32,389 results match your criteria Toxicity Terpene


Phytotoxicity of plant extracts of Vismia japurensis cultivated in vivo and in vitro.

Braz J Biol 2021 4;82:e235475. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA, Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biotecnologia - LABB, Coordenação de Tecnologia e Inovação - COTEI, Manaus, AM, Brasil.

Plants that produce secondary metabolites with allelopathic activity or phytotoxicity can be biotechnologically important, serving as sources of allelochemicals, and thus contributing to the agroindustrial sector. Vismia japurensis (Hypericaceae) is an Amazonian species that grows in clumps called vismiais, from which most other plants are absent. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to identify possible phytotoxicity effects of hexane and methanol extracts of Vismia japurensis leaves and branches in vivo and from seedlings grown in vitro on Lactuca sativa. Read More

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Elimination of oxidative stress and genotoxicity of biosynthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats via supplementation with whey protein-coated thyme essential oil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Pathology Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt.

The green synthesis of metal nanoparticles is growing dramatically; however, the toxicity of these biosynthesized particles against living organisms is not fully explored. Therefore, this study was designed to synthesize and characterize TiO-NPs, encapsulation and characterization thyme essential oil (ETEO), and determination of the bioactive constituents of ETEO using GC-MS and evaluate their protective role against TiO-NPs-induced oxidative damage and genotoxicity in rats. Six groups of rats were treated orally for 30 days including the control group, TiO-NPs (300 mg/kg b. Read More

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The protective effect of lycopene against oxidative kidney damage associated with combined use of isoniazid and rifampicin in rats.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2021 24;54(8):e10660. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Erzincan Binali Yildirim University, Erzincan, Turkey.

It is known that the combined use of antibiotics, such as isoniazid and rifampicin, in the treatment of tuberculosis causes oxidative kidney damage. The aim of this study was to biochemically and histopathologically investigate the effect of lycopene on oxidative kidney damage due to the administration of isoniazid and rifampicin in albino Wistar male rats. Lycopene at a dose of 5 mg/kg was orally administered to lycopene+isoniazid+rifampicin (LIR) rats, and normal sunflower oil (0. Read More

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Variability in retinoid-like activity of extracellular compound mixtures produced by wide spectra of phytoplankton species and contributing metabolites.

J Hazard Mater 2021 07 19;414:125412. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

RECETOX, Masaryk University, Faculty of Science, Brno, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Some phytoplankton species were shown to produce teratogenic retinoids. This study assessed the variability in the extracellular production of compounds with retinoid-like activity for 50 independent cultivations of wide spectra of species including 12 cyanobacteria (15 strains) and 4 algae of different orders. Extracellular retinoid-like activity was detected for repeated cultivations of six cyanobacteria. Read More

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A phase II study of gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel as first-line therapy for locally advanced pancreatic cancer.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(20):e26052

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine.

Abstract: Gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel (GnP) is widely used in clinical practice, despite a lack of prospective data to validate its efficacy in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). We conducted a phase II study of GnP for LAPC to assess its efficacy and safety.We performed a single-arm, single-institution study with GnP in 24 patients with LAPC. Read More

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Toxicological Characterization of Ten Medicinal Plants of the Beninese Flora Used in the Traditional Treatment of Diarrheal Diseases.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 28;2021:6676904. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Research Unit in Applied Microbiology and Pharmacology of Natural Substances, Laboratory of Research in Applied Biology, University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 P.O. Box 2009, Cotonou, Benin.

The use of medicinal plants in traditional medicine is a common practice in developing countries. However, this unregulated or poorly rational use may present a dose-dependent risk of toxicity to humans. This study aimed to explore the phytochemical and toxicological characteristics of ten (10) plant species used in the traditional treatment of infectious diarrhea in Benin. Read More

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Plant essential oil constituents enhance deltamethrin toxicity in a resistant population of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) by inhibiting cytochrome P450 enzymes.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Jun 20;175:104829. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Center for Urban and Industrial Pest Management, Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. Electronic address:

Plant essential oils (EOs) are secondary metabolites derived from aromatic plants that are composed of complex mixtures of chemical constituents. EOs have been proposed as one of the alternative methods for bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) control. Read More

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Differential state-dependent effects of deltamethrin and tefluthrin on sodium channels in central neurons of Helicoverpa armigera.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Jun 27;175:104836. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China. Electronic address:

The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera is one of the worldwide pests. Electrophysiological properties of voltage-gated sodium channels in central neurons of sensitive and pyrethroid resistant H. armigera were investigated using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Read More

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Nutmegs and wild nutmegs: An update on ethnomedicines, phytochemicals, pharmacology, and toxicity of the Myristicaceae species.

