507 results match your criteria Toxicity Phencyclidine


Methoxetamine Induces Cytotoxicity in H9c2 Cells: Possible Role of p21 Protein (Cdc42/Rac)-Activated Kinase 1.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 194-31 Osongsaemgmyeong 1-ro, Osong-eup, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungbuk, 28160, Republic of Korea.

The abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is an emerging social problem. Methoxetamine, one of the NPS, was designed as an alternative to ketamine and it was considered an NPS candidate owing to its high addictive potential. However, cardiotoxicity of the phencyclidine analogue, methoxetamine, has not been extensively evaluated. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12012-018-9489-4DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

Methoxetamine: A foe or friend?

Neurochem Int 2019 Jan 24;122:1-7. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Uimyung Research Institute for Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, 815 Hwarangro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 01795, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Methoxetamine (MXE) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that is chemically and pharmacologically similar to other dissociative substances, such as ketamine and phencyclidine. There are reports on the misuse of MXE, which sometimes resulted in adverse consequences and death. Studies have also shown that MXE has abuse liability and stimulates dopamine neurotransmission in the mesolimbic reward pathway in the brain. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2018.10.020DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

1,2-Diarylethylamine- and Ketamine-Based New Psychoactive Substances.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018 Sep 9. Epub 2018 Sep 9.

School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

While phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine remain the most well-studied and widely known dissociative drugs, a number of other agents have appeared since the late 1950s and early 1960s, when the pharmacological potential of this class was first realized. For example, hundreds of compounds have been pursued as part of legitimate research efforts to explore these agents. Some of these found their way out of the research labs and onto illicit markets of the 1960s and following decades as PCP analogs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/164_2018_148
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/164_2018_148DOI Listing
September 2018
25 Reads

Cluster of acute poisonings associated with an emerging ketamine analogue, 2-oxo-PCE.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Sep 24;290:238-243. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Hospital Authority Toxicology Reference Laboratory, Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong; Chemical Pathology Laboratory, Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Ketamine and phencyclidine are well-known drugs of abuse of the arylcyclohexylamine class, the backbone of which is used for the synthesis of new psychoactive substances (NPS). In October 2017, a cluster of acute intoxications was encountered where patients presented with ketamine-like toxidrome. Upon initial toxicology screening, however, neither ketamine nor other causative agents were detected in the patients' urine. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.07.014DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

5-HT parital agonism and 5-HT antagonism restore episodic memory in subchronic phencyclidine-treated mice: role of brain glutamate, dopamine, acetylcholine and GABA.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Oct 31;235(10):2795-2808. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 E. Chicago Ave., Ward Building 7-014, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Rationale: The effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g., lurasidone, to improve cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS), has been suggested to be due, in part, to enhancing release of dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh), and glutamate (Glu) in cortex and hippocampus. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-4972-yDOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads

Phencyclidine and Scopolamine for Modeling Amnesia in Rodents: Direct Comparison with the Use of Barnes Maze Test and Contextual Fear Conditioning Test in Mice.

Neurotox Res 2018 Oct 21;34(3):431-441. Epub 2018 Apr 21.

Department of Pharmacodynamics, Chair of Pharmacodynamics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 9 Medyczna St., 30 - 688, Krakow, Poland.

Nowadays cognitive impairments are a growing unresolved medical issue which may accompany many diseases and therapies, furthermore, numerous researchers investigate various neurobiological aspects of human memory to find possible ways to improve it. Until any other method is discovered, in vivo studies remain the only available tool for memory evaluation. At first, researchers need to choose a model of amnesia which may strongly influence observed results. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-018-9901-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6154175PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Toxicokinetics of NPS: Update 2017.

Authors:
Markus R Meyer

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018 Feb 24. Epub 2018 Feb 24.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Toxicology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Molecular Signaling (PZMS), Saarland University, Homburg, Germany.

