10,007 results match your criteria Toxicity Organophosphate


The Carbamate, Physostigmine does not Impair Axonal Transport in Rat Cortical Neurons.

Neurosci Insights 2021 24;16:26331055211020289. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

Among the various chemicals that are commonly used as pesticides, organophosphates (OPs), and to a lesser extent, carbamates, are most frequently associated with adverse long-term neurological consequences. OPs and the carbamate, pyridostigmine, used as a prophylactic drug against potential nerve agent attacks, have also been implicated in Gulf War Illness (GWI), which is often characterized by chronic neurological symptoms. While most OP- and carbamate-based pesticides, and pyridostigmine are relatively potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), this toxicological mechanism is inadequate to explain their long-term health effects, especially when no signs of acute cholinergic toxicity are exhibited. Read More

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Monitoring of field-evolved resistance to flonicamid, neonicotinoid, and conventional insecticides in the Oxycarenus hyalinipennis costa.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jun 5;193(7):382. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Plant Protection, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa is a polyphagous insect pest and can develop insecticide resistance. The resistance of O. hyalinipennis to neonicotinoids (clothianidin and dinotefuran), flonicamid, and conventional insecticides; carbamates (methomyl and carbosulfon), organophosphates (chlorpyrifos and malathion), and pyrethroids (cypermethrin and zeta-cypermethrin) was evaluated. Read More

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A review on the occurrence of organophosphate flame retardants in the aquatic environment in China and implications for risk assessment.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 19;783:147064. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China; Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Polar Environment and Ecosystem (HPKL-PEE), Harbin 150090, China. Electronic address:

Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), used extensively as substitutes for polybrominated diphenyl ethers, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. OPFR pollution in aquatic environments, the main sink of pollutants, has been studied extensively over the past decade. Here, we review the current knowledge on the consumption and applications of OPFRs, and on their ecotoxicity in aquatic environments worldwide. Read More

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Dichlorvos poisoning caused chicken cerebrum tissue damage and related apoptosis-related gene changes.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 18;783:147051. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory for Animal Health, Institute of Animal Population Health, College of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, PR China. Electronic address:

Dichlorvos (DDVP) is an organophosphorus compound with insecticidal effects. Organophosphorus pesticides can easily enter humans or animals through various channels, causing cerebrum nerve cell damage. The purpose of this research was to investigate whether acute dichlorvos poisoning can cause cerebrum neurotoxic injury and change the expression of apoptosis-related genes in broilers, further clarify the neurotoxic mechanism after acute dichlorvos exposure, and provide a research basis for prevention, treatment and gene drug screening in the later stage. Read More

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Mitigation of organophosphorus insecticides from environment: Residual detoxification by bioweapon catalytic scavengers.

Environ Res 2021 May 31;200:111368. Epub 2021 May 31.

Laboratory of Plant Healthcare and Diagnostics, P.G. Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, Karnatak University, Dharwad, Karnataka, 580003, India. Electronic address:

Organophosphorus insecticides (OPIs) have low persistence and are easily biodegradable in nature. The United States and India are the major countries producing OPIs of about 25% and 17% of the world, respectively. OPIs commonly used for agricultural practices occupy a major share in the global market, which leads to the increasing contamination of OPIs residues in various food chains. Read More

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Urinary Metabolites of Organophosphate Pesticides among Pregnant Women Participating in the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS).

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 31;18(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

Japan Environment and Children's Study Programme Office, Health and Environmental Risk Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-0053, Ibaraki, Japan.

Organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicity. To evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to OPPs in the Japan Environment and Children's Study, a nationally representative birth cohort study, 4575 maternal urine samples were analysed for six OPP metabolites, i.e. Read More

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Assessing Combined Effects for Mixtures of Similar and Dissimilar Acting Neuroactive Substances on Zebrafish Embryo Movement.

Toxics 2021 May 6;9(5). Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.

