8,899 results match your criteria Toxicity Organophosphate


Are cell phones an indicator of personal exposure to organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers?

Environ Int 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Exposure to organophosphate ester (OPE) flame retardants and plasticizers is widespread and is of concern due to their toxicity.

Objectives: To investigate relationships between and within OPE concentrations in air, dust, hands, electronic product wipes and urinary metabolites with the goal of identifying product sources and exposure pathways.

Methods: Women in Toronto and Ottawa, Canada, provided a urine sample, two sets of hand wipes, access to their homes for air and dust sampling, and completed a questionnaire. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01604120183096
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.10.021DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Azinphos-methyl causes in Planorbarius corneus toxic effects on reproduction, offspring survival and B-esterases depending on the exposure time.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Dec 4;217:114-121. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Laboratorio de Ecotoxicología Acuática: Invertebrados Nativos (EAIN), Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Nuñez, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina; Universidad de Buenos Aires-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Química Biológica de la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (IQUIBICEN), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

This work aimed to study in the freshwater gastropod Planorbarius corneus the effects of acute (2 days) and subchronic (14 days) exposures to an environmental concentration of the organophosphate azinphos-methyl on different reproductive parameters, offspring survival and B-esterase activities in gonads and in the whole organism soft tissue. The acute exposure inhibited only carboxylesterase activity in both tissues while the subchronic exposure also inhibited cholinesterase activity, decreased the number of hatched-eggs and increased offspring lethality (92%). On the other hand, B-esterases in gonads were more effective biomarkers than B-esterases in the whole organism due their inhibition appeared earlier in time (cholinesterase activity) and their activity remained inhibited for a longer time (carboxylesterase activity) when recovery studies were performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2018.12.002DOI Listing
December 2018

Neuroprotection From Organophosphate-Induced Damage by Novel Phenoxyalkyl Pyridinium Oximes in Rat Brain.

Toxicol Sci 2018 Dec;166(2):420-427

Center for Environmental Health Sciences.

The nerve agents are extremely toxic organophosphates which lead to massive inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. The currently approved pyridinium oxime reactivators of organophosphate-inhibited AChE (eg, 2-PAM in the United States) cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier because of the permanent positive charge in the pyridinium ring. Therefore these current oximes cannot rescue inhibited AChE in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfy212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260155PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Ecotoxicity response of chlorpyrifos in Aedes aegypti larvae and Lactuca sativa seeds after UV/HO and UVC oxidation.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Nov 21;169:449-456. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Federal University of Technology - Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

Chlorpyrifos (CP) is an organophosphate pesticide widely used in agriculture known to cause neurological and immunological effects in addition to interfering in the reproduction and development of organisms. In this study, CP degradation by UV/HO process and UVC radiation was investigated, and the ecotoxicity and phytotoxicity was evaluated using bioassays of Aedes aegypti larvae and Lactuca sativa seeds. CP degradation was monitored by HPLC-DAD, and kinetic parameters were calculated for all processes evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.11.003DOI Listing
November 2018

Structural insights of stereospecific inhibition of human acetylcholinesterase by VX and subsequent reactivation by HI-6.

Chem Res Toxicol 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Over 50 years ago, the toxicity of irreversible organophosphate inhibitors targeting human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) were observed to be stereospecific. The therapeutic reversal of hAChE inhibition by reactivators has also been shown to depend on the stereochemistry of the inhibitor. To gain clarity on the mechanism of stereospecific inhibition, the X-ray crystallographic structures hAChE inhibited by a racemic mixture of VX (P) and its enantiomers were obtained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.8b00294DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Reversal of tabun toxicity, enabled by a triazole annulated oxime library-reactivators of acetylcholinesterase.

Chemistry 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

University of California San Diego, Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 2251 Pharmaceutical Sciences Bldg, 0650, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., 92093, La Jolla,, UNITED STATES.

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme that degrades the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, when covalently inhibited by organophosphorus compounds (OPs), such as nerve agents and pesticides, can be reactivated by oximes. However, tabun remains among the most dangerous nerve agents due to the low reactivation efficacy of standard pyridinium aldoxime antidotes. Therefore, finding an optimal reactivator for prophylaxis against tabun toxicity and for post-exposure treatment is a continued challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201805051DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Elemental imaging (LA-ICP-MS) of zebrafish embryos to study the toxicokinetics of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor naled.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstraße 15, 04318, Leipzig, Germany.

