10,546 results match your criteria Toxicity Organophosphate


A novel construct of an electrochemical acetylcholinesterase biosensor for the investigation of malathion sensitivity to three different insect species using a NiCrO/g-CN composite integrated pencil graphite electrode.

RSC Adv 2022 Jun 7;12(26):16860-16874. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus Lahore 54000 Pakistan

Herein, an electrochemical biosensor has been prepared to assess the sensitivity of an organophosphate insecticide, malathion, to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme of three insects including (honeybee), (red flour beetle), and (dampwood termite). A composite of nickel chromite (NiCrO) and graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) was prepared and characterized for its morphological, chemical and electrical properties. The NiCrO/g-CN composite integrated pencil graphite electrodes were used to covalently immobilize insect AChE enzymes and amperometric response of bioelectrodes was determined through cyclic voltammetry. Read More

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Organophosphate esters in the mariculture ecosystem: Environmental occurrence and risk assessments.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Aug 23;436:129219. Epub 2022 May 23.

State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-products, School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, PR China; School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, PR China. Electronic address:

Most investigations on organophosphate esters (OPEs) are conducted predominantly in a separate biological or abiotic medium, and few joint analyses have been performed in the mariculture ecosystem based on yearly sampling. Herein, we investigated the occurrence, load estimation, phase distribution, source diagnostics, and risks of 20 OPEs in seawater, sediment, and aquaculture organisms from a typical mariculture area in China. The total of these OPEs (∑) ranged within 3. Read More

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Occurrence, distribution, source identification, and risk assessment of organophosphate esters in the coastal waters of Beibu Gulf, South China Sea: Impacts of riverine discharge and fishery.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Aug 26;436:129214. Epub 2022 May 26.

Guangxi Laboratory on the Study of Coral Reefs in the South China Sea; Coral Reef Research Center of China; School of Marine Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.

As emerging pollutants, the environmental geochemistry of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in the coastal zone with multiple functional areas are still less recognized. This study investigated spatiotemporal distribution, sources and risks of 11 widely used OPEs in surface waters from seagoing rivers and multiple coastal functional areas of the Beibu Gulf. The results indicated that significantly higher ∑OPEs (total concentrations of 11 OPEs, ng/L) occurred in summer (34. Read More

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Toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and effectiveness of the ortho-chlorinated bispyridinium oxime, K870.

Food Chem Toxicol 2022 Jun 20:113236. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Biomedical Research Center, University Hospital, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Oxime reactivators are causal antidotes for organophosphate intoxication. Herein, the toxicity, pharmacokinetics, and reactivation effectiveness of o-chlorinated bispyridinium oxime K870 are reported. Oxime K870 was found to have a safe profile at a dose of 30 mg/kg in rats. Read More

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Improving the Risk Assessment of Pesticides through the Integration of Human Biomonitoring and Food Monitoring Data: A Case Study for Chlorpyrifos.

Toxics 2022 Jun 9;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 9.

National Centre for Environmental Health, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28220 Madrid, Spain.

The risk assessment of pesticide residues in food is a key priority in the area of food safety. Most jurisdictions have implemented pre-marketing authorization processes, which are supported by prospective risk assessments. These prospective assessments estimate the expected residue levels in food combining results from residue trials, resembling the pesticide use patterns, with food consumption patterns, according to internationally agreed procedures. Read More

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Calculation of Lipophilicity of Organophosphate Pesticides Using Density Functional Theory.

Membranes (Basel) 2022 Jun 19;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 19.

Department of Analytical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Dagestan State University, 367000 Makhachkala, Russia.

Higher lipophilicity facilitates the passage of a substance across lipid cell membranes, the blood-brain barrier and protein binding, and may also indicate its toxicity. We proposed eight methods for predicting the lipophilicity of the 22 most commonly used organophosphate pesticides. In this work, to determine the lipophilicity and thermodynamic parameters of the solvation of pesticides, we used methods of density functional theory with various basis sets, as well as modern Grimm methods. Read More

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Biochemical and insecticidal effects of plant essential oils on insecticide resistant and susceptible populations of Musca domestica L. point to a potential cross-resistance risk.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2022 Jun 6;184:105115. Epub 2022 May 6.

