648,503 results match your criteria Toxicity Nitrous Dioxide

Silencing the ACAT1 Gene in Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells Inhibits the Expression of Cyclo-Oxygenase 2 (COX2) and Reduces β-Amyloid-Induced Toxicity Due to Activation of Protein Kinase C (PKC) and ERK.

Med Sci Monit 2018 Dec 12;24:9007-9018. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Acyl-coenzymeA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) 1, a key enzyme converting excess free cholesterol to cholesterol esters, has been demonstrated to be associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying the protective role of ACAT1 blockage in AD progression remains elusive. MATERIAL AND METHODS Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were treated for 24 h with increasing concentrations of aggregated Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ (5, 15, 25, and 45 μmol) with or without the ACAT1 siRNA pretreatment. Read More

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December 2018

The Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor TAS-115 Attenuates Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

University of Tokushima Graduate School, Respiratory Medicine and Rheumatology, Tokushima, Japan ;

The signaling pathways of growth factors including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) can be considered specific targets for overcoming the poor prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Nintedanib, the recently approved multiple kinase inhibitor, has shown promising anti-fibrotic effects in IPF patients; however, its efficacy is still limited, and in some cases, treatment discontinuation is necessary due to toxicities such as gastrointestinal disorders. Therefore, more effective agents with less toxicity are still needed. Read More

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December 2018

[Clinical results of combined intracavitary-interstitial image-guided adaptive brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer].

Magy Onkol 2018 Dec 10;62(4):249-257. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Onkológiai Tanszék, Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Budapest, Hungary.

We present the early clinical results achieved with image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) with combined intracavitary-interstitial (IC-IS) technique recently implemented in Hungary in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Twenty-one patients were treated with radio-chemotherapy (RCT) followed by combined IC-IS BT. At the end of the RCT we assessed the residual tumour with pelvic MRI. Read More

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December 2018

Differential Gene Expression in Erlotinib-treated Fibroblasts.

Nurs Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Assistant Professor, University of South Carolina, College of Nursing, Columbia, SC Bioinformatics Analyst I, University of Maryland, Baltimore, School of Medicine, Institute for Genome Sciences, Baltimore, MD Professor, Chair, Department of Hematology/Oncology, Deputy Director of the Cancer Center for Clinical Research, G. Morris Dorrance Chair in Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA Bioinformatics Analyst II, University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Institute for Genome Sciences, Baltimore, MD Laboratory Research Technician, University of Maryland, Baltimore, School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD Professor, Chair, Department of Pain and Translational Symptom Science, University of Maryland, Baltimore, School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD.

Background: Therapies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) result in a painful rash, the most common and debilitating toxicity among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who take EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy; however, predicting the development and the severity of the rash is difficult.

Objective: To examine how erlotinib-an EGFR TKI that NSCLC patients take to stop or slow tumor growth-altered the transcriptome of dermal fibroblasts.

Methods: Dermal fibroblasts (ATCC® PCS-201-012™) were seeded in cell culture flasks, grown under standard conditions, and transferred to cell culture dishes. Read More

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December 2018

Cardiotoxicity with trabectedin in the treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcoma.

Anticancer Drugs 2019 Jan;30(1):110-115

Department of Oncology, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK.

Trabectedin is used routinely in the palliative management of patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma. It is not generally considered to be cardiotoxic, and there is no specific caution for its use in patients with a history of cardiac disease or risk factors. Here, we report six cases from a single academic centre where life-threatening cardiotoxicity occurred acutely during treatment with trabectedin. Read More

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January 2019

Artemisinin and its derivatives: a potential treatment for leukemia.

Anticancer Drugs 2019 Jan;30(1):1-18

Department of Pathology.