Risk assessment of chemicals is usually conducted for individual chemicals whereas mixtures of chemicals occur in the environment. Considering that neuroactive chemicals are a group of contaminants that dominate the environment, it is then imperative to understand the combined effects of mixtures. The commonly used models to predict mixture effects, namely concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), are thought to be suitable for mixtures of similarly or dissimilarly acting components, respectively. Read More

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Identification and Toxicity Prediction of Biotransformation Molecules of Organophosphate Flame Retardants by Microbial Reactions in a Wastewater Treatment Plant.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 20;22(10). Epub 2021 May 20.

School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 123 Cheomdangwagi-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61005, Korea.

Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are substances added to plastics, textiles, and furniture, and are used as alternatives to brominated flame retardants. As the use of OPFRs increases in the manufacturing industry, the concentration in the aquatic environment is also increasing. In this study, OPFRs introduced into a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were identified, and the toxicity of biotransformation molecules generated by the biological reaction was predicted. Read More

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Prognostic nomogram for the severity of acute organophosphate insecticide self-poisoning: a retrospective observational cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 05 24;11(5):e042765. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Emergency, Jilin University First Hospital, Changchun, Jilin, China

Objective: To develop a convenient nomogram for the bedside evaluation of patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning (AOPP).

Design: This was a retrospective study.

Setting: Two independent hospitals in northern China, the First Hospital of Jilin University and the Lequn Hospital of the First Hospital of Jilin University. Read More

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Sub-organism (acetylcholinesterase activity), population (survival) and chemical concentration responses reinforce mechanisms of antagonism associated with malathion toxicity.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 26;778:146087. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Center for Applied Water Science, Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia.

Within human modified ecosystems the effects of individual stressors are difficult to establish amid co-occurring biological processes, environmental gradients and other stressors. Coupled examination of several endpoints across different levels of organisation may help elucidate the individual and combined effects of stressors and interactions. Malathion is a commonly used organophosphate pesticide that contaminates freshwaters and has strong negative effects on aquatic biota. Read More

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Comparative Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity of Glyphosate-Based Herbicides and Glycine in L929 and Caco2 Cells.

Front Public Health 2021 7;9:643898. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Glyphosate, an amino acid analog of glycine, is the most widely applied organophosphate pesticide worldwide and it is an active ingredient of all glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs), including the formulation "Roundup. " While glycine is an essential amino acid generally recognized safe, both epidemiological and toxicological and studies available in literature report conflicting findings on the toxicity of GBHs. In our earlier studies in Sprague-Dawley rats we observed that exposure to GBHs at doses of glyphosate of 1. Read More

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New insights into the mechanism of hepatocyte apoptosis induced by typical organophosphate ester: An integrated in vitro and in silico approach.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Aug 20;219:112342. Epub 2021 May 20.

CAS Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research (YIC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS); Shandong Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes, YICCAS, Yantai 264003, P. R. China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, PR China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, PR China. Electronic address:

Apoptosis is one of the typical features of liver diseases, therefore molecular targets of hepatic apoptosis and regulatory mechanisms need to be further investigated. The caspases play important functions in the execution of apoptosis and many studies have focused on classical caspase-dependent cell death pathways. However, other types of cell death pathways (such as mitochondrial poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) pathway) are suggested to be also as important as the caspase-mediated pathways in reflection of early toxic effects in hepatocytes, which requires additional research. Read More

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Biodegradation of the organophosphate dimethoate by Lactobacillus plantarum during milk fermentation.

Food Chem 2021 May 11;360:130042. Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, China; Qingdao Special Food Research Institute, Qingdao 266109, Shandong Province, China. Electronic address:

Bioremediation of pesticides in contaminated foodstuffs using probiotics has attracted great attention in recent years, but some intermediate products may have profound effects on the toxicity of treated food. Therefore, this work studied the degradation mechanism of dimethoate in milk by L. plantarum, and analyzed the toxicity of degradation products. Read More

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Identification of biotransformation products of organophosphate ester from various aquatic species by suspect and non-target screening approach.

