911 results match your criteria Toxicity Rodenticide


Chrysin ameliorates ANTU-induced pulmonary edema and pulmonary arterial hypertension via modulation of VEGF and eNOs.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2019 Apr 11:e22332. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Neurology, the Second Clinical Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Alpha-naphthylthiourea (ANTU), a rodenticide induces lung toxicity. Chrysin a flavonoid possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antihypertensive potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of chrysin against ANTU-induced pulmonary edema (PE) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in laboratory rats. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jbt.22332
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22332DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads
1.925 Impact Factor

Medical outcomes of bromethalin rodenticide exposures reported to US poison centers after federal restriction of anticoagulants.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 Mar 20:1-6. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

a Wisconsin Poison Center , Milwaukee , WI, USA.

Background: Exposures to bromethalin rodenticides have increased since restrictions were placed on long acting anticoagulant rodenticide (LAAR) registrations in 2008. Bromethalin works, in part, by uncoupling mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Toxicity in humans is not well characterized and no antidote is available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2019.1582776DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

A note on wildlife poisoning cases from Kerala, South India.

2018 Sep;64(58)

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, St. Mary's campus, Norfolk place, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom.

Wildlife poisoning is an important conservation threat for endangered species in India. There are no publications in the scientific literature that identify the specific poisons or chemicals involved in wildlife poisoning cases from the state of Kerala. In this report, all cases of wildlife mortality recorded between 2011 and 2013 at the office of the Assistant Forest Veterinary Officer, Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala were reviewed and cases where poisoning was considered as a differential diagnosis were identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10344-018-1218-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6390940PMC
September 2018
6 Reads

The relative toxicity of brodifacoum enantiomers.

Toxicol Lett 2019 May 16;306:61-65. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA. Electronic address:

Brodifacoum (BDF) is a potent, long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide that can cause fatal poisoning in humans. The chemical structure of BDF includes 2 chiral carbons, resulting in 2 pairs of diastereomers, BDF-cis (R/S and S/R) and BDF-trans (R/R and S/S). However, the relative potency of these molecules is not known. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2019.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408973PMC
May 2019
5 Reads

Phosphine poisoning in free-range local chickens: a case report.

Vet Med Sci 2018 08 14;4(3):263-268. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Toxicology Section, Biochemistry Division, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria.

Phosphine poisoning is rarely reported in poultry, and its diagnosis is a great challenge for veterinary toxicologists and pathologists. A case of phosphine toxicosis in local, free range chickens is reported. Fourteen dead chickens (age ≥6 months old) were presented to the veterinary clinic for necropsy. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/vms3.100
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vms3.100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6090409PMC
August 2018
13 Reads

Use of blood clotting assays to assess potential anticoagulant rodenticide exposure and effects in free-ranging birds of prey.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 3;657:1205-1216. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Environment and Climate Change Canada, Science & Technology Branch, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Delta V4K 3N2, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Non-target wildlife, particularly birds of prey, are widely exposed to and acutely poisoned by anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs). An unresolved issue surrounding such exposure, however, is the potential for sublethal effects. In particular, the consequences of AR exposure and resulting coagulopathy on health and survival of unintentionally exposed animals, which often encounter a multitude of anthropogenic stressors, are understudied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.485DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Genetic modification of western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) for the phytoremediation of RDX and TNT.

Planta 2019 Apr 28;249(4):1007-1015. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Box 355014, Seattle, WA, 98195-5014, USA.

Main Conclusion: Transgenic western wheatgrass degrades the explosive RDX and detoxifies TNT. Contamination, from the explosives, hexahydro-1, 3, 5-trinitro-1, 3, 5-triazine (RDX), and 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), especially on live-fire training ranges, threatens environmental and human health. Phytoremediation is an approach that could be used to clean-up explosive pollution, but it is hindered by inherently low in planta RDX degradation rates, and the high phytotoxicity of TNT. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00425-018-3057-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-018-3057-9DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Characterization of ADME genes variation in Roma and 20 populations worldwide.

PLoS One 2018 19;13(11):e0207671. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia.