Laboratory of Agrozoology, Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:

Essential oils (EOs) can provide important alternatives to chemical insecticides in the control of pests. In this study, 12 EOs of native plant species from Iran were evaluated for their adulticidal activity against the house fly. In addition, we examined the insecticidal activity of Zataria multiflora and Rosmarinus officinalis EOs on adult female house flies from pyrethroid and organophosphate resistant and susceptible populations, using both fumigant and topical bioassays. Read More

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Metabolism and antioxidant activity of SlGSTD1 in Spodoptera litura as a detoxification enzyme to pyrethroids.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 16;12(1):10108. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Postdoctoral Mobile Station of Crop Science, Henan Agricultural University, Wenhua Road, Jinshui District, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) are members of multifunction enzymes in organisms and mostly known for their roles in insecticide resistance by conjugation. Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) is a voracious agricultural pest widely distributed in the world with high resistance to various insecticides. The function of GSTs in the delta group of S. Read More

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Risk assessment of glyphosate and malathion pollution and their potential impact on Oreochromis niloticus: role of organic selenium supplementation.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 15;12(1):9992. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Animal Hygiene, Zoonoses and Behavior, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 41522, Egypt.

A field survey was conducted on five fish farms to trace glyphosate and malathion pollution with some physicochemical parameters. A precise half-life time, LC-96h, of these agrochemicals on Oreochromis niloticus, as well as chronic exposure with organic selenium (OS) supplementation, were experimentally investigated. Oreochromis niloticus was subjected to the following: (negative control); (2 mg L glyphosate); (0. Read More

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Nine alkyl organophosphate triesters newly identified in house dust.

Environ Int 2022 Jul 4;165:107333. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Owing to increasing concerns about the toxicity of alkyl organophosphate triesters (OPTEs), it is necessary to comprehensively profile alkyl OPTEs in the environment. In this study, we conducted a nontarget analysis using high-resolution mass spectrometry to newly identify alkyl OPTEs in house dust samples collected in North China. Data-independent acquisition mode directed by the characteristic phosphate fragment was used. Read More

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Insights of OPs and PYR cytotoxic potential Invitro and genotoxic impact on PON1 genetic variant among exposed workers in Pakistan.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 9;12(1):9498. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

The Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (KIBGE), University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan.

Different pesticide chemicals are used to enhance crop yield by protecting from pests. Organophosphate (OPs) and Pyrethroid (PYR) are used in fields of Sanghar, Sindh Pakistan. PON1 an antioxidant enzyme implicated in OPs detoxification may predispose by OPs chronic exposure. Read More

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Evaluation of the Bioefficacy and Insecticide Compatibility of Entomopathogens for Management of Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Upland Cotton Under Laboratory and Polyhouse Conditions.

Neotrop Entomol 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

ICAR - Central Institute for Cotton Research, Nagpur, India.

Entomopathogens (EPFs) are potential alternatives to chemical insecticides for managing Bemisia tabaci (Genn.), an invasive pest of the cotton crop. EPFs alone may not always provide enough insect pest control, but combining EPFs with pesticides, provided both components are compatible, can make an integrated pest management program considerably more effective. Read More

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The Role of CYP2B6*6 Gene Polymorphisms in 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol Levels as a Biomarker of Chlorpyrifos Toxicity Among Indonesian Farmers.

J Prev Med Public Health 2022 May 16;55(3):280-288. Epub 2022 May 16.

