547 results match your criteria Toxicity Phencyclidine


The First Fatal Intoxication with 3-MeO-PCP in the UK and a Review of the Literature.

J Anal Toxicol 2022 May;46(5):461-470

School of Chemistry, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln LN6 7TS, UK.

The phencyclidine derivative 3-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) is a potent dissociative hallucinogen. Sought for recreational use as a novel psychoactive substance, it can also induce acute psychological agitation and pathophysiological cardiorespiratory effects. Due to the harms associated with its use, 3-MeO-PCP was added to the "Green List" of materials covered by the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances as a Schedule II substance by the United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs in April 2021. Read More

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Cytotoxic, genotoxic, and oxidative stress-related effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and phencyclidine (PCP) in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line.

Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2021 Dec 30;72(4):333-342. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

1Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb, Croatia.

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a classic hallucinogen, widely abused for decades, while phencyclidine (PCP) has increased in popularity in recent years, especially among the adolescents. Very little is known about the general toxicity of these compounds, especially about their possible neurotoxic effects at the cell level. The aim of this study was to address these gaps by assessing the toxic effects of 24-hour exposure to LSD and PCP in the concentration range of 0. Read More

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December 2021

In Vitro and In Vivo Pharmaco-Toxicological Characterization of 1-Cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene Derivatives in Mice: Comparison with Tramadol and PCP.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 17;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Section of Legal Medicine and LTTA Centre, Department of Translational Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.

1-cyclohexyl-x-methoxybenzene is a novel psychoactive substance (NPS), first discovered in Europe in 2012 as unknown racemic mixture of its three stereoisomers: ortho, meta and para. Each of these has structural similarities with the analgesic tramadol and the dissociative anesthetic phencyclidine. In light of these structural analogies, and based on the fact that both tramadol and phencyclidine are substances that cause toxic effects in humans, the aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo pharmacodynamic profile of these molecules, and to compare them with those caused by tramadol and phencyclidine. Read More

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The potential of the P2X7 receptor as a therapeutic target in a sub-chronic PCP-induced rodent model of schizophrenia.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 10 17;116:101993. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliation Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China; Institute of Neuroscience, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We studied the role of the P2X7 receptor on cognitive dysfunction in a mouse model of schizophrenia.

Methods: An adult mouse model was established by treatment with phencyclidine (PCP), an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. Young mice were divided into three groups: 1) the control (saline-injected) group; 2) experimental 5 mg/kg PCP-injected group; and 3) experimental 10 mg/kg PCP-injected group. Read More

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October 2021

Phosphodiesterase type 1 inhibition alters medial prefrontal cortical activity during goal-driven behaviour and partially reverses neurophysiological deficits in the rat phencyclidine model of schizophrenia.

Neuropharmacology 2021 03 12;186:108454. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour, University of Leicester, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Positive modulation of cAMP signalling by phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors has recently been explored as a potential target for the reversal of cognitive and behavioural deficits implicating the corticoaccumbal circuit. Previous studies show that PDE type 1 isoform B (PDE1B) inhibition may improve memory function in rodent models; however, the contribution of PDE1B inhibition to impulsivity, attentional and motivational functions as well as its neurophysiological effects have not been investigated. To address this, we recorded single unit activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in Lister Hooded rats treated with the PDE1B inhibitor Lu AF64386 and tested in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Read More

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Long-term outcomes of psychoactive drug use in trauma patients: A multicenter patient-reported outcomes study.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 02;90(2):319-324

From the Division of Trauma, Emergency Surgery, and Surgical Critical Care (M.E.M., K.B., G.V., H.M.A.K.), Massachusetts General Hospital; Department of Surgery (J.P.H.-E., A.S.), Division of Trauma, Burn and Surgical Critical Care, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School; Center for Surgery and Public Health (J.P.H.-E., C.O., A.N.H., A.S.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; Department of Psychiatry (N.C.L.-C.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Division of Trauma, Burn and Critical Care Surgery (D.N.), Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Division of Trauma, Acute Care Surgery and Surgical Critical Care (S.E.S.), Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Introduction: Psychoactive drug use (PDU) is reported in up to 40% of trauma patients and is associated with a higher rate of in-hospital complications. However, little is known about its long-term impact on trauma patients. We aimed to assess the long-term functional, mental, and psychosocial outcomes of PDU in trauma patients 6 to 12 months after injury. Read More