Water Res 2021 May 5;200:117201. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 123 Cheomdangwagi-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61005, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Organic pollutants that are introduced into the aquatic ecosystem can transform by various mechanisms. Biotransformation is an important process for predicting the remaining structures of pollutants in the ecosystem, and their toxicity. This study focused on triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), which is a commonly used organophosphate flame retardant and plasticizer. Read More

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Occurrence, spatiotemporal distribution, and ecological risks of organophosphate esters in the water of the Yellow River to the Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 6;787:147528. Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

Limited information is available on the spatiotemporal occurrence and ecological risks of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in coastal environments. 175 water samples were collected in Laizhou Bay (LZB) and its rivers and estuaries during spring and summer for the determination of 12 targeted OPEs. Total concentration of OPEs ranged from 234. Read More

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September 2021

Study of the probable genotoxic effects of Zolone (Phosalone) exposure in mice bone marrow derived cells.

Genes Environ 2021 May 13;43(1):18. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background And Aim: Approximately, 2 million tonnes of pesticides are utilized annually worldwide. Phosalone (Pln), an organophosphorus pesticide, acts as an insecticide and acaricide to control pests of crops such as nuts, citrus fruits, pomegranates, stone fruits, grapes, potatoes, and artichokes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible genotoxic effects following exposure to Pln in the cells derived from mouse red bone marrow. Read More

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Acute phenthoate self-poisoning: a prospective case series.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 May 7:1-7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Therapeutics, University/BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: The clinical characteristics following self-poisoning with organophosphorus (OP) insecticides differs according to the insecticide ingested. Phenthoate is a dimethoxy WHO Hazard Class II OP pesticide with limited literature on its clinical characteristics and outcome. We aimed to better understand its clinical characteristics by studying patients with phenthoate self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. Read More

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Self-Poisoning With Safer Insecticide: A Case Series on Imidacloprid Poisoning.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

From the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, AIIMS Bhubaneswar, Odisha Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, IMS and SUM Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Abstract: Imidacloprid (IMI) is a systemic insecticide that belongs to the neonicotinoid group of insecticides. It is highly effective against sucking, boring, and root-feeding insects. Besides, it has a favorable toxicological profile on humans. Read More

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DNA damage and biochemical responses in estuarine bivalve Donax incarnatus (Gmelin, 1791) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of an organophosphate pesticide monocrotophos.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 May 3;193(6):317. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Zoology, Goa University, University Road, Taleigao, Goa, 403206, India.

Monocrotophos (MCP) is a highly toxic and broad-spectrum pesticide extensively used for agricultural and household purposes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the genotoxicity and alterations in the biochemical and physiological conditions induced by monocrotophos in a non-target organism, an estuarine bivalve, Donax incarnatus. The bivalves were exposed to three sub-lethal concentrations (6. Read More

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Ensemble machine learning to evaluate the in vivo acute oral toxicity and in vitro human acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of organophosphates.

Arch Toxicol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

State Key Laboratory of NBC Protection for Civilian, Beijing, 102205, China.

Organophosphates (OPs) are hazardous chemicals widely used in industry and agriculture. Distribution of their residues in nature causes serious risks to humans, animals, and plants. To reduce hazards from OPs, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for predicting their acute oral toxicity in rats and mice and inhibition constants concerning human acetylcholinesterase were developed according to the bioactivity data of 456 unique OPs. Read More

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Acetylcholinesterase target sites for developing environmentally friendly insecticides against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

Exp Appl Acarol 2021 Jun 29;84(2):419-431. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Key Laboratory of Northern Urban Agriculture of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Bioscience and Resource Environment, Beijing University of Agriculture, Beijing, 102206, China.

The non-target toxicity and resistance problems of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) insecticides, such as organophosphates and carbamates, are of growing concern. To explore the potential targets for achieving inhibitor selectivity, the AChE structures at or near the catalytic pocket of Tetranychus urticae (TuAChE), honey bees, and humans were compared. The entrances to the AChE catalytic pocket differ significantly because of their different peripheral sites. Read More

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High-Resolution Metabolomic Assessment of Pesticide Exposure in Central Valley, California.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 May 29;34(5):1337-1347. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Epidemiology, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California 90095, United States.