Artemisinin (ART) and its derivatives are one of the most important classes of antimalarial agents, originally derived from a Chinese medicinal plant called Artemisia annua L. Beyond their outstanding antimalarial and antischistosomal activities, ART and its derivatives also possess both in-vitro and in-vivo activities against various types of cancer. Their anticancer effects range from initiation of apoptotic cell death to inhibition of cancer proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis, and even modulation of the cell signal transduction pathway. Read More

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January 2019

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in gastroenteropancreatic NEN G3: a multicenter cohort study.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2019 Feb;26(2):227-239

Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is an established treatment of metastatic neuroendocrine tumors grade 1-2 (G1-G2). However, its possible benefit in high-grade gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN G3) is largely unknown. We therefore aimed to assess the benefits and side effects of PRRT in patients with GEP NEN G3. Read More

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February 2019

Advancements in Life Cycle Human Exposure and Toxicity Characterization.

Environ Health Perspect 2018 Dec;126(12):125001

16 School of Public Health, University of California , Berkeley, California, USA.

Background: The Life Cycle Initiative, hosted at the United Nations Environment Programme, selected human toxicity impacts from exposure to chemical substances as an impact category that requires global guidance to overcome current assessment challenges. The initiative leadership established the Human Toxicity Task Force to develop guidance on assessing human exposure and toxicity impacts. Based on input gathered at three workshops addressing the main current scientific challenges and questions, the task force built a roadmap for advancing human toxicity characterization, primarily for use in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Read More

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December 2018

Active Targeting of Cancer Cells by Nanobody Decorated Polypeptide Micelle with Bioorthogonally Conjugated Drug.

Nano Lett 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Polypeptides are exceptionally promising carriers for chemotherapeutics: they have minimal toxicity, can be recombinantly synthesized with precise control over molecular weight, and enhance drug pharmacokinetics as self-assembled nanoparticles. Polypeptide-based systems also provide the ability to achieve active targeting with genetically encoded targeting ligands. While passive targeting promotes accumulation of nanocarriers in solid tumors, active targeting provides an additional layer of tunable control and widens the therapeutic window. Read More

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December 2018

Endostar continuous intravenous infusion combined with S-1 and oxaliplatin chemotherapy could be effective in treating liver metastasis from gastric cancer.

J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Dec;14(Supplement):S1148-S1151

Department of Oncology. Dongying People's Hospital, Dongying, Shandong, China.

Objective: Endostar is a new vascular epithelial inhibitor, which is reported to be effective in treating liver metastasis from gastric cancer. However, the optimal therapeutic regimen of Endostar remains unclear. Thus, our study aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of Endostar continuous intravenous infusion combined with S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) chemotherapy in treating such patients. Read More

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December 2018

Comparisons of skin toxicity in patients with extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma after treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy and conventional radiotherapy.

J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Dec;14(Supplement):S975-S979

Department of Radiation Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province 450052, P.R. China.

Background: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been more widely used in extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) because it can maximally improve the local control rate of tumor and reduce the radiation dose received by surrounding normal tissues. However, there has been no consensus on whether IMRT can help to lower the toxic and adverse reactions caused by radiation therapy. The aim of this study is to compare skin toxicity caused by IMRT and conventional radiotherapy in Stage I-II NKTCL. Read More

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December 2018
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Capecitabine monotherapy in advanced breast cancer resistant to anthracycline and taxane: A meta-analysis.

J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Dec;14(Supplement):S957-S963

Department of Integrative Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, China.

Background: Capecitabine monotherapy is usually used for advanced breast cancer (ABC) resistant to anthracycline and taxane, but there are still many other options too. Our meta-analysis assessed whether capecitabine monotherapy was superior or noninferior to the other regimens in ABC pretreated with anthracycline and taxane.

Materials And Methods: PubMed databases and abstracts from the proceedings of American Society of Clinical Oncology and San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium were searched for randomized controlled trials that compared capecitabine monotherapy with other regimens for ABC progression after anthracycline- and taxane-treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Ethanol exposed maturing rat cerebellar granule cells show impaired energy metabolism and increased cell death after oxygen-glucose deprivation.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):485-490

Division of Physiology and Neuroscience, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.

Alcohol, a widely abused drug, has deleterious effects on the immature nervous system. This study investigates the effect of chronic in vitro ethanol exposure on the metabolism of immature rat cerebellar granular cells (CGCs) and on their response to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Primary CGC cultures were exposed to ethanol (100 mM in culture medium) or to control ethanol-free medium starting day one in vitro (DIV1). Read More

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Basics on the use of acid-sensing ion channels' inhibitors as therapeutics.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):395-398

North Texas Eye Research Institute, Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, Fort Worth, TX, USA.

