1,738 results match your criteria Toxicity Shellfish


Sublethal and antioxidant effects of six ichthyotoxic algae on early-life stages of the Japanese pearl oyster.

Harmful Algae 2021 Mar 26;103:102013. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Pearl Research Laboratory, K. Mikimoto & Co. Ltd., Osaki Hazako, Hamajima-Cho, Shima, Mie 517-0403, Japan.

Several species of harmful algae form blooms that are detrimental to aquatic organisms worldwide with severe economic loss to several industries. The cosmopolitan ichthyotoxic dinoflagellates and raphidophytes Karenia spp., Chattonella spp. Read More

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Saxitoxins from the freshwater cyanobacterium Raphidiopsis raciborskii can contaminate marine mussels.

Harmful Algae 2021 Mar 11;103:102004. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Laboratory of Phycology, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Center for Biological Sciences, Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

Raphidiopsis raciborskii (formerly Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii) is a freshwater cyanobacterium potentially producing saxitoxins (STX) and cylindrospermopsin. Its ecophysiological versatility enables it to form blooms in the most diverse types of environments, from tropical to temperate, and from relatively pristine to polluted. In Peri Lake, located in the subtropical south of Brazil, growing populations of STX-producing R. Read More

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Physiological changes induced by sodium chloride stress in Aphanizomenon gracile, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Dolichospermum sp.

Harmful Algae 2021 Mar 8;103:102028. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

IFREMER-Phycotoxins Laboratory, F-44311 Nantes, France.

Due to anthropogenic activities, associated with climate change, many freshwater ecosystems are expected to experience an increase in salinity. This phenomenon is predicted to favor the development and expansion of freshwater cyanobacteria towards brackish waters due to their transfer along the estuarine freshwater-marine continuum. Since freshwater cyanobacteria are known to produce toxins, this represents a serious threat for animal and human health. Read More

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Effect of dietary Xiao-Chaihu-Decoction on growth performance, immune response, detoxification and intestinal microbiota of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ocean University of China, Ministry of Education, Qingdao, Shandong, 266003, China.

Xiao-Chaihu-Decoction (XCHD), a classical traditional Chinese medicine with diverse biological activities, is widely applied to prevent and treat many human diseases. Effects of dietary XCHD on growth performance, immune response, detoxification system, intestinal microbiota and resistance against aflatoxin B1(AFB) of Litopenaeus vannamei was studied. Four isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain 0, 1, 2, and 5 g/kg (control, XCHD1, XCHD2 and XCHD3) of XCHD, respectively. Read More

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Contribution of diet and other factors for urinary concentrations of total arsenic and arsenic species: data for US children, adolescents, and adults.

Authors:
Ram B Jain

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

, Loganville, USA.

A comprehensive analysis of the associations between the consumptions of 17 food products with urinary concentrations of arsenobetaine, total arsenic, arsenous acid, dimethylarsinic acid (UDMA), monomethylarsonic acid (UMMA), and total inorganic arsenic for US children aged 3-5 years (N = 439), children aged 6-11 years (N = 2139), adolescents aged 12-19 years (N = 2434), and adults aged >= 20 years (N = 10902) was conducted. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2005-2016 were used for this study. Concentrations of arsenobetaine were as much as > 15 times higher among consumers of fish/shellfish than non-consumers for children aged 6-11 years, > 12 times higher for children aged 3-5 years, > 13 times higher for adolescents, and > 7 times higher for adults. Read More

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Algal blooms of spp. and Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning toxicity events in mussels farmed in Sicily.

Ital J Food Saf 2021 Mar 25;10(1):9062. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Fondazione Centro Ricerche Marine, National Reference Laboratory for Marine Biotoxins, Cesenatico (FC).

Marine biotoxins can accumulate in filter- feeders bivalve molluscs, that may represent a source of potential health problems being vectors of toxins, that are transferred to humans through their consumption. Harmful Algal Blooms impact on aquaculture may give also economic losses due to temporary closures of contaminated shellfish harvest and marketing. The presence of toxic algae for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP), with recurrent toxic blooms of dinoflagellates, such as several species, been known since 2000 in the waters of an Ionian bay of Sicily, the Syracuse harbour, where shellfish farms are located. Read More

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Influence of seasonality on the presence of okadaic acid associated with species: A four-year study in Sardinia (Italy).

Ital J Food Saf 2021 Mar 25;10(1):8947. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Veterinary Public Health Institute of Sardinia, Sassari.

