1,007 results match your criteria Toxicity Rodenticide

Cookie monster: A case report of a pediatric ingestion of zinc phosphide.

Am J Emerg Med 2022 Apr 30. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Emergency Medicine, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, NY, USA; Department of Emergency Medicine, Kings County Hospital Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

Background: Zinc phosphide is a highly toxic rodenticide that reacts with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form phosphine gas. Ingestion of zinc phosphide can result in consequential toxicity even when ingested in small quantities. Clear guidelines are lacking on appropriate personal protective equipment for providers to avoid additional exposure. Read More

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Endothelial dysfunction aggravates arterial media calcification in warfarin administered rats.

FASEB J 2022 05;36(5):e22315

Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium.

Arterial media calcification is an active cell process. This encompasses osteochondrogenic transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells followed by the deposition of calcium-phosphate crystals. Increasing evidence suggests a significant role for endothelial cells (ECs) in the development of arterial media calcification. Read More

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Determining an approximate minimum toxic dosage of diphacinone in horses and corresponding serum, blood, and liver diphacinone concentrations: a pilot study.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2022 May 2;34(3):489-495. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Poisoning of nontarget species is a major concern with the use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs). At postmortem examination, differentiating toxicosis from incidental exposure is sometimes difficult. Clotting profiles cannot be performed on postmortem samples, and clinically significant serum, blood, and liver AR concentrations are not well-established in most species. Read More

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Neuropathology of feral conures with bromethalin toxicosis.

Vet Pathol 2022 May 17;59(3):489-492. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

Bromethalin is a widely used neurotoxic rodenticide sometimes affecting nontarget wildlife. However, the effects of bromethalin on avian species are largely unknown. Here, we report the neuropathology of 14 feral conures ( sp. Read More

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Short-term exposure of anticoagulant rodenticides leads to the toxin accumulation from prey (Rattus losea) to predator (Elanus caeruleus).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Mar 28;233:113361. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Department of Entomology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Rodenticides are widely used around the world since the 1950s. In Taiwan, an anti-rodent operation initiated 1977 and became a regular action annually implied by the government until 2014. This anti-rodent operation caused many animals of non-target species being exposed by rodenticides and became an environmental issue. Read More

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Anticoagulant-related nephropathy: Focus on novel agents. A review.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2022 Feb;31(2):165-173

Department of Nephrology, Medical University of Lublin, Poland.

Anticoagulant-related nephropathy (ARN) is a novel and not well-studied cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). The prevalence of ARN varies significantly between studies and is estimated at 20% in patients treated with warfarin. Patients with ARN have a significantly higher mortality risk and an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Read More

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February 2022

Short-term exposure to pharmaceuticals negatively impacts marine flatfish species: Histological, biochemical and molecular clues for an integrated ecosystem risk assessment.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2022 Feb 29;90:103822. Epub 2022 Jan 29.

Aquaculture Research Center, Agro-Technological Institute of Castilla y León (ITACyL), Ctra. Arévalo, s/n, 40196 Zamarramala, Segovia, Spain; Centro Oceanográfico de Vigo, Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO-CSIC), 36390 Vigo, Spain. Electronic address:

The marine habitat and its biodiversity can be impacted by released pharmaceuticals. The short-term (7 days) effect of 3 commonly used drugs - warfarin, dexamethasone and imidazole - on Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles was investigated. Occurrence of hemorrhages, histopathological alterations, antioxidant status, activity of antioxidant enzymes and expression of genes involved in the xenobiotic response (pxr, abcb1 and cyp1a), were evaluated. Read More

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February 2022

A rare complication of Yellow Phosphorous poisoning.

Trop Doct 2022 Jan 31:494755221076945. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Department of General Medicine, 80375Government Medical College Kottayam, Kerala, India.