The products of the polymorphic ADME genes are involved in Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of drugs. The pharmacogenetic data have been studied extensively due to their clinical importance in the appropriate drug prescription, but such data from the isolated populations are rather scarce. We analyzed the distribution of 95 polymorphisms in 31 core ADME genes in 20 populations worldwide and in newly genotyped samples from the Roma (Gypsy) population living in Croatia. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207671PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6242375PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Urbanization and cattle density are determinants in the exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides of non-target wildlife.

Environ Pollut 2019 Jan 25;244:801-808. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo 12, 13005, Ciudad Real, Spain. Electronic address:

The persistence and toxicity of second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) in animal tissues make these compounds dangerous by biomagnification in predatory species. Here we studied the levels of SGARs in non-target species of wildlife and the environmental factors that influence such exposure. Liver samples of terrestrial vertebrates (n = 244) found dead between 2007 and 2016 in the region of Aragón (NE Spain) were analysed. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02697491183231
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.10.101DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

The research of synthesis and bioactivity of the novel indanedione anticoagulant rodenticides.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110819, People's Republic of China.

Three new anticoagulant rodenticides R, R, and R were designed. The containing fluorine acute toxicity groups was added to 1,3-indandione derivative. Analysis method of synthesized anticoagulant rodenticides were IR, H NMR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3539-0DOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads

Anticoagulant rodenticide toxicosis causing tracheal collapse in 4 small breed dogs.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2018 Nov 7;28(6):573-578. Epub 2018 Oct 7.

Department of Clinical Studies-Philadelphia, Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 (Thomer), East Lansing, MI, 48824 (Santoro Beer).

Objective: To describe 4 cases of tracheal narrowing attributed to tracheal mucosal hemorrhage caused by anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity in breeds predisposed to tracheal collapse.

Case Summary: Over the years 2005-2014, 4 dogs were presented for respiratory distress secondary to diffuse tracheal narrowing. All dogs had possible anticoagulant rodenticide ingestion and prolonged prothrombin time. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/vec.12774
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vec.12774DOI Listing
November 2018
22 Reads

Development and application of a rapid and sensitive genotyping method for pharmacogene variants using the single-stranded tag hybridization chromatographic printed-array strip (STH-PAS).

Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2018 Dec 22;33(6):258-263. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Laboratory of Pharmacotherapy of Life-Style Related Diseases, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8578, Japan; Advanced Research Center for Innovations in Next-Generation Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8575, Japan; Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Tohoku University, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8573, Japan; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University Hospital, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8574, Japan. Electronic address:

Genetic polymorphisms contribute to inter-individual variability in the metabolism of multiple clinical drugs, including warfarin, thiopurines, primaquine, and aminoglycosides. A rapid and sensitive clinical assessment of various genome biomarkers is, therefore, required to predict the individual responsiveness of each patient to these drugs. In this study, we developed a novel genotyping method for the detection of nine pharmacogene variants that are important in the prediction of drug efficiency and toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dmpk.2018.08.003DOI Listing
December 2018
10 Reads

Investigating spatial patterns of mercury and rodenticide residues in raptors collected near the Charlotte, NC, USA, metropolitan area.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Nov 25;25(33):33153-33161. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Chemistry Department, Davidson College, Davidson, NC, USA.

Raptor population growth is dynamic and trends vary across species and by location in the United States. For those species that are declining, it is important to identify potential causes including chemical contaminants. Sampling wild raptors is problematic due to their small population sizes and role as a top predator. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3229-yDOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Characteristics of patients with thromboembolic disorders on warfarin therapy in resource limited settings.

BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Sep 19;18(1):723. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Moi University School of Medicine, P.O. Box 4606, Eldoret, 30100, Kenya.

Background: Warfarin is a drug with narrow therapeutic index used in the management of thromboembolic disorders. Several factors affect its plasma concentrations with a resultant risk of toxicity. We examined the database of patients on warfarin therapy in order to establish the factors that affect the stability of INR and correlated them to clinical outcomes in resource limited settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3537-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6145184PMC
September 2018
3 Reads
1.659 Impact Factor

Do bromadiolone treatments to control grassland water voles (Arvicola scherman) affect small mustelid abundance?

Pest Manag Sci 2019 Apr 16;75(4):900-907. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Laboratoire Chrono-environnement (UMR 6249), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CNRS, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UBFC, Besançon, France.

