891 results match your criteria Toxicity Tetrodotoxin


Oral Chronic Toxicity of the Safe Tetrodotoxin Dose Proposed by the European Food Safety Authority and Its Additive Effect with Saxitoxin.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 May 9;12(5). Epub 2020 May 9.

Laboratorio de Farmacología, Farmacia e Tecnoloxía Farmacéutica, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Facultad de Veterinaria, Campus Universitario s/n, 27002 Lugo, Spain.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent natural toxin causative of human food intoxications that shares its mechanism of action with the paralytic shellfish toxin saxitoxin (STX). Both toxins act as potent blockers of voltage-gated sodium channels. Although human intoxications by TTX were initially described in Japan, nowadays increasing concern about the regulation of this toxin in Europe has emerged due to its detection in fish and mollusks captured in European waters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12050312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291010PMC

Establishment of a Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) transgenic line expressing Takifugu rubripes pufferfish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin binding protein 1, and evaluation of tributyltin toxicity via in ovo nanoinjection.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Aug 3;234:108785. Epub 2020 May 3.

Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan; Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan. Electronic address:

Pufferfish saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin binding proteins (PSTBPs) play an important role in the toxification of certain species of pufferfish. Recombinant Takifugu rubripes PSTBP1 (rTrub.PSTBP1) is reported to bind to tributyltin, and so it has been suggested that rTrub. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2020.108785DOI Listing

The skin microbiome facilitates adaptive tetrodotoxin production in poisonous newts.

Elife 2020 Apr 7;9. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Integrative Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, United States.

Rough-skinned newts () use tetrodotoxin (TTX) to block voltage-gated sodium (Na) channels as a chemical defense against predation. Interestingly, newts exhibit extreme population-level variation in toxicity attributed to a coevolutionary arms race with TTX-resistant predatory snakes, but the source of TTX in newts is unknown. Here, we investigated whether symbiotic bacteria isolated from toxic newts could produce TTX. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.53898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7138609PMC

Revisited - Failure of tetrodotoxin to protect red-spotted newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, from endoparasites.

Toxicon 2020 Apr 2;178:77-81. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Frankfurt, Kennedyallee 104, D-60596, Frankfurt, Germany.

Red-spotted newts, Notophthalmus viridescens, contain tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogue 6-epiTTX in variable concentrations. In a follow-up study, newts were sampled from a pond in Pennsylvania, USA, in 2010, 2014, and 2018. Their toxin levels were assayed by liquid-chromatography-fluorescence detection (LC-FLD), and assessment of their infection with endoparasites such as nematodes and helminths was performed by histological examination of internal organs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.02.026DOI Listing

The Microbial Community of Tetrodotoxin-Bearing and Non-Tetrodotoxin-Bearing Ribbon Worms (Nemertea) from the Sea of Japan.

Mar Drugs 2020 Mar 23;18(3). Epub 2020 Mar 23.

A.V. Zhirmunsky National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok 690041, Russia.

A potent marine toxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX), found in a great variety of marine and some terrestrial species, leaves intriguing questions about its origin and distribution in marine ecosystems. TTX-producing bacteria were found in the cultivable microflora of many TTX-bearing hosts, thereby providing strong support for the hypothesis that the toxin is of bacterial origin in these species. However, metagenomic studies of TTX-bearing animals addressing the whole microbial composition and estimating the contribution of TTX-producing bacteria to the overall toxicity of the host were not conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md18030177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7143766PMC

Development of a polyclonal antibody-based indirect competitive ELISA for the determination of tetrodotoxins in marine ribbon worms (NEMERTEA) and its comparison with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Toxicon 2020 Mar 20;176:30-33. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

A.V. Zhirmunsky National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041, Russia; School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, 690092, Russia. Electronic address:

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin frequently occurring in marine organisms along with its numerous analogues. To determine the total TTX content, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique utilizing polyclonal antibodies against TTX. The technique was tested using extracts of marine worms of the phylum Nemertea and confirmed by HPLC-MS/MS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.01.009DOI Listing

Marine Tetrodotoxin as a Risk for Human Health.

