16,652 results match your criteria Toxicity Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents


Acetaminophen: Is Too Much of a Good Thing Too Much?

Compend Contin Educ Dent 2022 May;43(5):268-273; quiz 274

Associate Principal, Vizient Pharmacy Advisory Solutions, Irving, Texas; Clinical Professor, School of Pharmacy, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana; Clinical Assistant Professor, School of Dentistry, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, Oregon; Adjunct Professor, Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia; Fellow, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists; Fellow, American College of Healthcare Executives.

Acetaminophen is a popular, universally used, over-the-counter pain medication contained in more than 600 different products and available in a plethora of dosage forms. Acetaminophen is an important adjunct to manage postoperative dental pain in combination with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug such as ibuprofen. For the treatment of more severe pain, acetaminophen is often formulated with non-opioid and opioid agents. Read More

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[Protection effect of baicalin-regulated IKKα on inflammatory reaction of human oral keratinocytes].

Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue 2021 Dec;30(6):589-594

School of Stomatology, Shanxi Medical University, The Key Laboratory of Oral Disease Prevention and New Materials of Shanxi Province. Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi Province, China. E-mail:

Purpose: To observe the regulation of baicalin on IKKα mediated MASPIN in Human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) inflammatory reaction, this study was to explore the molecular regulation mechanism of baicalin on oral mucosal inflammation.

Methods: HOKs were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic the inflammatory response of oral mucosal inflammation in vitro. CCK-8 assay was used to detect the toxicity of baicalin to HOKs; then different concentrations of baicalin were pre-treated to LPS-stimulated HOKs, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) was used to detect the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated HOKs; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) and Western blot assay were used to detect the regulatory effects of baicalin on gene and protein expression levels of IKKα mediated MASPIN in LPS-stimulated HOKs. Read More

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December 2021

Tranilast attenuates lipopolysaccharide‑induced lung injury via the CXCR4/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

Mol Med Rep 2022 Jul 18;26(1). Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Emergency, The Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315020, P.R. China.

It has been reported that the expression of C‑X‑C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is increased in patients with lung injury, while CXCR4 downregulation can improve sepsis‑induced lung injury. Previous studies have shown that tranilast can inhibit CXCR4 mRNA expression. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether tranilast could protect against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced lung injury via the CXCR4/Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 signaling pathway. Read More

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Paeoniflorin attenuates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats by suppressing TAK1-MAPK/NF-κB pathways.

Int J Med Sci 2022 28;19(4):681-694. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, P.R. China.

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling is a lethal disease. Paeoniflorin (PF) is a monoterpene glycoside with numerous beneficial functions, such as vasodilation, anti-inflammation and immunomodulation. This study aims to investigate the effects of PF on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rats. Read More

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Nanoformulation of Polyphenol Curcumin Enhances Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis in Drug-Resistant MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells.

Molecules 2022 May 3;27(9). Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz P.O. Box 5166616471, Iran.

Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is the aggressive and lethal type of breast malignancy that develops resistance to current therapies. Combination therapy has proven to be an effective strategy on TNBC. We aimed to study whether the nano-formulation of polyphenolic curcumin (Gemini-Cur) would affect the cisplatin-induced toxicity in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Read More

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Biodegradable Nanoparticles Loaded with Levodopa and Curcumin for Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

Molecules 2022 Apr 28;27(9). Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Advanced Therapy and Cellular Biotechnology in Regenerative Medicine Department, The Pelé Pequeno Príncipe Research Institute, Child and Adolescent Health Research & Pequeno Príncipe Faculties, Curitiba 80240-020, Brazil.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Levodopa (L-DOPA) remains the gold-standard drug available for treating PD. Curcumin has many pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-amyloid, and antitumor properties. Read More

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In Silico and Experimental Investigation of the Biological Potential of Some Recently Developed Carprofen Derivatives.

Molecules 2022 Apr 23;27(9). Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Department of Anatomy, Animal Physiology, and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, 36-46 M. Kogălniceanu Boulevard, 050107 Bucharest, Romania.

