238 results match your criteria Toxicity Phosgene


A Rapid, Highly Sensitive and Selective Phosgene Sensor Based on 5,6-Pinenepyridine.

Chemistry 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Haute Ecole d'Ingenierie et d'Architecture de Fribourg, Institute of Chemical Technology, Perolles 80, 1705, Fribourg, SWITZERLAND.

The toxicity of phosgene (COCl 2 ) combined with its extensive use as a reactant and building block in the chemical industry make its fast and accurate detection a prerequisite. We have developed a carboxylic derivative of 5,6-pinenepyridine which is able to act as colorimetric and fluorimetric sensor for phosgene in air and solution. For the first time, the formation of a pyrido-[2,1- a ]isoindolone was used for this purpose. Read More

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Supporting discovery and development of medical countermeasures for chemical injury to eye and skin.

Exp Eye Res 2022 Jun 15;221:109156. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/National Institutes of Health (NIAID/NIH), 5601 Fishers Lane, Bethesda, MD, 20892, United States. Electronic address:

Vesicants, from vesica (Latin for blister), can cause local and systemic toxicity. They include the chemotherapy drug nitrogen mustard and chemical warfare agents sulfur mustard, Lewisite, and phosgene oxime. These agents are commonly released in vapor form and consequently, eyes and skin are the most vulnerable. Read More

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RGD-Hydrogel Improves the Therapeutic Effect of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Phosgene-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 17;2022:2743878. Epub 2022 May 17.

Center of Emergency and Critical Medicine, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, 201508 Shanghai, China.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have promising potential in the treatment of various diseases, such as the therapeutic effect of bone marrow-derived MSCs for phosgene-induced acute lung injury (P-ALI). However, MSC-related therapeutics are limited due to poor cell survival, requiring appropriate MSC delivery systems to maximise therapeutic capacity. Biomaterial RGD-hydrogel is a potential cell delivery vehicle as it can mimic the natural extracellular matrix and provide cell adhesion support. Read More

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NEDD4 attenuates phosgene-induced acute lung injury through the inhibition of Notch1 activation.

J Cell Mol Med 2022 May 31;26(10):2831-2840. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Center of Emergency & Intensive Care Unit, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Phosgene gas leakage can cause life-threatening acute lung injury (ALI), which is characterized by inflammation, increased vascular permeability, pulmonary oedema and oxidative stress. Although the downregulation of neuronal precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated 4 (NEDD4) is known to be associated with inflammation and oxidative damage, its functions in phosgene-induced ALI remain unclear. In this study, rats with phosgene-induced ALI were intravenously injected with NEDD4-overexpressing lentiviruses to determine the functions of NEDD4 in this inflammatory condition. Read More

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Potential sensing of toxic chemical warfare agents (CWAs) by twisted nanographenes: A first principle approach.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jun 14;824:153858. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Department of Chemistry, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus, Lahore 54600, Pakistan. Electronic address:

The toxic chemical warfare agents (CWAs) are extremely harmful to the living organisms. Their efficient detection and removal in a limited time span are essential for the human health and environmental security. Twisted nanographenes have great applications in the fields of energy storage and optoelectronics, but their use as sensors is rarely described. Read More

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Derivation of thresholds for inhaled chemically reactive irritants: Searching for substance-specific common denominators for read-across prediction.

Authors:
Juergen Pauluhn

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2022 Apr 3;130:105131. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Covestro Deutschland AG, Global Phosgene Steering Group, 51365, Leverkusen, Germany. Electronic address:

Emergency response planning guideline values are used to protect the public when there has been a short-term chemical release. These values serve the purpose of identifying areas where a hazard exists if the concentration of hazardous chemicals is exceeded for the specified exposure duration. This paper focuses on carbonyl chlorides, a class of highly irritant/corrosive chemical intermediates characterized by the reactive moiety R-COCl. Read More

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[Effects of acute phosgene exposure on kidney in rats].

Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 2021 Oct;39(10):733-737

Department of Occupational Disease, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China.

