11,209 results match your criteria Toxicity Sympathomimetic


3-Methylmethcathinone (3-MMC) Poisonings: Acute Clinical Toxicity and Time Trend Between 2013 and 2021 in the Netherlands.

Ann Emerg Med 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Dutch Poisons Information Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.

Study Objective: The synthetic cathinone 3-methylmethcathinone (3-MMC, or metaphedrone) has recently gained popularity. We studied the numbers of 3-MMC poisonings over time and the clinical effects following poisonings with 3-MMC.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study on the numbers of self-reported 3-MMC poisonings to the Dutch Poisons Information Center (DPIC) from 2013 to June 2021. Read More

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In Vitro Toxicological Profile of Labetalol-Folic Acid/Folate Co-Administration in H9c2(2-1) and HepaRG Cells.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Jun 10;58(6). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Faculty of Medicine, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, Eftimie Murgu Square No.2, 300041 Timisoara, Romania.

The consumption of dietary supplements has increased over the last decades among pregnant women, becoming an efficient resource of micronutrients able to satisfy their nutritional needs during pregnancy. Furthermore, gestational drug administration might be necessary to treat several pregnancy complications such as hypertension. Folic acid (FA) and folate (FT) supplementation is highly recommended by clinicians during pregnancy, especially for preventing neural tube birth defects, while labetalol (LB) is a β-blocker commonly administered as a safe option for the treatment of pregnancy-related hypertension. Read More

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Silencing the Gene Alleviates Methamphetamine-Induced Hepatotoxicity by Inhibiting Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Inflammation in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 18;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health (Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research), Southern Medical University, No. 1838 North Guangzhou Road, Guangzhou 510515, China.

Methamphetamine (METH) is a stimulant drug. METH abuse induces hepatotoxicity, although the mechanisms are not well understood. METH-induced hepatotoxicity was regulated by TLR4-mediated inflammation in BALB/c mice in our previous study. Read More

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[Protective effect of ophiopogonin D against isoproterenol-induced cardiomyocyte injury and targets].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2022 May;47(10):2721-2728

Institute of Radiation Medicine, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Academy of Military Sciences Beijing 100850, China.

This study aims to unveil the effect of ophiopogonin D(OPD) on isoproterenol(ISO)-induced apoptosis of rat cardiomyocytes and the possible targets, which is expected to provide clues for further research on the myocardial protection of ophiopogonins. Cell count kit-8(CCK-8) assay was used to detect viability of cells treated with OPD and ISO, Western blot to examine the effect of OPD and ISO on the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related Bip, Bax, Perk, ATF4, caspase-12, and CHOP, flow cytometry to determine cell apoptosis rate, and Hoechst 33258 and Tunel staining to observe cell apoptosis and morphological changes. In addition, the probe for calcium ion-specific detection was employed to investigate calcium ion release from the endoplasmic reticulum, and OPD-bond epoxy-activated agarose solid-phase microspheres were prepared and used as affinity matrix to capture OPD-binding target proteins in H9 c2 cell lysate. Read More

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Examination of diverse iron-chelating agents for the protection of differentiated PC12 cells against oxidative injury induced by 6-hydroxydopamine and dopamine.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 13;12(1):9765. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Akademika Heyrovského 1203, 500 05, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.

Labile redox-active iron ions have been implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders, including the Parkinson's disease (PD). Iron chelation has been successfully used in clinical practice to manage iron overload in diseases such as thalassemia major; however, the use of conventional iron chelators in pathological states without systemic iron overload remains at the preclinical investigative level and is complicated by the risk of adverse outcomes due to systemic iron depletion. In this study, we examined three clinically-used chelators, namely, desferrioxamine, deferiprone and deferasirox and compared them with experimental agent salicylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (SIH) and its boronate-masked prochelator BSIH for protection of differentiated PC12 cells against the toxicity of catecholamines 6-hydroxydopamine and dopamine and their oxidation products. Read More

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Protective effect of valerian extract capsule (VEC) on ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric mucosa injury and ameliorative effect of VEC on gastrointestinal motility disorder.

Pharm Biol 2022 Dec;60(1):1095-1105

Science and Technology Innovation Center, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Context: Valerian extract capsule (VEC) is an effective Chinese patent medicine used for gastrointestinal (GI) diseases.

Objective: To investigate the detailed pharmacological activity for VEC clinical effects in GI diseases.

Materials And Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: control, model, and drug-treated (VEC-L, VEC-M, VEC-H, and teprenone). Read More

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December 2022

Duloxetine overdose causes sympathomimetic and serotonin toxicity without major complications.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 Jun 6:1-5. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia.