Yellow phosphorous is one of the most common toxins reported to cause fulminant hepatic failure. Yellow phosphorous is a component of rodenticides and fireworks, and is freely available over the counter. The mortality rate as high as 27% from fulminant hepatic failure has been reported following ingestion of yellow phosphorous. Read More

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January 2022

Mechanisms of toxicity and residue considerations of rodenticide exposure in food Animals-a FARAD perspective.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2022 01 28;260(5):514-523. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

FARAD, Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

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January 2022

A sketch of microbiological remediation of explosives-contaminated soil focused on state of art and the impact of technological advancement on hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) degradation.

Chemosphere 2022 May 22;294:133641. Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Centre for Rural Development & Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, 110016, India.

When high-energy explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are discharged into the surrounding soil and water during production, testing, open dumping, military, or civil activities, they leave a toxic footprint. The US Environmental Protection Agency has labeled RDX as a potential human carcinogen that must be degraded from contaminated sites quickly. Bioremediation of RDX is an exciting prospect that has received much attention in recent years. Read More

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Early detection of cyanide, organophosphate and rodenticide pollution based on locomotor activity of zebrafish larvae.

PeerJ 2021 22;9:e12703. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

The Department of Criminal Science and Technology, Zhejiang Police College, Key Laboratory of Drug Prevention and Control Technology of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China.

Cyanide, organophosphate and rodenticides are highly toxic substances widely used in agriculture and industry. These toxicants are neuro- and organotoxic to mammals at low concentrations, thus early detection of these chemicals in the aqueous environment is of utmost importance. Here, we employed the behavioral toxicity test with wildtype zebrafish larvae to determine sublethal concentrations of the above mentioned common environmental pollutants. Read More

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December 2021

Sanitary measures considerably improve the management of resistant Norway rats on livestock farms.

Pest Manag Sci 2022 Apr 23;78(4):1620-1629. Epub 2022 Jan 23.

Julius Kuehn-Institute (JKI), Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Institute for Crop and Soil Science, Braunschweig, Germany.

Background: Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) need to be controlled to prevent transmission of pathogens and damages to stored products and material, leading to considerable economic risks and losses. Given increasing resistance in Norway rats, the most persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic anticoagulant rodenticides are widely used for management, which presents hazards to the environment especially for non-target species. We investigated how sanitary measures improved management of Norway rats on 12 paired livestock farms in a region of Germany with a high population of resistant rats for reducing application of rodenticides. Read More

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Household pesticide exposures and infant gross motor development in the MADRES cohort.

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2022 03 29;36(2):220-229. Epub 2021 Dec 29.

Department of Population and Public Health Sciences, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: The development of motor skills in infancy is a vital neurodevelopmental milestone. Although previous studies have explored the neurotoxic effects of agricultural pesticides on infants' motor development, limited research has examined early postnatal household pesticide use on infants' motor development, particularly among urban communities.

Objective: This study examined the association between early postnatal household pesticide use and infants' gross and fine motor development at 6 months of age. Read More

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Neurotoxin-mediated potent activation of the axon degeneration regulator SARM1.

Elife 2021 12 6;10. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

John van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Axon loss underlies symptom onset and progression in many neurodegenerative disorders. Axon degeneration in injury and disease is promoted by activation of the NAD-consuming enzyme SARM1. Here, we report a novel activator of SARM1, a metabolite of the pesticide and neurotoxin vacor. Read More

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December 2021

Noninvasively Collected Fecal Samples as Indicators of Multiple Pesticide Exposure in Wild Birds.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2022 01;41(1):201-207

Institute of Landscape Ecology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Pesticide use poses a potential hazard to wild birds that use agricultural farmland as their foraging habitat. Whereas most current pesticide studies have found residues in liver samples and single active substances, noninvasive sampling methods and data on a wide variety of agrochemicals are needed to determine pesticide exposure of living wild birds for postregistration monitoring. We collected feces during autumn migration of Eurasian skylarks (Alauda arvensis), a species that commonly forages in winter cereal crops. Read More

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January 2022

Evaluating the effects of anticoagulant rodenticide bromadiolone in Wistar rats co-exposed to vitamin K: impact on blood-liver axis and brain oxidative status.