To investigate the changes in kidney and its mechanism during the development of acute phosgene exposure in rats. Rats were randomized into 2 groups: control and phosgene group (including 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after exposed to phosgene) , 6 rats in each group. Rats in control group were exposed to air for 5 min, while rats in phosgene group were exposed to 8. Read More

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October 2021

Mechanism of Phosgene-Induced Acute Lung Injury and Treatment Strategy.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 10;22(20). Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Institute of Disaster and Emergency Medicine, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Phosgene (COCl) was once used as a classic suffocation poison and currently plays an essential role in industrial production. Due to its high toxicity, the problem of poisoning caused by leakage during production, storage, and use cannot be ignored. Phosgene mainly acts on the lungs, causing long-lasting respiratory depression, refractory pulmonary edema, and other related lung injuries, which may cause acute respiratory distress syndrome or even death in severe cases. Read More

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October 2021

Toxic blister agents: Chemistry, mode of their action and effective treatment strategies.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Dec 8;350:109654. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Textile and Fibre Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi-110016, India. Electronic address:

Since their use during the First World War, Blister agents have posed a major threat to the individuals and have caused around two million casualties. Major incidents occurred not only due to their use as chemical warfare agents but also because of occupational hazards. Therefore, a clear understanding of these agents and their mode of action is essential to develop effective decontamination and therapeutic strategies. Read More

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December 2021

Human risk assessment of inhaled irritants: Role of sensory stimulations from spatially separated nociceptors.

Toxicology 2021 10 2;462:152929. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA), 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20460, USA. Electronic address:

Contemporary approaches to human health risk assessment for respiratory tract irritants are variable and controversial. This manuscript provides an in-depth analysis and assessment of the applicability of the classical respiratory depression 50 % (RD) assay with focus on the Log-linear extrapolation of the non-sensory irritant threshold (RD or RD) relative to the contemporary Point of Departure (POD) U.S. Read More

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October 2021

Lung-derived exosomes regulate the function of mesenchymal stem cells and alleviate phosgene-induced lung injury via miR-34c-3p.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Sep 31;35(9):e22851. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Center of Emergency and Intensive Care Unit, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Phosgene may induce acute lung injury (ALI) when a person is exposed to it. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were affirmed to have therapeutic effects on phosgene-induced ALI. In a previous study, ALI exosomes have been confirmed to promote the proliferation and migration of MSCs. Read More

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September 2021

Recent Advances in Fabrication of Non-Isocyanate Polyurethane-Based Composite Materials.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jun 23;14(13). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Chemistry and Technology of Polymers, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155 Cracow, Poland.

Polyurethanes (PUs) are a significant group of polymeric materials that, due to their outstanding mechanical, chemical, and physical properties, are used in a wide range of applications. Conventionally, PUs are obtained in polyaddition reactions between diisocyanates and polyols. Due to the toxicity of isocyanate raw materials and their synthesis method utilizing phosgene, new cleaner synthetic routes for polyurethanes without using isocyanates have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Read More

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[Effects of over-expressing heat shock protein 60 on marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of phosgene-induced acute lung injury].

Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 2021 Feb;39(2):110-113

Emergency & Intensive Care Centre for Chemical Accident of Jinshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, Shanghai 201508, China.

To investigate the effect of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) overexpression on the ability of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and its therapeutic effect on rats with phosgene induced acute lung injury. HSP60 was transfected into MSCs by adenovirus. Western blot was used to measure the expressions of HSP60 before and after transfection. Read More

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February 2021

Phosgene: toxicology, animal models, and medical countermeasures.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2021 May 27;31(4):293-307. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Rubicon Biotechnology, Irvine, CA, USA.

Phosgene is a gas crucial to industrial chemical processes with widespread production (∼1 million tons/year in the USA, 8.5 million tons/year worldwide). Phosgene's high toxicity and physical properties resulted in its use as a chemical warfare agent during the First World War with a designation of CG ('Choky Gas'). Read More

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Phosgene inhalation toxicity: Update on mechanisms and mechanism-based treatment strategies.

Authors:
Juergen Pauluhn

Toxicology 2021 02 20;450:152682. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Covestro Deutschland AG, Global Phosgene Steering Group, 51365, Leverkusen, Germany; Hanover Medical School, Hanover, Germany; Bayer HealthCare, Wuppertal, Germany(1). Electronic address:

Phosgene (carbonyl dichloride) gas is an indispensable high-production-volume chemical intermediate used worldwide in numerous industrial processes. Published evidence of human exposures due to accidents and warfare (World War I) has been reported; however, these reports often lack specificity because of the uncharacterized exposure intensities of phosgene and/or related irritants. These may include liquid or solid congeners of phosgene, including di- and triphosgene and/or the respiratory tract irritant chlorine which are often collectively reported under the umbrella of phosgene exposure without any appreciation of their differences in causing acute lung injury (ALI). Read More

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February 2021

Sensitive and Visual Detection of Phosgene by a TICT-Based BODIPY Dye with 8-(o-Hydroxy)aniline as the Active Site.

Chemistry 2021 Mar 15;27(15):4977-4984. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, P. R. China.