Prodia Occupational Health Institute International, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Objectives: One of the most widely used pesticides today is chlorpyrifos (CPF). Cytochrome P450 (CYP)2B6, the most prominent catalyst in CPF bioactivation, is highly polymorphic. The objective of our study was to evaluate the role of CYP2B6*6, which contains both 516G>T and 785A>G polymorphisms, in CPF toxicity, as represented by the concentration of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), among vegetable farmers in Central Java, Indonesia, where CPF has been commonly used. Read More

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Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) promotes hepatocyte toxicity via induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibition of autophagy flux.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 2;840:156461. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Geriatric Medicine, Shenzhen People's Hospital (The Second Clinical Medical College, Jinan University; The First Affiliated Hospital, Southern University of Science and Technology), Shenzhen 518020, China; School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Pharmaceutics, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China; Artemisinin Research Center, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China. Electronic address:

Triphenyl phosphate (TPP), a commonly used organophosphate flame retardant, is frequently found in environmental and biota samples, indicating widespread human exposure. Recent studies have shown that TPP causes hepatotoxicity, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Here, by using normal hepatocyte AML12 cells as a model, we showed that TPP induced apoptotic cell death. Read More

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September 2022

Chitosan nanoparticles containing the insecticide dimethoate: A new approach in the reduction of harmful ecotoxicological effects.

NanoImpact 2022 May 31;27:100408. Epub 2022 May 31.

Embrapa Environment, Rod SP 340, km 127.5, 13918-110, Jaguariúna, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Organophosphate insecticides such as dimethoate (DMT) are widely used in agriculture. As a side effect, however, these insecticides contaminate bodies of water, resulting in damage to aquatic organisms. The development of nanopesticides may be an innovative alternative in the control of agricultural pests, increasing effectiveness and reducing their toxicological effects. Read More

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The respiratory cytotoxicity of typical organophosphorus flame retardants on five different respiratory tract cells: Which are the most sensitive one?

Environ Pollut 2022 Aug 30;307:119564. Epub 2022 May 30.

Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Contaminants Exposure and Health, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Health Risk Control, Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China; Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of City Cluster Environmental Safety and Green Development (Department of Education, China), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) is a frequently used flame retardant and indoor semi-volatile pollutant exposing humans with endocrinal disrupting effects. However, its respiratory tract toxicity remains unclear. Herein, we mainly focused on exploring the cytotoxicity of TPHP to the cells from five different parts of the human respiratory tract (from top to bottom): human nasal epithelial (HNEpC) cells, human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells, normal nasopharyngeal epithelial (NP69) cells, human lung epithelial cells (Beas-2B) cells, and human lung fibrocells (HFL1 cells) cells. Read More

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Honey bee toxicological responses do not accurately predict environmental risk of imidacloprid to a solitary ground-nesting bee species.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 30;839:156398. Epub 2022 May 30.

The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited; Hamilton 3214, New Zealand.

Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the current model species for pesticide risk assessments, but considering bee diversity, their life histories, and paucity of non-eusocial bee data, this approach could underestimate risk. We assessed whether honey bees were an adequate risk predictor to non-targets. We conducted oral and contact bioassays for Leioproctus paahaumaa, a solitary ground-nesting bee, and A. Read More

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September 2022

Evolution of pesticide tolerance and associated changes in the microbiome in the water flea Daphnia magna.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Jul 30;240:113697. Epub 2022 May 30.

Evolutionary Stress Ecology and Ecotoxicology, University of Leuven, Debériotstraat 32, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Exposure to pesticides can have detrimental effects on aquatic communities of non-target species. Populations can evolve tolerance to pesticides which may rescue them from extinction. However, the evolution of tolerance does not always occur and insights in the underlying mechanisms are scarce. Read More

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Tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate induces axonal degeneration in chicken DRG neurons by the NAD+ pathway.

Toxicol Lett 2022 Jun 25;363:77-84. Epub 2022 May 25.

