34 results match your criteria Toxicity Scombroid

Adult-onset mast cell activation syndrome following scombroid poisoning: a case report and review of the literature.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Dec 18;15(1):620. Epub 2021 Dec 18.

Comprehensive Asthma and Allergy, 200 S Broadway Suite 104, Tarrytown, NY, 10591, USA.

Background: Mast cells are closely associated with epithelium, serving as sentinels responsible for the recognition of tissue injury and coordination of the initial inflammatory response. Upon detection of the injured cell content, mast cells then tailor the release of preformed and newly produced chemical mediators to the detected challenge, via an array of pathogen receptors. In addition to immunoglobulin E receptor-triggered mast cell activation, commonly referred to as allergic or atopic disorders, non-immunoglobulin E receptor mediated mast cell activation follows engagement of toll-like receptors, immunoglobulin G receptors, and complement receptors. Read More

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December 2021

Histamine and Scombrotoxins.

Toxicon 2021 Oct 20;201:115-126. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Applied Technology Center, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Office of Regulatory Affairs, US Food and Drug Administration, 22201 23rd Dr SE Bothell, WA, 98021, USA. Electronic address:

Histamine intoxications result when histamine-metabolizing enzymes are compromised or overwhelmed by dietary histamine in the human body. This can occur either due to metabolic enzyme deficiencies, such as in histamine intolerance to wines, aged cheese and other foods or from high concentrations of histamine following ingestion of decomposed fish. The presence of histamine in decomposed fish and fish products results from bacterial decarboxylation of free L-histidine following product mishandling. Read More

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October 2021

Acute coronary syndrome from scombroid poisoning: a narrative review of case reports.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 Jan 16;60(1):1-9. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Cardiology, University of Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece.

Background: Scombroid syndrome constitutes a toxic illness caused by ingestion of improperly stored fish, usually contaminated by Gram-negative bacteria producing histamine and other toxins. Scombroid currently accounts for approximately 5% of food toxicities in the United States. Though cardiovascular complications are infrequent, some patients experienced acute coronary syndrome (ACS) on admission to hospital. Read More

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January 2022

Hypervitaminosis A Following the Ingestion of Fish Liver: Report on 3 Cases from the Poison Control Center in Marseille.

Wilderness Environ Med 2020 Dec 27;31(4):454-456. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Clinical Pharmacology, Poison Control Center, St Marguerite Hospital, Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Univ, APHM, INSERM, IRD, SESSTIM, St Marguerite Hospital, Clinical Pharmacology, Poison control Center, Marseille, France.

In European countries, vitamin A toxicity is most often the result of an excessive intake of vitamin supplements and rarely the consequence of the ingestion of a large carnivorous fish liver. We report 3 cases of vitamin A poisoning after fish liver ingestion in mainland and overseas France. The patients were a 12-y-old girl, a 36-y-old pregnant woman, and a 62-y-old man. Read More

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December 2020

Fluorescent immunoliposomal nanovesicles for rapid multi-well immuno-biosensing of histamine in fish samples.

Chemosphere 2020 Mar 21;243:125404. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Food Science and Technology, National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship and Management (NIFTEM), Sonipat, Haryana, 131028, India. Electronic address:

Scombroid poisoning in fish-based and other food products has raised concerns due to toxicity outbreaks and incidences associated with histamine, thus measuring the amount of histamine toxic molecule is considered crucial quality indicator of food safety and human health. In this study, liposome-based measurement of histamine was performed via rupturing mechanism of sulforhodamine B dye encapsulated anti-histamine antibody conjugated liposomal nanovesicles. The immunosensing ability of immuno-liposomal format was assessed by monitoring the fluorescence at excitation/emission wavelength of 550/585 nm. Read More

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Determination of Histamine in Japanese Spanish Mackerel () Meat Implicated in a Foodborne Poisoning.

J Food Prot 2019 Oct;82(10):1643-1649

Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, 811, Taiwan.

An incident of foodborne poisoning causing illness in seven victims due to ingestion of fried Japanese Spanish mackerel (JS mackerel; ) meat occurred in September 2014 in Hualien County, eastern Taiwan. Of the two suspected fish meats, one raw sample contained 3,318 ppm of histamine and one fried sample contained 1,906 ppm of histamine, levels which are greater than the potential hazard action level (500 ppm) in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fish samples, this foodborne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Read More

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October 2019

South African Marine Envenomations and Poisonings as Managed Telephonically by the Tygerberg Poisons Information Centre: A 20-Year Retrospective Review.

