742,922 results match your criteria Toxicity Organic Phosphorous Compounds and Carbamates


A Phase II study of nab-Paclitaxel (nab-P) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer with EGFR mutations after frontline tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2021 Jun 9;28:100416. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

University of Washington, Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology United States.

Background: Patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring a sensitizing EGFR mutation have effective targeted therapy options initially but most patients eventually progress and receive cytotoxic chemotherapy. In this single-institution phase II study, we evaluated the role of nab-paclitaxel monotherapy in this patient population.

Patients And Methods: Patients with metastatic NSCLC with an activating EGFR mutation whose disease progressed after frontline tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy and who were chemotherapy naïve received nab-paclitaxel 125 mg/m2 on days 1, 8 and 15 in a 28-day cycle. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Paper-based mediatorless enzymatic microfluidic biofuel cells.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jun 9;190:113391. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, BK21 FOUR ERICA-ACE Center, Hanyang University, 55 Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do, 15588, South Korea. Electronic address:

In this study, eco-friendly and disposable paper-based membraneless microfluidic enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs) were developed without any mediators to reduce the toxicity and cost of EFCs. Glucose oxidase and laccase were immobilized on multi-walled carbon nanotube electrodes to catalyze the redox reaction of glucose and oxygen. Micromachining techniques well-suited for mass production were used to precisely fabricate micro-scale Y-shaped and cross-shaped EFCs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impact of environmental chemicals on craniofacial skeletal development: Insights from investigations using zebrafish embryos.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 7;286:117541. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, 515041, Guangdong, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment, Shantou, 515041, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Craniofacial skeletal anomalies are among the most common structural birth defects around the world. Various studies using human populations and experimental animals have shown that genetic and environmental factors play significant roles in the causation and progression of these anomalies. Environmental factors, such as teratogens and toxin mixtures, induce craniofacial anomalies are gaining heightened attention. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Zinc oxide nanoparticles alleviates the adverse effects of cadmium stress on Oryza sativa via modulation of the photosynthesis and antioxidant defense system.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 8;220:112401. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Botany, S.P. College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is a trace element causing severe toxicity symptoms in plants, besides posing hazardous fitness issue due to its buildup in the human body through food chain. Nanoparticles (NPs) are recently employed as a novel strategy to directly ameliorate the Cd stress and acted as nano-fertilizers. The intend of the current study was to explore the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs; 50 mg/L) on plant growth, photosynthetic activity, elemental status and antioxidant activity in Oryza sativa (rice) under Cd (0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel sulindac derivatives as partial agonists of PPARγ with potential anti-diabetic efficacy.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 May 24;222:113542. Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Innovative Drug Target Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361102, China; High Throughput Drug Screening Platform, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, 361102, China. Electronic address:

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a valuable drug target for diabetic treatment and ligands of PPARγ have shown potent anti-diabetic efficacy. However, to overcome the severe side effects of current PPARγ-targeted drugs, novel PPARγ ligands need to be developed. Sulindac, an identified ligand of PPARγ, is widely used in clinic as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Degradation of antibiotic Cephalosporin C in different water matrices by ionizing radiation: Degradation kinetics, pathways, and toxicity.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 4;791:148253. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Radioactive Waste Treatment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China. Electronic address:

Cephalosporin antibiotics are ubiquitous emerging pollutants in various aquatic environments due to their extensive production and application. Herein, the radiolytic degradation of antibiotic Cephalosporin C (CEP-C) in different water matrices was comprehensively investigated using gamma radiation at various experimental conditions. The results revealed that CEP-C oxidation obeyed pseudo first-order kinetics, and 100%, 94. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Orally administered nano-polystyrene caused vitellogenin alteration and oxidative stress in the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii).

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 29;791:147984. Epub 2021 May 29.

Dept. Life Sciences, University of Trieste, via L. Giorgieri 5, 34127 Trieste, Italy. Electronic address:

Nanoplastics (≤100 nm) represent the smallest fraction of plastic litter and may result in the aquatic environment as degradation products of larger plastic material. To date, few studies focused on the interactions of micro- and nanoplastics with freshwater Decapoda. The red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, Girard, 1852) is an invasive species able to tolerate highly perturbed environments. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparison of indoor and outdoor oxidative potential of PM: pollution levels, temporal patterns, and key constituents.

Environ Int 2021 Jun 9;155:106684. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing, China; Engineering Research Center of Building Equipment, Energy, and Environment, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, China.