The efficient regioselective bromination and iodination of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) carprofen were achieved by using bromine and iodine monochloride in glacial acetic acid. The novel halogenated carprofen derivatives were functionalized at the carboxylic group by esterification. The regioselectivity of the halogenation reaction was evidenced by NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by X-ray analysis. Read More

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The Cooperative Anti-Neoplastic Activity of Polyphenolic Phytochemicals on Human T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cell Line MOLT-4 In Vitro.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 26;23(9). Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Medical University of Gdańsk, Hallera Street 107, 80-416 Gdańsk, Poland.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common hematological malignancy affecting pediatric patients. ALL treatment regimens with cytostatics manifest substantial toxicity and have reached the maximum of well-tolerated doses. One potential approach for improving treatment efficiency could be supplementation of the current regimen with naturally occurring phytochemicals with anti-cancer properties. Read More

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Curcumin alleviated lipopolysaccharide-evoked H9c2 cells damage via suppression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1/CD40/NF-κB signaling.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2022 Jan-Dec;41:9603271211069043

Department of Cardiology, 159434Xuzhou Central Hospital, Xuzhou, China.

Background: Curcumin has been reported to have many benefits, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and so on. In this research, we aimed to investigate the function of curcumin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-injured H9c2 cells.

Methods: H9c2 cells stimulated by LPS mimic the in vitro model of myocarditis injury. Read More

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Tanshinone IIA alleviate rifampicin-induced cholestasis by regulating the expression and function of bile salt export pump.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2022 Jan-Dec;41:9603271221097365

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Key Laboratory of Drug-Targeting and Drug Delivery System of the Education Ministry, West China School of Pharmacy, 535321Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Rifampicin (RFP) induces cholestasis due to long-term tubercular therapy. Impairment of the canalicular bile acids efflux via the bile salt export pump (BSEP) is a well-recognized cause of cholestasis. Tanshinone IIA (TAN IIA) has a protective effect on the liver. Read More

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Andrographolide, isolated from induces apoptosis in monocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma cells via augmentation of reactive oxygen species production.

F1000Res 2021 6;10:542. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Field of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Fujita Health University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Toyoake, 470-1192, Japan.

: Andrographolide (Andro) is a diterpenoid component of the plant that is known for its anti-tumor activity against a variety of cancer cells.   : We studied the effects of Andro on the viability of the human leukemia monocytic cell line THP-1 and the human multiple myeloma cell line H929. Andro was compared with cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) and vincristine (VCR), which are well-established therapeutics against hematopoietic tumors. Read More

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Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Gentamicin-induced Nephrotoxicity Mediated by p38 MAPK, Nuclear Factor- Kappa B, Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2022 Mar;16(2):96-107

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey.

Introduction: The antioxidant activity of curcumin (CMN) has been evaluated in several studies. We aimed to examine the protective effect of curcumin on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats, both at histological and immunohistochemical levels.

Methods: Forty male Wistar albino rats were assigned into four groups of 10 as follows: group 1: control, group 2: curcumin for 15 days, group 3: gentamicin for the last 10 days, and group 4: curcumin for 15 days and gentamicin for the last 10 days. Read More

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Antiangiogenic Activity of Sweet Almond (Prunus dulcis) Oil Alone and in Combination with Aspirin in both in vivo and in vitro Assays.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2022 04 1;23(4):1405-1413. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, AL-Nahrain University, Iraq.

Objective: Angiogenesis is new blood vessels formations that are necessary for certain physiological and pathologic conditions. Almond oil represents adjuvant therapies for numerous health benefits; It has ability for prevent the formation angiogenesis in tumour, due to its high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, flavonoids and other ingredients content. Aspirin is non-steroidal ant-inflammatory drug; significantly reduce the angiogenesis of cancer. Read More

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Impact of new cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors on human cytomegalovirus replication in vitro.

Antivir Ther 2021 Nov 29;26(6-8):117-125. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

INSERM, CHU Limoges, RESINFIT, U1092, 27025University Limoges, Limoges, France.

Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is involved in complications on immunocompromised patients. Current therapeutics are associated with several drawbacks, such as nephrotoxicity.

Purpose: As HCMV infection affects inflammation pathways, especially prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production via cyclooxygenase 2 enzyme (COX-2), we designed 2'-hydroxychalcone compounds to inhibit human cytomegalovirus. Read More

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November 2021

Developed meloxicam loaded microparticles for colon targeted delivery: Statistical optimization, physicochemical characterization, and in-vivo toxicity study.

PLoS One 2022 25;17(4):e0267306. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of Balochistan, Quetta, Pakistan.