J Vet Res 2019 Dec 8;63(4):579-586. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Department of Hygiene of Food of Animal Origin National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Puławy, Poland.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a toxin mainly occurring naturally in contaminated puffer fish, which are a culinary delicacy in Japan. It is also detected in various marine organisms like globefish, starfish, sunfish, stars, frogs, crabs, snails, Australian blue-ringed octopuses, and bivalve molluscs. TTX is produced by marine bacteria that are consumed mainly by fish of the family and other aquatic animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2019-0060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950440PMC
December 2019

Determination of tetrodotoxin (TTX) levels in various tissues of the silver cheeked puffer fish (Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789)) in Northern Cyprus Sea (Eastern Mediterranean).

Toxicon 2020 Feb 4;175:1-6. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, 99628, North Cyprus via Mersin 10, Turkey. Electronic address:

Lagocephalus sceleratus from the family Tetraodontidae, which is originated from the Red Sea, started to migrate to Mediterranean waters after the opening of the Suez Channel in 1869. Since they do not have any predators in the Mediterranean Sea, their population increased in number very fast. Different tissues of L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.12.002DOI Listing
February 2020

Variations in tetrodotoxin levels in populations of Taricha granulosa are expressed in the morphology of their cutaneous glands.

Sci Rep 2019 12 6;9(1):18490. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Utah State University, Logan, USA.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX), one of the most toxic substances in nature, is present in bacteria, invertebrates, fishes, and amphibians. Marine organisms seem to bioaccumulate TTX from their food or acquire it from symbiotic bacteria, but its origin in amphibians is unclear. Taricha granulosa can exhibit high TTX levels, presumably concentrated in skin poison glands, acting as an agent of selection upon predatory garter snakes (Thamnophis). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-54765-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6897900PMC
December 2019
5 Reads

Difference in tetrodotoxin content between two sympatric planocerid flatworms, Planocera multitentaculata and Planocera reticulata.

Toxicon 2020 Jan 25;173:57-61. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Marine Science and Resources, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 252-0880, Japan.

Planocerid flatworms and the related species (Platyhelminthes: polycladida) are known as tetrodotoxin (TTX)-bearing organisms, and they contribute to toxification of marine organisms at higher trophic levels, such as pufferfish and sea slugs. However, little is known of their biology or ecology. In this study, we therefore investigated the occurrence and toxicity of two sympatric planocerids, Planocera multitentaculata and Planocera reticulata, in intertidal zones of the central region of mainland Honshu, Japanese Islands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.11.008DOI Listing
January 2020

Temporal Variation of the Profile and Concentrations of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Tetrodotoxin in the Scallop, Cultured in a Bay of East Japan.

Mar Drugs 2019 Nov 21;17(12). Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 468-1 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8572, Japan.

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are the major neurotoxic contaminants of edible bivalves in Japan. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was recently detected in bivalve shellfish around the world, drawing widespread attention. In Japan, high levels of TTX were reported in the digestive gland of the scallop, , in 1993; however, no new data have emerged since then. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md17120653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950525PMC
November 2019

The Duration of Nerve Block from Local Anesthetic Formulations in Male and Female Rats.

Pharm Res 2019 Nov 8;36(12):179. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Laboratory for Biomaterials and Drug Delivery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Ave, Enders Building, Room 361, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115, USA.

Purpose: It is unknown whether there are sex differences in response to free or encapsulated local anesthetics.

Methods: We examined nerve block duration and toxicity following peripheral nerve blockade in male and female rats. We studied the local anesthetic bupivacaine (free or encapsulated) as well as tetrodotoxin, which acts on a different site of the same voltage-gated channel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-019-2715-3DOI Listing
November 2019

Convergent and parallel evolution in a voltage-gated sodium channel underlies TTX-resistance in the Greater Blue-ringed Octopus: Hapalochlaena lunulata.

Toxicon 2019 Dec 21;170:77-84. Epub 2019 Sep 21.

Utah State University, Uintah Basin, Vernal, UT, USA. Electronic address:

The natural history and pharmacology of tetrodotoxin (TTX) has long intrigued biologists. This toxin has a remarkable distribution that spans two domains of life (Bacteria and Eukarya). Within Eukaryotes, TTX has only been identified in animals but is known to be present in over five-dozen species of phylogenetically distant Metazoans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.09.013DOI Listing
December 2019

Prolonged Duration Local Anesthesia by Combined Delivery of Capsaicin- and Tetrodotoxin-Loaded Liposomes.