The zebrafish embryo is an important model in ecotoxicology but the spatial distribution of chemicals and the relation to observed effects is not well understood. Quantitative imaging can help to gain insights into the distribution of chemicals in the zebrafish embryo. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is used to quantify the uptake and the uptake kinetics of the bromine (Br) containing organophosphate naled (Dibrom®, dimethyl-1,2-dibromo-2,2-dichloroethylphosphate) and its distribution in zebrafish embryos using Br as the marker element. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-018-1471-2DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Effective attenuation of glyphosate-induced oxidative stress and granulosa cell apoptosis by vitamins C and E in caprines.

Mol Reprod Dev 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Zoology, Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India.

Pesticides are known to cause a wide range of reproductive problems that possess degenerative effects on mammalian fertility. Glyphosate (GLP), a broad-spectrum organophosphate herbicide, is known to be a potent mammalian toxicant. The present study aims at assessing the GLP-induced (0. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/mrd.23084
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrd.23084DOI Listing
November 2018
8 Reads

Differential proteome analysis of rat plasma after diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) intoxication, a surrogate of nerve agent sarin.

Chem Biol Interact 2018 Oct 30;298:66-71. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Defence Research & Development Establishment (DRDE), Jhansi Road, Gwalior, MP, 474002, India. Electronic address:

Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), a surrogate of nerve agent sarin, is an organophosphorus (OP) compound which inhibits neuronal enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Exposure of this compound leads to a wide range of toxic symptoms and survivors may exhibit long term neurotoxicity related to cognitive and memory defects. Due to ease of availability and similar mechanism of action to other highly toxic nerve agent, DFP is widely used as model compound to trace changes associated with nerve agent exposures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2018.10.026DOI Listing
October 2018
9 Reads

Chlorpyrifos Induction of Testicular-Cell Apoptosis through Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Phosphorylation of AMPK.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Nov 15;66(47):12455-12470. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

College of Animal Science and Technology , Northwest A&F University , Yangling , Shaanxi 712100 , China.

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is the most frequently applied insecticide. Aside from effects on the neuronal cholinergic system, previous studies suggested a potential relationship between CPF exposure and male infertility; however, the molecular mechanism remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effect of CPF on testicular cells and the potential mechanism via in vitro and in vivo experiments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b03407DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Paraoxonase-1 genetic polymorphisms in organophosphate metabolism.

Toxicology 2018 Oct 22;411:24-31. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Laboratory of Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, 71003, Heraklion, Greece.

Organophosphates (OPs) are a class of chemicals commonly used in agriculture as pesticides, that can often lead to severe toxicity in humans. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) belongs to a family of A-esterases and hydrolyses several OPs while also serving other biological roles. Two main genetic polymorphisms have been shown to affect enzymatic ability; an A > G transition in the 192nd position (192 Q/R, rs662), and an A > T at codon 55 (55 M/L, rs854560). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0300483X183048
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2018.10.012DOI Listing
October 2018
7 Reads

Prevention of pesticide-induced neuronal dysfunction and mortality with nucleophilic poly-Oxime topical gel.

Sci Adv 2018 Oct 17;4(10):eaau1780. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine (inStem), GKVK Campus, Bellary Road, Bangalore, 560065 Karnataka, India.

Organophosphate-based pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which plays a pivotal role in neuromuscular function. While spraying in the field, farmworkers get exposed to pesticides through the dermal route. Internalized pesticide inhibits AChE, which leads to neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, cognitive dysfunction, loss of endurance, and death in severe cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau1780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6192682PMC
October 2018
4 Reads

Inhibition of miR-128 Abates Aβ-Mediated Cytotoxicity by Targeting PPAR-γ via NF-κB Inactivation in Primary Mouse Cortical Neurons and Neuro2a Cells.

Yonsei Med J 2018 Nov;59(9):1096-1106

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Huaihe Hospital of Henan University, Kaifeng, China.