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February 2021

Preventive role of regular low-intensity exercise during adolescence in schizophrenia model mice with abnormal behaviors.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 01 20;534:610-616. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry and Neuroendocrinology, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8574, Ibaraki, Japan; Department of Sport Neuroscience, Advanced Research Initiative for Human High Performance (ARIHHP), Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8574, Ibaraki, Japan. Electronic address:

Schizophrenia is probably ascribed to perinatal neurodevelopmental deficits, and its onset might be affected by environmental factors. Hypofrontality with glutamatergic and dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction are known factors, but a way to mitigate abnormalities remains unfound. An early enriched environment such as a wheel running in rodents may contribute to the prevention, but its clinical applicability is very limited. Read More

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January 2021

Neonatal phencyclidine and social isolation in the rat: effects of clozapine on locomotor activity, social recognition, prepulse inhibition, and executive functions deficits.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Feb 9;238(2):517-528. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Porsolt SAS, ZA de Glatigné, 53940, Le Genest-Saint-Isle, France.

Rationale: There is a need to develop animal models of schizophrenia-like behaviors that have both construct and predictive validity. Recently, a neonatal phencyclidine (PCP) and post-weaning social isolation dual-hit model was developed; however, its face and predictive validities need to be further investigated.

Objective: The aims of this study were to extend the characterization of the behavioral changes occurring in the neonatal PCP and post-weaning social isolation dual-hit rat model and to evaluate the effects of chronic treatment with clozapine on signs related to schizophrenia. Read More

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February 2021

Involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in behavioral abnormalities and psychological dependence in schizophrenia-like model mice.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2020 12 24;41:92-105. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Division of Clinical Sciences and Neuropsychopharmacology, Faculty and Graduate School of Pharmacy, Meijo University, 150 Yagotoyama, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8503, Japan.

The smoking incentive in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) depends on stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the central nervous system. To detect potential predictor genes for nicotine responses in SCZ, we explored common factor using research data in human and animal samples. In lymphoblastoid cell lines from SCZ, the mRNA expression level of α7 nAChR subunit was decreased. Read More

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December 2020

Mesenchymal stem cells derived extracellular vesicles improve behavioral and biochemical deficits in a phencyclidine model of schizophrenia.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 09 1;10(1):305. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder with a significant number of patients not adequately responding to treatment. Phencyclidine (PCP) is used as a validated model for schizophrenia, shown to reliably induce positive, negative and cognitive-like behaviors in rodents. It was previously shown in our lab that behavioral phenotypes of PCP-treated mice can be alleviated after intracranial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Read More

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September 2020

Repeated phencyclidine disrupts nicotinic acetylcholine regulation of dopamine release in nucleus accumbens: Implications for models of schizophrenia.

Neurochem Int 2020 11 24;140:104836. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Neuroscience, Psychology & Behaviour, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester, LE2 9HN, UK. Electronic address:

Dopaminergic dysregulation in nucleus accumbens has been implicated in the origin of schizophrenia. Accumbal cholinergic interneurons exert powerful modulatory control of local dopamine function, through nicotinic receptors located on dopamine terminals. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in rat brain slices in vitro was used to measure dopamine release evoked by high-frequency electrical stimulation, mimicking phasic dopamine activity. Read More

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November 2020

Clozapine Improves Behavioral and Biochemical Outcomes in a MK-801-Induced Mouse Model of Schizophrenia.

J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2020 ;39(1):1-12

Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, School of Chemical and Life Sciences, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India.

Glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have critical roles in several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Dizocilpine (MK-801) is a ligand at phencyclidine recognition sites that is associated with NMDA receptor-coupled cation channels, where it acts as a potent noncompetitive antagonist of central glutamate receptors. In this study, we investigate the effect of clozapine on MK-801-induced neurochemical and neurobehavioral alterations in the prefrontal cortex of mice. Read More

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Digital autoradiography for efficient functional imaging without anesthesia in experimental animals: Reversing phencyclidine-induced functional alterations using clozapine.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2020 06 12;100:109887. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Charles River DRS, Kuopio, Finland.

Autoradiography (ARG) is a high-resolution imaging method for localization of radiolabeled biomarkers in ex vivo specimen. ARG using 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) method is used in to study drug actions on brain functional activity, as it provides results comparable to clinically used functional positron-emission tomography (PET). The requirement of slow analog detection methods and emerging advances in small animal PET imaging have, however, reduced the interest in ARG. Read More

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Abnormal Eye Movements and Poor Feeding in an Infant.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2020 05 23;59(4-5):532-535. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

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Intoxication with 3-MeO-PCP alone: A case report and literature review.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Dec;98(52):e18295

CHU Rennes, Department of Forensic Toxicology.