Oxidative potential (OP) of PM is an emerging health indicator representing its ability to induce oxidative stress and cause adverse health effects. We examined pollution levels, temporal variations, and key constituents of PM OP by DTT assay in both indoor and outdoor environments in Nanjing, China, for over one year. Outdoor OP (mass-normalized OP characterizes toxicity) and OP (volume-based OP characterizes overall oxidative burden) in Nanjing were at a medium level compared to results reported for twenty-seven cities. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pesticides are the dominant stressors for vulnerable insects in lowland streams.

Water Res 2021 May 17;201:117262. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of River Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, 04318 Leipzig, Germany.

Despite elaborate regulation of agricultural pesticides, their occurrence in non-target areas has been linked to adverse ecological effects on insects in several field investigations. Their quantitative role in contributing to the biodiversity crisis is, however, still not known. In a large-scale study across 101 sites of small lowland streams in Central Europe, Germany we revealed that 83% of agricultural streams did not meet the pesticide-related ecological targets. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effect of ZnO nanoparticles on Zn, Cu, and Pb dissolution in a green bioretention system for urban stormwater remediation.

Chemosphere 2021 May 29;282:131045. Epub 2021 May 29.

Naturalea, Terra Alta, 51, 08211, Castellar del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain.

Stormwater runoff from urban and suburban areas can carry hazardous pollutants directly into aquatic ecosystems. These pollutants, such as metals, nutrients, aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals, are very toxic to aquatic organisms. Recently, significant amounts of zinc oxide engineered nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have been detected in urban stormwater and its bioretention systems. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Bio-CQDs surface modification BiOCl for the BPA elimination and evaluation in visible light: The contribution of C-localized level.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jun 2;602:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.

Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) doping semiconductors can boost solar-to-hydrogen conversion and the photodegradation in VIS-NIR light, therefore attract great attention, but the perspective of CQDs role is seldom explored. Here, a biomass-CQDs was assembled with BiOCl (CQDs/BiOCl), then served as the visible-photodegradation model for a mechanistic investigation. Furthermore, CQDs/BiOCl removed 90% bisphenol A (BPA) within 2 h under visible light. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Co-benefits of biochar-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron in simultaneously stabilizing soil heavy metals and reducing their bioaccessibility.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 6;418:126292. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

College of Environmental & Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

We investigated the performance and encapsulation mechanisms of novel biochar-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI-BC) used for the remediation of soil co-contaminated with arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) via incubation and column experiments. Compared with the control, 0.50% of nZVI-BC significantly decreased the leakage of As, Cd, and Pb by 97. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Construction of a novel microbial consortium valued for the effective degradation and detoxification of creosote-treated sawdust along with enhanced methane production.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 27;418:126091. Epub 2021 May 27.

Biofuels Institute, School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China. Electronic address:

Lignocellulosic biomass represents an unlimited and ubiquitous energy source, which can effectively address current global challenges, including climate change, greenhouse gas emissions, and increased energy demand. However, lignocellulose recalcitrance hinders microbial degradation, especially in case of contaminated materials such as creosote (CRO)-treated wood, which necessitates appropriate processing in order to eliminate pollution. This study might be the first to explore a novel bacterial consortium SST-4, for decomposing birchwood sawdust, capable of concurrently degrading lignocellulose and CRO compounds. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

High-efficiency removal of tetracycline by carbon-bridge-doped g-CN/FeO magnetic heterogeneous catalyst through photo-Fenton process.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 7;418:126333. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Jiangsu Baichuan High-Tech New Materials Co., Ltd, Nanjing, China.

Carbon-bridge-modified malonamide (MLD)/g-CN (CN) was prepared by copolymerization of MLD with urea and melamine and loaded with FeO for the high-efficiency removal of tetracycline (TC) in water under photo-Fenton. The prepared catalysts were characterized by SEM, TEM, N adsorption-desorption analysis, XPS, XRD, and FTIR, which proved that the modification method successfully introduced the C bridge into the carbon nitride molecular system and increased the structural defects of the catalyst. The Carbon-bridge-modified MLD/CN/FeO also had good visible-light response and charge-separation and transport abilities in the photoelectrochemical test. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recent advances in technologies for removal and recovery of selenium from (waste)water: A systematic review.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 9;294:112926. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Coupure Links 653, 9000, Gent, Belgium. Electronic address:

Selenium (Se) is distributed into different environmental compartments by natural and anthropogenic activities, and generally discharged in the form of selenate [SeO] and selenite [SeO], which are both toxic. Physical-chemical and biological treatment processes have been reported to exhibit good treatment efficiencies for Se from aqueous streams, only a few demonstrated to achieve effluent concentrations <5 μg/L. Moreover, there are only a few numbers of studies that describe the progress in technological developments over the last decade. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A review of the physiological impact of rare earth elements and their uses in biomedical Mg alloys.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia.