Phosgene and its substitutes (diphosgene and triphosgene) are widely utilized as chemical industrial materials and chemical warfare agents and pose a threat to public health and environmental safety due to their extreme toxicity. Research efforts have been directed to develop selective and sensitive detection methods for phosgene and its substitutes. In this paper, we have prepared two BODIPY-based fluorescent probes, o-Pah and o-Pha, which are two isomers with different active sites, ortho-aminohydroxy (3',4' or 4',3') phenyls at meso position of BODIPY, and compared their sensing performance toward triphosgene. Read More

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Phosgene oxime: a highly toxic urticant and emerging chemical threat.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2021 May 22;31(4):288-292. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Highly toxic industrial chemicals that are widely accessible, and hazardous chemicals like phosgene oxime (CX) that can be easily synthesized, pose a serious threat as potential chemical weapons. In addition, their accidental release can lead to chemical emergencies and mass casualties. CX, an urticant, or nettle agent, grouped with vesicating agents, causes instant pain, injury and systemic effects, which can lead to mortality. Read More

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Adenine based molecular junction as biosensor for detection of toxic phosgene gas.

J Mol Model 2020 Jun 10;26(7):172. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India.

The possibility of adsorption of toxic phosgene gas (COCl) molecule on one of the nucleobase of DNA-adenine-has been analyzed using the first principle calculations based on density function theory. In accordance with the geometry of the nucleobase, two possible positions have been considered for effective adsorption of gas molecule. The calculations performed on adsorption energies suggest that the gas molecule is able to physisorb at both the considered positions with negligibly small values of charge transfer. Read More

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Overexpression of heat shock protein 70 enhanced mesenchymal stem cell treatment efficacy in phosgene-induced acute lung injury.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2020 Aug 12;34(8):e22515. Epub 2020 May 12.

Center of Emergency and Intensive Care Unit, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

In our previous study, we have confirmed that in phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI) rats, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can treat the disease. Moreover, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) can be used as a protective protein, and Hsp70 upregulated drastically when exposed to stressful conditions. We aimed to assess that MSCs overexpressed Hsp70 could enhance the capacity of MSCs and have a good therapeutic effect on phosgene-induced ALI. Read More

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Halogen gas exposure: toxic effects on the parturient.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2021 May 30;31(4):272-287. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

The elemental halogens include chlorine, bromine, and phosgene. Halogen gas can be directly weaponized and employed in warfare or terrorism. Industrial stockpiles or halogen transport can provide targets for terrorist attack as well as an origin for accidental release creating a risk for potential mass-casualty incidents. Read More

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Chloropicrin-induced toxicity in the respiratory system.

Toxicol Lett 2020 May 23;323:10-18. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Faculty of Health Science, School of Pharmacy/Toxicology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland.

Chloropicrin is a volatile and reactive chemical that has been utilized as a warfare agent and a pesticide to fumigate soil against insects, fungi and nematodes. It poses a health risk to humans and animals if inhaled. The main source of chloropicrin exposure is occupational and occurs during its manufacture, transport and fumigation. Read More

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Lung-derived exosomes in phosgene-induced acute lung injury regulate the functions of mesenchymal stem cells partially via miR-28-5p.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Jan 8;121:109603. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Center of Emergency & Intensive Care Unit, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Department of Intensive Care Unit, Medical Research Center of Chemical Injury, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Department of Intensive Care Unit, Medical Center of Radiation Injury, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Accidental phosgene exposure can result in acute lung injury (ALI). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to alleviate phosgene-induced ALI. However, the mechanism of MSCs underlying such protective effect remains largely unexplored. Read More

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January 2020

Concentration × time analyses of sensory irritants revisited: Weight of evidence or the toxic load approach. That is the question.

Authors:
Juergen Pauluhn

Toxicol Lett 2019 Nov 6;316:94-108. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Hanover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; Bayer HealthCare, Wuppertal, Germany (retired). Electronic address:

The toxic effects resulting from inhalation exposure depend on both the concentration (C) of the inhaled substance and the exposure duration (t), including the assumptions that the exposure-limiting toxic effect is linearly linked with the accumulated C × t (inhaled dose), and detoxification or compensatory responses diminishing this dose are negligible. This interrelationship applies for both constant and fluctuating concentrations and is usually expressed by the toxic load equation C × t = constant effect (k). The toxic load exponent 'n' is derived from both C- and t-dependent exponents with C×t = k with n = b/b. Read More

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November 2019

Development of an acute, short-term exposure model for phosgene.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2019 Oct 16;29(8):604-615. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Rubicon Biotechnology , Anaheim , CA , USA.