Since the discovery of acid-sensing ion channels in 1997, their importance in the health of neurons and other non-neuronal cells has gained significant importance. Acid-sensing ion channels play important roles in mediating pain sensation during diseases such as stroke, inflammation, arthritis, cancer, and recently migraine. More interestingly, acid-sensing ion channels may explain the sex differences in pain between males and females. Read More

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The metabolome identity: basis for discovery of biomarkers in neurodegeneration.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):387-390

MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester, UK.

Neurodegenerative disorders are often associated with cellular dysfunction caused by underlying protein-misfolding signalling. Numerous neuropathologies are diagnosed at late stage symptomatic changes which occur in response to these molecular malfunctions and treatment is often too late or restricted only to the slowing of further cell death. Important new strategies to identify early biomarkers with predictive value to intervene with disease progression at stages where cell dysfunction has not progressed irreversibly is of paramount importance. Read More

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Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

Semin Oncol 2018 Aug 24;45(4):236-248. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is now approved for patients with advanced gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and it is therefore important to understand the efficacy and safety of PRRT in this patient population. PRRT efficacy and safety outcomes have frequently been summarized for patient populations with gastroenteropancreatic NET, but not specifically in patients with pancreatic NET (panNET). The pivotal phase 3 trial of Lu-DOTATATE PRRT in NET was restricted to patients with a midgut primary site. Read More

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Aging, immune senescence, and immunotherapy: A comprehensive review.

Semin Oncol 2018 Aug 24;45(4):187-200. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; Flow Cytometry Core Facility, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has changed the landscape of cancer treatment. Older adults represent the majority of cancer patients; however, direct data evaluating ICIs in this patient population is lacking. Aging is associated with changes in the immune system known as "immunosenescence" that could impact the efficacy and safety profile of ICIs. Read More

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Developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos induced by low-dose γ-ray irradiation.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Key Discipline Laboratory for National Defense for Biotechnology in Uranium Mining and Hydrometallurgy, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001, China.

In this paper, the developmental toxicity and apoptosis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos induced by 0.01, 0.05, and 0. Read More

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December 2018

Acute triflumuron exposure induces oxidative stress responses in liver and kidney of Balb/C mice.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Laboratory for Research on Biologically Compatible Compounds, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Rue Avicenne, 5019, Monastir, Tunisia.

Triflumuron (TFM) is one of the most widely used insecticides over the world. It is a benzoylphenyl urea that belongs to the class of insect growth regulators. This insecticide acts by inhibiting insect's chitin synthesis and by consequences, making insect more susceptible to pathogens and malformations. Read More

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December 2018

Immune-related adverse events correlate with improved survival in patients undergoing anti-PD1 immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Melanoma Medical Oncology Unit, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano, Via Venezian 1, 20133, Milan, Italy.

Background: Therapeutic chances for metastatic melanoma have consistently changed over the last years with the advent of antibodies targeting the programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1). Onset of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) during treatment can be a source of concern, and the association with survival outcome is yet to be defined.

Patients And Methods: Data of consecutive patients treated with anti-PD1 (nivolumab or pembrolizumab) for metastatic melanoma between July 2013 and January 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Read More

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December 2018

Implications of the Intestinal Microbiota in Diagnosing the Progression of Diabetes and the Presence of Cardiovascular Complications.

J Diabetes Res 2018 12;2018:5205126. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, "Grigore T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi, Romania.

The prevalence of diabetes is steadily rising, and once it occurs, it can cause multiple complications with a negative impact on the whole organism. Complications of diabetes may be macrovascular: such as stroke and ischemic heart disease as well as peripheral vascular and microvascular diseases-retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Key factors that cause cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, hypertension, autonomic dysfunction, and decreased vascular response capacity. Read More

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November 2018

Protective effects of saffron against zearalenone-induced alterations in reproductive hormones in female mice ().