Objective: Duloxetine is a commonly used antidepressant that is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. We aimed to investigate the frequency and severity of clinical effects following duloxetine overdose.

Methods: We undertook a retrospective review of duloxetine overdoses (>120 mg) admitted to two tertiary toxicology units between March 2007 and May 2021. Read More

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Ephedra herb reduces adriamycin-induced testicular toxicity by upregulating the gonadotropin-releasing hormone signalling pathway.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 Jun 23;150:113061. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Pharmacy, Henan University of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou 450046, China; The Engineering and Technology Center for Chinese Medicine Development of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450046, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We investigated the protective effects of ephedra herb (HEPH) on adriamycin-induced testicular toxicity in rats and explored the potential mechanisms underlying these effects.

Methods: A rat model of adriamycin injury was established, and sperm motility-related indicator and oxidative stress levels in the testis were evaluated. Serum levels of sex hormones and levels of testicular cell apoptosis were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Read More

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Myricitrin - a flavonoid isolated from the Indian olive tree () - inhibits Monoamine oxidase in the brain and elevates striatal dopamine levels: therapeutic implications against Parkinson's disease.

Food Funct 2022 Jun 20;13(12):6545-6559. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Organic and Medicinal Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Jadavpur, Kolkata, India.

Flavonoids exhibit several biological activities including inhibition of Monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme that metabolizes several neurotransmitters. Thus, MAO inhibitors are well included in traditional therapeutic practices to fine-tune neuromotor behavior. This study aims to isolate flavonoids from a less explored plant of northeast India, named Indian olive (; Ef, family Elaeocarpaceae), and evaluate their MAO inhibitory properties. Read More

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Targeting A and p-Tau Clearance in Methamphetamine-Induced Alzheimer's Disease-Like Pathology: Roles of Syntaxin 17 in Autophagic Degradation in Primary Hippocampal Neurons.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 18;2022:3344569. Epub 2022 May 18.

Key Lab of Modern Toxicology (NJMU), Ministry of Education; Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 Tianyuan East Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166, China.

Methamphetamine (Meth), a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant with strong neurotoxicity, causes progressive cognitive impairment with characterized neurodegenerative changes. However, the mechanism underlying Meth-induced pathological changes remains poorly understood. In the current study, Meth elicited a striking accumulation of the pathological proteins hyperphosphorylated tau (p-tau) and amyloid beta (A) in primary hippocampal neurons, while the activation of autophagy dramatically ameliorated the high levels of these pathological proteins. Read More

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Mechanisms of Suppression of Epinephrine Production in Rats by Low-Dose Developmental Exposure to DDT.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2022 May 27;173(1):110-113. Epub 2022 May 27.

A. P. Avtsyn Research Institute of Human Morphology, Moscow, Russia.

We studied the mechanisms underlying decreased production of epinephrine by adrenal glands in rats developmentally exposed to endocrine disruptor DDT was performed on the basis of assessment of morphology, fine structure, and function of the adrenal medulla and medullary cells. It was found that the main mechanisms of disruptive action of DDT leading to a decrease in epinephrine secretion into systemic circulation are a decrease in the growth rate of the adrenal medulla, a decrease in the number of mitochondria in adrenal cells, especially under the outer cytoplasmic membrane, destructive changes in mitochondria, and a progressive decrease in the synthesis of tyrosine hydroxylase. The decrease in the number of mitochondria and suppression tyrosine hydroxylase synthesis in adrenal cells predominate during the pubertal period, while slowdown of the growth of the adrenal medulla and progressive decrease in the synthesis of tyrosine hydroxylase seem to be the most evident mechanisms after puberty. Read More

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N-Oleoyl dopamine induces IL-10 via central nervous system TRPV1 and improves endotoxemia and sepsis outcomes.

J Neuroinflammation 2022 May 24;19(1):118. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, UCSF School of Medicine, 500 Parnassus Ave, Box 0648, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

Background: The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) participates in thermosensation and inflammatory pain, but its immunomodulatory mechanisms remain enigmatic. N-Oleoyl dopamine (OLDA), an endovanilloid and endocannabinoid, is a TRPV1 agonist that is produced in the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. We studied the anti-inflammatory effects and TRPV1-dependent mechanisms of OLDA in models of inflammation and sepsis. Read More

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The pyrethroids metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid induces dopaminergic degeneration.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 20;838(Pt 2):156027. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Neurology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Exposure to pyrethroids, a significant class of the most widely used agricultural chemicals, has been associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, although many different pyrethroids induce roughly the same symptoms of Parkinsonism, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To find the shared key features among these mechanisms, we focused on 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a common and prominent metabolite of most pyrethroids produced via hydrolysis by CEs in mammals. Read More

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September 2022

Reverse Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy After Accidental Exposure to an Illicit Substance: A Case Report.