In Sardinia (Italy), bivalve molluscs production plays an important role in the trade balance. Diarrhoetic shellfish poisoning (DSP), an intoxication caused by the ingestion of bivalve molluscs that have accumulated high levels of Okadaic acid (OA), may represent a serious risk for the public health and a remarkable economic loss for the producers. Aim of this work was to improve knowledge about the repeatability of OA accumulation phenomena in various seasons trying to understand whether or not there was a trend. Read More

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Oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cellular response in hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury of mud crab (Scylla paramamosain).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Apr 18;114:82-89. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Key Laboratory of South China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation & Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510300, PR China. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress is considered as the toxicity mechanism of environmental stressors on aquatic organisms. This study aims to explore the effects of oxidative stress on physiological responses, DNA damage and transcriptional profiles of the mud crabs Scylla paramamosain. In the present study, mud crabs were injected with 0. Read More

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Diversity and regional distribution of harmful algal events along the Atlantic margin of Europe.

Harmful Algae 2021 Feb 12;102:101976. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

IOC Science and Communication Centre on Harmful Algae, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

The IOC-ICES-PICES Harmful Algal Event Database (HAEDAT) was used to describe the diversity and spatiotemporal distribution of harmful algal events along the Atlantic margin of Europe from 1987 - 2018. The majority of events recorded are caused by Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins (DSTs). These events are recorded annually over a wide geographic area from southern Spain to northern Scotland and Iceland, and are responsible for annual closures of many shellfish harvesting areas. Read More

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February 2021

Toxic marine microalgae and noxious blooms in the Mediterranean Sea: A contribution to the Global HAB Status Report.

Harmful Algae 2021 Feb 12;102:101843. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy. Electronic address:

We review the spatial distribution of toxic marine microalgal species and the impacts of all types of harmful algal events (Harmful Algal Blooms, HABs) in the Mediterranean Sea (MS), including the Black Sea, the Sea of Marmara, coastal lagoons and transitional waters, based on two databases compiled in the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS). Eighty-four potentially toxic species have been detected in the MS (2,350 records), of which 16 described from these waters between 1860 and 2014 and a few suspected to have been introduced. More than half of these species (46) produce toxins that may affect human health, the remainders ichthyotoxic substances (29) or other types of toxins (9). Read More

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February 2021

Three decades of data on phytoplankton and phycotoxins on the French coast: Lessons from REPHY and REPHYTOX.

Harmful Algae 2021 Feb 26;102:101733. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Ifremer (French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea), F-44311 Nantes Cedex 03, France. Electronic address:

In France, REPHY (Observation and Surveillance Network for Phytoplankton and Hydrology in coastal waters) and REPHYTOX (Monitoring Network for Phycotoxins in marine organisms) have been contributing to long-term time series on ocean health for more than 30 years. The aim of this paper is to describe these networks and to highlight their key results. Over the last 20 years, phytoplankton flora analysis on French coasts from the Channel to Mediterranean has shown that the five "emblematic" taxa are Chaetoceros, Skeletonema, Cryptophyceae, Leptocylindrus and Pseudo-nitzschia. Read More

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February 2021

A dosage-effect assessment of acute toxicology tests of microplastic exposure in filter-feeding fish.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Jun 16;113:154-161. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Joint Laboratory of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong Region on Marine Bioresource Conservation and Exploitation, College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China; Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address:

Abundant microplastics was found in aquatic ecosystem and aquatic organisms, which raised many concerns in public. Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), a species filter-feeding planktivorous fish, feed on particle between 4 and 85 μm in size, and the respiratory process works together with feeding mechanism when filtering plankton from water. The aim of this study was to assess the physiological response of silver carp exposed to 5 μm polystyrene microspheres during 48 h of exposure followed by 48 h of depuration through the gill histology, and oxidative stress biomarkers in intestine. Read More

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Taxonomy and okadaic acid production of a strain of Prorocentrum lima (Dinophyceae) isolated from the Bay of Bengal, North Indian Ocean.

Toxicon 2021 Jun 26;196:32-43. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Division of Applied Phycology and Biotechnology, CSIR-Central Salt & Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Gijubhai Badheka Marg, Bhavnagar, 364002, Gujarat, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, 201002, India. Electronic address:

Prorocentrum lima (CSIRCSMCRI005) was isolated from the coastal seawater of Thonithurai, Tamil Nadu, India. Morphology of the isolate was studied using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) while phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8s-ITS2), 18S rDNA, and large subunit (LSU) rDNA were also carried out. Read More

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Potent allelopathy and non-PSTs, non-spirolides toxicity of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium leei to phytoplankton, finfish and zooplankton observed from laboratory bioassays.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 17;780:146484. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

The dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium has been well known for causing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) worldwide. Several non-PSP toxin-producing species, however, have shown to exhibit fish-killing toxicity. Here, we report the allelopathic activity of Alexandrium leei from Malaysia to other algal species, and its toxicity to finfish and zooplankton, via laboratory bioassays. Read More