Anesth Analg 2019 09;129(3):709-717

From the Laboratory for Biomaterials and Drug Delivery, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Capsaicin, the active component of chili peppers, can produce sensory-selective peripheral nerve blockade. Coadministration of capsaicin and tetrodotoxin, a site-1 sodium channel blocker, can achieve a synergistic effect on duration of nerve blocks. However, capsaicin can be neurotoxic, and tetrodotoxin can cause systemic toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000004108DOI Listing
September 2019
3 Reads
3.472 Impact Factor

Toxic Flatworm Egg Plates Serve as a Possible Source of Tetrodotoxin for Pufferfish.

Toxins (Basel) 2019 07 11;11(7). Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Marine Science and Resources, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-0880, Japan.

The pufferfish (at present ) possesses highly concentrated tetrodotoxin (TTX), an extremely potent neurotoxin that provides effective protection from predators, at least at the larval stages. However, the source of the toxin has remained unclear. Recently, DNA from the toxic flatworm was detected in the intestinal contents of juveniles and young of the pufferfish, suggesting that the flatworm contributes to its toxification at various stages of its life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins11070402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6669758PMC
July 2019
3 Reads

Polymer-tetrodotoxin conjugates to induce prolonged duration local anesthesia with minimal toxicity.

Nat Commun 2019 06 12;10(1):2566. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Laboratory for Biomaterials and Drug Delivery, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

There is clinical and scientific interest in developing local anesthetics with prolonged durations of effect from single injections. The need for such is highlighted by the current opioid epidemic. Site 1 sodium channel blockers such as tetrodotoxin (TTX) are extremely potent, and can provide very long nerve blocks but the duration is limited by the associated systemic toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10296-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6561913PMC
June 2019
20 Reads

Acute Toxicity Assessment: Macroscopic and Ultrastructural Effects in Mice Treated with Oral Tetrodotoxin.

Toxins (Basel) 2019 05 29;11(6). Epub 2019 May 29.

Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is an extremely toxic marine compound produced by different genera of bacteria that can reach humans through ingestion mainly of pufferfish but also of other contaminated fish species, marine gastropods or bivalves. TTX blocks voltage-gated sodium channels inhibiting neurotransmission, which in severe cases triggers cardiorespiratory failure. Although TTX has been responsible for many human intoxications limited toxicological data are available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins11060305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6628385PMC
May 2019
9 Reads

Isolation and Biological Activity of 8- Epitetrodotoxin and the Structure of a Possible Biosynthetic Shunt Product of Tetrodotoxin, Cep-226A, from the Newt Cynops ensicauda popei.

J Nat Prod 2019 06 22;82(6):1656-1663. Epub 2019 May 22.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science , Tohoku University , 468-1 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku , Sendai , Miyagi 980-8572 , Japan.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1), a potent neurotoxin, has been found in various animal species in both marine and terrestrial environments. In this study, a new TTX analogue, 8- epiTTX (2), and a possible biosynthetic shunt compound of TTX, Cep-226A (3), were isolated from the newt Cynops ensicauda popei. The voltage-gated sodium ion channel (Na) blocking activity of 2 and 6- epiTTX (4), a known analogue, were investigated by a colorimetric cell-based assay and compared with that of 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.9b00178DOI Listing
June 2019
6 Reads

Toxicity and Toxin Composition of the Greater Blue-Ringed Octopus from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

Toxins (Basel) 2019 04 29;11(5). Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Takehara Station, Setouchi Field Science Center, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Takehara City, Hiroshima 725-0024, Japan.

The toxicity of the greater blue-ringed octopus whose bite is fatal to humans, was examined to better understand and prevent deaths from accidental bites. Living specimens were collected from tide pools on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, in November and December of 2015, 2016, and 2017. The specimens were examined for the anatomical distribution of the toxicity, which was expressed in terms of mouse units (MU), by the standard bioassay method for tetrodotoxin (TTX) in Japan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6563023PMC
April 2019
8 Reads

Public Health Risks Associated with Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in European Waters: Recent Advances after The EFSA Scientific Opinion.