This summarizing and descriptive review article is an update on previously published reviews. It covers English-written and PubMed-listed review articles and original studies published between May 2016 and November 2017 on the toxicokinetics of new psychoactive substances (NPS). Compounds covered include stimulants and entactogens, synthetic cannabinoids, tryptamines, phenethylamine and phencyclidine-like drugs, benzodiazepines, and opioids. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/164_2018_102DOI Listing
February 2018
15 Reads

Mechanistic studies on ketamine-induced mitochondrial toxicity in zebrafish embryos.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2018 Sep - Oct;69:63-72. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 3900 NCTR Road, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA. Electronic address:

Ketamine, a phencyclidine derivative, is an antagonist of the Ca-permeable N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors. It is a pediatric anesthetic and has been implicated in developmental neurotoxicity. Ketamine has also been shown to deplete ATP in mammalian cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2017.12.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5992061PMC
December 2017
6 Reads

Blockade of platelet-activating factor receptor attenuates abnormal behaviors induced by phencyclidine in mice through down-regulation of NF-κB.

Brain Res Bull 2018 03 7;137:71-78. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Neuropsychopharmacology and Toxicology Program, College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation is one of the important etiologic factors of abusive and neuropsychiatric disorders. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is potent proinflammatory lipid mediat1or and plays a pivotal role in neuroinflammatory disorders through the specific PAF receptor (PAF-R). Phencyclidine (PCP) induces a psychotomimetic state that closely resembles schizophrenia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2017.11.004DOI Listing
March 2018
17 Reads

Phencyclidine Discoordinates Hippocampal Network Activity But Not Place Fields.

J Neurosci 2017 12 8;37(49):12031-12049. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center,

We used the psychotomimetic phencyclidine (PCP) to investigate the relationships among cognitive behavior, coordinated neural network function, and information processing within the hippocampus place cell system. We report in rats that PCP (5 mg/kg, i.p. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0630-17.2017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5719978PMC
December 2017
10 Reads

Significance of the nicotinic alpha7 receptor in cognition and antipsychotic-like behavior in the rat.

Behav Brain Res 2017 08 3;333:129-134. Epub 2017 Jul 3.

Department of Basic Sciences, California Northstate University College of Medicine, CA, USA.

Schizophrenic (SCH) patients show cognitive impairment in attentional performance. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) such as the Alzheimer's drug galantamine (GAL) and PAM-2 are documented to have pro-cognitive properties. However, it is not well established if these properties would be lost, or may hamper antipsychotic efficacy, when given as an adjunct to an antipsychotic which is needed for managing psychotic symptoms. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2017.07.001DOI Listing
August 2017
9 Reads

Beyond Ketamine and Phencyclidine: Analytically Confirmed Use of Multiple Novel Arylcyclohexylamines.

J Psychoactive Drugs 2017 Sep-Oct;49(4):289-293. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

c Assistant Professor, Department of Laboratory Medicine , University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco General Hospital , San Francisco , CA , USA.

Background: Methoxetamine and 3-methoxy-phencyclidine are novel arylcyclohexylamines whose use and clinical toxicity are poorly reported in the medical literature. We report a case of analytically confirmed use of both methoxetamine and 3-methoxy-phencyclidine.

Case Report: A 27-year-old male presented 10 hours after insufflating an Internet-obtained powder. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2017.1333660DOI Listing
May 2018
30 Reads

Phencyclidine administration during neurodevelopment alters network activity in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in adult rats.

J Neurophysiol 2017 08 24;118(2):1002-1011. Epub 2017 May 24.

Lundbeck Research DK, H. Lundbeck A/S, Valby, Denmark; and.

Symptoms of schizophrenia have been linked to insults during neurodevelopment such as NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist exposure. In animal models, this leads to schizophrenia-like behavioral symptoms as well as molecular and functional changes within hippocampal and prefrontal regions. The aim of this study was to determine how administration of the NMDAR antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) during neurodevelopment affects functional network activity within the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00081.2017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5539451PMC
August 2017
14 Reads

Generation of the Acute Phencyclidine Rat Model for Proteomic Studies of Schizophrenia.

Authors:
Dan Ma Paul C Guest

Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 ;974:257-261

Laboratory of Neuroproteomics, Department of Biochemistry and Tissue Biology, Institute of Biology, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Rua Monteiro Lobato 255 F/01, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, 13083-862, Campinas, Brazil.

