.12.001DOI Listing
January 2018
8 Reads

Binding and Pharmacokinetics of the Sodium Channel Blocking Toxins (Saxitoxin and the Tetrodotoxins).

Mini Rev Med Chem 2016 Jul 28. Epub 2016 Jul 28.

CIIMAR, Marine and Environmental Research Center, Porto University, Rua dos Bragas, 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) found in diverse variety of animals including puffer fishes, some newts, frogs and limited number of non-vertebrate species (6 different phyla). The saxitoxin (STX) and the TTX are small molecules composed of 7,8,9 guanidinium and 1,2,3 guanidinium groups, respectively in their structures. These groups provide positive charge to the molecules and are believed to interact with negatively charged Glu755 and Asp400 residues in domain II and I of the sodium channel strongly. Read More

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July 2016
11 Reads

A PUFFERFISH (TETRADON NIGROVIRIDIS) AVAILABLE IN THE COMMON PET TRADE HARBORS LETHAL CONCENTRATIONS OF TETRODOTOXIN: A CASE STUDY OF POISONING IN A CUVIER'S DWARF CAIMAN (PALEOSUCHUS PALPEBROSUS).

J Zoo Wildl Med 2016 Jun;47(2):676-80

Many pufferfish possess tetrodotoxin (TTX). Unaware of this fact, the owner of a 3-mo-old pet Cuvier's dwarf caiman ( Paleosuchus palpebrosus ) fed the caiman a green spotted pufferfish ( Tetraodon nigroviridis ), acquired from a local discount department store. The caiman was nonresponsive within an hour of consumption of the fish. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2015-0077.1DOI Listing
June 2016
15 Reads

How Safe Is Safe for Marine Toxins Monitoring?

Toxins (Basel) 2016 07 6;8(7). Epub 2016 Jul 6.

Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain.

Current regulation for marine toxins requires a monitoring method based on mass spectrometric analysis. This method is pre-targeted, hence after searching for pre-assigned masses, it identifies those compounds that were pre-defined with available calibrants. Therefore, the scope for detecting novel toxins which are not included in the monitoring protocol are very limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins8070208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4963841PMC
July 2016
7 Reads

Liquid Chromatography with a Fluorimetric Detection Method for Analysis of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Tetrodotoxin Based on a Porous Graphitic Carbon Column.

Toxins (Basel) 2016 06 28;8(7). Epub 2016 Jun 28.

Department Pharmacology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Santiago de Compostela, Lugo 27002, Spain.

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) traditionally have been analyzed by liquid chromatography with either pre- or post-column derivatization and always with a silica-based stationary phase. This technique resulted in different methods that need more than one run to analyze the toxins. Furthermore, tetrodotoxin (TTX) was recently found in bivalves of northward locations in Europe due to climate change, so it is important to analyze it along with PST because their signs of toxicity are similar in the bioassay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins8070196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4963829PMC
June 2016
11 Reads

Dopaminergic Modulation of Excitatory Transmission in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex of Adult Mice.

Mol Pain 2016 17;12. Epub 2016 Jun 17.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto Centre for the Study of Pain, Toronto, ON, Canada Center for Neuron and Disease, Frontier Institutes of Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shanxi, China

Dopamine (DA) possesses potent neuromodulatory properties in the central nervous system. In the anterior cingulate cortex, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPAR) are key ion channels in mediating nerve injury induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and chronic pain phenotype. In the present study, we reported the effects of DA on glutamate mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) in pyramidal neurons of layer II/III of the ACC in adult mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1744806916648153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4955973PMC
December 2016
12 Reads