Purpose: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the sixth most common cause of death in the United States. MicroRNAs have been identified as vital players in neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. microRNA-128 (miR-128) has been shown to be dysregulated in AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2018.59.9.1096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6192880PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Uptake and toxic effects of triphenyl phosphate on freshwater microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus: Insights from untargeted metabolomics.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Feb 5;650(Pt 1):1239-1249. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore; NUS Environmental Research Institute (NERI), #02-01, T-Lab Building (TL), 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411, Singapore. Electronic address:

The flame retardant triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) has been widely detected in surface waters. Yet, little information is known regarding its impact on microalgae. We investigated the uptake and toxicity of TPhP on two freshwater microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (CV) and Scenedesmus obliquus (SO) after exposure to 10 μg/l-10 mg/l for 5 days. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697183344
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.09.024DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads

Effects of coumaphos and imidacloprid on honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) lifespan and antioxidant gene regulations in laboratory experiments.

Sci Rep 2018 Oct 9;8(1):15003. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

USDA, ARS, Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Research Laboratory, Poplarville, MS, USA.

The main objective of this study was to test comparatively the effects of two common insecticides on honey bee Apis mellifera worker's lifespan, food consumption, mortality, and expression of antioxidant genes. Newly emerged worker bees were exposed to organophosphate insecticide coumaphos, a neonicotinoid imidacloprid, and their mixtures. Toxicity tests were conducted along with bee midgut immunohistological TUNEL analyses. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-33348-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-33348-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6177410PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Characterization of acute intrastriatal effects of paraoxon on in vivo dopaminergic neurotransmission using microdialysis in freely moving rats.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Dec 4;299:124-128. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Functional Biology and Health Sciences, Faculty of Biology, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, 36310 Vigo, Spain.

Paraoxon (POX) is an extremely neurotoxic organophosphorous compound (OP) which main toxic mechanism is the irreversible inhibition of cholinesterase. Although the cholinergic system has always been linked as responsible for its acute effects, experimental studies have suggested that the dopaminergic system also may be a potential target for OPs. Based on this, in this study, the acute intrastriatal effects of POX on dopaminergic neurotransmission were characterized in vivo using brain microdialysis in freely moving rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.09.017DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

The organophosphate pesticide methamidophos opens the blood-testis barrier and covalently binds to ZO-2 in mice.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018 Dec 3;360:257-272. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Physiology, Biophysics and Neuroscience, Cinvestav, Mexico City 07360, Mexico. Electronic address:

Methamidophos (MET) is an organophosphate (OP) pesticide widely used in agriculture in developing countries. MET causes adverse effects in male reproductive function in humans and experimental animals, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We explored the effect of MET on mice testes (5 mg/kg/day/4 days), finding that this pesticide opens the blood-testis barrier and perturbs spermatogenesis, generating the appearance of immature germ cells in the epididymis. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0041008X183046
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2018.10.003DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads
3.705 Impact Factor

Biological impacts of organophosphates chlorpyrifos and diazinon on development, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2018 Nov - Dec;70:18-27. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida Genetics Institute, Interdisciplinary Program in Biomedical Sciences Neuroscience, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Electronic address:

The objectives of this study were to compare the biological responses in developing zebrafish to two organophosphate insecticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN). Zebrafish embryos were exposed to either solvent control (0.1% DMSO, v/v), or one dose of 0. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08920362183011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2018.10.001DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Mass spectrometric identification of in vitro-generated metabolites of two emerging organophosphate flame retardants: V6 and BDP.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 3;212:1047-1057. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Toxicological Centre, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. Electronic address:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro metabolism of two emerging organophosphate flame retardants, namely tetrekis(2-chlorethyl)dichloroisopentyldiphosphate (V6) and bisphenol-A bis-diphenyl phosphate (BDP) in human liver microsomes (HLMs), HLM S9 fractions and in human serum. In particular, the role of cytochrome P450 (CYPs) enzymes and/or paraoxonases (PONs) in the formation of V6 and BDP phase I metabolites was studied. Mono-, di-hydroxylated and hydrolytic phase I metabolites of V6 were mainly formed by CYPs in HLMs, while hydrolytic and O-dealkylated phase I metabolites of BDP were generated by PONs mainly in serum experiments. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00456535183161
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.08.142DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Measurement and prediction of bioconcentration factors of organophosphate flame retardants in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 28;166:270-276. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

The increase in the production and usage plus the toxicity nature of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) has become a concern. However, limited information is available about the bioaccumulation potential of OPFRs in fish. In this study, we determined the 96 h LC s and evaluated the bioaccumulation potential of six most frequently reported OPFRs in gill, kidney, liver, and muscle tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) for 48 d, and a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed to predict bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for the remaining 16 OPFRs. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01476513183095
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.09.089DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Neurotoxic effects of organophosphorus pesticides and possible association with neurodegenerative diseases in man: A review.