Administration of the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) to rodents has been used as the gold standard preclinical model for schizophrenia. PCP treatment induces hyperlocomotion and stereotypic behaviour, which resemble the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, proteomic studies have identified changes in proteins associated with energy metabolism and neurotransmission which are typical hallmarks of the disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-52479-5_23DOI Listing
September 2017
15 Reads

Dose-response effect of acute phencyclidine on functional connectivity and dopamine levels, and their association with schizophrenia-like symptom classes in rat.

Neuropharmacology 2017 06 22;119:15-25. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

A.I.V. Institute for Molecular Sciences, Department of Neurobiology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland.

Current drug treatments for schizophrenia (SCZ) can alleviate positive symptoms, but have little effect on the negative symptoms and cognitive deficits that are difficult to translate into preclinical models for drug development. Therefore, we aimed to determine the dose-response effects of acute phencyclidine (PCP, 1.0-5. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.03.024DOI Listing
June 2017
7 Reads

Preclinical predictors that the orthosteric mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY3020371 will not engender ketamine-associated neurotoxic, motor, cognitive, subjective, or abuse-liability-related effects.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2017 04 8;155:43-55. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Windlesham, Surrey, UK. Electronic address:

The novel mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, LY3020371, has been shown to produce antidepressant-like effects comparable to that of the clinically-effective antidepressant ketamine. In the present study, we investigated whether LY3020371 would be predicted to be free of the side-effects and safety pharmacology issues associated with ketamine. In contrast to ketamine, LY3020371 produced small increases in locomotion and did not impair motor performance on an inverted screen. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00913057173000
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2017.03.001DOI Listing
April 2017
9 Reads

Alterations of ubiquitin related proteins in the pathology and development of schizophrenia: Evidence from human and animal studies.

J Psychiatr Res 2017 07 18;90:31-39. Epub 2017 Jan 18.

Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; Schizophrenia Research Institute, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia; Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. Electronic address:

Gene expression analyses in post-mortem schizophrenia brains suggest that a number of ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) genes are associated with schizophrenia; however the status of UPS proteins in the schizophrenia brain is largely unknown. Ubiquitin related proteins are inherently involved in memory, neuronal survival and morphology, which are processes implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. We examined levels of five UPS proteins (Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT2 [PIAS2], F-Box and Leucine rich repeat protein 21 [FBXL21], Mouse Double Minute 2 homolog [MDM2], Ubiquitin Carboxyl-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 [UCHL1] and Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme E2D1 [UBE2D1]) involved in these neuronal processes, within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of post-mortem schizophrenia subjects and matched controls (n = 30/group), in addition to across neurodevelopmental time-points (juvenile, adolescent and adult stages of life), utilizing a well-established neurodevelopmental phencyclidine (PCP) animal model of schizophrenia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.01.009DOI Listing
July 2017
5 Reads

Metabolism and metabolomics of ketamine: a toxicological approach.

Forensic Sci Res 2017 20;2(1):2-10. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

Department of Sciences, IINFACTS - Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, University Institute of Health Sciences (IUCS), CESPU, CRL, Gandra, Portugal.

Ketamine is a phencyclidine derivative and a non-competitive antagonist of -methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptor for which glutamate is the full agonist. It produces a functional dissociation between the thalamocortical and limbic systems, a state that has been termed as dissociative anaesthesia. Considerable variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between individuals that can affect dose-response and toxicological profile has been reported. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/20961790.2017.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20961790.2017.1285219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6197107PMC
February 2017
12 Reads

Effects of Repeated Ropinirole Treatment on Phencyclidine-Induced Hyperlocomotion, Prepulse Inhibition Deficits, and Social Avoidance in Rats.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2017 04 6;361(1):109-114. Epub 2017 Feb 6.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences (A.M.M., P.C.K., R.P.H.), and Departments of Pharmacology and Psychiatry (R.P.H.), University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix; and Department of Psychology (A.M.M., P.C.K., R.P.H.) and Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience (T.C., R.P.H.), Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona

Phencyclidine (PCP), a noncompetitive N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, provides the most complete pharmacologic model of schizophrenia in humans and animals. Acute PCP causes hyperlocomotion, disrupts prepulse inhibition (PPI), and increases social avoidance in rats. We have previously shown that repeated treatment with the dopamine (DA) D-like receptor agonists, quinpirole or ropinirole, prevents agonist-induced PPI disruption. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.1124/jpet.116.23
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.116.238634DOI Listing
April 2017
4 Reads

Two Cases of Non-fatal Intoxication with a Novel Street Hallucinogen: 3-Methoxy-Phencyclidine.