Clin Exp Reprod Med 2018 Dec 30;45(4):163-169. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

American Center for Reproductive Medicine, Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Objective: Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin with potent estrogenic effects. Saffron is an herbal product that has antioxidant activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective role of saffron against reproductive toxicity induced by ZEA in female mice. Read More

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December 2018

Selective and super-selective C-arm based cone beam CT angiography (CBCTA) with DynaCT for CyberKnife radiosurgery planning of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

J Radiosurg SBRT 2018 ;5(4):305-313

Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Background: Successful radiosurgery for intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) requires accurate delineation of the nidus in 3D. Exact targeting and precise equipment is needed to achieve obliteration of the nidus while minimizing toxicity to the surrounding brain. In some micro-AVMs and poorly visible AVMs we have used cone beam CT angiography (CBCTA) with selective and super-selective angiography where a micro-catheter is advanced into the feeding arteries- to assist with nidus definition for CyberKnife radiosurgery planning. Read More

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January 2018

Linac-based fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery for high-risk meningioma.

J Radiosurg SBRT 2018 ;5(4):269-276

Department of Radiation Oncology at the University of Cincinnati Barrett Cancer Center, 234 Goodman Street, Cincinnati, OH 45219, USA.

Purpose: Single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery(SRS) for meningioma has high rates of symptomatic perilesional edema in some settings. Fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery(fSRS) could decrease edema rates while maintaining tumor control.

Methods And Materials: Patients at an institution were retrospectively reviewed(2013-2017). Read More

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January 2018

Camalexin Induces Apoptosis via the ROS-ER Stress-Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway in AML Cells.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 14;2018:7426950. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Medical School, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315200 Zhejiang, China.

Camalexin is a phytoalexin that accumulates in various cruciferous plants upon exposure to environmental stress and plant pathogens. It was shown that camalexin has potent antitumor properties, but its underlying mechanisms are still elusive. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of camalexin on human leukemic cells and normal polymorph nuclear cells. Read More

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November 2018

Procyanidins Extracted from Lotus Seedpod Ameliorate Amyloid--Induced Toxicity in Rat Pheochromocytoma Cells.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2018 28;2018:4572893. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized by extracellular senile plaque deposits, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal apoptosis. Amyloid- (A) plays a critical role in AD that may cause oxidative stress and downregulation of CREB/BDNF signaling. Anti-A effect has been discussed as a potential therapeutic strategy for AD. Read More

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October 2018

Zhuang Gu Guan Jie Wan: Reasonable Application Can Alleviate the Liver Injury for Osteoarthritis Treatment.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 12;2018:6716529. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China.

The potential toxicity of herbal drugs, particularly drug-induced liver injury (DILI), has received extensive attention as the use of Chinese herbal medicine has rapidly increased globally. As a classic Chinese patent medicine, Zhuang Gu Guan Jie Wan (ZGGJW) has been brought into focus recently because of its satisfactory therapeutic effects on osteoarthritis (OA) as well as its unanticipated side effects. This study aimed to decipher the puzzling phenomenon of liver injury developing in response to ZGGJW that varies by the subtype of OA. Read More

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November 2018

Screening of Plants Used as Traditional Anticancer Remedies in Mkuranga and Same Districts, Tanzania, Using Brine Shrimp Toxicity Bioassay.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 14;2018:3034612. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Biological and Preclinical Studies, Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, P.O. Box 65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background: Inadequate specialized cancer hospitals and high costs are contributing factors that delay cancer patients from accessing health care services in Tanzania. Consequently, majority of patients are first seen by Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) before they access specialized services. This study presents ethnomedical information and preliminary evaluation of 25 plant species claimed by THPs in Mkuranga and Same districts of Tanzania on use for treatment of cancer. Read More

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November 2018

Membrane-Located Expression of Thioesterase From Enhances Free Fatty Acid Production With Decreased Toxicity in sp. PCC6803.

Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:2842. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Bio-X-Renji Hospital Research Center, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

It has been previously reported that photosynthetic production of extracellular free fatty acids (FFAs) in cyanobacteria was realized by thioesterases (TesA) mediated hydrolysis of fatty acyl-ACP in cytosol and excretion of the FFA outside of the cell. However, two major issues related to the genetically modified strains need to be addressed before the scale-up commercial application becomes possible: namely, the toxicity of FFAs, and the diversity of carbon lengths of fatty acids that could mimic the fossil fuel. To address those issues, we hypothesized that generating FFAs near membrane could facilitate rapid excretion of the FFA outside of the cell and thus decrease toxicity caused by intracellular FFAs in the cytosolic expression of thioesterase. Read More

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November 2018

Preventive Effect of Curcumin Against Chemotherapy-Induced Side-Effects.

Front Pharmacol 2018 27;9:1374. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Target and Clinical Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Cancer is still a severe threat to the health of people worldwide. Chemotherapy is one of main therapeutic approaches to combat cancer. However, chemotherapy only has a limited success with severe side effects, especially causing damage to normal tissues such as bone marrow, gastrointestine, heart, liver, renal, neuron, and auditory tissues, etc. Read More

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November 2018

First-line chemotherapy regimens for locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a Bayesian analysis.

Cancer Manag Res 2018 20;10:5965-5978. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Pancreatic and Gastric Surgery, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College,

Background: Systemic chemotherapy is the standard treatment for locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer, but there is no consensus on the optimum regimen. We aimed to compare and rank the locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma chemotherapy regimens evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the past 15 years.

Materials And Methods: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration database, and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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November 2018

The return of gemtuzumab ozogamicin: a humanized anti-CD33 monoclonal antibody-drug conjugate for the treatment of newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia.

Onco Targets Ther 2018 22;11:8265-8272. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, The Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA,

Through the years gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) has moved from a panacea in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to a pariah and back again. Early promise of targeted therapy with accelerated approval in the United States in 2000 gave way to fear over increased toxicity in the absence of efficacy, which subsequently resulted in the drug manufacturer voluntarily withdrawing GO from the market in 2010. We outline the history of GO in terms of initial drug development and early clinical trials that ultimately led the way to GO frontline use in AML based on a series of Phase III studies. Read More

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November 2018

Clinical efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of unresectable advanced or recurrent gastric cancer: an evidence-based review of therapies.

Onco Targets Ther 2018 21;11:8239-8250. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan,

Standard treatment options for patients with advanced gastric cancer (GC) offer limited efficacy and are associated with some toxicity, which necessitates the development of more effective therapies for improving the treatment outcomes for this disease. Immunotherapy involving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) which inhibit the programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 interaction has emerged as a new treatment option. Nivolumab, a human IgG4 monoclonal antibody inhibitor of PD-1, has demonstrated promising clinical activity and induced durable responses in patients with advanced GC. Read More

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November 2018

Novel application of trimethyl chitosan as an adjuvant in vaccine delivery.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 23;13:7959-7970. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering Laboratory, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India,

The application of natural carbohydrate polysaccharides for antigen delivery and its adjuvanation potential has garnered interest in the scientific community in the recent years. These biomaterials are considered favorable candidates for adjuvant development due to their desirable properties like enormous bioavailability, non-toxicity, biodegradability, stability, affordability, and immunostimulating ability. Chitosan is the one such extensively studied natural polymer which has been appreciated for its excellent applications in pharmaceuticals. Read More

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November 2018

Fabrication and evaluation of a γ-PGA-based self-assembly transferrin receptor-targeting anticancer drug carrier.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 22;13:7873-7889. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China,

Background: cis-Dichlorodiamineplatinum (CDDP) was one of the most common used drugs in clinic for cancer treatment. However, CDDP caused a variety of side effects. The abundant carboxyl groups on the surface of poly glutamic acid (PGA) could be modified with various kinds of targeted ligands. Read More

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November 2018

Co-exposure subacute toxicity of silica nanoparticles and lead acetate on cardiovascular system.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 21;13:7819-7834. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Toxicology and Sanitary Chemistry, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, PR China,

Background: The harmful effects following the release of nanomaterials into environment are of great concern today.