Background: The use of pesticides can affect non-target species by causing population declines through indirect intoxication. Small mustelids (SMs; weasels, Mustela nivalis L.; stoats, Mustela erminea L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5194DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Common Rodenticide Toxicoses in Small Animals.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2018 Nov 31;48(6):1027-1038. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center, 1717 South Philo Road, Suite 36, Urbana, IL 61802, USA. Electronic address:

This article focuses on the 3 most commonly used rodenticide types: anticoagulants, bromethalin, and cholecalciferol. It is important to verify the active ingredient in any rodenticide exposure. Many owners use the term D-con to refer to any rodenticide regardless of the brand or type of rodenticide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2018.06.006DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine: A Health Risk Compound and a Potential Chemical Warfare Agent.

Toxics 2018 Aug 22;6(3). Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Biomedical Research Center, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, 500 03 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS, tetramine) is a toxic organic compound that is used as an effective rodenticide. However, this neurotoxin is not only toxic to rodents, it also causes poisoning in humans. Due to its high level of toxicity for humans, the use of TETS as a rodenticide has been banned and its production has been discontinued. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2305-6304/6/3/51
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxics6030051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6160919PMC
August 2018
23 Reads

The stereoisomerism of second generation anticoagulant rodenticides: a way to improve this class of molecules to meet the requirements of society?

Pest Manag Sci 2019 Apr 15;75(4):887-892. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

USC 1233 RS2GP, VetAgro Sup, INRA, Univ Lyon, Marcy l'Etoile, France.

Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGAR) are generally highly efficient for rodent management even towards warfarin-resistant rodents. Nevertheless, because of their long tissue-persistence, they are very associated with non-target exposure of wildlife and have been identified as 'Candidates for Substitution' by the European Union's competent authority. A promising way to reduce ecotoxicity issues associated to SGAR could be the improvement of SGAR based on their stereoisomery, and due to this improvement, positioning about SGAR might be reconsidered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5155DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

The effects of continuous diazinon exposure on growth and reproduction in Japanese medaka using a modified Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Oct 14;162:438-445. Epub 2018 Jul 14.

US Environmental Protection Agency, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (USEPA MED), 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804, USA.

The Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT) is a Tier 2 test within U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP), designed to characterize the potential adverse effects to fish of exposure to chemical that can cause disruption of the endocrine system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.06.088DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

Pesticide-Poisoned Patients: Can They Be Used as Potential Organ Donors?

J Med Toxicol 2018 Dec 9;14(4):278-282. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

General Medicine, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Introduction: The gap between the number of patients on transplant waiting lists and patients receiving transplants is growing. Use of organs from donors who have died following pesticide exposure remains controversial. This study reviews the literature related to transplantation from this group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13181-018-0673-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6242794PMC
December 2018
17 Reads

Multiple episodes of 1080 (sodium monofluoroacetate) intoxication in a California calf-raising operation.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2018 Sep 5;30(5):747-751. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (Adaska, Blanchard, Poppenga), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA.

Over a 1-y period, a California calf-raising operation experienced 4 separate episodes of sudden death in 4-6-mo-old steers. Each episode occurred in 1-3 contiguous pens on 1 of 3 properties owned by the operation, but eventually all 3 properties were involved. In each episode, animals appeared normal at the evening feeding but at the subsequent morning feeding were found dead or dying. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638718781435DOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads

'Toxic' ST elevation.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jun 27;2018. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Department of Cardiac Electrophysiology and Pacing, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2017-221457DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Investigation of hepatic warfarin metabolism activity in rodenticide-resistant black rats (Rattus rattus) in Tokyo by in situ liver perfusion.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2018 Jun 1;148:42-49. Epub 2018 Apr 1.

Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-18 Nishi-9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818, Japan. Electronic address:

Anti-blood coagulation rodenticides, such as warfarin, have been used all over the world. They inhibit vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR), which is necessary for producing several blood clotting factors. This inhibition by rodenticides results in lethal hemorrhage in rodents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2018.03.018DOI Listing
June 2018
5 Reads

Warfarin, but not rivaroxaban, promotes the calcification of the aortic valve in ApoE-/- mice.