Pesticides are widely used in the agricultural Central Valley region of California. Historically, this has included organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), and pyrethroids (PYRs). This study aimed to identify perturbations of the serum metabolome in response to each class of pesticide and mutual associations between groups of metabolites and multiple pesticides. Read More

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Immunotoxicological effects of insecticides in exposed fishes.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Apr 24;247:109064. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Institute of Animal Molecular Biotechnology and Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Biologically active compounds used in agriculture that develop near aquatic environments easily spill into rivers or lakes. As a result, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides are observed worldwide in aquatic environments and accumulated in aquatic organism. Many insecticides, including organochlorine and organophosphate, have long been banned long ago because of their high persistence and non-target toxicity. Read More

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Neurobehavioral anomalies in zebrafish after sequential exposures to DDT and chlorpyrifos in adulthood: Do multiple exposures interact?

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 Apr 24;87:106985. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

A sequence of different classes of synthetic insecticides have been used over the past 70 years. Over this period, the widely-used organochlorines were eventually replaced by organophosphates, with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) as the principal prototypes. Considerable research has characterized the risks of DDT and CPF individually, but little is known about the toxicology of transitioning from one class of insecticides to another, as has been commonplace for agricultural and pest control workers. Read More

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New bioassay cage methodology for in vitro studies on Varroa destructor and Apis mellifera.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(4):e0250594. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Plant and Bee Health Surveillance Section, Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman, is an ectoparasitic mite of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., that has been considered a major cause of colony losses. Synthetic miticides have been developed and registered to manage this ectoparasite, however, resistance to registered pyrethroid and organophosphate Varroacides have already been reported in Canada. Read More

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Effects of Chlorpyrifos on Serine Hydrolase Activities, Lipid Mediators, and Immune Responses in Lungs of Neonatal and Adult Mice.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Center for Environmental Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Mississippi 39762, United States.

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphate (OP) pesticide that causes acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the nervous system. However, endocannabinoid (eCB) metabolizing enzymes in brain of neonatal rats are more sensitive than AChE to inhibition by CPF, leading to increased levels of eCBs. Because eCBs are immunomodulatory molecules, we investigated the association between eCB metabolism, lipid mediators, and immune function in adult and neonatal mice exposed to CPF. Read More

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A Challenge for a Unique Dengue Vector Control Programme: Assessment of the Spatial Variation of Insecticide Resistance Status amongst and Populations in Gampaha District, Sri Lanka.

Biomed Res Int 2021 2;2021:6619175. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Plantation Management, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makadura, Sri Lanka.

Background: To date, dengue is considered an important public health problem in Sri Lanka. Irrational use of insecticides without evidence-based applications has primed the development of resistance in mosquito vectors.

Method: The present study investigated the resistance status of and to commonly used insecticides in three selected Medical Officer of Health (MOH) areas (i. Read More

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Protective effect of fisetin against subchronic chlorpyrifos-induced toxicity on oxidative stress biomarkers and neurobehavioral parameters in adult male albino mice.

Toxicol Res 2021 Apr 7;37(2):163-171. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.

Chlorpyrifos (CPF), a chlorinated organophosphate insecticide that is widely used in agriculture and public health, has neurotoxic effects in animals. In addition to acetylcholinesterase inhibition, CPF has been shown to induce alterations such as oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Fisetin is a dietary flavonol that protects the brain tissue against oxidative stress by modulating the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Read More

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In silico local QSAR modeling of bioconcentration factor of organophosphate pesticides.

In Silico Pharmacol 2021 4;9(1):28. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Pharmacy, Guru GhasidasVishwavidyalaya (A Central University), Bilaspur, 495009 India.

The persistent and accumulative nature of the pesticide of indiscriminate use emerged as ecotoxicological hazards. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is one of the key elements for environmental assessments of the aquatic compartment. Limitations of prediction accuracy of global model facilitate the use of local predictive models in toxicity modeling of emerging compounds. Read More

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Comparative sensitivity of Neoseiulus cucumeris and its prey Tetranychus cinnabarinus, after exposed to nineteen pesticides.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 14;217:112234. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

College of Chemistry and Environment Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address:

The toxicity tests of nineteen commonly used pesticides were carried out to compare the sensitivity differences between predatory mite Neoseiulus cucumeris and its prey Tetranychus cinnabarinus by a "leaf spray method" in laboratory microcosms. For two avermectins, emamectin benzoate and abamectin, exhibited high bioactivity against T. cinnabarinusf with LR values of 0. Read More

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