Wilderness Environ Med 2019 Jun 12;30(2):134-140. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Introduction: South Africa has an abundance of marine life, and the potential for hazardous exposure to marine life is high. To our knowledge, this is the first epidemiological review regarding marine toxicity that has ever been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this review was to investigate marine toxicology data as managed telephonically by the Tygerberg Poisons Information Centre. Read More

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[Three cases of scombroid poisoning].

Ann Dermatol Venereol 2018 Jan 18;145(1):29-32. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Service de dermatologie-infectiologie, hôpital de Fréjus-Saint-Raphaël, 240, avenue de Saint-Lambert, 83600 Fréjus, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Scombroid poisoning is a poorly known type of food poisoning due to the presence of histamine in spoiled fish of the Scombridae family. We report 3 cases of scombroid poisoning seen at the Fréjus-Saint-Raphaël hospital in the Var region.

Observations: Within around thirty minutes of eating a meal containing tuna, three patients presented varied symptoms: malaise, itchy rash, headache, and for two of them, nausea. Read More

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January 2018

Rare Death Via Histamine Poisoning Following Crab Consumption: A Case Report.

J Forensic Sci 2018 May 17;63(3):980-982. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

School of Forensic Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Histamine poisoning (scombroid food poisoning) is a toxicity syndrome that results from eating spoiled fish. To date, however, few poisoning (or mortality) cases have been reported in relation to crab consumption. Here, we describe a very uncommon case in which a 37-year-old woman and her 14-year-old son ate cooked crabs (Scylla serrata), resulting in the death of the female. Read More

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Histamine food poisonings: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2018 May 2;58(7):1131-1151. Epub 2017 Jun 2.

a Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie per la Salute , la Produzione Animale e la Sicurezza Alimentare, Università degli Studi di Milano , Milano , Italy.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the mean of histamine concentration in food poisoning.

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of reports published between 1959 and 2013.

Study Selection: Main criteria for inclusion of studies were: all report types that present outbreaks of "histamine poisoning' or "scombroid syndrome" from food, including histamine content and type of food. Read More

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Determination of trans- and cis-urocanic acid in relation to histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine contents in tuna (Auxis Thazard) at different storage temperatures.

J Food Sci 2015 Feb 13;80(2):T479-83. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

Dept. of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Univ. Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Biotechnology Dept, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Scombroid fish poisoning is usually associated with consumption of fish containing high levels of histamine. However, reports indicate that some cases have responded to antihistamine therapy while ingested histamine levels in these cases were low. Potentiation of histamine toxicity by some biogenic amines, and release of endogenous histamine by other compounds such as cis-urocanic acid (UCA) are some hypotheses that have been put forth to explain this anomaly. Read More

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February 2015

Rapid detection of chemical hazards (toxins, dioxins, and PCBs) in seafood.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2014 ;54(11):1473-528

a Department of Agriculture Ichthyology and Aquatic Environment, Faculty of Agriculture , University of Thessaly, Fytokou Str, Nea Ionia Magnessias , Volos 38446 , Hellas , Greece.

Among the various hazards occurring in fish and seafood chemical hazards and in particular toxins (ciguatera, scombroid fish poisoning, paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic (brevetoxic) shellfish poisoning, puffer fish poisoning, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning) have an important place in food poisoning cases. On the other hand, some of the chemical hazards are often due to the pollution of the environment (heavy metals, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons) and their detection is neither rapid nor facile. As a result there was a great need for developing new rapid and effective methods toward the chemical hazards determination mainly because of their high toxicity. Read More

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November 2014

Identification and management of toxicological hazards of street foods in developing countries.

Food Chem Toxicol 2014 Jan 9;63:143-52. Epub 2013 Nov 9.

Food and Veterinary Toxicology Unit, Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Street food vending represents an important food security strategy for low-income communities worldwide. However, no comprehensive risk analysis framework yet exists as regards specific aspects of chemical/toxicological hazards in street foods. Indeed, all steps of street food production and vending can be vulnerable, from the selection of raw materials, through to the storage and preparation of meals and even the vending site, often exposed to urban pollutants. Read More

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January 2014

A case of histamine fish poisoning in a young atopic woman.