The study aimed to fabricate and evaluate Meloxicam (MLX) loaded Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC) microparticles for colon targeting because MLX is a potent analgesic used in the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Nevertheless, its efficiency is limited by poor solubility and gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) associated side effects. Seventeen formulations of MLX loaded HPMC microparticles were fabricated by the oil-in-oil (O/O)/ emulsion solvent evaporation (ESE) technique. Read More

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Targeting p-AKT/mTOR/MAP kinase signaling, NLRP3 inflammasome and apoptosis by fluvastatin with or without taxifolin mitigates gonadal dysfunction induced by bisphenol-A in male rats.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2022 Jan-Dec;41:9603271221089919

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, 68782Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.

Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a chemical substance that is widely used in industry for manufacturing of plastic bottles and resins. Recent reports found that BPA may mimic the effects of estrogen to a great manner that might disrupt the normal hormonal balance in the human body. Fluvastatin is an agent used for treatment of hypercholesterolemia that was proven to possess promising antioxidant ant anti-inflammatory properties. Read More

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Modulation of Amyloid β-Induced Microglia Activation and Neuronal Cell Death by Curcumin and Analogues.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 15;23(8). Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is not restricted to the neuronal compartment but includes important interactions with immune cells, including microglia. Protein aggregates, common pathological hallmarks of AD, bind to pattern recognition receptors on microglia and trigger an inflammatory response, which contributes to disease progression and severity. In this context, curcumin is emerging as a potential drug candidate able to affect multiple key pathways implicated in AD, including neuroinflammation. Read More

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Hyperthermia-Induced In Situ Drug Amorphization by Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles in Oral Dosage Forms.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 May 22;14(19):21978-21988. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Pharmacy, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75123, Sweden.

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) generate heat upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF), which has been studied for hyperthermia treatment and triggered drug release. This study introduces a novel application of magnetic hyperthermia to induce amorphization of a poorly aqueous soluble drug, celecoxib, in situ in tablets for oral administration. Poor aqueous solubility of many drug candidates is a major hurdle in oral drug development. Read More

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Protective Effects of Ferulic Acid on Deoxynivalenol-Induced Toxicity in IPEC-J2 Cells.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 Apr 12;14(4). Epub 2022 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin that contaminates crops such as wheat and corn, can cause severe acute or chronic injury when ingested by animals or humans. This study investigated the protective effect of ferulic acid (FA), a polyphenolic substance, on alleviating the toxicity induced by DON (40 μM) in IPEC-J2 cells. The experiments results showed that FA not only alleviated the decrease in cell viability caused by DON ( < 0. Read More

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Developmental Cardiotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity of Flurbiprofen Axetil to Zebrafish Embryo.

Assay Drug Dev Technol 2022 Apr;20(3):125-135

Department of Anesthesiology, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, College of Clinical Medicine for Obstetrics & Gynecology and Pediatrics, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Flurbiprofen axetil (FA) is a nonsteroidal targeted analgesic and widely used for postoperative analgesia and cancer analgesia. Extensive works have been done in the evaluation of FA's clinical analgesic effect on adults. Along with the increase of FA usage, the potential toxicity and molecular mechanism in embryo development need to be better understood. Read More

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Clausena Harmandiana root extract attenuated cognitive impairments via reducing amyloid accumulation and neuroinflammation in Aβ-induced rats.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2022 Apr 19;22(1):108. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis is associated with amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neuroinflammation. In AD, the activation of microglia caused by Aβ accumulation is followed by the synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and ultimately leads to cognitive impairments. Clausena harmandiana (CH) is a medicinal plant in the Rutaceae family and has been used in folk medicine to relieve illnesses such as stomachache and headache, and as a health tonic. Read More

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[Mechanism of paeoniflorin inhibiting apoptosis of hippocampal neurons of rats induced by lead acetate].

Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 2022 Mar;40(3):170-176

Department of Occupational Medicine, Hangzhou Red Cross Hospital, Hangzhou 310003, China.

To investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of paeoniflorin on hippocampal neuron apoptosis induced by lead acetate. In September 2020, primary hippocampal neuronal cells were isolated and cultured from fetal rats, and identified using cellular immunofluorescent. MTT assay was used to measure the cell viability to determine the concentration and time of lead acetate-induced hippocampal neuron apoptosis. Read More

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Aspirin inhibits stem cell proliferation during freshwater Dugesia japonica regeneration by STAT3/SOX2/OCT4 signaling pathway.

Aquat Toxicol 2022 Jun 10;247:106158. Epub 2022 Apr 10.