Phosgene is classified as a chemical warfare agent, yet data on its short-duration high concentration toxicity in a nose-only exposure rat model is sparse and inconsistent. Hence, an exposure system for short-term/high concentration exposure was developed and characterized. Herein, we report the median lethal concentration (LC) for a 10-min nasal exposure of phosgene in a 24-h rat survival model. Read More

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October 2019

Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes attenuate phosgene-induced acute lung injury in rats.

Inhal Toxicol 2019 02 9;31(2):52-60. Epub 2019 May 9.

a Department of Intensive Care Unit, Center of Emergency & Intensive Care Unit, Jinshan Hospital , Fudan University , Shanghai , China.

We have previously found that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy can ameliorate phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Moreover, exosomes can be used as a cell-free alternative therapy. In the present study, we aimed to assess the effect of MSC-derived exosomes on phosgene-induced ALI. Read More

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February 2019

Phosgene inhalation causes hemolysis and acute lung injury.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Sep 30;312:204-213. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Birmingham, AL, 35205-3703, United States; Division of Molecular and Translational Biomedicine, Birmingham, AL, 35205-3703, United States; Pulmonary Injury and Repair Center, Birmingham, AL, 35205-3703, United States; Center for Free Radical Biology, Birmingham, AL, 35205-3703, United States; University of South Alabama Health College of Medicine, Mobile, AL, United States; St. Louis University, St. Louis, MO, 63104, United States. Electronic address:

Phosgene (Carbonyl Chloride, COCl) remains an important chemical intermediate in many industrial processes such as combustion of chlorinated hydrocarbons and synthesis of solvents (degreasers, cleaners). It is a sweet smelling gas, and therefore does not prompt escape by the victim upon exposure. Supplemental oxygen and ventilation are the only available management strategies. Read More

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September 2019

Phosgene-induced lung edema: Comparison of clinical criteria for increased extravascular lung water content with postmortem lung gravimetry and lavage-protein in rats and dogs.

Toxicol Lett 2019 May 19;305:32-39. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Department of Toxicology, Fourth Military Medical University, China; Covestro Deutschland AG, Global Phosgene Steering Group, Leverkusen, Germany; Hanover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by a concentration x time (Cxt)-dependent increased pulmonary vascular permeability, phenotypically manifested as potentially life-threatening acute lung edema. In contemporary animal bioassays, the quantification of protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) is taken as an unequivocal endpoint suggestive of disruption of alveolar barrier function. However, extravasated protein can only be a surrogate endpoint for assessing the extravascular fluid dynamics of the lung. Read More

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Phosgene use in World War 1 and early evaluations of pathophysiology.

J R Army Med Corps 2019 Jun 23;165(3):183-187. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Southampton Centre for Biomedical Research, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK

World War 1 ended 100 years ago. The aftermath included the consolidation of significant advances in medical care of casualties. Some of these advances were made in the care of chemical casualties, in particular the mechanisms of toxicity and treatment of phosgene exposure. Read More

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[The effects of methylprednisolone on NLRP3 inflammasome in rats with acute lung injury Induced by Phosgene].

Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 2018 Aug;36(8):573-579

Emergency & Intensive Care Centre of Jinshan Hospital affiliated to Fudan University, Medical Research Centre for Chemical Injury, Emergency and Critical Care of Fudan University, Shanghai 201508, China.

To investigate the effects of methylprednisolone on NOD-like receptor hot protein domain-associated protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in phosgene-induced acute lung injury. Rats were randomly divided into four groups, 10 rats in Air group (inhalation of air of the same volume as the phosgene group) , 10 rats in Phosgene group (inhalation of 8.33 mg/L with 100% purity phosgene for 5 min) , 10 rats in Saline control group (inhalation of the same dose of phosgene and 2 mg/kg saline via tail vein injection one hour later) , 10 rats in MP group (inhalation of the same dose of phosgene and 2 mg/kg MP via tail vein injection one hour later) . Read More

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Adenovirus-delivered angiopoietin-1 ameliorates phosgene-induced acute lung injury via inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

Inhal Toxicol 2018 Mar - Apr;30(4-5):187-194

a Center of Emergency & Intensive Care Unit, Jinshan Hospital , Fudan University , Shanghai , China.

Objective: Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) is reported to have the ability to attenuate endothelial permeability and inflammation during the stress condition and is considered to play a critical role in vascular stabilization. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the protective effects of adenovirus-delivered Ang1 in phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI).

Methods: ALI was induced in rats by phosgene exposure at 8. Read More

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