J Gen Intern Med 2012 Jul 31;27(7):878-81. Epub 2012 Jan 31.

Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Histamine fish poisoning, also known as scombroid poisoning, is a histamine toxicity syndrome that results from eating specific types of spoiled fish. Although typically a benign syndrome, characterized by self-limited flushing, headache, and gastrointestinal symptoms, we describe a case unique in its severity and as a precipitant of an asthma exacerbation. A 25-year-old woman presented to the emergency department (ED) with one hour of tongue and face swelling, an erythematous pruritic rash, and dyspnea with wheezing after consuming a tuna sandwich. Read More

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A large outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning associated with eating yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) at a military mass catering in Dakar, Senegal.

Epidemiol Infect 2012 Jun 30;140(6):1008-12. Epub 2011 Aug 30.

Direction Interarmées du Service de Santé, Forces Françaises du Cap-Vert, Sénégal.

On 26 November 2010, an outbreak of scombroid fish poisoning occurred in the French Armed Forces in Dakar, Senegal. This chemical intoxication, due to high histamine concentration in fish, is often mistaken for an allergic reaction. A case-control study was undertaken including the 71 cases and 78 randomly selected controls among lunch attendees. Read More

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Biogenic amines in fish, fish products and shellfish: a review.

Ljerka Prester

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2011 Nov 11;28(11):1547-60. Epub 2011 Aug 11.

Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia.

Fish, cephalopods and shellfish provide a healthy source of high-quality proteins, essential vitamins, minerals and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The beneficial effects of fish consumption on human health such as protection against coronary heart disease and certain cancer may be offset by fish decomposition and the formation of chemical contaminants such as biogenic amines. There are several toxicological effects of biogenic amines on humans, especially histamine. Read More

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November 2011

Scombroid poisoning: a review.

Toxicon 2010 Aug 10;56(2):231-43. Epub 2010 Feb 10.

ATC, PRL-NW, USFDA, 22201 23rd Dr S.E. Bothell, WA 98021, United States.

Scombroid poisoning, also called histamine fish poisoning, is an allergy-like form of food poisoning that continues to be a major problem in seafood safety. The exact role of histamine in scombroid poisoning is not straightforward. Deviations from the expected dose-response have led to the advancement of various possible mechanisms of toxicity, none of them proven. Read More

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Detection of gram-negative histamine-producing bacteria in fish: a comparative study.

J Food Prot 2009 Sep;72(9):1987-91

Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, North Carolina State University, c/o Center for Marine Sciences and Technology, 303 College Circle, Morehead City, North Carolina 28557, USA.

Poisoning due to ingestion of foods with elevated levels of biogenic amines (histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine) is well documented. Histamine fish poisoning largely is due to growth of naturally occurring bacteria associated with scombroid fish species. A rapid and reliable method is needed to screen for the presence of histamine-forming bacteria in fish. Read More

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September 2009

Biogenic amines in fish: roles in intoxication, spoilage, and nitrosamine formation--a review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2009 Apr;49(4):369-77

School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Biogenic amines are non-volatile amines formed by decarboxylation of amino acids. Although many biogenic amines have been found in fish, only histamine, cadaverine, and putrescine have been found to be significant in fish safety and quality determination. Despite a widely reported association between histamine and scombroid food poisoning, histamine alone appears to be insufficient to cause food toxicity. Read More

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Scombroid fish poisoning in Israel, 2005-2007.

Isr Med Assoc J 2008 Nov;10(11):789-92

Israel Poison Information Center, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel.

Background: Scombroid fish poisoning is an acute illness caused by consumption of fish containing high concentrations of histamine. Improper handling of fish leads to bacterial contamination. Bacterial enzymes convert histidine to histamine. Read More

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November 2008

Flushing associated with scombroid fish poisoning.

Dermatol Online J 2006 Oct 31;12(6):15. Epub 2006 Oct 31.

Department of Dermatology, Hospital del Mar, IMAS, Barcelona, Spain.

Scombroid poisoning is a form of toxicity caused by the ingestion of spoiled dark-flesh fishes, mainly of the scombroid family. The clinical picture is secondary to histamine toxicity, manifested as flushing, headache, palpitations, and abdominal cramps. The diagnosis is established on the basis of these typical clinical manifestations and fish-ingestion history. Read More

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October 2006

Determination of biogenic amines in fish tissues by ion-exchange chromatography with conductivity detection.