J Anal Toxicol 2017 May;41(4):350-354

Institute Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Ke Karlovu 2, Prague 2, Prague.

3-Methoxy-phencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) is a structural derivative of the dissociative hallucinogen phencyclidine (PCP). Although PCP toxicity is well documented, little is known about this new psychoactive substance despite being available on the black market even in central Europe. The objective of this case report is to present clinical and laboratory data of analytically confirmed non-fatal intoxication of two subjects with 3-MeO-PCP. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkx009DOI Listing
May 2017
24 Reads

3-MeO-PCP intoxication in two young men: First in vivo detection in Italy.

Forensic Sci Int 2017 May 26;274:7-12. Epub 2016 Dec 26.

Forensic Toxicology Division, Department of Health Science, University of Florence, Italy. Electronic address:

3-MeO-PCP or 3-methoxyphencyclidine is a derivative of phencyclidine. It acts as a dissociative anesthetic and it has allegedly hallucinogenic and sedative effects. There are almost no documented intoxication cases and references about its pharmacology and toxicity in literature. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.12.028DOI Listing
May 2017
9 Reads

The prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor IPR19 ameliorates cognitive deficits in mouse models of schizophrenia.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2017 02 14;27(2):180-191. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

Department of Pharmacology, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, BioCruces Health Research Institute, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental CIBERSAM, Spain. Electronic address:

Cognitive deficits are considered a key feature of schizophrenia, and they usually precede the onset of the illness and continue after psychotic symptoms appear. Current antipsychotic drugs have little or no effect on the cognitive deficits of this disorder. Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is an 81-kDa monomeric serine protease that is expressed in brain and other tissues. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2016.11.016DOI Listing
February 2017
6 Reads

Effects of a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, tiletamine, in adult zebrafish.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2017 Jan - Feb;59:62-67. Epub 2016 Dec 2.

Institute of Translational Biomedicine, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia. Electronic address:

Tiletamine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist chemically related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A common veterinary anesthetic drug, tiletamine is currently a Schedule III controlled substance in USA. This compound exerts sedative effects in humans and animals, also having an abuse potential, toxicity and dissociative hallucinogenic properties clinically. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2016.11.009DOI Listing
January 2018
15 Reads

Distinct cortical and striatal actions of a β-arrestin-biased dopamine D2 receptor ligand reveal unique antipsychotic-like properties.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 12 1;113(50):E8178-E8186. Epub 2016 Dec 1.

Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710;

The current dopamine (DA) hypothesis of schizophrenia postulates striatal hyperdopaminergia and cortical hypodopaminergia. Although partial agonists at DA D2 receptors (D2Rs), like aripiprazole, were developed to simultaneously target both phenomena, they do not effectively improve cortical dysfunction. In this study, we investigate the potential for newly developed β-arrestin2 (βarr2)-biased D2R partial agonists to simultaneously target hyper- and hypodopaminergia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1614347113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5167191PMC
December 2016
34 Reads
9.810 Impact Factor

New psychoactive substances: an overview on recent publications on their toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics.

Authors:
Markus R Meyer

Arch Toxicol 2016 Oct 24;90(10):2421-44. Epub 2016 Sep 24.