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Gymnodimine A in mollusks from the north Atlantic Coast of Spain: Prevalence, concentration, and relationship with spirolides.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 11;279:116919. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Centro de Investigacións Mariñas (CIMA), Pedras de Corón S/n, 36620, Vilanova de Arousa, Spain. Electronic address:

Gymnodimine A has been found in mollusks obtained along the whole northern coast of Spain from April 2017 to December 2019. This is the first time that this toxin is detected in mollusks from the Atlantic coast of Europe. The prevalence of the toxin was, in general, low, being detected on average in approximately 6% of the obtained samples (122 out of 1900). Read More

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Perfluorooctanoic acid-induced immunotoxicity via NF-kappa B pathway in zebrafish (Danio rerio) kidney.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Jun 14;113:9-19. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 311121, China. Electronic address:

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is widely used in industrial production due to its stable chemical structure and hydrophobic and oleophobic characteristics. PFOA has been frequently detected in environmental media and organisms, leading to increased health risks. There is a lack of information about the immunotoxicity of aquatic organisms induced by PFOA, and the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Read More

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Chitosan performance during Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST) depuration of Mytilus chilensis exposed to Alexandrium catenella.

Toxicon 2021 May 13;195:48-57. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Limnológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile; Centro Fondap de Investigación Dinámica de Ecosistemas Marinos de Altas Latitudes (IDEAL), Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, which produces Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST), generate serious socio-economic consequences for mariculture in Chile, especially for the production of Mytilus chilensis and other bivalves. Palliative strategies, such as the depuration of mussels in enriched water with chitosan offer encouraging prospects against the advance of contaminated areas and toxin persistence. Adult mussels were fed with A. Read More

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Effect of carboxymethyl chitosan on the detoxification and biotransformation of paralytic shellfish toxins in oyster Ostrea rivularis.

Toxicon 2021 Jun 12;196:1-7. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

College of Marine Science and Biological Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Shandong, Qingdao, 266042, China; Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Shandong, Qingdao, 266042, China. Electronic address:

Economic bivalve ingested toxic algae causes frequent human poisoning events. To explore new compounds that can accelerate the depuration of toxins in shellfish, we investigated the detoxification of the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and the biotransformation pathway of PSTs during detoxification by the application of three treatments to a toxic bloom, Alexandrium minutum (A. minutum). Read More

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Molecular Identification and Toxin Analysis of spp. in the Beibu Gulf: First Report of Toxic in Chinese Coastal Waters.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 02 18;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA.

The frequency of harmful algal blooms (HABs) has increased in China in recent years. Information about harmful dinoflagellates and paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) is still limited in China, especially in the Beibu Gulf, where PSTs in shellfish have exceeded food safety guidelines on multiple occasions. To explore the nature of the threat from PSTs in the region, eight strains were isolated from waters of the Beibu Gulf and examined using phylogenetic analyses of large subunit (LSU) rDNA, small subunit (SSU) rDNA, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Read More

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February 2021

Chemoenzymatic Total Synthesis of Natural Products.

Acc Chem Res 2021 03 18;54(6):1374-1384. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States.

The total synthesis of structurally complex natural products has challenged and inspired generations of chemists and remains an exciting area of active research. Despite their history as privileged bioactivity-rich scaffolds, the use of natural products in drug discovery has waned. This shift is driven by their relatively low abundance hindering isolation from natural sources and the challenges presented by their synthesis. Read More

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Identifying the Source Organisms Producing Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in a Subtropical Bay in the South China Sea.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 03 10;55(5):3124-3135. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China.

Identifying the exact phytoplanktonic sources of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) is crucial for monitoring and preventing the buildup of toxin pollution, especially for causative species occurring at low levels. Phytoplankton and shellfish samples were simultaneously collected from representative mariculture zones in Daya Bay, China. Low concentration/low toxicity PSTs predominated with -sulfocarbamoyl toxins 1, 2 (C1/2) being detected in phytoplankton (≤6. Read More

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subsp. subsp. nov., pathogenic to the edible cockles in France, and establishment of subsp. subsp. nov. and subsp. subsp. nov.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Feb;71(2)

IHPE, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, 34090 Montpellier, France.