College of Life Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007 Henan, China.

As a widely used drug in clinical practice, aspirin has a large number of residual drugs and metabolites discharged into the environment during the pharmaceutical process or after taking the drug. Aspirin content and its metabolite, salicylic acid, have been reported and detected in several river water samples and municipal wastewaters. However, little is known about the toxicity mechanisms of this drug in aquatic invertebrates. Read More

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Self-assembled nano-micelles of lactoferrin peptides: Structure, physicochemical properties, and application for encapsulating and delivering curcumin.

Food Chem 2022 Sep 24;387:132790. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, PR China. Electronic address:

Food-derived protein hydrolysate exhibits good bioactivity, compatibility, and low toxicity, etc. However, the information on protein hydrolysate-based micelles and their application as carriers for hydrophobic bioactive compounds is limited. In this study, an enzymatic partially hydrolyzed lactoferrin hydrolysate nano-micelle with the size within 50 nm was constructed, and its formation mechanism and delivery characteristics for curcumin (Cur) were studied. Read More

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September 2022

[Specific pharmacological treatment guide for transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy, 2021].

Medicina (B Aires) 2022 ;82(2):275-288

Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

This clinical practice guideline for treating transthyretin amyloid (ATTR) cardiomyopathy is based on the best available evidence of clinical effectiveness. The PICO format was used to generate a list of questions focused on the effectiveness and safety of the specific treatment of patients with ATTR cardiomyopathy. The search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane and Epistemokus, between July-August 2020, and selected articles between 2000-2020, in English and Spanish. Read More

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Modulation of Notch Signaling Pathway by Bioactive Dietary Agents.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 24;23(7). Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Nutrition, College of Agriculture, Biotechnology and Natural Resources, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA.

Notch signaling is often aberrantly activated in solid and hematological cancers and regulates cell fate decisions and the maintenance of cancer stem cells. In addition, increased expression of Notch pathway components is clinically associated with poorer prognosis in several types of cancer. Targeting Notch may have chemopreventive and anti-cancer effects, leading to reduced disease incidence and improved survival. Read More

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Activated Carbon/Pectin Composite Enterosorbent for Human Protection from Intoxication with Xenobiotics Pb(II) and Sodium Diclofenac.

Molecules 2022 Apr 1;27(7). Epub 2022 Apr 1.

School of Pharmacy, Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University, 94, Tole Bi Street, Almaty 050000, Kazakhstan.

The use of enterosorbents-materials which can be administered orally and eliminate toxic substances from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) by sorption-offers an attractive complementary protection of humans against acute and chronic poisoning. In this study, we report the results of developing a microgranulated binary biomedical preparation for oral use. It was designed with a core-shell structure based on pectin with low degree of esterification as the core, and nanoporous activated carbon produced from rice husk, AC-RH, as the shell, designated as [email protected] Read More

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Prediction of Low-Dose Aspirin-Induced Gastric Toxicity Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy-Based Pharmacometabolomics in Rats.

Molecules 2022 Mar 25;27(7). Epub 2022 Mar 25.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

Background: Low-dose aspirin (LDA) is the backbone for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease, although limited by gastric toxicity. This study aimed to identify novel metabolites that could predict LDA-induced gastric toxicity using pharmacometabolomics.

Methods: Pre-dosed urine samples were collected from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Read More

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Improved solubility and corneal permeation of PEGylated curcumin complex used for the treatment of ophthalmic bacterial infections.

PLoS One 2022 7;17(4):e0258355. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Department of Pharmacy, Southern Punjab Institute of Health Sciences, Multan, Pakistan.

Naturally occurring curcumin can be used for the treatment of corneal bacterial infections with its limitation of poor solubility. Aim of the present study was to enhance solubility and permeation of curcumin for the treatment of corneal bacterial infections. For increasing solubility, curcumin and polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) complex (1:3) was prepared by fusion melting method. Read More

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Ibuprofen-Loaded Electrospun PCL/PEG Nanofibrous Membranes for Preventing Postoperative Abdominal Adhesion.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2022 Apr 7;5(4):1766-1778. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran 15875-4413, Iran.

Electrospun nanofibrous membranes are a widely used physical barrier for reducing postoperative adhesion. However, these physical barriers could not prevent adhesion formation completely. Because a high-intensity inflammation occurs in the surgical area, the presence of relevant drugs to control such an inflammation is desperately needed. Read More

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