Authors:
Milan Jokanović

Toxicology 2018 Dec 25;410:125-131. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Experta Consulting, Belgrade, Serbia. Electronic address:

In this article the neurotoxic disorders appearing in patients exposed to organophosphorus pesticides and known mechanisms involved are reviewed. Organophosphorus compounds cause four main neurotoxic effects in humans: the cholinergic syndrome, the intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder. Compared to the cholinergic syndrome, that causes millions of cases of poisoning with fatality of more than 15% each year, other disorders involve much smaller number of patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2018.09.009DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

Organophosphate pesticide exposure and differential genome-wide DNA methylation.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 21;645:1135-1143. Epub 2018 Jul 21.

Department of Epidemiology, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Organophosphates (OP) are widely used insecticides that acutely inhibit acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity. There is great interest in improving the understanding of molecular mechanisms related to chronic OP exposure induced toxicity. We aim to elucidate epigenetic changes associated with OP exposure, using untargeted analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.143DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Acute toxicity of organic pesticides to Daphnia magna is unchanged by co-exposure to polystyrene microplastics.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 19;166:26-34. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Wallingford Oxfordshire OX10 8BB, UK; Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Leiden, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands.

Daphnia magna were exposed to two pesticides in the presence or absence of microplastics (300 000 particles ml 1 µm polystyrene spheres) and to microplastics alone. The pesticides were dimethoate, an organophosphate insecticide with a low log Kow, and deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide with a high log Kow. Daphnia were exposed to a nominal concentration range of 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.09.052DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Combined toxicity of organophosphate flame retardants and cadmium to Corbicula fluminea in aquatic sediments.

Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 7;243(Pt A):645-653. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, China.

Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), as alternatives to polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are frequently detected in various environmental matrices. Owing to urbanization and industrial pollution, co-contamination of OPFRs and heavy metals is ubiquitous in the environment. The toxicity of OPFRs in aqueous phase is a significant concern, but uncertainty still exists regarding the co-toxicity to benthic organisms of OPFRs and metals in sediments. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02697491183201
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.08.076DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Innovative Biocatalysts as Tools to Detect and Inactivate Nerve Agents.

Sci Rep 2018 Sep 13;8(1):13773. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Institute of Protein Biochemistry, National Research Council of Italy, Naples, Italy.

Pesticides and warfare nerve agents are frequently organophosphates (OPs) or related compounds. Their acute toxicity highlighted more than ever the need to explore applicable strategies for the sensing, decontamination and/or detoxification of these compounds. Herein, we report the use of two different thermostable enzyme families capable to detect and inactivate OPs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31751-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6137069PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Chemical warfare agent NOVICHOK - mini-review of available data.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Nov 11;121:343-350. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Philosophical Faculty, University of Hradec Kralove, Rokitanskeho 62, 500 03, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

The Cold War period is characterized by the infighting between the Western countries and the USSR in diverse areas. One of such fields was development of the weapons of mass destruction. Within various programs on both sides, a wide scale of different agents have been developed. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02786915183065
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.09.015DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Knockdown of Butyrylcholinesterase but Not Inhibition by Chlorpyrifos Alters Early Differentiation Mechanisms in Human Neural Stem Cells.

Toxics 2018 Sep 1;6(3). Epub 2018 Sep 1.

Department of Cell Biology & Neuroscience and the Human Genetics Institute of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is the evolutionary counterpart to acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Both are expressed early in nervous system development prior to cholinergic synapse formation. The organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) primarily exerts toxicity through the inhibition of AChE, which results in excess cholinergic stimulation at the synapse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxics6030052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6160911PMC
September 2018
3 Reads

An integrated nanocatalyst combining enzymatic and metal-organic framework catalysts for cascade degradation of organophosphate nerve agents.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2018 Sep;54(76):10754-10757

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hebei University of Technology, 8 Guangrong Road, Hongqiao District, Tianjin, 300130, P. R. China.

An integrated nanocatalyst (INC), denoted OPH@MIL-100(Fe), was synthesized by immobilizing a biocatalyst onto a metal-organic framework (MOF)-based catalyst, which can cascadingly degrade organophosphate nerve agents to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) and result in a sharp decrease of their toxicity up to 208-fold. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8cc06727aDOI Listing
September 2018
6 Reads

Verification of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning: Detection of phosphorylated tyrosines and a cysteine-proline disulfide-adduct from human serum albumin after intoxication with dimethoate/omethoate.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Dec 27;299:11-20. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Neuherbergstrasse 11, 80937 Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

A method is described allowing forensic analysis of plasma samples to prove human poisoning with the organophosphorus pesticides omethoate (OM) and dimethoate (DIM). Upon incubation of human serum albumin (HSA) with both pesticides tyrosine residues were phosphorylated. In addition, a novel disulfide-adduct between the identical thiol-containing leaving group of OM and DIM (2-mercapto-N-methylacetamide, MNMA) and the only free cysteine residue in HSA (Cys) was formed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.08.013DOI Listing
December 2018
20 Reads

Midazolam is effective to reduce cortical network activity in organotypic cultures during severe cholinergic overstimulation with soman.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Nov 27;297:19-23. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Experimental Anesthesiology Section, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Eberhard-Karls-University, Waldhoernlestrasse 22, 72072 Tuebingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Intoxication with organophosphorus compounds can result in life-threatening organ dysfunction and refractory seizures. Sedation or hypnosis is essential to facilitate mechanical ventilation and control seizure activity. The range of indications for midazolam includes both hypnosis and seizure control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.08.016DOI Listing
November 2018
18 Reads

Environmental exposure to non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals and semen quality: An overview of the current epidemiological evidence

Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018 Jul 11;31(4):377-414. Epub 2018 May 11.

“Gameta” Hospital, Rzgów, Poland (Department of Gynecology and Reproduction)

Some of the recent publications have reported a decline in semen quality in the last few decades. This phenomenon is associated with environmental factors, particularly with exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The aim of this publication is to critically review the literature on exposure to the following 6 ubiquitous environmental non-persistent EDCs: bisphenol A, triclosan, parabens, synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphate pesticides and phthalates, and on their influence on semen quality measured as sperm concentration, sperm volume, total sperm count, motility, total motile count, morphology, sperm motion, sperm DNA damage (comet extent, tail length, tail distributed moment, percent of DNA located in the tail (tail%), DNA fragmentation index, high DNA stainability, X:Y ratio and aneuploidy. Read More

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http://www.journalssystem.com/ijomeh/Environmental-exposure-
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13075/ijomeh.1896.01195DOI Listing
July 2018
7 Reads

Acute and long-term consequences of exposure to organophosphate nerve agents in humans.

Epilepsia 2018 Oct 29;59 Suppl 2:92-99. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Neurology and Program in Neuroscience, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Nerve agents are organophosphate (OP) compounds and among the most powerful poisons known to man. A terrorist attack on civilian or military populations causing mass casualties is a real threat. The OP nerve agents include soman, sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.14500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6172147PMC
October 2018
20 Reads

Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate Exposure During the Early-Blastula Stage Alters the Normal Trajectory of Zebrafish Embryogenesis.

Environ Sci Technol 2018 Sep 10;52(18):10820-10828. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) is an organophosphate flame retardant used around the world. Within zebrafish, we previously showed that initiation of TDCIPP exposure during cleavage (0.75 h post-fertilization, hpf) results in epiboly disruption at 6 hpf, leading to dorsalized embryos by 24 hpf, a phenotype that mimics the effects of dorsomorphin (DMP), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist that dorsalizes embryos in the absence of epiboly defects. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.8b03730
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b03730DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6169527PMC
September 2018
15 Reads

Toxicology of Newer Insecticides in Small Animals.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2018 Nov 24;48(6):1013-1026. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center, 1717 South Philo Road, Suite 36, Urbana, IL 61802, USA.

In the broadest definition, a pesticide (from fly swatters to chemicals) is a substance used to eliminate a pest. Newer insecticides are much safer to the environment, humans, and nontarget species. These insecticides are able to target physiologic differences between insects and mammals, resulting in greater mammalian safety. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2018.06.005DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

Effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate on growth and transcription of genes involved in the GH/IGF and HPT axes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 20;212:376-384. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), as one of the most widely used organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), is applied in nearly all manufactured items and materials. It has been reported that TBOEP could cause developmental impairments and disrupt the endocrine regulation of fish growth during acute toxic experiments. However, concentrations to which fish were exposed in these studies were greater than environmentally relevant concentrations ever reported. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00456535183157
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.08.102DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Neurotoxicity in acute and repeated organophosphate exposure.