Laboratory of Molecular Toxicology, State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:

Wallerian degeneration (WD) is a well-known process by which degenerating axons and myelin are cleared after nerve injury. Although organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is characterized by Wallerian-like degeneration of long axons in human and sensitive animals, the precise pathological mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we cultured embryonic chicken dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, the model of OPIDN in vitro, to investigate the underlying mechanism of axon degeneration induced by tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), an OPIDN inducer. Read More

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Pesticides drive differential leaf litter decomposition and mosquito colonisation dynamics in lentic conditions.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 29;839:156320. Epub 2022 May 29.

South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity, Makhanda 6140, South Africa; School of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of Mpumalanga, Nelspruit 1200, South Africa; Wissenshaftskolleg zu Berlin Institute for Advanced Study, Berlin 14193, Germany. Electronic address:

Global contamination of freshwater ecosystems by chemical compounds, such as pesticides, may exert high pressure on biologically-driven organic matter decomposition. These pollutants may also impair the quality of organic substrates for colonising invertebrates and reduce primary productivity by decreasing the abundance of phytoplankton. In southern Africa, increasing pesticide usage associated with macadamia plantations, in particular, presents a growing risk to freshwater ecosystems. Read More

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September 2022

Thyroid-disrupting effects caused by exposure to alternative flame retardants from groundwater contamination in rural central China.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 27;839:156300. Epub 2022 May 27.

Key Laboratory of the Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, PR China; Center for Water and Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, PR China. Electronic address:

Accumulating evidence reveals that exposure to alternative flame retardants (AFRs) results in defective thyroid functions. AFRs are detectable in various environmental media in developed cities in China. However, few studies have reported the contamination levels of AFR in groundwater in rural areas, indicating an urgent need to investigate exposure of AFRs and perform health risk assessment for populations that use groundwater as the main source of drinking water. Read More

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September 2022

The Complex Role of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Food Detoxification.

Nutrients 2022 May 12;14(10). Epub 2022 May 12.

Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria.

Toxic ingredients in food can lead to serious food-related diseases. Such compounds are bacterial toxins (Shiga-toxin, listeriolysin, Botulinum toxin), mycotoxins (aflatoxin, ochratoxin, zearalenone, fumonisin), pesticides of different classes (organochlorine, organophosphate, synthetic pyrethroids), heavy metals, and natural antinutrients such as phytates, oxalates, and cyanide-generating glycosides. The generally regarded safe (GRAS) status and long history of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as essential ingredients of fermented foods and probiotics make them a major biological tool against a great variety of food-related toxins. Read More

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The toxic effects of combined exposure of chlorpyrifos and p, p'-DDE to zebrafish (Danio rerio) and tissue bioaccumulation.

Aquat Toxicol 2022 Jul 18;248:106194. Epub 2022 May 18.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Centre for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, PR China.

Pesticides are widely used and frequently detected in the environment. The evaluation on the toxic effects of the co-exposure of two or more pesticides or related metabolites could reflect the real situation of the exposing risks. In this study, zebrafish was used as a model to investigate the potential toxic interactions of chlorpyrifos and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) on the survival rate, oxidative stress response and neurotoxicity, as well as their bioaccumulation and distribution in tissues. Read More

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Cumulative Effects of Non-Aflatoxigenic Volatile Organic Compounds to Abate Toxin Production by Mycotoxigenic Aspergilli.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 05 13;14(5). Epub 2022 May 13.

Southern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, New Orleans, LA 70124, USA.

Previously, authors reported that individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by non-aflatoxigenic could act as a mechanism of biocontrol to significantly reduce aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) produced by toxigenic strains. In this study, various combinations and volumes of three mycotoxin-reductive VOCs (2,3-dihydrofuran, 3-octanone and decane) were assessed for their cumulative impacts on four strains (LA1-LA4), which were then analyzed for changes in growth, as well as the production of mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, CPA and multiple indole diterpenes. Fungal growth remained minimally inhibited when exposed to various combinations of VOCs. Read More

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Pesticides in surface freshwater: a critical review.

Environ Monit Assess 2022 May 24;194(6):452. Epub 2022 May 24.

Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, Federal District, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to critically review studies published up to November 2021 that investigated the presence of pesticides in surface freshwater to answer three questions: (1) in which countries were the studies conducted? (2) which pesticides are most evaluated and detected? and (3) which pesticides have the highest concentrations? Using the Prisma protocol, 146 articles published from 1976 to November 2021 were included in this analysis: 127 studies used grab sampling, 10 used passive sampling, and 9 used both sampling techniques. In the 45-year historical series, the USA, China, and Spain were the countries that conducted the highest number of studies. Atrazine was the most evaluated pesticide (56% of the studies), detected in 43% of the studies using grab sampling, and the most detected in passive sampling studies (68%). Read More

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Temephos, an organophosphate larvicide for residential use: a review of its toxicity.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2022 May 24:1-12. Epub 2022 May 24.

Departamento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav), Mexico City, Mexico.

Temephos (,,','-tetramethyl ,'-thiodi--phenylene bis(phosphorothioate)) is a larvicide belonging to the family of organophosphate pesticides used for the control of different vectors of diseases, such as dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and dracunculiasis. The aim of this review was to discuss the available published information about temephos toxicokinetics and toxicity in mammals. Temephos is quickly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, distributed to all organs, and then it accumulates mainly in adipose tissue. Read More

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Contaminant occurrence, spatiotemporal variation, and ecological risk of organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in Hangzhou Bay and east China sea ecosystem.

Chemosphere 2022 Sep 20;303(Pt 2):135032. Epub 2022 May 20.

State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-products, School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, PR China.

Occurrence, spatiotemporal variation, sources, and ecological risks of 20 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in water and sediments from Hangzhou Bay (HZB) and its adjacent East China Sea (ECS) were investigated in this study. The concentrations of OPFRs (∑OPFR) in water ranged from 0.51 ng/L to 885 ng/L, with chlorinated OPFRs having the highest value. Read More

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September 2022

Positive effect of green tea extract on reproductive toxicity induced by dimethoate in male mice.

Open Vet J 2022 Mar-Apr;12(2):165-170. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Chemistry Department, Management of Laboratories and Criminal Evidences, Ministry of Interior, Tripoli, Libya.

Background: Dimethoate (DM) is one of the most organophosphorus pesticides used all over the world to control insect pests, the extensive use of this insecticide causes a health hazard to animals and humans.

Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the positive effect of green tea extract on sperm quality and testicular cytoarchitecture in male mice treated with DM and on its reproductive performance.

Methods: Mice were divided into three groups, each group contained nine mice, the first group (control) was given distilled water only, the second group received DM at a dose (0. Read More

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Pesticides in ambient air, influenced by surrounding land use and weather, pose a potential threat to biodiversity and humans.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 18;838(Pt 2):156012. Epub 2022 May 18.

University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Department of Integrative Biology and Biodiversity Research, Institute of Zoology, Gregor Mendel Straße 33, 1180 Vienna, Austria.

Little is known about (i) how numbers and concentrations of airborne pesticide residues are influenced by land use, interactions with meteorological parameters, or by substance-specific chemo-physical properties, and (ii) what potential toxicological hazards this could pose to non-target organisms including humans. We installed passive air samplers (polyurethane PUF and polyester PEF filter matrices) in 15 regions with different land uses in eastern Austria for up to 8 months. Samples were analyzed for 566 substances by gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. Read More

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September 2022

High Content Imaging Analyses of the Effects of Bisphenols and Organophosphate Esters on TM4 Mouse Sertoli Cells.

Biol Reprod 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, H3G 1Y6.

The endocrine disruptive effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and brominated flame retardants (BDE-47) have led to restrictions to their use and increased the pressure to identify safe replacements for these chemicals. Although there is evidence that some of these alternatives may be toxic to spermatogonial and Leydig cells, little is known about the toxicity of emerging replacements on Sertoli cells, one of the major testicular cell types. We used high-content imaging to compare the effects of legacy chemicals, BPA and BDE-47, to their corresponding replacements. Read More

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