Phytother Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Agrotechnology and Rural Development Division, CSIR-North East Institute of Science & Technology, Jorhat, 785006, Assam, India.

Prized medicinal spice true nutmeg is obtained from Myristica fragrans Houtt. Rest species of the family Myristicaceae are known as wild nutmegs. Nutmegs and wild nutmegs are a rich reservoir of bioactive molecules and used in traditional medicines of Europe, Asia, Africa, America against madness, convulsion, cancer, skin infection, malaria, diarrhea, rheumatism, asthma, cough, cold, as stimulant, tonics, and psychotomimetic agents. Read More

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Insights into pH-dependent transformation of gibberellic acid in aqueous solution: Transformation pathway, mechanism and toxicity estimation.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jun 8;104:1-10. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

State Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Civil Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. Electronic address:

Gibberellic acid (GA) is widely used in agriculture and maybe transfer with groundwater flow, which is an endocrine disruptor, but few studies have focused on the transformation pathway and toxicity assessment of GA and its products. Here, GA and its transformation products in aqueous solution were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry hybrid ion trap time-of-flight (LCMS-IT-TOF) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. The results showed that the half-life of GA transformation in ultrapure water was 16. Read More

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Astaxanthin and its gold nanoparticles mitigate cadmium toxicity in rice by inhibiting cadmium translocation and uptake.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 3;786:147496. Epub 2021 May 3.

National Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Institute of Crop Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the main heavy metal in rice, Cd uptake by cereal crops from soil leads to toxicity in plants and pose serious health risks due to human body's accumulation through the food chain. Astaxanthin, a natural and anti-oxidative oxycarotenoid, is widely distributed in various microorganisms and seafood. In this study, we demonstrated that astaxanthin in the form of gold nanoparticles (Ast-AuNPs) can efficiently alleviate Cd toxicity to a greater extent in hydroponically grown rice plants than single astaxanthin. Read More

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September 2021

The Potential Predictors in Chemotherapy Sensitivity.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1187:381-389

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Monitoring of patient and tumor during chemotherapy is important to determine whether the chemotherapy is effective to the patient. Variants affect drug enzyme activities and altered enzyme activities can be potential predictors for chemotherapeutic agents including cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. Response to chemotherapy is primarily based on somatic mutations but germline variants may predict cancer cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. Read More

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Thermal plasticity and sensitivity to insecticides in populations of an invasive beetle: Cyfluthrin increases vulnerability to extreme temperature.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 8;274:129905. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Rennes, CNRS, ECOBIO [(Ecosystèmes, Biodiversité, évolution)], UMR 6553, F-35000, Rennes, France; Institut Universitaire de France, 1 Rue Descartes, Paris, France.

Climate change increases average temperatures and the occurrence of extreme weather events, in turn accentuating the risk of organism exposure to temperature stress. When thermal conditions become stressful, the sensitivity of insects toward insecticides can be exacerbated. Likewise, exposure of insects to insecticides can subsequently influence their ability to handle stressful temperatures. Read More

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Transcriptomic analysis reveals pronounced changes in gene expression due to sub-lethal pyrethroid exposure and ageing in insecticide resistance Anopheles coluzzii.

BMC Genomics 2021 May 10;22(1):337. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, L35QA, UK.

Background: Malaria control is heavily reliant on the use of insecticides that target and kill the adult female Anopheline vector. The intensive use of insecticides of the pyrethroid class has led to widespread resistance in mosquito populations. The intensity of pyrethroid resistance in some settings in Africa means mosquitoes can contact bednets treated with this insecticide class multiple times with minimal mortality effects. Read More

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Multidisciplinary corroboration in differentiation syndrome: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 May 5;15(1):226. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pediatric ICU, Tata Medical Center, 14 MAR (E-W), New Town, Rajarhat, Kolkata, 700160, West Bengal, India.