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacoepidemiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

This review article covers English-written and PubMed-listed review articles and original studies published between January 2015 and April 2016 dealing with the toxicodynamics and toxicokinetics of new psychoactive substances. Compounds covered include stimulants and entactogens, synthetic cannabinoids, tryptamines, NBOMes, phencyclidine-like drugs, benzodiazepines, and opioids. First, an overview and discussion is provided on timely review articles followed by an overview and discussion on recent original studies. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00204-016-1812-x
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-016-1812-xDOI Listing
October 2016
61 Reads

Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) improved novel object recognition task and increased cerebral vesicular glutamate transporter type 3 in sub-chronic phencyclidine rat model of schizophrenia.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2016 12;43(12):1234-1242

Division of Pharmacology, Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Klongluang, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Reduced vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and 2 (VGLUT2) indicate glutamatergic hypofunction leading to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. However, VGLUT3 involvement in cognitive dysfunction has not been reported in schizophrenia. Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) might be a new treatment and prevention for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia by acting on cerebral VGLUT3 density. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1681.12658DOI Listing
December 2016
3 Reads

Fatal Intoxication Involving 3-MeO-PCP: A Case Report and Validated Method.

J Anal Toxicol 2016 Sep 23;40(7):504-10. Epub 2016 Jun 23.

Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, Harris County Institute of Forensic Sciences, 1885 Old Spanish Trail, Houston, TX 77054, USA.

We present in this case report a validated method for accurate quantitative analysis of 3-methoxy phencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) to determine postmortem blood concentrations of this PCP analog. A 29-year-old male with a history of illicit drug use was found unresponsive in his bed with a bag of white powder next to him. Resuscitation efforts were unsuccessful and the individual was pronounced dead 9 minutes after arrival to the hospital. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkw056DOI Listing
September 2016
19 Reads

Novel 1H-Pyrrolo[3,2-c]quinoline Based 5-HT6 Receptor Antagonists with Potential Application for the Treatment of Cognitive Disorders Associated with Alzheimer's Disease.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2016 07 5;7(7):972-83. Epub 2016 May 5.

Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM), UMR 5247, CNRS, Université de Montpellier, ENSCM, Université de Montpellier Campus Triolet Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 CEDEX 5 Montpellier, France.

Modulators of the serotonin 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) offer a promising strategy for the treatment of the cognitive deficits that are associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Herein, we report the design, synthesis, and characterization of a novel class of 5-HT6R antagonists that is based on the 1H-pyrrolo[3,2-c]quinoline core. The most active compounds exhibited comparable binding affinity to the reference compound, SB-742457, and markedly improved selectivity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.6b00090DOI Listing
July 2016
47 Reads

Comparison of phencyclidine-induced spatial learning and memory deficits and reversal by sertindole and risperidone between Lister Hooded and Wistar rats.

Behav Brain Res 2016 May 3;305:140-7. Epub 2016 Mar 3.

School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

Visual learning and memory are one of the key cognitive domains disturbed in schizophrenia. Glutamate NMDA receptors play a crucial role in spatial learning and memory and NMDA receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP), impair spatial learning and memory. Pigmented rat strains have superior vision than albino rat strains and are therefore commonly used in visually-demanding cognitive tests. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2016.02.032DOI Listing
May 2016
8 Reads

Brain catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibition by tolcapone counteracts recognition memory deficits in normal and chronic phencyclidine-treated rats and in COMT-Val transgenic mice.

Behav Pharmacol 2016 08;27(5):415-21

aUCB Biopharma s.p.r.l., Neuroscience Therapeutic Area, Chemin du Foriest, B-1420 Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium bLieber Institute for Brain Development Departments of cPsychiatry dNeurology eNeuroscience, Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore fClinical Brain Disorders Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

The critical involvement of dopamine in cognitive processes has been well established, suggesting that therapies targeting dopamine metabolism may alleviate cognitive dysfunction. Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) is a catecholamine-degrading enzyme, the substrates of which include dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. The present work illustrates the potential therapeutic efficacy of COMT inhibition in alleviating cognitive impairment. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FBP.0000000000000208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4935608PMC
August 2016
9 Reads

Phencyclidine-induced disruption of oscillatory activity in prefrontal cortex: Effects of antipsychotic drugs and receptor ligands.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2016 Mar 19;26(3):614-25. Epub 2015 Nov 19.