Rationale: 3-Methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) is a new psychoactive substance derived from phencyclidine. Although it can lead to severe intoxications, the main manifestations and optimal management have not been well characterized. Here, we report 2 cases of 3-MeO-PCP intoxication in the same patient, and summarize the manifestations of this intoxication reported in literature. Read More

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December 2019

Phencyclidine-induced cognitive deficits in mice are ameliorated by subsequent repeated intermittent administration of (R)-ketamine, but not (S)-ketamine: Role of BDNF-TrkB signaling.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2020 01 19;188:172839. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan. Electronic address:

The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists including phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine produce cognitive deficits in rodents and humans. We previously reported that (R)-ketamine produced the beneficial effects compared to (S)-ketamine in several animal models including depression. Here we compared the effects of two enantiomers of ketamine on cognitive deficits in mice after repeated administration of PCP. Read More

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January 2020

Phencyclidine: A Rare Cause of Saccadic Intrusions.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2019 Oct-Dec;22(4):503-505. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Neurology, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Saccadic intrusions such as opsoclonus and ocular flutter are often due to a paraneoplastic or a parainfectious condition. Toxins/drugs may rarely cause them. Herein, we report a rare case of ocular flutter/opsoclonus due to phencyclidine (PCP) toxicity. Read More

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October 2019

Focus on Adolescent Use of Club Drugs and "Other" Substances.

Pediatr Clin North Am 2019 12;66(6):1121-1134

Substance Abuse Research Division, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 3901 Chrysler Service Drive, Suite 2A, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Club drugs and "other" abusable substances are briefly overviewed as a reminder about the wide variety of known and unknown substances used by adolescents, the high potential for direct and interactive substance use effects to manifest acutely and chronically, and the vigilance needed to anticipate and recognize the new effects and drug-drug interactions arising as novel substances continue to be custom "designed," manufactured, and marketed to meet substance use trends. This article discusses dextromethorphan, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), gamma-hydroxybutyrate, inhalants, ketamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, phencyclidine, Salvia divinorum (salvia), synthetic cannabinoids, and synthetic cathinones (bath salts). Read More

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December 2019

Severe Toxicity to the New Psychoactive Substances 3-Hydroxyphencyclidine and N-Ethylhexedrone: an Analytically Confirmed Case Report.

J Med Toxicol 2020 01 3;16(1):67-70. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Guys and St Thomas' NHS Foundation, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK.

Introduction: 3-Hydroxyphencyclidine (3-HO-PCP) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) and a hydroxy derivative of phencyclidine (PCP), and N-ethylhexedrone (Hexen) is a synthetic cathinone. We describe an analytically confirmed case of acute toxicity related to the use of both 3-hydroxyphencyclidine and N-ethylhexedrone.

Case Report: A 56-year-old male was brought to the Emergency Department by ambulance with hyperthermia (39. Read More

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January 2020

SEP-363856, a Novel Psychotropic Agent with a Unique, Non-D Receptor Mechanism of Action.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2019 10 1;371(1):1-14. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Sunovion Pharmaceuticals, Marlborough, Massachusetts (N.D., P.G.J., S.C.H., R.L., L.S., J.E.C., K.L.S., T.H.L., U.C.C., K.S.K.); and PsychoGenics, Paramus, New Jersey (T.H., E.L.)

For the past 50 years, the clinical efficacy of antipsychotic medications has relied on blockade of dopamine D receptors. Drug development of non-D compounds, seeking to avoid the limiting side effects of dopamine receptor blockade, has failed to date to yield new medicines for patients. In this work, we report the discovery of SEP-363856 (SEP-856), a novel psychotropic agent with a unique mechanism of action. Read More

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October 2019

Novel ketamine analogues cause a false positive phencyclidine immunoassay.

Ann Clin Biochem 2019 09 25;56(5):598-607. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

1 Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

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September 2019

Blonanserin ameliorates social deficit through dopamine-D receptor antagonism in mice administered phencyclidine as an animal model of schizophrenia.