Mol Cell Biochem 2022 Feb 23;477(2):525-536. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of vitamin K relate to protection against detrimental effects of bromadiolone. Wistar rats (n = 30) were divided in three groups (n = 10): control group and two groups treated with bromadiolone (0.12 mg/kg) and bromadiolone + vitamin K (0. Read More

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February 2022

Extensive skin necrosis in an elderly woman on dabigatran.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Oct 14;14(10). Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Nephrology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India

Dabigatran, a novel oral anticoagulant, is a direct thrombin inhibitor and is being increasingly used owing to the advantage of dosing without the need for laboratory monitoring. While extensive skin necrosis is known to be associated with oral anticoagulants such as warfarin and factor Xa inhibitors, dabigatran toxicity typically manifests with bleeding, especially in the elderly. We describe a 70-year-old woman who was prescribed dabigatran for the treatment of unprovoked deep venous thrombosis. Read More

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October 2021

Antidotal effect of dihydroxyacetone against phosphine poisoning in mice.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Nov 27;35(11):e22897. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Phosphine (PH ) is widely used as an insecticide and rodenticide. On the contrary, many cases of PH poisoning have been reported worldwide. Unfortunately, there is no specific antidote against PH toxicity. Read More

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November 2021

Transcriptomic Characterization of Inhalation Phosphine Toxicity in Adult Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 09 24;34(9):2032-2044. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Medical Toxicology Research Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, 8350 Ricketts Point Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010, United States.

Phosphine (PH) is a highly toxic, corrosive, flammable, heavier-than-air gas that is a commonly used fumigant. When used as a fumigant, PH can be released from compressed gas tanks or produced from commercially available metal phosphide tablets. Although the mechanism of toxicity is unclear, PH is thought to be a metabolic poison. Read More

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September 2021

Urban rat exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides and zoonotic infection risk.

Biol Lett 2021 08 11;17(8):20210311. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

EcoHealth Alliance, 520 Eighth Avenue, Suite 1200, New York, NY 10018, USA.

Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) deployed to control rodent pest populations can increase the risk of pathogen infection for some wildlife. However, it is unknown whether ARs also increase infection risk for target rodents, which are common hosts for zoonotic (animal-to-human transmitted) pathogens. In this study, we tested whether rats exposed to ARs were more likely to be infected with zoonotic pathogens, specifically spp. Read More

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Enzymatic and Chemical Syntheses of Vacor Analogs of Nicotinamide Riboside, NMN and NAD.

Biomolecules 2021 07 16;11(7). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Biomedicine, University of Bergen, 5009 Bergen, Norway.

It has recently been demonstrated that the rat poison vacor interferes with mammalian NAD metabolism, because it acts as a nicotinamide analog and is converted by enzymes of the NAD salvage pathway. Thereby, vacor is transformed into the NAD analog vacor adenine dinucleotide (VAD), a molecule that causes cell toxicity. Therefore, vacor may potentially be exploited to kill cancer cells. Read More

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Assessment of risks to listed species from the use of atrazine in the USA: a perspective.

J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 2021 08 5;24(6):223-306. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Centre for Toxicology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, Canada.

Atrazine is a triazine herbicide used predominantly on corn, sorghum, and sugarcane in the US. Its use potentially overlaps with the ranges of listed (threatened and endangered) species. In response to registration review in the context of the Endangered Species Act, we evaluated potential direct and indirect impacts of atrazine on listed species and designated critical habitats. Read More

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Rodenticide ingestion is an important cause of acute hepatotoxicity in Tamil Nadu, southern India.

Indian J Gastroenterol 2021 Aug 30;40(4):373-379. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Hepatology and Transplant Hepatology, Gleneagles Global Health City Hospital, Chennai, 600 100, India.

Background And Aim: Though rodenticidal hepatotoxicity is reported from India, there is no systematic study to assess its magnitude. This study aimed to assess exposure to rodenticide as a risk factor for acute hepatotoxicity in Tamil Nadu, India.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed acute hepatotoxicity caused by ingestion of hepatotoxin or potentially hepatotoxic drug overdose across 15 hospitals in 6 districts of Tamil Nadu from 1 January 2019 to 30 June 2019. Read More

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A spatially explicit model for estimating risks of pesticide exposure to bird populations.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(6):e0252545. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Washington, DC, United States of America.

