1,902 results match your criteria Toxicity Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor


Duloxetine overdose causes sympathomimetic and serotonin toxicity without major complications.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 Jun 6:1-5. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Clinical Toxicology Research Group, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia.

Objective: Duloxetine is a commonly used antidepressant that is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. We aimed to investigate the frequency and severity of clinical effects following duloxetine overdose.

Methods: We undertook a retrospective review of duloxetine overdoses (>120 mg) admitted to two tertiary toxicology units between March 2007 and May 2021. Read More

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Differential effects of fluoxetine on the phototactic behavior of 3 amphipod species (Crustacea; Amphipoda).

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2022 Jul 20;93:103889. Epub 2022 May 20.

Dept of Biology, American University, Washington DC 20016, USA. Electronic address:

We document phototactic responses in different amphipod populations of Gammarus minus, Stygobromus tenuis, and Crangonyx shoemakeri, each collected at 2-3 sites within the Washington DC area. We then assessed how baseline phototaxis was altered following either short-term (3-week) or long-term (6-week) exposure to 0.05 µg/L or 0. Read More

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Antidepressants induce toxicity in human placental BeWo cells.

Curr Res Toxicol 2022 6;3:100073. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, 1-100 Kusumoto, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8650, Japan.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs) are broadly used for the treatment of depression. Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in pregnant women and SSRIs are commonly prescribed for depression during pregnancy. The placenta regulates the transport of nutrients and oxygen between the maternal and fetal circulation, and is essential for the survival and growth of the fetus. Read More

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Association of co-prescribing of opioid and benzodiazepine substitutes with incident falls and fractures among older adults: a cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 12 30;11(12):e052057. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Sealy Center on Aging, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas, USA.

Objective: Examine the association between the co-prescribing of opioids, benzodiazepines, gabapentinoids (pregabalin and gabapentin) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors/serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRI/SNRIs) in different combinations and the risk of falls and fractures.

Design: Retrospective cohort study from 2015 to 2018.

Setting: Medicare enrolment and claims data. Read More

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December 2021

Low doses and lifecycle exposure of waterborne antidepressants in zebrafish model: A survey on sperm traits, reproductive behaviours, and transcriptome responses.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Aug 5;832:155017. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Industrial Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Venlafaxine and citalopram have been commonly found in surface water and may disrupt fish reproduction, yet the long-term impact and the underlying mechanism are largely unknown. Here, zebrafish were exposed to 0.1-100 μg/L venlafaxine and citalopram for their entire life cycle from embryo to adult, respectively. Read More

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Single and mixture toxicity of selected pharmaceuticals to the aquatic macrophyte Lemna minor.

Ecotoxicology 2022 Jul 28;31(5):714-724. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

University of Copenhagen, Department of Plant and Environmental Science, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Plants represent uncommon targets to evaluate pharmaceuticals toxicity. In this work, Lemna minor was employed as a plant model to determine the toxicity of selected pharmaceuticals, and to assay if such toxicity could be predicted by QSAR models based on green algae. Among eight compounds, measurable toxicity was determined for ketoprofen (EC = 11. Read More

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Toxicity of waterborne vortioxetine, a new antidepressant, in non-target aquatic organisms: From wonder to concern drugs?

Environ Pollut 2022 Jul 22;304:119175. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address:

Vortioxetine is increasing in popularity as a treatment for major depressive disorder and has been detected in wastewater effluent. However, information on the toxicity and environmental risk of vortioxetine in non-target organisms is scarce. Here, embryonic and juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to assess the toxicity of vortioxetine (0, 1, 10, 30, 100, 300, and 1000 μg/L) after 120 h and 7 d of exposure, respectively. Read More

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Development of the Validated Stability-Indicating Method for the Determination of Vortioxetine in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulation by HPLC-DAD, Stress Degradation Kinetics Studies and Detection of Degradation Products by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS.

Molecules 2022 Mar 14;27(6). Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Department of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Torun, Poland.

Vortioxetine (VOR) is a new antidepressant drug used to treat major depressive disorder. In this work, a novel, simple, rapid, accurate, precise, selective, stability-indicating, and fully validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was developed to determine VOR in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. A Polar-RP column was used, with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (ACN), methanol (MeOH), acetate buffer pH 3. Read More

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Effects of the antidepressant paroxetine on migratory behaviour of meiobenthic nematodes: Computational and open experimental microcosm approach.