Cardiovasc Ther 2018 Aug 28;36(4):e12438. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

ORAS Rehabilitation Hospital, Motta di Livenza, Treviso, Italy.

Introduction: Vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin, are known to promote arterial calcification through blockade of gamma-carboxylation of Matrix-Gla-Protein. It is currently unknown whether other oral anticoagulants such as direct inhibitors of Factor Xa can have protective effects on the progression of aortic valve calcification.

Aims: To compare the effect of warfarin and rivaroxaban on the progression of aortic valve calcification in atherosclerotic mice. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/1755-5922.12438
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-5922.12438DOI Listing
August 2018
18 Reads

Anticoagulant rodenticide use, non-target impacts and regulation: A case study from Australia.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Sep 18;634:1372-1384. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

School of Science, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Western Australia 6027, Australia. Electronic address:

The impacts of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) on non-target wildlife have been well documented in Europe and North America. While these studies are informative, patterns of non-target poisoning of wildlife elsewhere in the world may differ substantially from patterns occurring in Australia and other countries outside of cool temperate regions due to differences in the types of ARs used, patterns of use, legislation governing sales, and potential pathways of secondary exposure. Most of these differences suggest that the extent and severity of AR poisoning in wildlife may be greater in Australia than elsewhere in the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.069DOI Listing
September 2018
4 Reads

Inspective and toxicological survey of the poisoned baits and bites.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Jun 31;287:108-112. Epub 2018 Mar 31.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, via Salute 2, 80055, Portici, Napoli, Italy.

Cases of intentional animal poisonings are still widespread in Italy, even if the improper or malicious use of poisoned baits is banned. This represents a serious threat to pets as well as wildlife species, but also an environmental and human health concern. A retrospective study was performed based on baits sent for toxicological analysis to the laboratories of Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno (IZSM) in Southern Italy over a five year period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.03.038DOI Listing
June 2018
9 Reads

Liquid chromatography with alkylammonium formate ionic liquid mobile phases and fluorescence detection.

J Chromatogr A 2018 Jul 14;1559:128-135. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Miami University, 651 E. High Street, Oxford, OH, 45056, United States.

Fluorescence detection of various pharmaceuticals and the amino acid tryptophan (low molecular weight organic compounds) as well as the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase LDH (high molar mass compound) has been studied in aqueous solutions using alkyl ammonium formate ionic liquids as the primary solvent component. It was expected that the high viscosity of such ionic liquid-water mixtures would enhance fluorescence. Pharmaceuticals such as riboflavin and naproxen showed no such enhancement in the presence of ethylammonium formate (EAF) or isopropylammonium formate (IPAF) but the fluorescence of warfarin was substantially enhanced by a factor of 4 with 80% EAF and a factor of 7 with 70% IPAF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2018.03.020DOI Listing
July 2018
20 Reads

Genome-wide expression reveals multiple systemic effects associated with detection of anticoagulant poisons in bobcats (Lynx rufus).

Mol Ecol 2018 03 8;27(5):1170-1187. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are indiscriminate toxicants that threaten nontarget predatory and scavenger species through secondary poisoning. Accumulating evidence suggests that AR exposure may have disruptive sublethal consequences on individuals that can affect fitness. We evaluated AR-related effects on genome-wide expression patterns in a population of bobcats in southern California. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.14531DOI Listing
March 2018
52 Reads

Developmental and sex differences in tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT)-induced syndrome in rats.

Dev Neurobiol 2018 Apr 14;78(4):403-416. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Department of Public Health, Division of Environmental Health Science, School of Health Sciences and Practice, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York.

Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT) is a synthetic neurotoxic rodenticide considered a chemical threat agent. Symptoms of intoxication include seizures leading to status epilepticus and death. While children and women have been often the victims, no studies exist investigating the neurotoxic effects of TMDT in developing individuals or females. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dneu.22582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5867264PMC
April 2018
57 Reads

A multicenter, prospective study evaluating the impact of the clinical pharmacist-physician counselling on warfarin therapy management in Lebanon.