Pesticides are used widely in agriculture and have the potential to affect non-target organisms, including birds. We developed an integrated modeling system to allow for spatially-explicit evaluation of potential impacts to bird populations following exposures to pesticides. Our novel methodology builds upon three existing models: the Terrestrial Investigation Model (TIM), the Markov Chain Nest Productivity Model (MCnest), and HexSim to simulate population dynamics. Read More

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November 2021

Determination of the N-Nitroso Compounds in Mouse Following RDX Exposure.

Xiaoping Pan

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2326:315-325

Department of Biology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.

Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, commonly called RDX, is an important explosive, which is widely used in military and civic activities. As it is used, RDX is widely found in many locations and caused soil and water contamination. Many studies show that RDX is toxic to many organisms, including plants, animals, and microbes. Read More

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Microbial community structure and metabolome profiling characteristics of soil contaminated by TNT, RDX, and HMX.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 31;285:117478. Epub 2021 May 31.

State Key Laboratory of NBC Protection for Civilian, Beijing, 102205, China.

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the ecotoxicity of typical explosives and their mechanisms in the soil microenvironment. Here, TNT (trinitrotoluene), RDX (cyclotrimethylene trinitramine), and HMX (cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine) were used to simulate the soil pollution of single explosives and their combination. The changes in soil enzyme activity and microbial community structure and function were analyzed in soil, and the effects of explosives exposure on the soil metabolic spectrum were revealed by non-targeted metabonomics. Read More

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September 2021

A survey of animal poisonings in New Zealand veterinary practices: perceptions of incidence and frequency of poisoning cases.

N Z Vet J 2021 Nov 30;69(6):349-354. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Aims: To survey New Zealand veterinary practices on the incidence and frequency of animal poisonings encountered over a 1-year period.

Methods: A national questionnaire-based cross-sectional online survey was made available to all members of the New Zealand Veterinary Association, active as of 2010, via an email supplying a link to the questionnaire. Veterinary practices listed by the Veterinary Council of New Zealand were also contacted via email or phone. Read More

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November 2021

Seasonal diet-based resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides in the fossorial water vole (Arvicola amphibius).

Environ Res 2021 09 29;200:111422. Epub 2021 May 29.

USC 1233 RS2GP, INRAe, VetAgro Sup, University of Lyon, F-69280, Marcy l'Etoile, France. Electronic address:

Anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) resistance has been defined as "a major loss of efficacy due to the presence of a strain of rodent with a heritable and commensurately reduced sensitivity to the anticoagulant". The mechanism that supports this resistance has been identified as based on mutations in the Vkorc1 gene leading to severe resistance in rats and mice. This study evaluates the validity of this definition in the fossorial water vole and explores the possibility of a non-genetic diet-based resistance in a strict herbivorous rodent species. Read More

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September 2021

Analysis of the biodegradation and phytotoxicity mechanism of TNT, RDX, HMX in alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 18;281:130842. Epub 2021 May 18.

State Key Laboratory of NBC Protection for Civilian, Beijing, 102205, China.

The aim of this study was to reveal the mechanism underlying the toxicity of TNT (trinitrotoluene), RDX (cyclotrimethylene trinitroamine), and HMX (cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine) explosives pollution in plants. Here, the effects of exposure to these three explosives were examined on chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant enzyme activity, and the metabolite spectrum in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants. The degradation rates for TNT, RDX, and HMX by alfalfa were 26. Read More

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October 2021

Endangered Australian top predator is frequently exposed to anticoagulant rodenticides.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 10;788:147673. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Natural Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia; School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, CHC, New Zealand.

Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) used to control mammalian pest populations cause secondary exposure of predatory species throughout much of the world. It is important to understand the drivers of non-target AR exposure patterns as context for assessing long-term effects and developing effective mitigation for these toxicants. In Australia, however, little is known about exposure and effects of ARs on predators. Read More

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September 2021