Cureus 2022 Apr 19;14(4):e24282. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Emergency Medicine, St. Luke's University Health Network, Bethlehem, USA.

Stress-induced (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy is a clinical syndrome and its incidence has been on the rise. Patients with this syndrome often present with chest pain, dyspnea, or syncope. The findings from a typical cardiac evaluation can make this entity difficult to distinguish from acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Read More

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Treatment of Malignant Hyperthermia During Interfacility Transport of a Patient With Methamphetamine Toxicity.

Air Med J 2022 May-Jun;41(3):320-322. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA.

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare disorder that leads to a hypermetabolic response; if unrecognized, it can quickly lead to serious morbidity and mortality. It is imperative that critical care transport providers are able to recognize and initiate treatment for MH. A 33-year-old man presented to the emergency department with seizures and altered mental status after ingesting methamphetamine. Read More

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Effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on behavior and dopamine signaling in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2022 Jul 17;93:103885. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer, also known as a developmental toxicant, but its neurobehavioral toxicity remains elusive. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral toxicity and its possible mechanism in larval zebrafish. Embryos at gastrula period (~6 h post fertilization, hpf) were exposure to DEHP (0, 1, 2. Read More

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Identifying behaviours for survival and wellness among people who use methamphetamine with opioids in British Columbia: a qualitative study.

Harm Reduct J 2022 May 19;19(1):46. Epub 2022 May 19.

BC Centre for Disease Control, 655 W 12th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4R4, Canada.

Background: British Columbia (BC) has been in a state of public health emergency since 2016, due to the unprecedented numbers of fatal and non-fatal drug toxicity (i.e. overdose) events. Read More

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Celastrol and thymoquinone alleviate aluminum chloride-induced neurotoxicity: Behavioral psychomotor performance, neurotransmitter level, oxidative-inflammatory markers, and BDNF expression in rat brain.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 Jul 13;151:113072. Epub 2022 May 13.

Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt.

Exposure to aluminum chloride (AlCl) induces progressive multiregional neurodegeneration in animal models by promoting oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. The current study was designed to assess the potential efficacy of the natural antioxidants celastrol and thymoquinone (TQ) for alleviating AlCl-induced psychomotor abnormalities and oxidative-inflammatory burden in male albino rats. Four treatment groups were compared: (i) a vehicle control group, (ii) a AlCL group receiving daily intraperitoneal (i. Read More

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Impact of Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Endocrine Disrupter DDT on Adrenal Medulla Function.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 28;23(9). Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Histology, Cytology, and Embryology, Federal State Funded Educational Institution of Higher Education I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119435 Moscow, Russia.

Epinephrine is the most abundant catecholamine hormone, produced by the nervous system and adrenal glands. Endocrine disruption of epinephrine synthesis, secretion and signaling is less studied than steroid and thyroid hormones. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is recognized as one of the most prominent environmental contaminants with a long half-life. Read More

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Dopamine depletion in wistar rats with epilepsy.

Braz J Biol 2022 9;84:e248411. Epub 2022 May 9.

Centro Universitário - CESMAC, Campus I, Maceió, AL, Brasil.

The dopamine content in cerebral structures has been related to neuronal excitability and several approaches have been used to study this phenomenon during seizure vulnerability period. In the present work, we describe the effects of dopamine depletion after the administration of 6-hidroxidopamine (6-OHDA) into the substantia nigra pars compacta of male rats submitted to the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), as well as spontaneous and recurrent seizures (SRSs) frequency during the chronic period of the model were determined. Read More

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Lesion-associated microglia and macrophages mediate corralling and react with massive phagocytosis for debris clearance and wound healing after LPS-induced dopaminergic depletion.

J Neuroimmunol 2022 06 22;367:577874. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Institut de Neurociències & Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine & School of Biosciences, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Neuroinflammation contributes to neuronal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, how brain inflammatory factors mediate the progression of neurodegeneration is still poorly understood. Experimental models of PD have shed light on the understanding of this phenomenon, but the exploration of inflammation-driven models is necessary to better characterize this aspect of the disorder. Read More

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Small intestine neuromuscular dysfunction in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced ileitis: Involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission.

Life Sci 2022 Jul 26;301:120562. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; IRCCS San Camillo Hospital, 30126 Venice, Italy. Electronic address:

Aims: Anomalies in dopaminergic machinery have been shown in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and preclinical models of IBD. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the impact of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ileitis on enteric dopaminergic pathways.