Toxicology 2018 Sep 23;408:101-112. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, 30912, Georgia. Electronic address:

The term organophosphate (OP) refers to a diverse group of chemicals that are found in hundreds of products worldwide. As pesticides, their most common use, OPs are clearly beneficial for agricultural productivity and the control of deadly vector-borne illnesses. However, as a consequence of their widespread use, OPs are now among the most common synthetic chemicals detected in the environment as well as in animal and human tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2018.08.011DOI Listing
September 2018
17 Reads

Susceptibility of Chordodes nobilii (Gordiida, Nematomorpha) to three pesticides: Influence of the water used for dilution on endpoints in an ecotoxicity bioassay.

Environ Pollut 2018 Nov 3;242(Pt B):1427-1435. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Programa de Ecofisiología Aplicada (PRODEA), Instituto de Ecología y Desarrollo Sustentable (INEDES) UNLu-CONICET y Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Nacional de Luján, Argentina.

The increased use of pesticides during recent years necessitates a reevaluation of the effect of those compounds by extending the range of nontarget species commonly used in risk assessment. In the present work, we thus determined the impact of the pesticides glyphosate, carbendazim, and malathion on the parasite Chordodes nobilii in both natural and reconstituted freshwater as the assay medium and tested the sensitivity of three of this species's ecologically relevant parameters-e. g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.08.006DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Fragmentation of chlorpyrifos by thermal electron attachment: a likely relation to its metabolism and toxicity.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Aug;20(34):22272-22283

Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics, Subdivision of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospeκt Oktyabrya 151, Ufa 450075, Russia.

The energies of formation and dissociative decays of temporary negative ions of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) are studied using electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS), dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) and quantum-chemical calculations. Three features are displayed by ETS at 2.4, 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8cp03224fDOI Listing
August 2018
4 Reads

Malathion toxicity and lipid emulsion.

Authors:
Ju-Tae Sohn

Toxicol Ind Health 2018 11 19;34(11):812. Epub 2018 Aug 19.

1 Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748233718783898DOI Listing
November 2018

The Efficacy of Amifostine against Multiple-Dose Doxorubicin-Induced Toxicity in Rats.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Aug 12;19(8). Epub 2018 Aug 12.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, Rokitanského 62, 50003 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.

Amifostine is well known cytoprotector which is efficient when administered before a wide range of antineoplastic agents. The aim of our study was to investigate amifostine effects on doxorubicin-induced toxic changes in rats. Amifostine (75 mg/kg ip) was given 30 min before each dose of doxorubicin (cumulatively 20 mg/kg ip, for 28 days). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6121234PMC
August 2018
9 Reads

Developmental neurotoxicity of triphenyl phosphate in zebrafish larvae.

Aquat Toxicol 2018 Oct 3;203:80-87. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China. Electronic address:

Triphenyl phosphate (TPhP), a typical organophosphate ester, is frequently detected in the environment and biota samples. It has been implicated as a neurotoxin as its structure is similar to neurotoxic organophosphate pesticides. The purpose of the present study was to investigate its potential developmental neurotoxicity in fish by using zebrafish larvae as a model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2018.08.001DOI Listing
October 2018
9 Reads

Sensitivity of multiple life stages of 2 freshwater mussel species (Unionidae) to various pesticides detected in Ontario (Canada) surface waters.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2018 Nov 8;37(11):2871-2880. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Freshwater mussels contribute important ecological functions to aquatic systems. The water filtered by mussel assemblages can improve water quality, and the mixing of sediments by burrowing mussels can improve oxygen content and release nutrients. However, nearly 70% of North American freshwater mussel species are listed as either endangered, threatened, or in decline. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/etc.4248
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.4248DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Injury to the oral mucosa by organophosphates without systemic toxicity: a rare case.

Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 Oct 6;56(8):755-757. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Trauma and Emergency, AIIMS, Bhubaneshwar, India. Electronic address:

We describe a case of multiple Zargar grade IIA ulcerations of the oral mucosa with no systemic toxicity in a patient after ingestion of an organophosphate. Serial debridement, control of superadded infections, and active physiotherapy were the mainstay of the treatment plan. We know of no other reported cases of poisoning by organophosphates that caused burns of the oral mucosa and no systemic toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjoms.2018.07.016DOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads

Dichlorvos Induced Oxidative and Neuronal Responses in Rats: Mitigative Efficacy of Nigella sativa (Black Cumin).