Background: Differentiation syndrome (DS) is a life-threatening complication that may be seen in patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia undergoing induction therapy with all-trans retinoic acid or arsenic trioxide. It can lead to severe inflammatory response syndrome and shock if adequate measures are not taken immediately. The radiological features of lung nodules with changes in ground-glass opacity can represent DS. Read More

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Protective Effects of a Lutein Ester Prodrug, Lutein Diglutaric Acid, against HO-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 29;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Natural Products for Ageing and Chronic Diseases Research Unit, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

Oxidative stress-induced cell damage and death of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), a polarized monolayer that maintains retinal health and homeostasis, lead to the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Several studies show that the naturally occurring antioxidant Lutein (Lut) can protect RPE cells from oxidative stress. However, the poor solubility and low oral bioavailability limit the potential of Lut as a therapeutic agent. Read More

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Aconitine induces mitochondrial energy metabolism dysfunction through inhibition of AMPK signaling and interference with mitochondrial dynamics in SH-SY5Y cells.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Sep 1;347:36-44. Epub 2021 May 1.

School of Pharmacy and School of Public Health, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China. Electronic address:

Aconitine, a highly toxic alkaloid derived from Aconitum L., affects the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. However, the underlying mechanism of aconitine-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of antibacterial activity and reversal of the NorA and MepA efflux pump of estragole against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

Arch Microbiol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Departamento de Química Biológica, Laboratório de Farmacologia E Química Molecular - LFQM, Universidade Regional Do Cariri-URCA, Rua Cel. Antônio Luís 1161, Pimenta, Crato, CE, 63105-000, Brazil.

The antibacterial activity of the monoterpene estragole was evaluated against two strains of bacteria with an efflux pump mechanism, which are Staphylococcus aureus 1199B and S. aureus K2068, which have a NorA and MepA pump, respectively. For that, the methodology proposed by CLSI with modifications was followed, and to evaluate the reversal of the efflux pump, subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/8) of estragole and standard pump inhibitors, CCCP and Chlorpromazine were used and it was verified whether they managed to modulate the action of Norfloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Ethidium Bromide, an indicator of an efflux pump. Read More

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Crassolide Suppresses Dendritic Cell Maturation and Attenuates Experimental Antiphospholipid Syndrome.

Molecules 2021 Apr 24;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Ph.D. Program in Translational Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan.

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the production of β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI)-dependent autoantibodies, with vascular thrombosis or obstetrical complications. Around 20% of APS patients are refractory to current treatments. Crassolide, a cembranoid diterpene extracted from soft corals, is a potential therapeutic candidate. Read More

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New Neuroprotective Effect of Lemon IntegroPectin on Neuronal Cellular Model.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Apr 25;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Dipartimento di Biomedicina, Neuroscienze e Diagnostica Avanzata, Università di Palermo, Corso Tukory 129, 90134 Palermo, Italy.

Lemon IntegroPectin obtained via hydrodynamic cavitation of organic lemon processing waste in water shows significant neuroprotective activity in vitro, as first reported in this study investigating the effects of both lemon IntegroPectin and commercial citrus pectin on cell viability, cell morphology, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mitochondria perturbation induced by treatment of neuronal SH-SY5Y human cells with HO. Mediated by ROS, including HO and its derivatives, oxidative stress alters numerous cellular processes, such as mitochondrial regulation and cell signaling, propagating cellular injury that leads to incurable neurodegenerative diseases. These results, and the absence of toxicity of this new pectic substance rich in adsorbed flavonoids and terpenes, suggest further studies to investigate its activity in preventing, retarding, or even curing neurological diseases. Read More

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Evaluating the Antifungal Potential of Botanical Compounds to Control and .

Molecules 2021 Apr 23;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain.

The European Union is promoting regulatory changes to ban fungicides because of the impact their use has on the ecosystem and the adverse effects they can pose for humans. An ecofriendly alternative to these chemicals to fight against fungal species with low toxicity is essential oils and their compounds extracted from aromatic plants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal capacity of the botanical compounds eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, and cinnamaldehyde, and the synergy or antagonism of their mixtures, against and . Read More

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Myorelaxant Effect of the Essential Oil on Coronary Artery and Its Toxicity in the Model.

Molecules 2021 Apr 2;26(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Regional University of Cariri, Crato 63105-000, Brazil.

Purpose: Alternative methods for the use of animals in research have gained increasing importance, due to assessments evaluating the real need for their use and the development of legislation that regulates the subject. The principle of the 3R's (replacement, reduction and refinement) has been an important reference, such that in vitro, ex vivo and cord replacement methods have achieved a prominent place in research.