BMC Health Serv Res 2018 02 1;18(1):80. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Saint-Joseph University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Health care professionals (HCP) are known key elements of effective patient's counselling and education. For patients taking warfarin, education about the dose, side effects, and toxicity is clearly identified as a cornerstone of achieving improved health and quality of life. The study objective was to evaluate the patients' knowledge about warfarin and assess the impact of the health care professionals' counselling in enhancing patients' knowledge in achieving warfarin therapeutic outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-2874-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5796596PMC
February 2018
6 Reads
1.659 Impact Factor

Phosphine Analysis in Postmortem Specimens Following Inhalation of Phosphine: Fatal Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning in Children.

J Anal Toxicol 2018 Jun;42(5):330-336

Department of Forensic Toxicology, Academy of Forensic Science, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Guangfu Xi Road 1347, Shanghai 200063, China.

Phosphine is an insecticide for the fumigation of grains, animal feed, and leaf-stored tobacco, and it was used as a rodenticide in bulk grain stores. Phosphine poisoning may occur after accidental inhalation of phosphine, sometimes leading to death. Analysis of phosphine and its metabolites in postmortem specimens from seven fatal cases was conducted in this study, as well as postmortem specimens collected from rabbits exposed to phosphine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bky005DOI Listing
June 2018
77 Reads

Urbanization and anticoagulant poisons promote immune dysfunction in bobcats.

Proc Biol Sci 2018 01;285(1871)

Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Understanding how human activities influence immune response to environmental stressors can support biodiversity conservation across increasingly urbanizing landscapes. We studied a bobcat () population in urban southern California that experienced a rapid population decline from 2002-2005 due to notoedric mange. Because anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) exposure was an underlying complication in mange deaths, we aimed to understand sublethal contributions of urbanization and ARs on 65 biochemical markers of immune and organ function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.2533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5805946PMC
January 2018
7 Reads

The N-terminal-truncated recombinant fibrin(ogen)olytic serine protease improves its functional property, demonstrates in vivo anticoagulant and plasma defibrinogenation activity as well as pre-clinical safety in rodent model.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 May 29;111:462-474. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Microbial Biotechnology and Protein Research Laboratory, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, School of Sciences, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam, India. Electronic address:

An N-terminal truncated fibrino(geno)lytic serine protease gene encoding a ~42kDa protein from Bacillus cereus strain AB01 was produced by error prone PCR, cloned into pET19b vector, and expressed in E5 coli BL21 DE3 cells. The deletion of 24 amino acid residues from N-terminal of wild-type Bacifrinase improves the catalytic activity of [Bacifrinase (ΔN24)]. The anticoagulant potency of [Bacifrinase (ΔN24)] was comparable to Nattokinase and Warfarin and results showed that its anticoagulant action is contributed by progressive defibrinogenation and antiplatelet activities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.12.140DOI Listing
May 2018
9 Reads

The physiology and toxicology of acute inhalation phosphine poisoning in conscious male rats.

Inhal Toxicol 2017 09 18;29(11):494-505. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

a Medical Toxicology Research Division , US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense , Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD , USA.

Phosphine (PH) is a toxidrome-spanning chemical that is widely used as an insecticide and rodenticide. Exposure to PH causes a host of target organ and systemic effects, including oxidative stress, cardiopulmonary toxicity, seizure-like activity and overall metabolic disturbance. A custom dynamic inhalation gas exposure system was designed for the whole-body exposure of conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350 g) to PH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08958378.2017.1406564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309866PMC
September 2017
10 Reads

[Evaluation of Brodifacoum-induced Toxicity by Metabonomics Approach Based on HPLC-TOF-MS].

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Jun 25;33(3):247-251. Epub 2017 Jun 25.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Shanghai Forensic Service Platform, Institute of Forensic Science, Ministry of Justice, PRC, Shanghai 200063, China.

Objectives: To analyse the metabolic changes in urine of rats with brodifacoum intoxication, and to reveal the molecular mechanism of brodifacoum-induced toxicity on rats.

Methods: By establishing a brodifacoum poisoning rats model, the urine metabolic profiling data of rats were acquired using high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF-MS). The orthogonal partial least squares analysis-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied for the multivariate statistics and the discovery of differential metabolites closely related to toxicity of brodifacoum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1004-5619.2017.03.007DOI Listing
June 2017
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GABA receptor subtype selectivity of the proconvulsant rodenticide TETS.