Toxins (Basel) 2019 04 26;11(5). Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Ministry of Rural Development and Food, Directorate General of Rural Development, Directorate of Research, Innovation and Education, Hapsa & Karatasou 1, 54626 Thessaloniki, Greece.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues are naturally occurring toxins responsible worldwide for human intoxication cases and fatalities, mainly associated with pufferfish consumption. In the last decade, TTXs were detected in marine bivalves and gastropods from European waters. As TTXs are not regulated or monitored at EU level, their unexpected occurrence in shellfish raised concerns as a food safety hazard and revealed the necessity of a thorough assessment on the public health risks associated with their presence. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/11/5/240
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6562576PMC
April 2019
25 Reads

Streptozotocin causes acute responses on hippocampal S100B and BDNF proteins linked to glucose metabolism alterations.

Neurochem Int 2019 09 20;128:85-93. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Department of Biochemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Streptozotocin (STZ) is a glucosamine-nitrosourea commonly used to induce long-lasting models of diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease. Direct toxicity of STZ on the pancreas and kidneys has been well characterized, but the acute effect of this compound on brain tissue has received less attention. Herein, we investigated the acute and direct toxicity of STZ on fresh hippocampal slices, measuring changes in BDNF and S100B secretion (two widely-used peripheral markers of brain injury), as well as glucose metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2019.04.013DOI Listing
September 2019
8 Reads

BmK NT1-induced neurotoxicity is mediated by PKC/CaMKⅡ-dependent ERK1/2 and p38 activation in primary cultured cerebellar granule cells.

Toxicology 2019 06 30;421:22-29. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of TCM Evaluation and Translational Research, School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 211198, China. Electronic address:

Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) represent molecular targets for a number of potent neurotoxins that affect the ion permeation or gating kinetics. BmK NT1, an α-scorpion toxin purified from Buthus martensii Karch (BMK), induces excitatory neurotoxicity by activation of VGSCs with subsequent overloading of intracellular Ca in cerebellar granule cells (CGCs). In the current study, we further investigated signaling pathways responsible for BmK NT1-induced neurotoxicity in CGCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2019.03.012DOI Listing
June 2019
4 Reads

Toxin and toxicity identification of mangrove horseshoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda collected from South China.

Toxicon 2019 Apr 21;161:23-27. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Physical and Chemical Analysis Department, Fujian Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Fuzhou, 350001, PR China.

The presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues (11-oxoTTX, 4.9-anhydro-11-oxoTTX, 4.9-anhydroTTX, 5-deoxyTTX, 5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.02.002DOI Listing
April 2019
12 Reads

The Toxins of Nemertean Worms.

Toxins (Basel) 2019 02 15;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Linnaeus University Centre for Biomaterials Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Linnaeus University, 39231 Kalmar, Sweden.

Most ribbon worms (phylum: Nemertea) are found in marine environments, where they act as predators and scavengers. They are characterized by an eversible proboscis that isused to hunt for prey and thick mucus covering their skin. Both proboscis and epidermal mucus mediate toxicity to predators and preys. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410017PMC
February 2019
8 Reads

Chronic In Vivo Effects of Repeated Exposure to Low Oral Doses of Tetrodotoxin: Preliminary Evidence of Nephrotoxicity and Cardiotoxicity.

Toxins (Basel) 2019 02 6;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Departamento de Farmacología, Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is one of the most potent naturally occurring neurotoxins. InitiallyTTX was associated with human food intoxications in Japan, but nowadays, concerns about thehuman health risks posed by TTX have increased in Europe after the identification of the toxin infish, marine gastropods, and bivalves captured in European waters. Even when TTX monitoring isnot currently performed in Europe, an acute oral no observable effect level (NOAEL) of 75 μg/kghas been recently established but, to date, no studies evaluating the chronic oral toxicity of TTXhave been released, even when EFSA has highlighted the need for them. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410189PMC
February 2019
6 Reads

The evolution and origin of tetrodotoxin acquisition in the blue-ringed octopus (genus Hapalochlaena).