Cockle mortality events have been reported in northern France since 2012. In the present study, we describe and investigate the implication of a potential bacterial causative agent in cockle mortality. Bacteria isolated from five different cockle mortality events were characterized and studied. Read More

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February 2021

Toxic effects of dietary copper and EGCG on bioaccumulation, antioxidant enzyme and immune response of Korean bullhead, Pseudobagrus fulvidraco.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Apr 24;111:119-126. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Department of Aquatic Life Medicine, Pukyong National University, Busan, 608-737, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

There are few reports of dietary Cu (copper) toxicity to Korean bullhead, Pseudobagrus fulvidraco, and little is known about recovery from dietary Cu exposure. In this study, P. fulvidraco (mean length 16. Read More

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Cadmium exposure induces inflammation through the canonical NF-κΒ pathway in monocytes/macrophages of Channa punctatus Bloch.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Mar 13;110:116-126. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Biotechnology, Assam University, Silchar, Assam, 788011, India. Electronic address:

A vast range of research related to the toxicity of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) has been carried out in a wide variety of fish species. However, Cd induced immunomodulation in monocytes/macrophages of Channa punctatus Bloch. has rarely been explored. Read More

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DSP Toxin Distribution across Organs in Mice after Acute Oral Administration.

Mar Drugs 2021 Jan 8;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario, 27002 Lugo, Spain.

Okadaic acid (OA) and its main structural analogs dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) are marine lipophilic phycotoxins distributed worldwide that can be accumulated by edible shellfish and can cause diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). In order to study their toxicokinetics, mice were treated with different doses of OA, DTX1, or DTX2 and signs of toxicity were recorded up to 24 h. Toxin distribution in the main organs from the gastrointestinal tract was assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis. Read More

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January 2021

Immunity and inflammatory responses in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) exposed to sub-lethal mixture of carbamazepine, cadmium chloride and polybrominated diphenyl ether.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Apr 23;111:25-35. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

University of Palermo, Dept. of Earth and Marine Science DISTEM, Laboratory of Marine Biochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Via Barlotta 4, 91100, Trapani, Italy; Istituto per lo studio degli impatti Antropici e Sostenibilità in ambiente marino (IAS), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Capo Granitola, Trapani, Italy; Consorzio Universitario della Provincia di Trapani, Marine Biology Institute, Via Barlotta 4, 91100, Trapani, Italy.

Chemical contaminants such as industrial and urban by-products, pharmaceuticals, drugs metabolites and, plastics, are continuously found in the oceans, affecting its quality and organism's welfare. Although these compounds are found at concentrations ranged ng L, there is an increasing concern about the potential adverse effects of the interactions among those substances present, simultaneously, in a mixture. In the present study, specimens of sea bream (Sparus aurata) were exposed, by food, to rising concentrations of a mixture of carbamazepine, polybrominated diphenyl ether-47 and cadmium chloride, for 15 days and then, maintained, with the same control diet, without contaminants, for other 15 days. Read More

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Human Health and Ocean Pollution.

Ann Glob Health 2020 12 3;86(1):151. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Nigerian Institute for Medical Research, Lagos, NG.

Background: Pollution - unwanted waste released to air, water, and land by human activity - is the largest environmental cause of disease in the world today. It is responsible for an estimated nine million premature deaths per year, enormous economic losses, erosion of human capital, and degradation of ecosystems. Ocean pollution is an important, but insufficiently recognized and inadequately controlled component of global pollution. Read More

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December 2020

Molecular characterization, immune and xenobiotic responses of glutathione S-transferase omega 1 from the big-belly seahorse: Novel insights into antiviral defense.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Feb 19;109:62-70. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Marine Life Sciences & Fish Vaccine Research Center, Jeju National University, Jeju Self-Governing Province, 63243, Republic of Korea; Marine Science Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju Self-Governing Province, 63333, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are important enzymes involved in phase II detoxification and function by conjugating with the thiol group of glutathione. In this study, we isolated an omega class GST from the big-belly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis; HaGSTO1) to study the putative xenobiotic responses and defense ability against viral and bacterial infections in this animal. The isolated HaGSTO1 gene, with a cording sequence of 720 bp, encodes a peptide of 239 amino acids. Read More

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February 2021

Effects of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin-producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum on the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Feb 17;163:111937. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Marine Biotechnology Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, Busan 49111, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

To understand how the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus responds to the toxic marine dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, we assessed acute toxicity and investigated swimming behavior parameters (e.g., swimming speed, swimming path trajectory, and swimming distance) in response to G. Read More

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February 2021

Accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins by Southern Rock lobster Jasus edwardsii causes minimal impact on lobster health.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Jan 3;230:105704. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 129, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

Recurrent dinoflagellate blooms of Alexandrium catenella expose the economically and ecologically important Southern Rock Lobster in Tasmania to paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), and it is unknown if PST accumulation adversely affects lobster performance, health and catchability. In a controlled aquaculture setting, lobsters were fed highly contaminated mussels to accumulate toxin levels in the hepatopancreas (mean of 6.65 mg STX. Read More

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January 2021