Magnesium (Mg) is well-tolerated by the body, displaying exceedingly low toxicity, rapid excretion, and numerous bioactive effects, including improved bone formation and protection against oxidative stresses; further, Mg alloys can be degraded in vivo to allow complete removal of an implant without surgical intervention, avoiding revision surgery and thrombosis concerns seen with permanent implants. Rare earth elements (REEs) have been of particular interest in alloying Mg alloys for nearly a century due to their unique chemical and physical properties but have attracted increasing attention in recent decades. The REEs contribute greatly to the mechanical and biological properties of metal alloys, and so are common in Mg alloys in a wide variety of applications; in particular, they represent the dominant alloying additions in current, clinically applied Mg alloys. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

HAART exacerbates testicular damage and impaired spermatogenesis in anti-Koch-treated rats via dysregulation of lactate transport and glutathione content.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Reproductive Biology and Toxicology Research Laboratories, Oasis of Grace Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; Department of Morbid Anatomy, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is an effective anti-retroviral cocktail. Similarly, anti-Koch is highly potent against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, these drugs have been shown to impair male fertility. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The protective effect of Nano-selenium against cadmium-induced cerebellar injury via the heat shock protein pathway in chicken.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Jun 9:112332. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, P.R. China; Key Laboratory of the Provincial Education Department of Heilongjiang for Common Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, P.R. China; Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Laboratory Animals and Comparative Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the toxic environmental heavy metals that poses health hazard to animal due to its toxicity. Nano-Selenium (Nano-Se) is a Nano-composite form of Se, which has emerged as promising therapeutic agent for its protective roles against heavy metals-induced toxicity. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play a critical role in cellular homeostasis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Anti-seizure activity of African medicinal plants: the identification of bioactive alkaloids from the stem bark of Rauvolfia caffra using an in vivo zebrafish model.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 9:114282. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Epilepsy is one of the major chronic diseases that does not have a cure to date. Adverse drug reactions have been reported from the use of available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) which are also effective in only two-thirds of the patients. Accordingly, the identification of scaffolds with promising anti-seizure activity remains an important first step towards the development of new anti-epileptic therapies, with improved efficacy and reduced adverse effects. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Unfolding the Apoptotic Mechanism of Antioxidant Enriched-Leaves of Tabebuia pallida (Lindl.) Miers in EAC Cells and Mouse Model.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jun 9:114297. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Tabebuia pallida (Lindl.) Miers (T. pallida) is a well-known native Caribbean medicinal plant. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Safety and efficacy of an anti-claudin-5 monoclonal antibody to increase blood-brain barrier permeability for drug delivery to the brain in a non-human primate.

J Control Release 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Electronic address:

Claudin-5 (CLDN-5) is an essential component of the tight junction seal in the blood-brain barrier. Previously, we showed that CLDN-5 modulation in vitro via an anti-CLDN-5 monoclonal antibody (mAb) may be useful for increasing the permeability of the blood-brain barrier for drug delivery to the brain. Based on these findings, here we examined the safety and efficacy of the anti-CLDN-5 mAb in a non-human primate. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Engineering of single-domain antibodies for next generation snakebite antivenoms.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Plataforma Bi-Institucional de Medicina Translacional (Fiocruz-USP), Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Given the magnitude of the global snakebite crisis, strategies to ensure the quality of antivenom, as well as the availability and sustainability of its supply are under development by several research groups. Recombinant DNA technology has allowed the engineering of monoclonal antibodies and recombinant fragments as alternatives to conventional antivenoms. Besides higher therapeutic efficacy, with broad neutralization capacity against local and systemic toxicity, novel antivenoms have to ensure safety and cost-effectivity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The murburn precepts for aerobic respiration and redox homeostasis.

Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Institutskaya 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia. Electronic address:

Murburn concept is a new perspective to metabolism which posits that certain redox enzymes/proteins mediate catalysis outside their active site, via diffusible reactive oxygen species (DROS, usually deemed as toxic wastes). We have recently questioned the proton-centric chemiosmotic rotary ATP synthesis (CRAS) explanation for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (mOxPhos) and proposed an oxygen-centric murburn model in lieu. Herein, the chemical equations and thermodynamic foundations for this new model of mOxPhos are detailed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Spermine with Sodium Taurocholate Enhances Pulmonary Absorption of Macromolecules in Rats.