Purpose: In this study, subacute effect due to co-exposure to low-dose silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and lead acetate (Pb) on cardiovascular system was detected in Sprague Dawley male rats.

Materials And Methods: Histopathological and ultrastructural changes of heart, aortic arch and abdominal aorta were detected. Read More

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November 2018

Nitric oxide-releasing nanoparticles improve doxorubicin anticancer activity.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 20;13:7771-7787. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Drug Science, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Purpose: Anticancer drug delivery systems are often limited by hurdles, such as off-target distribution, slow cellular internalization, limited lysosomal escape, and drug resistance. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a stable nitric oxide (NO)-releasing nanoparticle (polystyrene-maleic acid [SMA]--dodecane S-nitrosothiol [tDodSNO]) with the aim of enhancing the anticancer properties of doxorubicin (Dox) and a Dox-loaded nanoparticle (SMA-Dox) carrier.

Materials And Methods: Effects of SMA-tDodSNO and/or in combination with Dox or SMA-Dox on cell viability, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, lysosomal membrane permeability, tumor tissue, and tumor growth were studied using in vitro and in vivo model of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Read More

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November 2018

Effects of quercetin and arginine on the nephrotoxicity and lipid peroxidation induced by gold nanoparticles in vivo.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 21;13:7765-7770. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,

Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the nephrotoxicity caused by gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and investigate the potential roles of quercetin (Qur) and arginine (Arg) in mitigating the inflammatory kidney damage and dysfunction and inhibiting the toxicity induced by GNPs in rats.

Methods: Kidney function was assessed using various serum biomarkers, including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid (URIC), and creatinine (CR), while toxicity was evaluated by measuring the biomarkers glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney tissues.

Results: Administration of GNPs to the rats severely affected the serum kidney biomarkers, as confirmed by the notable increases in BUN, URIC, and CR. Read More

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November 2018

Tailor-made PL-UC-C3 nanoparticles for fluorescence/computed tomography imaging-guided cascade amplified photothermal therapy.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 19;13:7633-7646. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093, China,

Background: Development of the burgeoning number of photothermal therapy (PTT) agents has drawn a huge amount of interest, since PTT treatment is a powerful and effective alternative to traditional treatments. Optimal PTT agents should integrate some essential preconditions including negligible systemic toxicity, deep penetration into tumor tissues, and maximum laser energy absorbance. Unfortunately, only few of the PTT agents reported could meet all of the above mentioned conditions. Read More

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November 2018

Enhanced photo/chemo combination efficiency against bladder tumor by encapsulation of DOX and ZnPC into in situ-formed thermosensitive polymer hydrogel.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 19;13:7623-7631. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Urology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China,

Background: Chemotherapy after transurethral resection is commonly recommended for bladder cancer. However, studies have shown that chemotherapy solely can hardly decrease progression rates of bladder cancer. The combination of chemotherapeutic agents with photo-dynamic therapy (PDT), a new promising localized therapy, may become a workable strategy for combating bladder cancer. Read More

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November 2018

Impact of chemotherapy in the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer patients with severe to very severe COPD.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2018 21;13:3805-3812. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tianjin Chest Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China,

Background: The aim of the study was to investigate if first-line chemotherapy improves total survival time in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients complicated with severe to very severe COPD.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective observational clinical study included 267 consecutive NSCLC patients with COPD complications at the Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine of Tianjin Chest Hospital between January 2009 and January 2018. Sixty-nine evaluable patients were included. Read More

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November 2018

Evaluation of the efficacy of intralesional Glucantime plus niosomal zinc sulphate in comparison with intralesional Glucantime plus cryotherapy in the treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis, a randomized clinical trial.