Methods: Therefore, due to successful results from studies developed with these methods, the present study aimed to evaluate the myorelaxant effect of the essential oil (EODa) using a coronary artery model, and the toxicity of both the essential oil and its major constituent, α-terpinene, against in toxicity and negative geotaxis assays. Read More

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Investigating the effects of carvacrol in rats using oxygen-induced retinopathy model.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 05;69(5):1219-1223

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey.

Purpose: Investigating the effects of intraperitoneal carvacrol administration in rats using the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model.

Methods: A total of 28 newborn Sprague Dawley rats were used and the OIR model was created using the 50/10% oxygen model. The study composed of four groups in total. Read More

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The inter-individual variance can provide additional information for the ecotoxicologists beside the mean.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 25;217:112260. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Zoology and Animal Ecology, Szent István University, Páter K. st. 1, 2100 Gödöllő, Hungary.

The hypothesis that the inter-individual parameter variability is an unexploited area of ecotoxicology was proposed several decades ago. Although some illustrative examples were presented to support this hypothesis in the last decades, it has never been tested on an extensive, coherent database. In this study, variance changes of 105 dose-response curves were analysed. Read More

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A randomized phase II trial comparing capecitabine with oxaliplatin or docetaxel as first-line treatment in advanced gastric and gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(17):e25493

Department of Abdominal Oncology.

Background: A combination of fluoropyrimidines and platinum is widely accepted as the standard first-line treatment for advanced gastric and gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas. However, the benefit compared with platinum-free chemotherapeutic regimens remains controversial. We compared the efficacy and safety of capecitabine with oxaliplatin or docetaxel, as first-line therapy in advanced gastric cancer. Read More

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Bifenthrin reduces pregnancy potential via induction of oxidative stress in porcine trophectoderm and uterine luminal epithelial cells.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 16;784:147143. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Animal Molecular Biotechnology and Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Exposure to pesticides has become a serious concern for the environment and human health. Bifenthrin, a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide, is one of the most frequently used pesticides worldwide. Despite the toxic potential of bifenthrin, no studies have elucidated the cytotoxic response of bifenthrin in maternal and fetal cells that are involved in the implantation process. Read More

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Quassinoids: Phytochemistry and antitumor prospect.

Phytochemistry 2021 Jul 19;187:112769. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Key Laboratory of Computational Chemistry-Based Natural Antitumor Drug Research & Development, Liaoning Province, School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China. Electronic address:

Quassinoids, originating from the oxidative degradation of tetracyclic tirucallane triterpene, are a diverse class of secondary metabolites identifying from nature mostly in Simaroubaceae family. The crucial pharmacological activities and structural complexity of quassinoids have long fascinated scientists due to their medicinal uses, infamous toxicity, and unique biosynthesis. In the past few decades, 482 quassinoids, assigned to 6 skeletons, have been isolated and identified from plants. Read More

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Gut microbiota regulation and anti-inflammatory effect of β-carotene in dextran sulfate sodium-stimulated ulcerative colitis in rats.

J Food Sci 2021 May 21;86(5):2118-2130. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

β-Carotene displays antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and prevents the development of cancer. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a kind of inflammatory bowel disease that is accompanied by a certain risk of colon cancer. However, the role of β-carotene in the modulation of gut microbiota and UC improvement is unclear. Read More

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Arrabidaea chica Verlot fractions reduce MIA-induced osteoarthritis progression in rat knees.

Inflammopharmacology 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Biological and Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Maranhão, Av. dos Portugueses 1966, São Luís, MA, 65085-580, Brazil.

This study aims to investigate the activity of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions obtained from Arrabidaea chica Verlot against MIA-induced osteoarthritis (OA). The antinociceptive potentials of each fraction were evaluated through a cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 inhibition test and an in vivo OA-model. In addition, toxicity assessments in the liver, spleen and kidney, as well as radiographic and histopathological knee analyses, were performed. Read More

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β-elemonic acid inhibits growth and triggers apoptosis in human castration-resistant prostate cancer cells through the suppression of JAK2/STAT3/MCL-1 and NF-ĸB signal pathways.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Jun 18;342:109477. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has become a significant problem in the current treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) with the characteristics of high metastatic potential, resistance and easy recurrence. The abnormal activation of JAK2/STAT3/MCL-1 and NF-κB has been confirmed as the main reason for the development of CRPC. We previously found that β-elemonic acid (β-EA) as a natural triterpene has potential anti-inflammatory and anti-osteosarcoma effects with lower toxicity. Read More

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