Mar Pollut Bull 2022 Apr 21;177:113558. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

University of Carthage, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, LR01ES14 Laboratory of Environment Biomonitoring, Coastal Ecology and Ecotoxicology Unit, 7021 Zarzouna, Tunisia. Electronic address:

An open experimental setup was established in order to explore the toxic effects of the antidepressant paroxetine on meiobenthic nematodes. Three types of microcosms made from polyvinyl chloride tubes, each comprising two sediments compartments (upper and lower), were used in a laboratory experiment for 15 days. The experimental setup targeted the migratory behaviour of the nematofauna from the above compartments, which were exposed to paroxetine (0. Read More

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Fluoxetine-induced neurotoxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations in adult zebrafish Danio rerio.

Neurotoxicology 2022 May 16;90:121-129. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Laboratorio de Toxicología Acuática, Departamento de Farmacia, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Av. Wilfrido Massieu s/n y cerrada Manuel Stampa, Col. Industrial Vallejo, Ciudad de México, CP 07700, Mexico.

Fluoxetine (FLX) exerts its therapeutic effect by inhibiting the presynaptic reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Nonetheless, at high concentrations of this drug, adverse effects occur in the brain of exposed organisms. Bearing this into account, the objective of this study was to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of the fluoxetine through the evaluation of behavior (Novel tank test), determination of oxidative stress, and determination of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in adult zebrafish Danio rerio. Read More

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Pre-weaning fluoxetine exposure caused anti-depressant like behavior at adulthood via perturbing tryptophan metabolism in rats.

Metab Brain Dis 2022 06 18;37(5):1415-1422. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ziauddin University, Karachi, Pakistan.

The perinatal depression exposes the child to antidepressants during vulnerable window of development, which can chronically impact the mental wellbeing of new born. Active pharmaceuticals are not tested for this long term neurobehavioral aspect of toxicity during drug development process. Keeping this in view, the current study was designed to study the effect of pre-weaning fluoxetine exposure on depression-like behavior of the offspring upon attaining adulthood using FST (Forced swim test). Read More

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Analysis of Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy in Medicine: A Narrative Review.

Cureus 2022 Feb 5;14(2):e21944. Epub 2022 Feb 5.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, St. George's University School of Medicine, St. George's, GRD.

Psilocybin-containing mushrooms have been consumed by various cultures in many different parts of the world for thousands of years. Psilocybin, a classic psychedelic, contains unique psychoactive properties and has been incorporated into religious ceremonies and investigated for its medicinal value. In the mid-20th century, psilocybin, along with most other classic psychedelics (5HT-2A agonists), was classified as a Schedule I substance, bringing a halt to research on its medicinal utility. Read More

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February 2022

Drug Repurposing: Escitalopram attenuates acute lung injury by inhibiting the SIK2/ HDAC4/ NF-κB signaling cascade.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 04 8;599:1-8. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Hainan General Hospital, Hainan Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China. Electronic address:

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. To search for a new treatment for acute lung injury, we investigated the effect of escitalopram on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Our results showed that escitalopram inhibited salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) activity (IC = 6. Read More

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Warmer temperatures limit the effects of antidepressant pollution on life-history traits.

Proc Biol Sci 2022 02 9;289(1968):20212701. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia.

Pharmaceutical pollutants pose a threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Yet, few studies have considered the interaction between pharmaceuticals and other chronic stressors contemporaneously, even though the environmental challenges confronting animals in the wild seldom, if ever, occur in isolation. Thermal stress is one such environmental challenge that may modify the threat of pharmaceutical pollutants. Read More

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February 2022

Assessing the exposure to human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in waterbirds: The use of feathers for monitoring antidepressants and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 29;821:153473. Epub 2022 Jan 29.

Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Informatica e Statistica, Università Ca' Foscari, Campus Scientifico via Torino 155, I-30170 Mestre, Venezia, Italy. Electronic address:

Exposure to active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from both human and veterinary sources is an increasing threat to wildlife welfare and conservation. Notwithstanding, tracking the exposure to pharmaceuticals in non-target and sensitive vertebrates, including birds, is seldom performed and relies almost exclusively on analysing internal organs retrieved from carcasses or from experimentally exposed and sacrificed birds. Clearly, this excludes the possibility of performing large-scale monitoring. Read More

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Vortioxetine ameliorates motor and cognitive impairments in the rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease via targeting TLR-2 mediated neuroinflammation.