Aquat Toxicol 2019 Jan 24;206:114-122. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Centre for Sustainable Tropical Fisheries and Aquaculture, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, 4811, Australia; Department of Ecology, Environment and Evolution, La Trobe University, Melbourne, 3086, Vic. Australia.

Tetrodotoxin is a potent non-proteinaceous neurotoxin, which is commonly found in the marine environment. Synthesised by bacteria, tetrodotoxin has been isolated from the tissues of several genera including pufferfish, salamanders and octopus. Believed to provide a defensive function, the independent evolution of tetrodotoxin sequestration is poorly understood in most species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.10.012DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads

New Invasive Nemertean Species () in England with High Levels of Tetrodotoxin and a Microbiome Linked to Toxin Metabolism.

Mar Drugs 2018 Nov 16;16(11). Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Barrack Road, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB, UK.

The marine nemertean originates from the Pacific Ocean but in recent years has been discovered in northern Europe. The species has been associated with high levels of the marine neurotoxin Tetrodotoxin, traditionally associated with Pufferfish Poisoning. This study reports the first discovery of two organisms of in the UK, showing the geographical extent of this species is wider than originally described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md16110452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266807PMC
November 2018
37 Reads

Blocking TNFα-driven astrocyte purinergic signaling restores normal synaptic activity during epileptogenesis.

Glia 2018 12 5;66(12):2673-2683. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Neuron-glia interactions group, INSERM U1128, Paris Descartes University, Paris, France.

Epilepsy is characterized by unpredictable recurrent seizures resulting from abnormal neuronal excitability. Increasing evidence indicates that aberrant astrocyte signaling to neurons plays an important role in driving the network hyperexcitability, but the underlying mechanism that alters glial signaling in epilepsy remains unknown. Increase in glutamate release by astrocytes participates in the onset and progression of seizures. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/glia.23519
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23519DOI Listing
December 2018
13 Reads

The Acute Toxicity of Tetrodotoxin and Tetrodotoxin⁻Saxitoxin Mixtures to Mice by Various Routes of Administration.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Oct 23;10(11). Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Cawthron Institute, Private Bag 2, Nelson 7042, New Zealand.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin associated with human poisonings through the consumption of pufferfish. More recently, TTX has been identified in bivalve molluscs from diverse geographical environments, including Europe, and is therefore recognised as an emerging threat to food safety. A recent scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain recognised the need for further data on the acute oral toxicity of TTX and suggested that, since saxitoxin (STX) and TTX had similar modes of action, it was possible that their toxicities were additive so could perhaps be combined to yield one health-based guideline value. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins10110423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266834PMC
October 2018
9 Reads

Vasopressin augments TNBS-induced colitis through enteric neuronal V receptor-mediated COX-2-dependent prostaglandin release from mast cells in mice.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019 02 18;31(2):e13493. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Pathology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a functional disorder with chronic and relapsing clinical features. Vasopressin (VP) is a hormone responsible for water and stress homeostasis and also regulates gastrointestinal inflammation and motility. We explored whether VP was related to IBD pathogenesis and its possible pathway. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/nmo.13493
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13493DOI Listing
February 2019
48 Reads

Recurrent epileptiform discharges in the medial entorhinal cortex of kainate-treated rats are differentially sensitive to antiseizure drugs.

Epilepsia 2018 11 17;59(11):2035-2048. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Objective: Approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy are refractory to existing antiseizure drugs (ASDs). Given that the properties of the central nervous systems of these patients are likely to be altered due to their epilepsy, tissues from rodents that have undergone epileptogenesis might provide a therapeutically relevant disease substrate for identifying compounds capable of attenuating pharmacoresistant seizures. To facilitate the development of such a model, this study describes the effects of classical glutamate receptor antagonists and 20 ASDs on recurrent epileptiform discharges (REDs) in brain slices derived from the kainate-induced status epilepticus model of temporal lobe epilepsy (KA-rats). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.14563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6215509PMC
November 2018
25 Reads

Maladaptive cortical hyperactivity upon recovery from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Nat Neurosci 2018 10 26;21(10):1392-1403. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Focus Program Translational Neurosciences & Institute of Pathophysiology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients exhibit neuropsychological symptoms in early disease despite the immune attack occurring predominantly in white matter and spinal cord. It is unclear why neurodegeneration may start early in the disease and is prominent in later stages. We assessed cortical microcircuit activity by employing spiking-specific two-photon Ca imaging in proteolipid protein-immunized relapsing-remitting SJL/J mice in vivo. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-018-0193-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-018-0193-2DOI Listing
October 2018
85 Reads
16.095 Impact Factor

Including planocerid flatworms in the diet effectively toxifies the pufferfish, Takifugu niphobles.