Materials And Methods: Male C57/Bl6 mice (10 ± 2 weeks old) received 2% DSS in drinking water for 5 days and were then switched to regular drinking water for 3 days. Read More

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Potential Effects of Nrf2 in Exercise Intervention of Neurotoxicity Caused by Methamphetamine Oxidative Stress.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 18;2022:4445734. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

School of Health and Physical Education, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, China.

Methamphetamine can cause oxidative stress-centered lipid peroxidation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitatory neurotoxicity, and neuroinflammation and ultimately lead to nerve cell apoptosis, abnormal glial cell activation, and dysfunction of blood-brain barrier. Protecting nerve cells from oxidative destroy is a hopeful strategy for treating METH use disorder. Nrf2 is a major transcriptional regulator that activates the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cell-protective gene expression through endogenous pathways that maintains cell REDOX homeostasis and is conducive to the survival of neurons. Read More

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Cerebroventricular Injection of Pgk1 Attenuates MPTP-Induced Neuronal Toxicity in Dopaminergic Cells in Zebrafish Brain in a Glycolysis-Independent Manner.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 8;23(8). Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Mackay Medical College, New Taipei City 25245, Taiwan.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. While extracellular Pgk1 (ePgk1) is reported to promote neurite outgrowth, it remains unclear if it can affect the survival of dopaminergic cells. To address this, we employed cerebroventricular microinjection (CVMI) to deliver Pgk1 into the brain of larvae and adult zebrafish treated with methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) as a PD-like model. Read More

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Cocaine: An Updated Overview on Chemistry, Detection, Biokinetics, and Pharmacotoxicological Aspects including Abuse Pattern.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 04 13;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 13.

UCIBIO-Applied Molecular Biosciences Unit, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

Cocaine is one of the most consumed stimulants throughout the world, as official sources report. It is a naturally occurring sympathomimetic tropane alkaloid derived from the leaves of , which has been used by South American locals for millennia. Cocaine can usually be found in two forms, cocaine hydrochloride, a white powder, or 'crack' cocaine, the free base. Read More

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Effects of CMF and MET on glutamate and dopamine levels in the brain, and their impact on cognitive function.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2022 04;26(7):2353-2362

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Objective: Chemotherapy can cause cognitive impairment in cancer survivors. CMF, the combination of cyclophosphamide (CYP), methotrexate (MTX), and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), is employed for the treatment of several types of cancers, such as metastatic breast cancer. Metformin (MET) is an antidiabetic medication used to treat type 2 diabetes that can reportedly alleviate some toxic effects. Read More

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Comparison of clinical characteristics between meth/amphetamine and synthetic cathinone users presented to the emergency department.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 Apr 19:1-7. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Department of Emergency Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Synthetic cathinones (SC) are popular new psychoactive substances that produce sympathomimetic toxicity. Meth/amphetamine and SC have similar chemical structures and pharmacological effects. We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics between meth/amphetamine and SC users presenting to the emergency department (ED). Read More

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Toxicological assessment of cadmium-containing quantum dots in developing zebrafish: Physiological performance and neurobehavioral responses.

Aquat Toxicol 2022 Jun 5;247:106157. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

The present research investigated the effects of exposure to sublethal concentrations of cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide (CdSe/ZnS)-containing quantum dots (QDs; 0 - 100 µg/L QDs) on the neurophysiological performance of developing zebrafish (Danio rerio). The results suggested that exposure to CdSe QDs for 5 days increased the whole-body content of Cd without affecting the general physiological conditions of larvae. Interestingly, CdSe QD exposure reduced swimming distance but increased swimming velocity of larvae, suggesting that the exposure may lead to burst/episodic swimming. Read More

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A time-course study of microglial activation and dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra of mice with paraquat-induced Parkinson's disease.

Food Chem Toxicol 2022 Jun 14;164:113018. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Toxicology, Public Health School, Harbin Medical University, 150081, No 157, Baojian Road, Nangang District, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province, China. Electronic address:

Activated microglia play an active role in the pathogenesis of PD and paraquat (PQ) induces PD. The study was to understand the time relationship between microglial activation and dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra (SN) of PQ-induced PD mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with PQ, twice a week for six weeks. Read More

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Role of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in methamphetamine-induced social and recognition memory impairment.

Neurosci Lett 2022 05 14;779:136634. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Methamphetamine (METH) has been reported to induce social and recognition memory impairment. Evidence suggests that the cannabinoid system has an important modulatory role in cognitive processing and social interaction. Nonetheless, no previous study has investigated the probable role of the cannabinoids system on METH-induced deficits of novel object recognition (NOR) memory and social interaction. Read More

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