Arch Toxicol 2018 Feb 16;92(2):833-844. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Department of Pharmacology, Genome and Biomedical Sciences Facility Room 3502, 451 Health Sciences Drive, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

The rodenticide tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant (lethal dose in humans 7-10 mg) that is listed as a possible threat agent by the United States Department of Homeland Security. TETS has previously been studied in vivo for toxicity and in vitro in binding assays, with the latter demonstrating it to be a non-competitive antagonist on GABA receptors. To determine whether TETS exhibits subtype selectivity for a particular GABA receptor combination, we used whole-cell patch-clamp to determine the potency of TETS on the major synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA receptors associated with convulsant activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-017-2089-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5818616PMC
February 2018
19 Reads

Phenotyping of CYP 4501A2 Activity by Total Overnight Salivary Caffeine Assessment (TOSCA) in Patients on Warfarin Treatment: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2018 Sep 9;24(6):928-935. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

1 Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, "Federico II" University, Naples, Italy.

Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant, commonly used for primary and secondary prevention of venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The drug is characterized by narrow therapeutic index, widespread individual variability in clinical response, and high rates of adverse events, particularly bleeding complications. For these reasons, a close monitoring of the dosage, using the frequent assessment of coagulation status by means of International Normalized Ratio value, is mandatory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1076029617733040DOI Listing
September 2018
12 Reads

Yellow phosphorus-induced Brugada phenocopy.

J Electrocardiol 2018 Jan - Feb;51(1):129-131. Epub 2017 Sep 1.

Department of General Medicine, Indira Gandhi Medical College & Research Institute, Kathirkamam, Pondicherry 605009, India.

Background: Metallic phosphides (of aluminum and phosphide) and yellow phosphorus are commonly used rodenticide compounds in developing countries. Toxicity of yellow phosphorus mostly pertains to the liver, kidney, heart, pancreas and the brain. Cardiotoxicity with associated Brugada ECG pattern has been reported only in poisoning with metallic phosphides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2017.08.033DOI Listing
February 2019
21 Reads

TOXIC EXPOSURES IN CHILDREN INVOLVING LEGALLY AND ILLEGALLY COMMERCIALIZED HOUSEHOLD SANITIZERS.

Rev Paul Pediatr 2017 Jan-Mar;35(1):11-17

Faculdade de Enfermagem da UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brasil.

Objectives: To analyze and to compare clinical repercussions of accidents involving legally and illegally commercialized household sanitizers in children under 7 years of age.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to collect data from electronic database of a regional Poison Control Center during one year. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive non-parametric statistics and association tests. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1984-0462/;2017;35;1;00010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5417804PMC
June 2018
8 Reads

Sodium fluoroacetate toxicity: a case report of malicious poisoning in dogs across a Phoenix, Arizona neighborhood.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2017 Dec 3;13(4):450-453. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

Phoenix Police Department, Property Crimes Bureau, Animal Cruelty Investigations, Cave Creek, AZ, USA.

In May 2016, thirteen dogs housed in backyards within a single neighborhood were reported to have developed convulsions and died within a 24 h period. An investigation of the scene by law enforcement resulted in submission of eight dogs for postmortem examination. It was suspected that a rapid acting toxin was the cause of death. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12024-017-9923-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12024-017-9923-0DOI Listing
December 2017
25 Reads

Haematological evaluation of sodium fluoride toxicity in oryctolagus cunniculus.

Toxicol Rep 2017 19;4:450-454. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Karakoram International University, Main Campus University Road, Gilgit, (15100), Pakistan.

Blood is promptly affected by environmental pollutants and toxicants that can cause many metabolic disorders. The high level of fluoride acts as a potential pollutant, insecticide and rodenticide with very high toxicity, associated with the hematological damage. This study aimed to determine the toxicity of Sodium Fluoride on hematological parameters in Oryctolagus cunniculus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2017.07.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5615144PMC
July 2017
12 Reads

Effects of bromadiolone poisoning on the central nervous system.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2017 30;13:2297-2300. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Neurology Department, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou Medical University.