Sci Rep 2018 08 17;8(1):12302. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Marine Science and Resources, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 252-0880, Japan.

Beginning with the larval stages, marine pufferfish such as Takifugu niphobles contain tetrodotoxin (TTX), an extremely potent neurotoxin. Although highly concentrated TTX has been detected in adults and juveniles of these fish, the source of the toxin has remained unclear. Here we show that TTX in the flatworm Planocera multitentaculata contributes to the toxification of the pufferfish throughout the life cycle of the flatworm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-30696-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6098040PMC
August 2018
7 Reads

Genetic structure of the grey side-gilled sea slug (Pleurobranchaea maculata) in coastal waters of New Zealand.

PLoS One 2018 16;13(8):e0202197. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand.

Pleurobranchaea maculata is a rarely studied species of the Heterobranchia found throughout the south and western Pacific-and recently recorded in Argentina-whose population genetic structure is unknown. Interest in the species was sparked in New Zealand following a series of dog deaths caused by ingestions of slugs containing high levels of the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin. Here we describe the genetic structure and demographic history of P. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0202197PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6095540PMC
February 2019
35 Reads

Rapid analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins and tetrodotoxins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a porous graphitic carbon column.

Food Chem 2018 Dec 2;269:166-172. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Dpt. of Pharmacology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain. Electronic address:

Although paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) have traditionally been analyzed by liquid chromatography with either pre- or post-column derivatization, and these methods have been validated successfully through inter-laboratory studies, mass spectrometry methods have also been described in literature for use in monitoring programs. However, methods using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) need to be improved in terms of sensitivity, analyte recovery and retention time stability because of undesirable matrix effects. Furthermore, tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been found in northern European bivalves, so it is important to analyze TTX compounds alongside PSTs because characteristics of their toxicity are similar. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03088146183114
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.07.008DOI Listing
December 2018
31 Reads
3.391 Impact Factor

Detection of the Potential Inactivation of Tetrodotoxin by Lactic Acid Bacterial Exopolysaccharide.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 07 12;10(7). Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Hochiminh City International University, Vietnam National University-Hochiminh City, Quarter 6, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Hochiminh 700000, Vietnam.

Screening for compounds that can neutralize the toxicity of tetrodotoxin (TTX) or reduce its negative effects is necessary. Our study tested the TTX detoxification capacity of exopolysaccharide (EPS) extracted from lactic acid bacteria. EPS of N3 isolated from the Vung Tau sea (Vietnam), PN05, and PN04 were used in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6071066PMC
July 2018
40 Reads

Chronic inflammatory pain induced GABAergic synaptic plasticity in the adult mouse anterior cingulate cortex.

Mol Pain 2018 Jan-Dec;14:1744806918783478. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

1 Department of Neurophysiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan.

Background Chronic pain is a persistent unpleasant sensation that produces pathological synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. Both human imaging study and animal studies consistently demonstrate that the anterior cingulate cortex is a critical cortical area for nociceptive and chronic pain processing. Thus far, the mechanisms of excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity have been well characterized in the anterior cingulate cortex for various models of chronic pain. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1744806918783478
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1744806918783478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096674PMC
December 2018
20 Reads

Effect of Pb Exposure on Synaptic Scaling Through Regulation of AMPA Receptor Surface Trafficking.

Toxicol Sci 2018 09;165(1):224-231

School of Food Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui Province 230009, P.R. China.

Homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) helps to stabilize the neuronal network activity, which is essential for optimal information coding. Synaptic scaling is a form of homeostatic plasticity that stabilizes neuronal firing in response to activity blockade. Lead (Pb) is a ubiquitous environmental neuro-toxicant and can impair the input-specific Hebbian type synaptic plasticity, but whether Pb exerts effects in HSP remains unknown. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/toxsci/article/165/1/224/5043547
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfy156DOI Listing
September 2018
10 Reads

Activation of TREK currents by riluzole in three subgroups of cultured mouse nodose ganglion neurons.