Neurochem Int 2019 09 16;128:127-134. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Division of Clinical Sciences and Neuropsychopharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, 468-8503, Japan; Division of Clinical Sciences and Neuropsychopharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, 468-8503, Japan; Department of Psychiatry, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, 466-8560, Japan. Electronic address:

Blonanserin differs from other antipsychotic drugs, such as risperidone and olanzapine, and exhibits a higher affinity for dopamine-D receptors than for serotonin 5-HT receptors. We investigated the involvement of dopamine-D receptors in the effect of blonanserin on the social deficit observed in an animal model of schizophrenia and sought to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying its action. Mice received phencyclidine (PCP: 10 mg/kg/day, s. Read More

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September 2019

Chronic phencyclidine treatment impairs spatial working memory in rhesus monkeys.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2019 Jul 25;236(7):2223-2232. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, People's Republic of China.

Rationale: Phencyclidine (PCP) could induce schizophrenia (Sz) like behavior in both humans and animals, therefore, has been widely utilized to establish Sz animal models. It induced cognitive deficits, the core symptom of Sz, mainly through influencing frontal dopaminergic function. Nonhuman primate (NHP) studies demonstrated impaired object retrieval detour (ORD) and spatial delayed response (SDR) task performance by acute or chronic PCP treatment. Read More

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Atypical but not typical antipsychotic drugs ameliorate phencyclidine-induced emotional memory impairments in mice.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2019 05 23;29(5):616-628. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Solnavägen 9, S-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Schizophrenia is associated with cognitive impairments related to hypofunction in glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) transmission. Phencyclidine (PCP), a non-competitive NMDAR antagonist, models schizophrenia-like behavioral symptoms including cognitive deficits in rodents. This study examined the effects of PCP on emotional memory function examined in the passive avoidance (PA) task in mice and the ability of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) to rectify the PCP-mediated impairment. Read More

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Linking phencyclidine intoxication to the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway: Therapeutic implications for schizophrenia.

Neurochem Int 2019 05 5;125:1-6. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Disease Control and Prevention, Fujita Health University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192, Japan; Japanese Drug Organization of Appropriate Use and Research, 3-1509 Omoteyama, Tenpaku-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468-0069, Japan; Advanced Diagnostic System Research Laboratory, Fujita Health University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192, Japan; Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoinkawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.

Phencyclidine (PCP) is a dissociative anesthetic that induces psychotic symptoms and neurocognitive deficits in rodents similar to those observed in schizophrenia patients. PCP administration in healthy human subjects induces schizophrenia-like symptoms such as positive and negative symptoms, and a range of cognitive deficits. It has been reported that PCP, ketamine, and related drugs such as N-methyl-D-aspartate-type (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonists, induce behavioral effects by blocking neurotransmission at NMDA receptors. Read More

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Continuation of structure-activity relationship study of novel benzamide derivatives as potential antipsychotics.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2019 Apr 31;352(4):e1800306. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

A series of benzamide derivatives possessing potent dopamine D , serotonin 5-HT , and 5-HT receptor properties were synthesized and evaluated as potential antipsychotics. Among them, 5-(4-(4-(benzo[d]isothiazol-3-yl)piperazin-1-yl)butoxy)-N-cyclopropyl-2-fluorobenzamide (4k) held the best pharmacological profile. It not only exhibited potent and balanced activities for the D , 5-HT , and 5-HT receptors, but was also endowed with low to moderate activities for the 5-HT , H , and M receptors, suggesting a low propensity for inducing weight gain or diabetes. Read More

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Suspected synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist intoxication: Does analysis of samples reflect the presence of suspected agents?

Am J Emerg Med 2019 10 24;37(10):1846-1849. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, United States of America; Department of Emergency Medicine, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, United States of America.

Background: There has been a surge in synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (SCRA) exposures reported in recent years. The constituents of SCRA preparations are constantly evolving and rarely confirmed. We sought to characterize the constituents of reported SCRA exposures presenting to the emergency department (ED). Read More

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October 2019

Reduced expression of synapsin II in a chronic phencyclidine preclinical rat model of schizophrenia.

Synapse 2019 05 7;73(5):e22084. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive dysfunction. Phencyclidine (PCP)-a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist-induces symptoms indistinguishable from those of schizophrenia. A reduction of the phosphoprotein synapsin II has also been implicated in schizophrenia and has a well-known role in the maintenance of the presynaptic reserve pool and vesicle mobilization. Read More

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Selective adrenergic alpha2C receptor antagonist ameliorates acute phencyclidine-induced schizophrenia-like social interaction deficits in rats.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2019 Apr 10;236(4):1245-1253. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland.

Rationale: Social withdrawal is a core feature of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Currently available pharmacotherapies have only limited efficacy towards the negative symptoms, i.e. Read More

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