Department of Neurochemistry and Neuropharmacology, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques de Barcelona (IIBB-CSIC) (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

The non-competitive NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) markedly disrupts thalamocortical activity, increasing excitatory neuron discharge and reducing low frequency oscillations (LFO, <4Hz) that temporarily group neuronal discharge. These actions are mainly driven by PCP interaction with NMDA-R in GABAergic neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus and likely underlie PCP psychotomimetic activity. Here we report that classical (haloperidol, chlorpromazine, perphenazine) and atypical (clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, aripripazole) antipsychotic drugs--but not the antidepressant citalopram--countered PCP-evoked fall of LFO in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of anesthetized rats. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.11.015DOI Listing
March 2016
9 Reads

The dopamine D₃-preferring D₂/D₃ dopamine receptor partial agonist, cariprazine, reverses behavioural changes in a rat neurodevelopmental model for schizophrenia.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2016 Feb 11;26(2):208-224. Epub 2015 Dec 11.

School of Life Sciences, Queen׳s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK. Electronic address:

Current antipsychotic medication is largely ineffective against the negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. One promising therapeutic development is to design new molecules that balance actions on dopamine D2 and D3 receptors to maximise benefits and limit adverse effects. This study used two rodent paradigms to investigate the action of the dopamine D3-preferring D3/D2 receptor partial agonist cariprazine. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.12.020DOI Listing
February 2016
30 Reads

Disruption of social cognition in the sub-chronic PCP rat model of schizophrenia: Possible involvement of the endocannabinoid system.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2016 Feb 10;26(2):298-309. Epub 2015 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.

Previous studies have shown that social withdrawal in the phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia results from deficient endocannabinoid-induced activation of CB1 receptors. To understand the underlying cognitive mechanisms of the social deficit in PCP-treated rats, we examined the impact of pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid system on sociability (i.e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.12.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4762710PMC
February 2016
14 Reads

Potential benefit of lamotrigine in managing ketamine use disorder.

Med Hypotheses 2016 Feb 14;87:97-100. Epub 2015 Nov 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Taipei City Psychiatric Center, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Ketamine is an anesthetic derivative of phencyclidine (PCP; 'Angel dust') with dissociative, analgesic and psychedelic properties. Ketamine has become a popular recreational drug of abuse in many parts of the world in recent years. The preclinical studies demonstrate the reinforcing effects of ketamine and long-term ketamine abuse induces a delayed and persistent upregulation of dopamine system. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2015.11.011DOI Listing
February 2016
4 Reads
1.152 Impact Factor

Serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor agonism and 5-HT7 receptor antagonism ameliorate the subchronic phencyclidine-induced deficit in executive functioning in mice.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2016 Feb 12;233(4):649-60. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, 303E Chicago Ave, Ward Building 7-101, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Rationale: Reversal learning (RL), a type of executive function, dependent on prefrontal cortical function, is impaired in rodents by subchronic (sc) treatment with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP), a widely studied model of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (CIS).

Objective: The principal objective of this study was to determine the ability of serotonin (5-HT)1A partial agonism and 5-HT7 receptor antagonism to improve RL in scPCP-treated mice.

Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were trained on an operant RL (ORL) task, then received PCP, 10 mg/kg, or saline, bid, for 7 days, followed by a 7-day washout period. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-015-4137-1DOI Listing
February 2016
38 Reads

Postnatal Phencyclidine (PCP) as a Neurodevelopmental Animal Model of Schizophrenia Pathophysiology and Symptomatology: A Review.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2016;29:403-428

Manchester Pharmacy School, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.

Cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms of schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. Therefore, it is essential that new treatments and approaches are developed to recover the cognitive and social impairments that are seen in patients with schizophrenia. These may only be discovered through the use of carefully validated, aetiologically relevant and translational animal models. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/7854_2015_403
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/7854_2015_403DOI Listing
June 2017
5 Reads

THC and endocannabinoids differentially regulate neuronal activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the subchronic PCP model of schizophrenia.

J Psychopharmacol 2016 Feb 28;30(2):169-81. Epub 2015 Oct 28.