Cases of rodenticide poisoning (second-generation long-acting dicoumarin rodenticide, superwarfarin) have occasionally been reported. The main symptoms of bromadiolone poisoning are skin mucosa hemorrhage, digestive tract hemorrhage, and hematuresis. However, the symptoms of central nervous system toxicity have rarely been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S142375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5587214PMC
August 2017
15 Reads

The Long-Lasting Rodenticide Brodifacoum Induces Neuropathology in Adult Male Rats.

Toxicol Sci 2017 09;159(1):224-237

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois 60612.

Superwarfarins are very long-lasting rodenticides effective in warfarin-resistant rodents at extremely low doses. The consequences of chronic superwarfarin levels in tissues, due to biological half-lives on the order of 20 days, have not been examined. We now characterized the neurological effects of brodifacoum (BDF), one of the most widely used superwarfarins, in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfx134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5837443PMC
September 2017
13 Reads

Exposure of stone marten (Martes foina) and polecat (Mustela putorius) to anticoagulant rodenticides: Effects of regulatory restrictions of rodenticide use.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jan 25;612:1358-1364. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Grenåvej 14, DK-8410 Rønde, Denmark. Electronic address:

When anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are used to control rodent populations there is also a widespread secondary exposure of non-target predators to ARs. To reduce secondary exposure, regulatory restrictions in AR usage were tightened in Denmark in 2011. The restrictions included the cessation of AR use for plant protection and any use away from buildings, as well as limitations in private consumers' access to ARs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.034DOI Listing
January 2018
21 Reads

Behavioral intoxication following voluntary oral ingestion of tetramethylenedisulfotetramine: Dose-dependent onset, severity, survival, and recovery.

Neurotoxicology 2017 Dec 7;63:21-32. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, 2900 Ricketts Point Rd, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21010, USA. Electronic address:

Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (tetramine, or TETS) is a highly toxic rodenticide that has been responsible for over 14,000 accidental and intentional poisonings worldwide. Although the vast majority of TETS poisonings involved tainted food or drink, the laboratory in vivo studies of TETS intoxication used intraperitoneal injection or gavage for TETS exposure. Seeking to develop and characterize a more realistic model of TETS intoxication in the present study, rats were trained to rapidly and voluntarily consume a poisoned food morsel. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0161813X173017
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2017.08.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5683944PMC
December 2017
14 Reads

Accumulation of anticoagulant rodenticides (chlorophacinone, bromadiolone and brodifacoum) in a non-target invertebrate, the slug, Deroceras reticulatum.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jan 17;610-611:576-582. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

USC1233 INRA-VetAgro-Sup Campus Vétérinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat, 69280 Marcy l'Etoile, France.

Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are used worldwide to control populations of agricultural and urban rodents, but these pesticides may be accumulated in and poisoned non-target species of wildlife. Slugs may feed on rodenticide bait following field applications. Thus, it can be assumed that their predators are exposed to rodenticides through food chain transfer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.117DOI Listing
January 2018
10 Reads

Anticoagulation with warfarin and rivaroxaban ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

J Neuroinflammation 2017 07 28;14(1):152. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

Department of Neurology, Goethe University, Schleusenweg 2-16, 60528, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Background: In multiple sclerosis, coagulation factors have been shown to modulate inflammation. In this translational study, we investigated whether long-term anticoagulation with warfarin or rivaroxaban has beneficial effects on the course of autoimmune experimental encephalomyelitis (EAE).

Methods: Female SJL/J mice treated with anticoagulants namely warfarin or rivaroxaban were immunized with PLP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-017-0926-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5534067PMC
July 2017
5 Reads

Effects of Teicoplanin on the PT-INR Controlled by Warfarin in Infection Patients.

Yakugaku Zasshi 2017 ;137(7):909-916

Department of Pharmacy, Fukuoka University Hospital.

Warfarin (WF) shows a number of interactions with other drugs, which alter its anticoagulant effects. The albumin binding interaction is one such pharmacokinetic mechanism of drug interaction with WF, which induces a rise in the free WF concentration and thus increases the risk of WF toxicity. Teicoplanin (TEIC) is an anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus drug, which also binds strongly to albumin in the plasma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/yakushi.17-00023DOI Listing
September 2017
28 Reads