PLoS One 2018 21;13(6):e0199282. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Department of Functional Biology and Health Sciences, Faculty of Biology-CINBIO, University of Vigo, Vigo, Galicia, Spain.

Two-pore domain potassium channels (K2P) constitute major candidates for the regulation of background potassium currents in mammalian cells. Channels of the TREK subfamily are also well positioned to play an important role in sensory transduction due to their sensitivity to a large number of physiological and physical stimuli (pH, mechanical, temperature). Following our previous report describing the molecular expression of different K2P channels in the vagal sensory system, here we confirm that TREK channels are functionally expressed in neurons from the mouse nodose ganglion (mNG). Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0199282PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6013220PMC
April 2019
8 Reads

Transcriptomic Analysis of Ciguatoxin-Induced Changes in Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Mice Cortical Neurons.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 05 10;10(5). Epub 2018 May 10.

Departamento de Farmacología, Farmacia e Tecnoloxía Farmacéutica, Facultade de Veterinaria, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain.

Ciguatoxins are polyether marine toxins that act as sodium channel activators. These toxins cause ciguatera, one of the most widespread nonbacterial forms of food poisoning, which presents several symptoms in humans including long-term neurological alterations. Earlier work has shown that both acute and chronic exposure of primary cortical neurons to synthetic ciguatoxin CTX3C have profound impacts on neuronal function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins10050192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5983248PMC
May 2018
9 Reads

α-Synuclein fibril-induced paradoxical structural and functional defects in hippocampal neurons.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2018 05 1;6(1):35. Epub 2018 May 1.

Department of Neurology, Center for Neurodegeneration and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 35294, USA.

Neuronal inclusions composed of α-synuclein (α-syn) characterize Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Cognitive dysfunction defines DLB, and up to 80% of PD patients develop dementia. α-Syn inclusions are abundant in the hippocampus, yet functional consequences are unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-018-0537-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5928584PMC
May 2018
24 Reads

Preliminary Results on the Evaluation of the Occurrence of Tetrodotoxin Associated to Marine Vibrio spp. in Bivalves from the Galician Rias (Northwest of Spain).

Mar Drugs 2018 Mar 6;16(3). Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Department Analytical and Food Chemistry, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain.

Tetrodotoxins (TTX) are a potent group of natural neurotoxins putatively produced by symbiotic microorganisms and affecting the aquatic environment. These neurotoxins have been recently found in some species of bivalves and gastropods along the European Coasts (Greece, UK, and The Netherlands) linked to the presence of high concentrations of , in particular . This study is focused on the evaluation of the presence of species and TTX in bivalves (mussels, oysters, cockles, clams, scallops, and razor clams) from Galician Rias (northwest of Spain). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md16030081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5867625PMC
March 2018
16 Reads

Of poisons and parasites-the defensive role of tetrodotoxin against infections in newts.

J Anim Ecol 2018 07 30;87(4):1192-1204. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Classical research on animal toxicity has focused on the role of toxins in protection against predators, but recent studies suggest these same compounds can offer a powerful defense against parasites and infectious diseases. Newts in the genus Taricha are brightly coloured and contain the potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX), which is hypothesized to have evolved as a defense against vertebrate predators such as garter snakes. However, newt populations often vary dramatically in toxicity, which is only partially explained by predation pressure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12816DOI Listing
July 2018
15 Reads

Direct evidence for high affinity blockade of Na1.6 channel subtype by huwentoxin-IV spider peptide, using multiscale functional approaches.

Neuropharmacology 2018 05 21;133:404-414. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Service d'Ingénierie Moléculaire des Protéines (SIMOPRO), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif sur Yvette, France; Institut des Neurosciences Paris-Saclay (Neuro-PSI), UMR CNRS/Université Paris-Sud 9197, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91198, Gif sur Yvette, France. Electronic address:

The Chinese bird spider huwentoxin-IV (HwTx-IV) is well-known to be a highly potent blocker of Na1.7 subtype of voltage-gated sodium (Na) channels, a genetically validated analgesic target, and thus promising as a potential lead molecule for the development of novel pain therapeutics. In the present study, the interaction between HwTx-IV and Na1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.02.016DOI Listing
May 2018
98 Reads

Effects of triphenyltin on glycinergic transmission on rat spinal neurons.