Department of Pharmacology and Center for Biomedical Neuroscience, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Cannabis use has been associated with an increased risk to develop schizophrenia as well as symptom exacerbation in patients. In contrast, clinical studies have revealed an inverse relationship between the cerebrospinal fluid levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide and symptom severity, suggesting a therapeutic potential for endocannabinoid-enhancing drugs. Indeed, preclinical studies have shown that these drugs can reverse distinct behavioral deficits in a rodent model of schizophrenia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0269881115612239
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881115612239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5252830PMC
February 2016
5 Reads

A methoxydiphenidine-impaired driver.

Int J Legal Med 2016 Mar 19;130(2):405-9. Epub 2015 Oct 19.

Institute of Legal and Traffic Medicine, University Hospital, Voss-Str. 2, 69115, Heidelberg, Germany.

Methoxydiphenidine (MXP) was first reported in 1989 as a dissociative anesthetic but did not enter the market for pharmaceuticals. The substance re-appeared in 2013 as a new psychoactive substance. A case of driving under the influence of MXP is reported. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-015-1280-5DOI Listing
March 2016
11 Reads

Cognitive enhancement effects of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) on novel object recognition and neuronal density in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus in sub-chronic phencyclidine administration rat model of schizophrenia.

J Med Assoc Thai 2015 Mar;98 Suppl 2:S56-63

Background: Cognitive deficit is a significant problem, which finally occurs in all schizophrenic patients. It can not be attenuated by any antipsychotic drugs. It is well known that changes of neuronal density are correlated with learning and memory deficits. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
March 2015
7 Reads

Dietary Intake of Sulforaphane-Rich Broccoli Sprout Extracts during Juvenile and Adolescence Can Prevent Phencyclidine-Induced Cognitive Deficits at Adulthood.

PLoS One 2015 24;10(6):e0127244. Epub 2015 Jun 24.

Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan.

Oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in cognitive impairment, which is a core symptom of schizophrenia. Furthermore, a hallmark of the pathophysiology of this disease is the dysfunction of cortical inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), which is also involved in cognitive impairment. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, is a potent activator of the transcription factor Nrf2, which plays a central role in the inducible expressions of many cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0127244PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4479552PMC
March 2016
6 Reads
8 Citations
3.234 Impact Factor

Alterations of p75 neurotrophin receptor and Myelin transcription factor 1 in the hippocampus of perinatal phencyclidine treated rats.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2015 Dec 10;63:91-7. Epub 2015 Jun 10.

Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 Australia; Schizophrenia Research Institute, 405 Liverpool Street, Darlinghurst, New South Wales 2010 Australia; School of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 Australia. Electronic address:

Postnatal administration of phencyclidine (PCP) in rodents causes major disturbances to neurological processes resulting in severe modifications to normal behavioral traits into adulthood. It is routinely used to model psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, producing many of the dysfunctional processes in the brain that are present in this devastating disorder, including elevated levels of apoptosis during neurodevelopment and disruptions to myelin and plasticity processes. Lingo-1 (or Leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin domain-containing protein) is responsible for negatively regulating neurite outgrowth and the myelination of axons. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.06.003DOI Listing
December 2015
5 Reads

Hippocampal Proteomic and Metabonomic Abnormalities in Neurotransmission, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptotic Pathways in a Chronic Phencyclidine Rat Model.

J Proteome Res 2015 Aug 30;14(8):3174-87. Epub 2015 Jun 30.

†Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QT, U.K.

Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric disorder affecting 1% of the world's population. Due to both a broad range of symptoms and disease heterogeneity, current therapeutic approaches to treat schizophrenia fail to address all symptomatic manifestations of the disease. Therefore, disease models that reproduce core pathological features of schizophrenia are needed for the elucidation of pathological disease mechanisms. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00105
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00105DOI Listing
August 2015
4 Reads

Characterisation of Lu AF33241: A novel, brain-penetrant, dual inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 2A and PDE10A.

Eur J Pharmacol 2015 Aug 2;761:79-85. Epub 2015 May 2.