Niger J Physiol Sci 2018 Jun 30;33(1):83-88. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Poisoning from Organophosphates (OPs), especially Dichlorvos (DDVP) has become endemic due to theincreasing use in house hold and agricultural pests control, with most marked effects in the nervous system. However, it isevidenced that natural antioxidants are efficacious against OPs toxicity. Thus, this study investigated the possible antidotalefficacy of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) in Dichlovos (DDVP) induced oxidative and neuronal damages in Wistar rats. Read More

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June 2018
14 Reads

The subchronic exposure to malathion, an organophosphate pesticide, causes lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, and tissue damage in rats: the protective role of resveratrol.

Toxicol Res (Camb) 2018 May 22;7(3):503-512. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Afyon Kocatepe University , Faculty of Veterinary Medicine , Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology , 03200 Afyonkarahisar , Turkey.

The present study was planned to evaluate the protective role of resveratrol (Res) against subchronic malathion exposure in rats over four weeks. In total, 48 Wistar rats were used and divided equally into six groups. The groups were designed as the control group (received only a rodent diet and tap water), the corn oil group (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8tx00030aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6062150PMC
May 2018
2 Reads

Genotoxicity assessment of pesticide profenofos in freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) using comet assay and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD).

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 31;211:316-323. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Environmental Toxicology and Bioremediation Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, 226007 UP, India. Electronic address:

The present study explored the induced genotoxicity (DNA damage) due to organophosphate pesticide profenofos (PFF) after in vivo exposure in freshwater fish Channa punctatus by the use of Comet assay and Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The fish specimens were exposed to sub-lethal concentration of 1.16 ppb (50% of LC) in a semi-static system and the DNA damage was assessed in exposed and control fish. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.07.182DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos: Sublethal effects on enzyme activities and histopathology of Mugil cephalus and Chanos chanos.

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 24;211:89-101. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

National Centre for Coastal Research, NIOT Campus, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Govt. of India, Pallikaranai, Chennai 600 100, India.

Ecotoxicological data and potential impact of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in the region are scarce for prescribing safety limits. Therefore, toxicity and sublethal impact of CPF on fish fingerlings of Mugil cephalus (3.0 ± 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.07.137DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Nephrotoxicity issues of organophosphates.

Toxicology 2018 Aug 29;406-407:129-136. Epub 2018 Jul 29.

Department of Urology, University General Hospital of Heraklion, University of Crete, Medical School, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

Organophosphates are a large class of chemicals, initially invented in 1850 and since then they have been applied in numerous aspects of science to serve our purposes. Their mechanism of action in living organisms involves the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, therefore they interfere with neuromuscular signal transmission. Due to the systematic and exaggerated use of these chemicals, there is massive exposure to them, hence there is great concern regarding the ramifications to all mammalian organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2018.07.019DOI Listing
August 2018
13 Reads

Acute organophosphate poisoning: 17 years of experience of the National Poison Control Center in Serbia.

Toxicology 2018 Nov 25;409:73-79. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Experta Consulting Belgrade, Serbia.

Based on human toxicity studies, by appropriate regulatory decisions, the number of organophosphates (OP) on Serbian market has reduced significantly over the last two decades, followed by a gradual decrease in the number of poisonings by organophoshates, treated at the National Poison Control Centre (NPCC).

Methodology: The aim of this retrospective study is to present data regarding the clinical management of poisoning with OP pesticides at the NPCC, that we collected during the 17 years period (1998-2014).

Results: In the period 1998-2014, about 17. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2018.07.010DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

Molecular and clinical aspects of embryotoxicity induced by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

Toxicology 2018 Nov 25;409:137-143. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Forensic Sciences and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Crete, Voutes, 71003, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Electronic address:

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are widely used for a variety of medical, agricultural and public health purposes. Consequently, exposure is highly possible during lifetime. However, their systematic use raises concerns for the potential impact on the fetus and newborn since these substances may affect angiogenesis, the neonatal and maternal intensive care, neuroimmune function and response, mammary growth/lactation via cholinergic/non-cholinergic central and peripheral neuroendocrine pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2018.07.018DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads