53 results match your criteria Toxicity Nitrous Dioxide


Methodology for soil respirometric assays: Step by step and guidelines to measure fluxes of trace gases using microcosms.

MethodsX 2018 19;5:656-668. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar) - Department of Environmental Sciences, Rod. João Leme dos Santos Km 110, 18052-780, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil.

This methodology is proposed to measure the fluxes of trace gases among microcosms and the atmosphere. As microcosm respiration we include both aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which may results in CO, CH, NO, NO, N, HS and H fluxes. Its applicability includes the assessment of products biodegradability and toxicity, the effect of treatments and products on greenhouse gases fluxes, and the mineralization of organic fertilizers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2018.06.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6039707PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

Acute response of soil denitrification and NO emissions to chlorothalonil: A comprehensive molecular mechanism.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Sep 5;636:1408-1415. Epub 2018 May 5.

Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region's Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, PR China. Electronic address:

The fungicide chlorothalonil (CHT) has been widely used in the tea orchard due to its high-efficiency and sterilization. It has been reported that repeated application of CHT inhibits soil nitrification process. However, the acute impact of CHT on soil denitrification and associated NO emissions is unclear. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697183156
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.378DOI Listing
September 2018
12 Reads

Measuring the impact of global tropospheric ozone, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide concentrations on biodiversity loss.

Environ Res 2018 01 21;160:398-411. Epub 2017 Oct 21.

Faculty of Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.

The aim of this study is to examine the impact of air pollutants, including mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO), carbon dioxide emissions (CO), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on ecological footprint, habitat area, food supply, and biodiversity in a panel of thirty-four developed and developing countries, over the period of 1995-2014. The results reveal that NOx and SO emissions both have a negative relationship with ecological footprints, while NO emission and real GDP per capita have a direct relationship with ecological footprints. NOx has a positive relationship with forest area, per capita food supply and biological diversity while CO emission and GHG emission have a negative impact on food production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.10.013DOI Listing
January 2018
4 Reads

The Potential Liver, Brain, and Embryo Toxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Mice.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2017 Dec 2;12(1):478. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Technical Center for Safety of Industrial Products of Tianjin Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Tianjin, 300308, China.

Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO) has been widely used in industry and medicine. However, the safety of nano-TiO exposure remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the liver, brain, and embryo toxicity and the underlying mechanism of nano-TiO using mice models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-017-2242-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5540742PMC
December 2017
3 Reads

Interaction between ambient pollutant exposure, CD14 (-159) polymorphism and respiratory outcomes among children in Kwazulu-Natal, Durban.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2017 Mar 11;36(3):238-246. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

4 Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

The objective of this study was to determine if the association between exposure to ambient air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxde (NO), nitrous oxide (NO), and PM, and variation in lung function measures was modified by genotype. A validated questionnaire was administered to 71 African children to evaluate prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Atopy was evaluated by skin-prick testing and bihourly measures of lung function (spirometry) were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327116646620DOI Listing
March 2017
4 Reads

Economic and Environmental Considerations During Low Fresh Gas Flow Volatile Agent Administration After Change to a Nonreactive Carbon Dioxide Absorbent.

Anesth Analg 2016 Apr;122(4):996-1006

From the *Department of Anesthesiology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; †Division of Management Consulting, Department of Anesthesia, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; and ‡Department of Anesthesiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Reducing fresh gas flow (FGF) during general anesthesia reduces costs by decreasing the consumption of volatile anesthetics and attenuates their contribution to greenhouse gas pollution of the environment. The sevoflurane FGF recommendations in the Food and Drug Administration package insert relate to concern over potential toxicity from accumulation in the breathing circuit of compound A, a by-product of the reaction of the volatile agent with legacy carbon dioxide absorbents containing strong alkali such as sodium or potassium hydroxide. Newer, nonreactive absorbents do not produce compound A, making such restrictions moot. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000001124DOI Listing
April 2016
22 Reads

Impact of nitrous oxide on the haemodynamic consequences of venous carbon dioxide embolism: An experimental study.

Eur J Anaesthesiol 2016 May;33(5):356-60

From the Service d'Anesthesie Reanimation Chirurgicale, Hopitaux Universitaires, Strasbourg, France (PAD, JP, EN); IRCAD-EITS, Strasbourg, France (MD); Laboratoire de Physiologie EA 3072, Faculté de médecine, Strasbourg, France (BG); and Department of Anesthesiology, and Pain Management, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA (GPJ).

Background: Nitrous oxide (N2O) is still considered an important component of general anaesthesia. However, should gas embolisation occur as result of carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum, N2O may compromise safety, as the consequences of a gas embolus consisting of a combination of CO2 and N2O may be more severe than CO2 alone.

Objective: This experimental study was designed to compare the cardiopulmonary consequences of gas embolisation with a N2O/CO2 mixture, or CO2 alone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EJA.0000000000000384DOI Listing
May 2016
29 Reads

Toxicity measurement in biological wastewater treatment processes: a review.

J Hazard Mater 2015 Apr 19;286:15-29. Epub 2014 Dec 19.

Advanced Environmental Biotechnology Centre (AEBC), Nanyang Environment and Water Research Centre (NEWRI), Nanyang Technological University,Singapore 637141, Singapore; Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, UK. Electronic address:

Biological wastewater treatment processes (WWTPs), by nature of their reliance on biological entities to degrade organics and sometimes remove nutrients, are vulnerable to toxicants present in their influent. Various toxicity measurement methods have been adopted for biological WWTPs, but most are performed off-line, and cannot be adapted to on-line monitoring tools to provide an early warning for WWTP operators. However, the past decade has seen a rapid expansion in the research and development of biosensors that can be used for toxicity assessment of aquatic environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.12.033DOI Listing
April 2015
33 Reads

The National Environmental Respiratory Center (NERC) experiment in multi-pollutant air quality health research: IV. Vascular effects of repeated inhalation exposure to a mixture of five inorganic gases.

Inhal Toxicol 2014 Sep;26(11):691-6

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute , Albuquerque, NM , USA .

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that a mixture of five inorganic gases could reproduce certain central vascular effects of repeated inhalation exposure of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice to diesel or gasoline engine exhaust. The hypothesis resulted from preceding multiple additive regression tree (MART) analysis of a composition-concentration-response database of mice exposed by inhalation to the exhausts and other complex mixtures. The five gases were the predictors most important to MART models best fitting the vascular responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08958378.2014.947448DOI Listing
September 2014
14 Reads

[Application of ultrasound guidance for ilioinguinal or iliohypogastric nerve block in pediatric inguinal surgery].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2012 Apr;92(13):873-7

Department of Anesthesiology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027, China.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound guidance for ilioinguinal or iliohypogastric nerve block in pediatric outpatients undergoing inguinal surgery.

Methods: The present study was approved by the ethics committee of our hospital. One hundred children with ASA status I, aged 4 - 8 years old, scheduled for unilateral inguinal surgery were randomly divided into ultrasound group (Group U) and traditional group (Group T) (n = 50 each). Read More

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April 2012
8 Reads

Motor vehicle air pollution and asthma in children: a meta-analysis.

Environ Res 2012 Aug 6;117:36-45. Epub 2012 Jun 6.

South Florida Asthma Consortium, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, USA.

Background: Asthma affects more than 17 million people in the United States;1/3 of these are children. Children are particularly vulnerable to airborne pollution because of their narrower airways and because they generally breathe more air per pound of body weight than adults, increasing their exposure to air pollutants. However, the results from previous studies on the association between motor vehicle emissions and the development of childhood wheeze and asthma are conflicting. Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S001393511200144
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2012.05.001DOI Listing
August 2012
6 Reads
4.373 Impact Factor

Evaluation of certain food additives. Seventy-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

Authors:

World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 2010 (956):1-80, back cover

This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives: branching glycosyltransferase from Rhodothermus obamensis expressed in Bacillus subtilis, cassia gum, cyclamic acid and its salts (dietary exposure assessment), cyclotetraglucose and cyclotetraglucose syrup, ferrous ammonium phosphate, glycerol ester of gum rosin, glycerol ester of tall oil rosin, lycopene from all sources, lycopene extract from tomato, mineral oil (low and medium viscosity) class II and class III, octenyl succinic acid modified gum arabic, sodium hydrogen sulfate and sucrose oligoesters type I and type II. Read More

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http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v956je01.pdf
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http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/150883/1/9789241209
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http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/jecfa/reports/trs940.pd
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November 2010
7 Reads

Influence of indoor factors in dwellings on the development of childhood asthma.

Authors:
Joachim Heinrich

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2011 Jan 18;214(1):1-25. Epub 2010 Sep 18.

Helmholtz Zentrum München, National Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Munich, Germany.

Asthma has become the most common, childhood chronic disease in the industrialized world, and it is also increasing in developing regions. There are huge differences in the prevalence of childhood asthma across countries and continents, and there is no doubt that the prevalence of asthma was strongly increasing during the past decades worldwide. Asthma, as a complex disease, has a broad spectrum of potential determinants ranging from genetics to life style and environmental factors. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14384639100011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2010.08.009DOI Listing
January 2011
9 Reads

Effects of nitrous acid exposure on pulmonary tissues in guinea pigs.

Inhal Toxicol 2010 Sep;22(11):930-6

Department of Environmental Health, Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, Japan.

Many epidemiological studies on the effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) on respiratory function may have included nitrous acid (HONO) exposures in their measures, because conventional NO(2) assays detect HONO as NO(2). A few epidemiological studies and human HONO inhalation experiments have associated HONO with decrements in lung functions. However, there have been few HONO exposure experiments in animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08958378.2010.496476DOI Listing
September 2010
5 Reads

Toxicological evaluation of diesel emissions on A549 cells.

Toxicol In Vitro 2010 Mar 10;24(2):363-9. Epub 2009 Nov 10.

Energy and Environment Research Division, Japan Automobile Research Institute, Japan.

To evaluate the health effects of diesel emissions (DE) using an in vitro experiment, A549 cells were exposed to emission from a diesel engine on an engine dynamo, using a culture-cell-exposure device. Three groups were set according to cell exposure to high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and/or nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). The emissions of each group was dilution rate 1:100 and 1:10, and PM was 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2009.11.004DOI Listing
March 2010
7 Reads

Indoor air pollution and respiratory function of children in Ashok Vihar, Delhi: an exposure-response study.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2008 ;20(1):36-48

Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India.

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indoor air pollution on respiratory function of children (aged 7-15 years). The study took place at Ashok Vihar, an urban locality in the northwest part of Delhi during the summer months of June and July 2004. The team did house visits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539507308248DOI Listing
August 2009
7 Reads

The effects of neonatal isoflurane exposure in mice on brain cell viability, adult behavior, learning, and memory.

Anesth Analg 2009 Jan;108(1):90-104

Department of Anesthesia, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA.

Background: Volatile anesthetics, such as isoflurane, are widely used in infants and neonates. Neurodegeneration and neurocognitive impairment after exposure to isoflurane, midazolam, and nitrous oxide in neonatal rats have raised concerns regarding the safety of pediatric anesthesia. In neonatal mice, prolonged isoflurane exposure triggers hypoglycemia, which could be responsible for the neurocognitive impairment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ane.0b013e31818cdb29DOI Listing
January 2009
26 Reads

Vanadium pentoxide-coated ultrafine titanium dioxide particles induce cellular damage and micronucleus formation in V79 cells.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2008 ;71(13-14):976-80

Institute of Hygiene and Occupational Medicine, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany.

Surface-treated titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles coated with vanadium pentoxide (V(2)O(5)) are used industrially for selective catalytic reactions such as the removal of nitrous oxide from exhaust gases of combustion power plants (SCR process) and in biomaterials for increasing the strength of implants. In the present study, untreated ultrafine TiO(2) particles (anatase, diameter: 30-50 nm) and vanadium pentoxide (V(2)O(5))-treated anatase particles were tested for their cyto- and genotoxic effects in V79 cells (hamster lung fibroblasts). Cytotoxic effects of the particles were assessed by trypan blue exclusion, while genotoxic effects were investigated by micronucleus (MN) assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287390801989218DOI Listing
July 2008
3 Reads

Association of indoor and outdoor air pollutant level with respiratory problems among children in an industrial area of Delhi, India.

Arch Environ Occup Health 2007 ;62(2):75-80

Vallabhbhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, India.

The authors conducted this prospective study at the Shahdara industrial area of Delhi, India. They examined the effects of indoor and outdoor air pollutant levels on respiratory health in 394 children aged 7 to 15 years. The majority of children had a history of respiratory problems, including cough (62. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/AEOH.62.2.75-80DOI Listing
April 2008
11 Reads

Evaluation of emissions from medical waste incinerators in Alexandria.

J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2003 ;78(3-4):225-44

Occupational Health Dep., High Institute of Public Health, Alex. University, Egypt.

The emissions from medical waste incinerators might perform a threat to the environment and the Public Health, the aim of the present work is to evaluate the emissions of six medical waste incinerators in six hospitals in Alexandria, Namely; Gamal Abd El-Naser, Sharq El-Madina, Central Blood Bank, Fever, Medical Research Institute, and Al-Mo'asat, ordered serially from 1 to 6. Five air pollutants were sampled and analyzed in the emissions comprising smoke, lead, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results of the present study have revealed that all the average values of gases in the six incinerators were within the limits stated in Egyptian environmental law, where as carbonaceous particulate (smoke) averages of the six incinerators have exceeded the maximum allowable limit in the law. Read More

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March 2007
4 Reads

Fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 in a meadow ecosystem exposed to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide for three years.

Environ Pollut 2007 Feb 4;145(3):818-28. Epub 2006 Aug 4.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

Open-top chambers (OTCs) were used to evaluate the effects of moderately elevated O3 (40-50 ppb) and CO2 (+100 ppm) and their combination on N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes from ground-planted meadow mesocosms. Bimonthly measurements in 2002-2004 showed that the daily fluxes of N2O, CH4 and CO2 reacted mainly to elevated O3, while the fluxes of CO2 also responded to elevated CO2. However, the fluxes did not show any marked response when elevated O3 and CO2 were combined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2006.03.055DOI Listing
February 2007
6 Reads

Increased risks of term low-birth-weight infants in a petrochemical industrial city with high air pollution levels.

Arch Environ Health 2004 Dec;59(12):663-8

Department of Healthcare Information and Management, Ming Chuan University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, ROC.

This study investigated the influence of petrochemical air pollution on birth weight. Birth data on 92,288 singleton infants with gestational periods of 37-44 wk born in a petrochemical industrial city (Kaohsiung, n = 31,530) with severe pollution or a nonpetrochemical industrial city (Taipei, n = 60,758) in Taiwan between 1995 and 1997 were included in this analysis. Air pollutant concentration derived from routinely monitored data showed significantly higher concentrations of SO2, O3, and PM10 in Kaohsiung. Read More

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http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00039890409602951
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00039890409602951DOI Listing
December 2004
10 Reads

3,4-Dimethylpyrazol phosphate effect on nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, ammonia, and carbon dioxide emissions from grasslands.

J Environ Qual 2006 Jul-Aug;35(4):973-81. Epub 2006 May 31.

Department of Plant Biology and Ecology, University of the Basque Country, Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain.

Intensively managed grasslands are potentially a large source of NH3, N2O, and NO emissions because of the large input of nitrogen (N) in fertilizers. Addition of nitrification inhibitors (NI) to fertilizers maintains soil N in ammonium form. Consequently, N2O and NO losses are less likely to occur and the potential for N utilization is increased, and NH3 volatilization may be increased. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2005.0320DOI Listing
December 2006
7 Reads

Indoor nitrous acid and respiratory symptoms and lung function in adults.

Thorax 2005 Jun;60(6):474-9

Division of Population Sciences and Health Care Research, King's College, 42 Weston Street, London SE1 3QD, UK.

Background: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important pollutant of indoor and outdoor air, but epidemiological studies show inconsistent health effects. These inconsistencies may be due to failure to account for the health effects of nitrous acid (HONO) which is generated directly from gas combustion and indirectly from NO2.

Methods: Two hundred and seventy six adults provided information on respiratory symptoms and lung function and had home levels of NO2 and HONO measured as well as outdoor levels of NO2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thx.2004.032177DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1747426PMC
June 2005
4 Reads

Exposure to NO2 and nitrous acid and respiratory symptoms in the first year of life.

Epidemiology 2004 Jul;15(4):471-8

Yale School of Public Health, Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Background: Effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on respiratory health have been the subject of extensive research. The outcomes of these studies were not consistent. Exposure to nitrous acid, which is a primary product of combustion, and is also formed when NO2 reacts with water, may play an important role in respiratory health. Read More

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http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/epidem/2004/07000/Exposure_to_N
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July 2004
6 Reads

Growth and nitrite and nitrous oxide accumulation of Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 19367 in the presence of selected pesticides.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2003 Sep;22(9):1993-7

Group of Environmental Microbiology, Instituto del Agua, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.

The effects of the application of eight pesticides (aldrin, lindane, dimetoate, methylparathion, methidation, atrazine, simazine, and captan) on growth, respiratory activity (as CO2 production), denitrifying activity (as N2O released), and nitrite accumulation in the culture medium by Paracoccus denitrificans strain ATCC 19367 were studied. The fungicide captan totally inhibited growth and biological activity of P. denitrificans, while the rest of the tested pesticides delayed the growth and CO2 release of P. Read More

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September 2003
3 Reads

[Desflurane: physicochemical properties, pharmacology and clinical use.].

Rev Bras Anestesiol 2003 Apr;53(2):214-26

Hospitais do Aparelho Locomotor, Rede Sarah.

Background And Objectives: Following the development of nuclear chemistry with halogenate synthesis in the 50s of past century, several anesthetics were clinically studied and some of them had wide practical application. The search for the ideal agent continues. Currently, halothane, isoflurane, enflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane are in clinical use. Read More

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April 2003
4 Reads

Cardiac arrest induced by accidental inhalation of anoxic gases, is the cause always a lack of oxygen?

Authors:
B Jawan J H Lee

Chang Gung Med J 2000 Jun;23(6):331-8

Department of Anesthesiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taoyuan, R.O.C.

Background: We experienced a case of accidental administration of 100% carbon dioxide (CO2) during anesthesia, which resulted in cardiac arrest. After successful cardio-pulmonary resuscitation the child recovered without brain damage. This outcome was quite different than that of the more commonly reported accidental administration of 100% nituous oxide (N2O), as the latter usually results in death from cerebral damage rather than cardiac arrest. Read More

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June 2000
2 Reads

Effects of vaginal birth versus caesarean section birth with general anesthesia on blood gases and brain energy metabolism in neonatal rats.

Exp Neurol 1999 Nov;160(1):142-50

Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Douglas Hospital Research Center, Verdun, Quebec, Canada.

Using a rat model, several laboratories have demonstrated long-term effects of Caesarean section (C-section) birth or of global hypoxia during C-section birth on a variety of central nervous system (CNS) parameters. These studies used C-section delivery from rapidly decapitated dams, to avoid confounding anesthetic effects, or from dams anesthetized with halothane or ether under unspecified conditions. Systemic oxygenation or cerebral energy metabolites in the pups at birth have not been systematically measured in this model. Read More

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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S001448869997201
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/exnr.1999.7201DOI Listing
November 1999
7 Reads

Compound A concentration is decreased by cooling anaesthetic circuit during low-flow sevoflurane anaesthesia.

Authors:
M Osawa T Shinomura

Can J Anaesth 1998 Dec;45(12):1215-8

Department of Anaesthesia, Kyoto University Hospital, Japan.

Purpose: In the presence of carbon dioxide absorbents, sevoflurane is degraded to CF2 = C(CF3)OCH2F, an olefin compound A. There remains some concern of the hepatic and renal toxicity that compound A poses when using low-flow anaesthetic techniques. We investigated a device to decrease the concentration of compound A products by decreasing the temperature of exhaled air and soda lime in semi-closed low-flow anaesthesia technique in surgical patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03012468DOI Listing
December 1998
5 Reads

[Preservative effects of nitrous oxide on stored red cells].

Authors:
K Kawamura

Masui 1997 Feb;46(2):222-8

Department of Anesthesiology, Tottori University Hospital, Yonago.

While various additive solutions, containers and temperature have been shown to improve qualities of stored red cells, there are no reports on gas environment during blood storage. Nitrous oxide (N2O) showed a very high permeability through polyvinyl chloride membrane and high blood solubility. The whole blood with CPD was stored in N2 O (N2O-group) and compared with the control which was stored in air (Air-group). Read More

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February 1997
3 Reads

Comparison of the effects of controlled ventilation with 100% oxygen, 50% oxygen in nitrogen, and 50% oxygen in nitrous oxide on responses to venous air embolism in pigs.

Br J Anaesth 1996 Nov;77(5):658-61

Department of Anaesthesia, Töölö Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

In this randomized, experimental study in 18 pigs, we have investigated the effects of inspiratory air in oxygen, 100% oxygen and 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen on the detection and consequences of venous air embolism. Each animal was tested with injections of 1.0 ml kg-1 and 2. Read More

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November 1996
5 Reads

Carbon monoxide within circle systems.

Anaesthesia 1996 Nov;51(11):1037-40

Northern General Hospital NHS Trust, Sheffield.

After reports of carbon monoxide toxicity from the United States, the Medicines Control Agency issued a warning which recommended that soda lime used in circle breathing systems should not be allowed to dry out. We have measured carbon monoxide levels within a circle system in vitro (under a variety of conditions) and in vivo. Carbon monoxide was detected only when a patient was connected to the circle system. Read More

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November 1996
3 Reads

Bicarbonate inhibits N-nitrosation in oxygenated nitric oxide solutions.

J Biol Chem 1996 Oct;271(42):25859-63

Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

N-Nitrosation in oxygenated nitric oxide (NO middle dot) solutions was previously shown to be significantly inhibited by phosphate and chloride presumably by anion scavenging of the nitrosating agent nitrous anhydride, N2O3 (Lewis, R. S., Tannenbaum, S. Read More

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October 1996
3 Reads

Spinal cord blood flow after intrathecal injection of ropivacaine: a screening for neurotoxic effects.

Anesth Analg 1996 Mar;82(3):636-40

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

The study of spinal cord blood flow (SCBF) after spinal drug application is an important aspect of preclinical neurotoxicological screening. This investigation was designed to study how a new local anesthetic, ropivacaine, affects SCBF after intrathecal (IT) administration in the rat. SCBF was measured continuously in spontaneously breathing, enflurane/N2O-anesthetized rats, using the laser-Doppler flowmetry technique. Read More

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March 1996
6 Reads

Nitrification at Low pH by Aggregated Chemolithotrophic Bacteria.

Appl Environ Microbiol 1991 Dec;57(12):3600-4

Institute for Ecological Research, P.O. Box 40, 6666 ZG Heteren, and Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, Biological Centre, University of Groningen, 9751 NN Haren, The Netherlands, and Abteilung für Mikrobiologie, Institut für Allgemeine Botanik der Universität Hamburg, D-2000 Hamburg 52, Germany.

A study was performed to gain insight into the mechanism of acid-tolerant, chemolithotrophic nitrification. Microorganisms that nitrified at pH 4 were enriched from two Dutch acid soils. Nitrate production in the enrichment cultures was indicated to be of a chemolithoautotrophic nature as it was (i) completely inhibited by acetylene at a concentration as low as 1 mumol/liter and (ii) strongly retarded under conditions of carbon dioxide limitation. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC184019PMC
December 1991
3 Reads

Canada, U.S. fight acid rain.

Authors:
R B Smith

Occup Health Saf 1991 Nov;60(11):45-6

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November 1991
5 Reads

[Hygienic evaluation of chemical industry equipment placed at open sites].

Gig Sanit 1989 Apr(4):6-9

Technical and design aspects of the arrangement of the equipment used in chemical production of nitrogen substances may cause pollution of workplace air and contamination of atmospheric air and soil of the sanitary and protective zones. Their concentration grows during repair works and may exceed MACs. In cold periods of the year the combined effect of ammonia, nitrogen dioxide and low temperature results in the decrease of olfactory sensitivity and nonspecific immunologic reactivity, an elevation of tension of the regulatory mechanisms and temporary disability rates. Read More

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April 1989
7 Reads

Vecuronium and porcine malignant hyperthermia.

Anesth Analg 1985 May;64(5):515-9

Vecuronium was studied in eight malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptible pigs for its potential to either trigger or prevent MH. Two sets of experiments were performed in the same animals: 1-hr total neuromuscular blockade by vecuronium infusion with thiopental anesthesia in the absence of invasive monitoring and halothane; and 1-hr infusion of vecuronium with thiopental anesthesia with invasive monitoring in the absence of and then, followed by 30-min infusion in the presence of halothane, followed in turn by exposure to halothane alone. One-hour infusion of vecuronium in the absence of halothane and invasive monitoring did not trigger MH in any animal. Read More

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May 1985
3 Reads

Respiratory responses of humans exposed to an aerosol-gas pollutant mixture: multivariate contrast of a complex atmosphere to clean air and sodium chloride aerosol controls.

J Appl Toxicol 1984 Aug;4(4):170-5

Data from a group of 20 subjects with normal baseline pulmonary function, who were exposed for 2 h to a test atmosphere containing a complex mixture of pollutants, have been contrasted with data from two other groups exposed to presumably non-toxic control atmospheres. Group 1 was exposed to clean air, group 2 was exposed to clean air containing sodium chloride aerosol at 270 micrograms m-3, and group 3 was exposed to the complex atmosphere containing sodium chloride (332 micrograms m-3) and zinc ammonium sulfate (23 micrograms m-3) aerosols plus nitrogen dioxide (0.5 ppm) and sulfur dioxide (0. Read More

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August 1984
8 Reads

Nitrogen dioxide exposure--influence on rat testes.

Anesth Analg 1984 May;63(5):526-8

Prolonged intermittent exposure to subanesthetic concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) can impair spermatogenesis in the LEW/f mai rat. USP purity standards state that N2O used for medical purposes may contain other oxides of nitrogen such as NO and NO2 as impurities at concentrations up to one part per million (ppm) each. The question thus arises as to whether prolonged exposure to N2O may be associated with adverse health effects from oxides of nitrogen other than N2O, particularly NO2. Read More

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May 1984
3 Reads

Oxidant gases.

Authors:
M J Evans

Environ Health Perspect 1984 Apr;55:85-95

The acute and chronic action of the oxidant gases ozone, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen on the morphological appearance of cells of the alveolar and bronchiolar epithelium is reviewed. Type I cells of the alveolar and ciliated cells of the bronchiolar epithelium appear to be sensitive targets for the oxidant gases. The degree of damage is influenced by age, nutritional status and the development of tolerance. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1568353PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.845585DOI Listing
April 1984
4 Reads

Methanol toxicity in the monkey: effects of nitrous oxide and methionine.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983 Nov;227(2):349-53

Methanol poisoning in monkeys and humans is characterized by the development of formic acidemia, metabolic acidosis and ocular toxicity. Formate, the metabolite associated with the toxicity of methanol, is oxidized to carbon dioxide by a tetrahydrofolate-dependent pathway. Nitrous oxide treatment was used to inhibit the tetrahydrofolate-generating enzyme, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate homocysteine methyltransferase (methionine synthetase, E. Read More

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November 1983
6 Reads

Methanol poisoning and formate oxidation in nitrous oxide-treated rats.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1981 Apr;217(1):57-61

Formic acid does not accumulate in the rat after the administration of methanol as it does in methanol-poisoned humans and monkeys. In addition, rats do not manifest the metabolic acidosis and ocular toxicity characteristic of methanol intoxication in primates. Nitrous oxide treatment was used to inhibit 5-methyltetrahydrofolate homocysteine methyltransferase (methionine synthetase, EC 4. Read More

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April 1981
3 Reads

Nitrous oxide availability.

J Clin Pharmacol 1980 04;20(4):202-5

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is marketed as an inhalation anesthetic and as a food ingredient (e.g., whipping cream propellant). Read More

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April 1980
3 Reads

Lung toxicity of some atmospheric pollutants.

Authors:
R Pariente

Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 1980 ;16 Suppl:367-71

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July 1981
4 Reads

Intravenous procaine as a supplement to general anesthesia for carbon dioxide laser resection for carbon dioxide laser resection of laryngeal papillomas in children.

Anesth Analg 1979 Nov-Dec;58(6):492-6

Procaine suppresses the cough reflex, decreases laryngeal irritability, and has general anesthetic properties. For these reasons, 14 pediatric patients undergoing CO2 laser resection of laryngeal papillomas were studied in which an intravenous infusion of procaine (1 mg/kg/min) was added to N2O-O2 halothane/enflurane general anesthesia immediately following endotracheal intubation. These patients were compared to nine patients receiving the same anesthesia without procaine. Read More

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February 1980
2 Reads

[Gaseous aerocontaminants and phagocytic defence of the respiratory tract. Cytotoxicity of NO2, of ozone and acrolein for alveolar macrophages in gaseous phase (author's transl)].

Nouv Presse Med 1979 Jun;8(25):2089-94

A new method of survival in vitro of alveolar macrophages in gaseous phase, ensuring direct contact between the cells and the surrounding atmosphere may be used for the qualitative and quantitative study of the cytotoxicity of gases under controlled experimental conditions. Exposure to nitrous oxide (0.1 to 6 ppm), ozone (0. Read More

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June 1979
2 Reads

Fate and distribution of inhaled nitrogen dioxide in rhesus monkeys.

Am Rev Respir Dis 1977 Mar;115(3):403-12

The intra- and extrapulmonary distributions of inspired nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were studied by exposing rhesus monkeys to air mixtures containing concentrations slightly greater than ambient (0.56 to 1.71 mg per m3, or 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/arrd.1977.115.3.403DOI Listing
March 1977
4 Reads