Environ Res 2018 05 22;163:186-193. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-Honmachi, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 862-0973, Japan; Research Division for Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Corporation, Juryo Group, Kumamoto Kinoh Hospital, 6-8-1 Yamamuro, Kita-ku, Kumamoto 860-8518, Japan; Research Division of Neurophysiology, Kitamoto Hospital, 3-7-6 Kawarasone, Koshigaya, Saitama 343-0821, Japan.

Glycine is a fast inhibitory transmitter like γ-aminobutyric acid in the mammalian spinal cord and brainstem, and it is involved in motor reflex, nociception, and neuronal development. Triphenyltin (TPT) is an organometallic compound causing environmental hazard to many wild creatures. Our previous findings show that TPT ultimately induces a drain and/or exhaustion of glutamate in excitatory presynaptic nerve terminals, resulted in blockage of neurotransmission as well as methylmercury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.02.005DOI Listing
May 2018
3 Reads

Voltage-Gated Na+ Channels are Modulated by Glucose and Involved in Regulating Cellular Insulin Content of INS-1 Cells.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 24;45(2):446-457. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science & Technology Normal University, Nanchang, China.

Background/aims: Islet beta cells (β-cells) are unique cells that play a critical role in glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin in response to increased glucose levels. Voltage-gated ion channels in β-cells, such as K+ and Ca2+ channels, contribute to insulin secretion. The response of voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) in β-cells to the changes in glucose levels remains unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000486921DOI Listing
March 2018
47 Reads

Difference in Uptake of Tetrodotoxin and Saxitoxins into Liver Tissue Slices among Pufferfish, Boxfish and Porcupinefish.

Mar Drugs 2018 Jan 8;16(1). Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Shimonoseki Marine Science Museum "Kaikyokan", Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi 750-0036, Japan.

Although pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae contain high levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX) mainly in the liver, some species of pufferfish, boxfish of the family Ostraciidae, and porcupinefish of the family Diodontidae do not. To clarify the mechanisms, uptake of TTX and saxitoxins (STXs) into liver tissue slices of pufferfish, boxfish and porcupinefish was examined. Liver tissue slices of the pufferfish (toxic species and non-toxic species , and ) incubated with 50 µM TTX accumulated TTX (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md16010017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5793065PMC
January 2018
105 Reads

[Tetrodotoxin (TTX) Monitoring of Biological Specimens and Toxin Profile in a Food Poisoning Case Caused by the Scavenging Gastropod Nassarius (Alectrion) glans "Kinshibai"].

Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 2017 ;58(6):253-259

Nagasaki Prefectural Institute of Environment and Public Health.

In November 2015, a patient presented with symptoms of toxicity after eating whole boiled samples of the scavenging gastropod Nassarius (Alectrion) glans "Kinshibai" in Nagasaki. This food poisoning case was the third recorded in Japan. The case was investigated by evaluation of the toxin profile of the gastropod, and monitoring of tetrodotoxin (TTX) levels in serum and urine sampled from the affected individual. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3358/shokueishi.58.253DOI Listing
January 2018
15 Reads

The Effects of Quinine on Neurophysiological Properties of Dopaminergic Neurons.

Neurotox Res 2018 07 29;34(1):62-73. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.

Quinine is an antimalarial drug that is toxic to the auditory system by commonly inducing hearing loss and tinnitus, presumably due to its ototoxic effects on disruption of cochlear hair cells and blockade of ion channels of neurons in the auditory system. To a lesser extent, quinine also causes ataxia, tremor, and dystonic reactions. As dopaminergic neurons are implicated to play a role in all of these diseases, we tested the toxicity of quinine on induced dopaminergic (iDA) neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and primary dopaminergic (DA) neurons of substantia nigra from mice brain slices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-017-9855-1DOI Listing
July 2018
12 Reads