J Parasit Dis 2018 Dec 13;42(4):616-620. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

1Leishmaniasis Research Center, Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Current treatment modalities in cutaneous leishmaniasis have low efficacy and high toxicity as well as high rate of resistance to treatment. In this study, for the first time we decided to evaluate efficacy of intralesional Glucantime plus niosomal zinc sulphate in comparison with intralesional Glucantime plus cryotherapy in the treatment of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis. This is a case-control study on 64 patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kerman-Iran. Read More

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December 2018

Role of IL-21 in host pathogenesis in experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

J Parasit Dis 2018 Dec 22;42(4):500-504. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

2Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam India.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major global health problem but still remains one of the neglected tropical diseases. Currently available chemotherapeutics are associated with severe toxicity and increased drug resistance. There is a need to explore for novel therapeutic strategies that could modulate host immune responses or work in synergy with chemotherapy of VL. Read More

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December 2018

Design Optimization of Tumor Vasculature-Bound Nanoparticles.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 11;8(1):17768. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Nanotherapy may constitute a promising approach to target tumors with anticancer drugs while minimizing systemic toxicity. Computational modeling can enable rapid evaluation of nanoparticle (NP) designs and numerical optimization. Here, an optimization study was performed using an existing tumor model to find NP size and ligand density that maximize tumoral NP accumulation while minimizing tumor size. Read More

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December 2018

The microRNA miR-7a-5p ameliorates ischemic brain damage by repressing α-synuclein.

Sci Signal 2018 Dec 11;11(560). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53792, USA.

Ischemic stroke, which is caused by a clot that blocks blood flow to the brain, can be severely disabling and sometimes fatal. We previously showed that transient focal ischemia in a rat model induces extensive temporal changes in the expression of cerebral microRNAs, with a sustained decrease in the abundance of miR-7a-5p (miR-7). Here, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a miR-7 mimic oligonucleotide after cerebral ischemia in rodents according to the Stroke Treatment Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) criteria. Read More

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December 2018

Targeted radiotherapy of pigmented melanoma with I-5-IPN.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2018 Dec 11;37(1):306. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuhan Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1277 Jiefang Ave, Wuhan, 430022, Hubei Province, China.

Purpose: There has been no satisfactory treatment for advanced melanoma until now. Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRNT) may be a promising option for this heretofore lethal disease. Our goal in this study was to synthesize I-N-(2-(diethylamino)ethyl)-5-(iodo-131I)picolinamide (I-5-IPN) and evaluate its therapeutic ability and toxicity as a radioiodinated melanin-targeting therapeutic agent. Read More

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December 2018

Single-dose baclofen-induced neurotoxicity in a patient with end stage renal disease: case report.

BMC Nephrol 2018 Dec 11;19(1):352. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Intern Doctor, Internal Medicine Department, An-Najah National University Hospital, Nablus, Palestine.

Background: Baclofen is a centrally acting GABA receptor agonist and it is used widely for the treatment of spasticity, persistent hiccups and multiple sclerosis. The renal system is the main route of excretion, thus people with suboptimal renal function are prone to baclofen intoxication. Multiple doses of baclofen have been associated with toxicity, but it is very unusual that single dose can do so. Read More

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December 2018

Case report of neurotoxicity with blinatumomab and concurrent intrathecal chemotherapy in second relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with central nervous system disease.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2018 Dec 11:1078155218817817. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, USA.

A 26-year-old male with a history of pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and seizures presented with second relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and central nervous system involvement, 19 years after the initial diagnosis. Over the next two months, the patient received six doses of triple intrathecal chemotherapy (cytarabine, methotrexate, and hydrocortisone), three concurrently with continuous blinatumomab in the second month. Approximately 12 days after blinatumomab initiation, he developed central nervous system toxicity manifesting as speech impairment, altered mental status, incontinence, and diffuse weakness. Read More

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December 2018

Incidence and attributes of chemotherapy induced myelotoxicity, anemia and neutropenia in adults with cancer in Nepal: A cross-sectional observational study.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2018 Dec 11:1078155218817815. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

2 Department of Clinical Oncology, National Academy of Medical Science, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Background: Myelosuppression remains a major toxicity in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, and is associated with considerable morbidity, mortality and cost.

Objective: The present study aims to investigate the prevalence and incidence of myelotoxicity, anemia and neutropenia in the adult cancer population, and further to determine the factors influencing them.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study conducted at National Academy of Medical Sciences, Bir Hospital, Kathmandu. Read More

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December 2018
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