Neuroscience Research DK, H. Lundbeck A/S, Ottiliavej 9, 2500 Valby, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Here, we present a preliminary pharmacological characterisation of Lu AF33241, a novel, brain penetrant phosphodiesterase inhibitor of (PDE) 2A and 10A tool compound, in in vitro/in vivo assays indicative of PDE2A and/or PDE10A inhibition, and in vivo models/assays relevant to cognitive processing and antipsychotic-like activity. An assay was also included to investigate potential effects on motor activity. The in vitro selectivity of Lu AF33241 was determined against a panel of PDE enzymes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.04.040DOI Listing
August 2015
55 Reads

Prefrontal dysfunction and a monkey model of schizophrenia.

Neurosci Bull 2015 Apr 31;31(2):235-41. Epub 2015 Mar 31.

Kunming General Hospital of Chengdu Military Command, Kunming, 650032, China.

The prefrontal cortex is implicated in cognitive functioning and schizophrenia. Prefrontal dysfunction is closely associated with the symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition to the features typical of schizophrenia, patients also present with aspects of cognitive disorders. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12264-014-1506-4
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-014-1506-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5563701PMC
April 2015
4 Reads

Reelin has a preventive effect on phencyclidine-induced cognitive and sensory-motor gating deficits.

Neurosci Res 2015 Jul 6;96:30-6. Epub 2015 Jan 6.

Department of Anatomy, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Reelin has recently attracted attention because of its connection to several neuropsychiatric diseases. We previously reported the finding that prior transplantation of GABAergic neuron precursor cells into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of mice significantly prevented the induction of cognitive and sensory-motor gating deficits induced by phencyclidine (PCP). The majority of the precursor cells transplanted into the mPFC of the recipient mice differentiated into members of a somatostatin/Reelin-expressing class of GABAergic interneurons. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neures.2014.12.013DOI Listing
July 2015
6 Reads

Neuroprotective effects of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) on novel object recognition and NMDAR1 immunodensity in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of sub-chronic phencyclidine rat model of schizophrenia.

J Med Assoc Thai 2014 Aug;97 Suppl 8:S50-5

Background: Cognitive impairment is a major problem, which eventually develops in schizophrenia. It contributes to the patients 'functional disability and cannot be attenuated by antipsychotic drugs. Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi), a neuroprotective herbal medicine in the elderly, might be a novel neuroprotective agent for prevention of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
August 2014
9 Reads

Repeated effects of the neurotensin receptor agonist PD149163 in three animal tests of antipsychotic activity: assessing for tolerance and cross-tolerance to clozapine.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2015 Jan 26;128:78-88. Epub 2014 Nov 26.

Department of Psychology, University of NE - Lincoln, USA. Electronic address:

Neurotensin is an endogenous neuropeptide closely associated with the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and shown to possess antipsychotic-like effects. In particular, acute neurotensin receptor activation can inhibit conditioned avoidance response (CAR), attenuate phencyclidine (PCP)-induced prepulse inhibition (PPI) disruptions, and reverse PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. However, few studies have examined the long term effects of repeated neurotensin receptor activation and results are inconsistent. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2014.11.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4277720PMC
January 2015
10 Reads

Fatal intoxication with methoxetamine.

J Forensic Sci 2015 Jan 20;60 Suppl 1:S264-8. Epub 2014 Nov 20.

Institute of Forensic Research, Westerplatte 9, Krakow, 31-033, Poland.

Methoxetamine (MXE) is a new synthetic drug of abuse structurally related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A case of a 29-year-old male with acute toxicity related to the analytically confirmed use of MXE is reported. The man was found dead at his residence. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.12594DOI Listing
January 2015
10 Reads

Acute toxicity associated with the recreational use of the novel dissociative psychoactive substance methoxphenidine.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2014 Dec 28;52(10):1288-91. Epub 2014 Oct 28.

Swiss Toxicological Information Centre, Associated Institute of the University of Zurich , Zurich , Switzerland.

Introduction: Methoxphenidine is a novel dissociative designer drug of the diarylethylamine class which shares structural features with phencyclidine (PCP), and is not at present subject to restrictive regulations. There is very limited information about the acute toxicity profile of methoxphenidine and the only sources are anonymous internet sites and a 1989 patent of the Searle Company. We report a case of analytically confirmed oral methoxphenidine toxicity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2014.974264DOI Listing
December 2014
4 Reads