J Chromatogr A 2004 Apr;1032(1-2):73-7

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana, Via Appia Nuova 1411, 00178 Rome, Italy.

Some biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine and histamine, have been found to be useful as quality indices for the decomposition of fish, so research on the simultaneous analysis of various biogenic amines in food is of interest and importance. The intake of histamine may cause an allergic intoxication known as "scombroid poisoning" while secondary biogenic amines can potentiate the toxicity of histamine and in addition can react with nitrite to form carcinogenic nitrosamines. A new method for the simultaneous determination of underivatized biogenic amines based on ion-exchange chromatography with conductivity detector has been developed. Read More

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Marine Neurotoxins: Ingestible Toxins.

Curr Treat Options Neurol 2004 Mar;6(2):105-114

Section of Neurology, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA.

Fish and shellfish account for a significant portion of food-borne illnesses throughout the world. In general, three classes of diseases result from seafood consumption--intoxication, allergies, and infections. In this review, the authors discuss several seafood-borne toxins, including domoic acid, which acts on the central nervous system. Read More

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Something fishy: six patients with an unusual cause of food poisoning!

Michael Hall

Emerg Med (Fremantle) 2003 Jun;15(3):293-5

Emergency Department, The Canberra Hospital, Garran, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

Scombroid fish poisoning is a clinical syndrome attributed to the ingestion of contaminated fish. A toxin or toxins, known as scombrotoxin, result from decomposition by endogenous flora of the amino acid histidine liberating bioactive amines, predominantly histamine. The presentation has features of histamine toxicity, typically with urticaria, flushing, headache, abdominal cramps, diarrhoea and vomiting. Read More

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Ciguatera poisoning: a global issue with common management problems.

J Y Ting A F Brown

Eur J Emerg Med 2001 Dec;8(4):295-300

Department of Emergency Medicine, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Ciguatera poisoning, a toxinological syndrome comprising an enigmatic mixture of gastrointestinal, neurocutaneous and constitutional symptoms, is a common food-borne illness related to contaminated fish consumption. As many as 50000 cases worldwide are reported annually, and the condition is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific Basin, Indian Ocean and Caribbean. Isolated outbreaks occur sporadically but with increasing frequency in temperate areas such as Europe and North America. Read More

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December 2001

Poisonings: food, fish, shellfish.

Emerg Med Clin North Am 1997 Feb;15(1):157-77

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, USA.

Not every traveler who gets sick away from home has an infection; some are poisoned. This article describes common and dangerous illnesses caused by food-borne toxins. It explores the toxic illnesses acquired from fish or seafood, including scombroid, ciguatera, pufferfish toxicity, and a variety of shellfish poisonings. Read More

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February 1997

Scombroid poisoning. A report of seven cases involving the Western Australian salmon, Arripis truttaceus.

D R Smart

Med J Aust 1992 Dec 7-21;157(11-12):748-51

Hyperbaric Medicine Unit, Fremantle Hospital, WA.

Objective: To present the clinical findings of scombroid poisoning due to ingestion of the Western Australian salmon, Arripis truttaceus, occurring in two separate outbreaks involving seven patients. Both outbreaks occurred in March and the fish had been caught in South Australian waters.

Clinical Features: Onset of symptoms in all patients occurred within half an hour of ingestion of the affected fish. Read More

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January 1993

Biogenic Amines in Cheese and other Fermented Foods: A Review.

J Food Prot 1991 Jun;54(6):460-470

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0919.

The biogenic amine content of various foods has been widely studied because of their potential toxicity. Biogenic amines, such as tyramine and β-phenylethylamine, have been proposed as the initiators of hypertensive crisis in certain patients and of dietary-induced migraine. Another amine, histamine, has been implicated as the causative agent in several outbreaks of food poisoning. Read More

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Evidence that histamine is the causative toxin of scombroid-fish poisoning.

N Engl J Med 1991 Mar;324(11):716-20

Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232-6602.

Background: The highest morbidity worldwide from fish poisoning results from the ingestion of spoiled scombroid fish, such as tuna and mackerel, and its cause is not clear. Histamine could be responsible, because spoiled scombroid fish contain large quantities of histamine. Whether histamine is the causative toxin, however, has remained in question. Read More

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