Neuropharmacology 2022 05 26;208:108977. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Akdeniz University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, 07058, Antalya, Turkey. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms associated with dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic injury. Vortioxetine is a multimodal serotonergic antidepressant with potential procognitive effects. This study aimed to explore the effects of vortioxetine on motor functions, spatial learning and memory, and depression-like behavior in the rotenone-induced rat model of PD. Read More

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Toxicological effects of atenolol and venlafaxine on zebrafish tissues: Bioaccumulation, DNA hypomethylation, and molecular mechanism.

Environ Pollut 2022 Apr 23;299:118898. Epub 2022 Jan 23.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China; The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, China; The Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Eco-Remediation of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, China. Electronic address:

The beta-blocker atenolol (ATE), and the selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine (VEN) are frequently detected in municipal wastewater effluents, but little is known about their ecotoxicological effect on aquatic animals. Herein, ATE and VEN were selected to explore their accumulation and global DNA methylation (GDM) in zebrafish tissues after a 30-day exposure. Molecular dynamics (MD) stimulation was used to investigate the toxic mechanism of ATE and VEN exposure. Read More

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Foodborne fluoxetine impacts the immune response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykkis).

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2022 Feb 22;90:103818. Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Department of Animal Protection and Welfare & Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic.

The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of foodborne fluoxetine on morphological and condition profile, hematological profile, biochemical and oxidative stress indices on juvenile rainbow trout. The study was performed according to OECD Guideline No. 215. Read More

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February 2022

Association between myocarditis and antipsychotics other than clozapine: a systematic literature review and a pharmacovigilance study using VigiBase.

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2022 Jan 27;15(1):65-78. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY, USA.

Introduction: Pharmacovigilance studies have definitely established that clozapine can cause myocarditis. Two published reviews suggested that on rare occasions other antipsychotics may induce myocarditis.

Areas Covered: This review explored myocarditis associated with antipsychotics other than clozapine by conducting a systematic search of the literature and critically analyzing the current data in VigiBase compared to the data on clozapine-associated myocarditis. Read More

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January 2022

Characterizing toxicity pathways of fluoxetine to predict adverse outcomes in adult fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

Sci Total Environ 2022 Apr 11;817:152747. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3, Canada; School of the Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5C8, Canada. Electronic address:

Current ecotoxicity testing programs are impeded as they predominantly rely on slow and expensive animal tests measuring adverse outcomes. Therefore, new approach methodologies (NAMs) increasingly involve short-term mechanistic assays that employ molecular endpoints to predict adverse outcomes of regulatory relevance. This study aimed to elucidate the application of NAMs in adult fathead minnows using fluoxetine (FLX) as a model compound. Read More

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Multi-generational impacts of exposure to antidepressant fluoxetine on behaviour, reproduction, and morphology of freshwater snail Physa acuta.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Mar 30;814:152731. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

The Neurotox Lab, School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3083, Australia. Electronic address:

Contamination of the environment by pharmaceutical pollutants poses an increasingly critical threat to aquatic ecosystems around the world. This is particularly true of psychoactive compounds, such as antidepressant drugs, which have become ubiquitous contaminants and have been demonstrated to modify aquatic animal behaviours at very low concentrations (i.e. Read More

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Proteomics of sea bass skin-scales exposed to the emerging pollutant fluoxetine compared to estradiol.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Mar 27;814:152671. Epub 2021 Dec 27.

CCMAR - Centro de Ciências do Mar (CCMAR), Universidade do Algarve, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal. Electronic address:

Teleost fish skin-scales are essential for protection and homeostasis and the largest tissue in direct contact with the environment, but their potential as early indicators of pollutant exposure are hampered by limited knowledge about this model. This study evaluated multi-level impacts of in vivo exposure of European sea bass to fluoxetine (FLX, a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor and an emerging pollutant) and 17β-estradiol (E2, a natural hormone and representative of diverse estrogenic endocrine-disrupting pollutants). Exposed fish had significantly increased circulating levels of FLX and its active metabolite nor-FLX that, in contrast to E2, did not have estrogenic effects on most fish plasma and scale indicators. Read More

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Effects of aqueous fluoxetine exposure on gut microbiome of adult Pimephales promelas.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Mar 22;813:152422. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; Department of Environmental Science, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA.

The microbiome of the gut is vital for homeostasis of hosts with its ability to detoxify and activate toxicants, as well as signal to the immune and nervous systems. However, in the field of environmental toxicology, the gut microbiome has only recently been identified as a measurable indicator for exposure to environmental pollutants. Antidepressants found in effluents of wastewater treatment plants and surface waters have been shown to exhibit antibacterial-like properties in vitro, where some bacteria are known to express homologous proteins that bind antidepressants in vertebrates. Read More

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Effect of fluoxetine treatment on neurotoxicity induced by lysolecithin in male rats.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2022 Feb 22;100(2):107-116. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Razi Herbal Medicine Research Center and Department of Physiology, Loretan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran.

Demyelination disorder is an unusual pathologic event, which occurs in the central nervous system (CNS). Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that affects the CNS, and it is the leading cause of disability in young adults. Lysolecithin (LPC) is one of the best toxin-induced demyelination models. Read More

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February 2022

Comparative analysis of transcriptomic points-of-departure (tPODs) and apical responses in embryo-larval fathead minnows exposed to fluoxetine.

Environ Pollut 2022 Feb 9;295:118667. Epub 2021 Dec 9.

Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3, Canada; School of the Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5C8, Canada; Global Institute for Water Security, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 3H5, Canada. Electronic address:

Current approaches in chemical hazard assessment face significant challenges because they rely on live animal testing, which is time-consuming, expensive, and ethically questionable. These concerns serve as an impetus to develop new approach methodologies (NAMs) that do not rely on live animal tests. This study explored a molecular benchmark dose (BMD) approach using a 7-day embryo-larval fathead minnow (FHM) assay to derive transcriptomic points-of-departure (tPODs) to predict apical BMDs of fluoxetine (FLX), a highly prescribed and potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor frequently detected in surface waters. Read More

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February 2022

Sertraline as a new potential anthelmintic against Haemonchus contortus: toxicity, efficacy, and biotransformation.

Vet Res 2021 Dec 11;52(1):143. Epub 2021 Dec 11.

Department of Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University, Heyrovského 1203, 500 05, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.

Haemonchus contortus is a parasitic nematode of ruminants which causes significant losses to many farmers worldwide. Since the drugs currently in use for the treatment of haemonchosis are losing their effectiveness due to the drug-resistance of this nematode, a new or repurposed drug is highly needed. As the antipsychotic drug sertraline (SRT) has been shown to be effective against the parasitic nematodes Trichuris muris, Ancylostoma caninum and Schistosoma mansoni, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible effect of SRT on H. Read More

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December 2021

The antidepressant venlafaxine perturbs cardiac development and function in larval zebrafish.

Aquat Toxicol 2022 Jan 22;242:106041. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4. Electronic address:

Venlafaxine, a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is a highly prescribed antidepressant and is detected at µg/L concentrations in waterways receiving municipal wastewater effluents. We previously showed that early-life venlafaxine exposure disrupted the normal development of the nervous system and reduces larval activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, it is unclear whether the reduced swimming activity may be associated with impaired cardiac function. Read More

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January 2022

Is hypoglycemia really observed in pediatric beta-blocker intoxications? A case-control study.

Arch Pediatr 2022 Jan 27;29(1):56-60. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Dokuz Eylül University: Dokuz Eylul Universitesi Institute of Health Servises, Medical Pharmacology Depatment, Toxicology Devision, Turkey; Dokuz Eylul University: Dokuz Eylul Universitesi, Faculty of Medicine, Pharmacology Depatment, Medical Toxicology Devision, Turkey.

Background: Beta-blocker (BB) intoxications are common in both childhood and adulthood. In the case of poisoning, bradycardia, hypotension, ventricular dysrhythmias, mental status changes, seizures, hypoglycemia, and bronchospasm may occur. Effects on the cardiovascular system are commonly seen, but hypoglycemia is not frequently observed in clinical practice. Read More

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January 2022

Anxiolytic, antidepressant and inhibitory effect on MAO isoenzymes by Bougainvillea glabra flower extract in rats.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Sep;34(5(Supplementary)):1963-1968

Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Main aim of current study was to determine the anxiolytic and antidepressant potential of Bougainvillea glabra Extract (BVE). The effects were investigated by using Open-Field-Test (OFT), Light-and-Dark Model (LD), Hole-Board (HB) and Forced-Swimming-Test (FST). Different doses for BVE were given to Wistar-Rats and compared with Control and Diazepam. Read More

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September 2021

Tianeptine, but not fluoxetine, decreases avoidant behavior in a mouse model of early developmental exposure to fluoxetine.

Sci Rep 2021 11 24;11(1):22852. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Division of Molecular Therapeutics, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons and the New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA.

Depression and anxiety, two of the most common mental health disorders, share common symptoms and treatments. Most pharmacological agents available to treat these disorders target monoamine systems. Currently, finding the most effective treatment for an individual is a process of trial and error. Read More

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November 2021