J Pharm Sci 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima-naka, kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530, Japan.

The improvement effect of the combined use of spermine (SPM), a polyamine, with sodium taurocholate (STC) on the pulmonary drug absorption was investigated utilizing poorly absorbable drugs with various molecular sizes in rats. The pulmonary absorption of rebamipide, a low molecular but poorly absorbable drug after oral administration, was significantly improved by the combined use of SPM with STC (SPM-STC formulation), while poly- L-lysine did not show a significant change in rebamipide absorption from the lungs. Furthermore, the safety of the SPM-STC formulation for the lungs was assessed in rats by the histopathological study and any local toxicity was not observed while poly-L-lysine, a typical chemical causing the toxicity for the epithelial cells, provided several histopathological changes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Natural antimicrobials and antioxidants added to polylactic acid packaging films. Part I: Polymer processing techniques.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Packaging Innovation Center (LABEN), University of Santiago of Chile (USACH), Santiago, Chile.

Currently, reducing packaging plastic waste and food losses are concerning topics in the food packaging industry. As an alternative for these challenges, antimicrobial and antioxidant materials have been developed by incorporating active agents (AAs) into biodegradable polymers to extend the food shelf life. In this context, developing biodegradable active materials based on polylactic acid (PLA) and natural compounds are a great alternative to maintain food safety and non-toxicity of the packaging. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Decontamination of respirators amid shortages due to SARS-CoV-2.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 35294-0022, USA.

The pandemic created by SARS-CoV-2 has caused a shortage in the supplies of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs), disposable respirators with at least 95% efficiency to remove non-oily airborne particles, due to increasing cases all over the world. The current article reviewed various possible decontamination methods for FFR reuse including ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV), microwave-generated steam (MGS), hydrogen peroxide gas plasma (HPGP), and 70% or higher ethanol solution. HPV decontamination was effective against bacterial spores (6 log reduction of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores) on FFRs and viruses (> 4 log reduction of various types of viruses) on inanimate surfaces, and no degradation of respirator materials and fit has been reported. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Beef cattle feedlot surface water containing multi-class agrochemicals elicits physiological and behavioral responses among Daphnia pulex.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jun 12;193(7):414. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, 79416, USA.

Despite increasing public concern about air and water pollution risks posed by concentrated animal feeding operation areas (CAFOs), there is little information about bioavailability and ecosystem impacts of agrochemicals used to increase productivity. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of wastewaters originating from beef cattle feeding operation on Daphnia pulex. Specifically, we assessed lethal and chronic sublethal exposure effects using various endpoints including survival, oxygen consumption, morphology, reproduction, and swimming behavior. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Macroscopic identification of visceral titanium pigment in an intravenous drug user.

J Forensic Sci 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Forensic Science SA, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Autopsy findings in intravenous drug addicts are quite variable and may involve a number of organ systems. Reports of the macroscopic identification at autopsy of components of tablets that have been crushed and injected are, however, exceedingly rare. The case of 34-year-old man who died of zolpidem toxicity on a background of pulmonary hypertension attributed to intravenous injections of crushed tablets is described. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Species-Specific Urothelial Toxicity with an anti-HIV Non-Catalytic Site Integrase Inhibitor (NCINI) is Related to Unusual pH-Dependent Physicochemical Changes.

Toxicol Sci 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Nonclinical Safety & Pathobiology, Gilead Sciences, Inc, Foster City, USA.

GS-9695 and GS-9822 are next generation Non-Catalytic Site Integrase Inhibitors (NCINIs) with significantly improved potency against HIV compared with previous drugs such as BI-224436. Development stopped due to vacuolation of the bladder urothelium seen in cynomolgus monkey but not in rat; this lesion was absent in equivalent preclinical studies with BI-224436 (tested in dog and rat). Lesions were unlikely to be attributable to target since NCINIs specifically target viral integrase protein and no mammalian homologue is known. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Isolation and characterization of two highly insecticidal, endophytic strains of Bacillus thuringiensis.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Departamento de Biotecnología y Bioquímica, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, 36500 Irapuato, Gto. Mexico.

Recent discovery of endophytic strains of Bacillus thuringiensis significantly improves the knowledge on its ecology. It also may be a new source for the isolation of insecticidal strains. This report shows the characterization of two endophytic, highly insecticidal strains of B. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF