4,548 results match your criteria Toxicity Neuroleptic Agents


The Use of Physostigmine in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Anticholinergic Toxicity After Olanzapine Overdose: Literature Review and Case Report.

J Acad Consult Liaison Psychiatry 2021 May-Jun;62(3):285-297. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA. Electronic address:

Background: Second-generation antipsychotic agents are commonly used by clinicians for the treatment of various psychiatric and medical conditions. Despite their presumed safety, an overdose with olanzapine may lead to the development of anticholinergic toxicity. The anticholinergic toxidrome is characterized by both central and peripheral physical findings. Read More

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January 2021

Targeting Cancer Stem Cells with Differentiation Agents as an Alternative to Genotoxic Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumors.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 23;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are exceptionally sensitive to genotoxic chemotherapy, resulting in a high cure rate for the young men presenting with these malignancies. However, this treatment is associated with significant toxicity, and a subset of malignant TGCTs demonstrate chemoresistance. Mixed nonseminomas often contain pluripotent embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, the cancer stem cells (CSCs) of these tumors. Read More

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Caffeine-clozapine interaction associated with severe toxicity and multiorgan system failure: a case report.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 04 13;21(1):192. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Westmead Hospital Intensive Care Unit, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Caffeine is a known inhibitor of Clozapine metabolism mediated by inhibition of CYP1A2. Hitherto, the effects of caffeine on Clozapine levels have always been modest, as have the clinical manifestations of toxicity resulting from their interaction. We present a case of severe toxicity associated with the co-consumption of caffeine and Clozapine culminating in life-threatening complications requiring management in Intensive Care. Read More

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New Avenues for Treatment and Prevention of Drug-Induced Steatosis and Steatohepatitis: Much More Than Antioxidants.

Adv Ther 2021 05 24;38(5):2094-2113. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, "Federico II" University Medical School of Naples, Naples, Italy.

Drug-induced lipid accumulation in the liver may induce two clinically relevant conditions, drug-induced steatosis (DIS) and drug-induced steatohepatitis (DISH). The list of drugs that may cause DIS or DISH is long and heterogeneous and includes therapeutically relevant molecules that cannot be easily replaced by less hepatotoxic medicines, therefore making specific strategies necessary for DIS/DISH prevention or treatment. For years, the only available tools to achieve these goals have been antioxidant drugs and free radical scavengers, which counteract drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction but, unfortunately, have only limited efficacy. Read More

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Effects of intravenous administration of recombinant Phα1β toxin in a mouse model of fibromyalgia.

Toxicon 2021 May 19;195:104-110. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Nucleo de Pós-graduação, Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study investigated the effects of intravenous (iv) administration of recombinant Phα1β toxin, pregabalin, and diclofenac by the intrathecal route using an animal model fibromyalgia (FM). The reserpine administration (0.25 mg/kg s. Read More

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Protective effects of lamotrigine and vitamin B12 on pentylenetetrazole-induced epileptogenesis in rats.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 05 17;118:107915. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey.

Epileptogenesis is a process that includes molecular and cellular events that foster the establishment of hyperexcitable neuronal networks in the brain. Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling model in rodents has added new information to the knowledge about the pathogenesis of epilepsy and potential targets of novel antiepileptic agents. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that oxidative and inflammatory events may play important roles in the initiation and maintaining seizure activities. Read More

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Precisely Fabricated Sulpiride-Loaded Nanolipospheres with Ameliorated Oral Bioavailability and Antidepressant Activity.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 9;16:2013-2044. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Background: Sulpiride (SUL), is a selective antidopaminergic drug that had extensive biological activities. However, its sparingly aqueous solubility and limited gastrointestinal permeability lead to scanty oral bioavailability which hinders its clinical efficacy.

Objective: SUL-loaded lipospheres (SUL-LPS) were designed to serve as an oral biocompatible nanovector for improving SUL permeability as well as conquering its low oral absorption and then in turn enhancing its antidepressant action. Read More

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Clozapine intoxication with severe adverse effects induced by an inflammatory and infectious process: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Feb 8;15(1):47. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Pharmacy, Hôpital du Sacré-Cœur de Montréal, 5400, Boulevard Gouin Ouest, Montreal, QC, H4J1C5, Canada.

Background: Clozapine intoxication can be life-threatening. Outside of the common drug-drug interactions, tobacco smoking, and caffeine consumption, infectious and inflammatory processes are important contributors to clozapine intoxication. Although this relationship has been reported previously, the literature is scant of proper research articles describing the presentation and management of this unpredictable interaction. Read More

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February 2021

Depression Part 3: Medication Related Problems.

Sr Care Pharm 2021 02;36(2):68-82

When selecting and managing psychoactive medications in older people, it is equally important to focus on avoidance of toxicity as it is to focus on efficacy. Higher psychoactive medication load is associated with increased rate and risk of all cause hospitalization. The medication classes used to treat depression and related comorbidities include antidepressants, antipsychotics, stimulants, mood stabilizers, lithium, anxiolytics and sedative hypnotics. Read More

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February 2021

Inhibitors of angiotensin I converting enzyme potentiate fibromyalgia-like pain symptoms via kinin receptors in mice.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Mar 18;895:173870. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Graduate Program in Biological Sciences: Biochemistry Toxicology, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Fibromyalgia is a potentially disabling chronic disease, characterized by widespread pain and a range of comorbidities such as hypertension. Among the mechanisms involved in fibromyalgia-like pain symptoms are kinins and their B and B receptors. Moreover, angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, commonly used as antihypertensive drugs, can enhance pain by blocking the degradation of peptides such as substance P and bradykinin, besides enhancing kinin receptors signalling. Read More

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An update on the complex relationship between clozapine and pneumonia.

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2021 Feb 24;14(2):145-149. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

University of Kentucky Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY, USA.

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February 2021

Polypharmacy Management in Older Patients.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 01;96(1):242-256

Division of Community Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Medications to treat disease and extend life in our patients often amass in quantities, resulting in what has been termed "polypharmacy." This imprecise label usually describes the accumulation of 5, and often more, medications. Polypharmacy in advancing age frequently results in drug therapy problems related to interactions, drug toxicity, falls with injury, delirium, and nonadherence. Read More

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January 2021

Haloperidol potentiates antinociceptive effects of morphine and disrupt opioid tolerance.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Feb 19;893:173825. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Laboratorio No.7 "Dolor y Analgesia" Del Departamento de Farmacobiología, Cinvestav-Sede Sur, Calz. de Los Tenorios No. 235, Col. Granjas Coapa, C.P. 14330, Ciudad de México, Mexico. Electronic address:

Haloperidol is an antipsychotic agent recently described as an antinociceptive drug able to mediate the antagonism of sigma-1 receptors while morphine is an opioid used in the treatment of neuropathic pain. The objectives of this work were to determine the type of interaction generated by the combination of morphine and haloperidol in neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury and to evaluate morphine tolerance and side effects. The antiallodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects of morphine (0. Read More

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February 2021

Understanding Mechanisms Underlying Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in Mental Illness: Risperidone and Olanzapine Alter the Hepatic Proteomic Signature in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 8;21(24). Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, University of New England, Biddeford, ME 04005, USA.

Patients with severe mental illness have increased mortality, often linked to cardio-metabolic disease. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incidence is higher in patients with schizophrenia and is exacerbated with antipsychotic treatment. NAFLD is associated with obesity and insulin resistance, both of which are induced by several antipsychotic medications. Read More

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December 2020

Low frequency deep brain stimulation in the inferior colliculus ameliorates haloperidol-induced catalepsy and reduces anxiety in rats.

PLoS One 2020 4;15(12):e0243438. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Behavioral Neuroscience, Experimental and Biological Psychology, Philipps-University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the colliculus inferior (IC) improves haloperidol-induced catalepsy and induces paradoxal kinesia in rats. Since the IC is part of the brain aversive system, DBS of this structure has long been related to aversive behavior in rats limiting its clinical use. This study aimed to improve intracollicular DBS parameters in order to avoid anxiogenic side effects while preserving motor improvements in rats. Read More

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January 2021

Effect of Etazolate upon Cuprizone-induced Demyelination In Vivo: Behavioral and Myelin Gene Analysis.

Neuroscience 2021 02 24;455:240-250. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

INSERM UMR-S 1124, Université de Paris, UFR des Sciences Fondamentales et Biomédicales, Campus Saint Germain des Prés, 45 rue des Saints Pères, 75006 Paris, France.

Demyelination is a well-known pathological process in CNS disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). It provokes progressive axonal degeneration and functional impairments and no efficient therapy is presently available to combat such insults. Recently, we have shown that etazolate, a pyrazolopyridine compound and an α-secretase activator, was able to promote myelin protection and remyelination after cuprizone (CPZ)-induced acute demyelination in C57Bl/6 mice. Read More

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February 2021

Antipsychotic olanzapine-induced misfolding of proinsulin in the endoplasmic reticulum accounts for atypical development of diabetes.

Elife 2020 11 17;9. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Second-generation antipsychotics are widely used to medicate patients with schizophrenia, but may cause metabolic side effects such as diabetes, which has been considered to result from obesity-associated insulin resistance. Olanzapine is particularly well known for this effect. However, clinical studies have suggested that olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia in certain patients cannot be explained by such a generalized mechanism. Read More

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November 2020

Chronic Pregabalin Treatment Ameliorates Pain, but not Depressive-Like Behaviors, in a Reserpine-Induced Myalgia Model in Rats.

Pain Physician 2020 11;23(6):E581-E590

Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, University of Valencia, Spain.

Background: Anticonvulsants are often prescribed as coanalgesics for pathologies presenting chronic pain, such as chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. These pathologies are associated with a wide range of comorbidities: chronic fatigue, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbances, and mood disorders. Pregabalin, an anticonvulsant used to treat fibromyalgia syndrome, has been proven to improve pain and fatigue symptoms. Read More

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November 2020

Neonatal phencyclidine and social isolation in the rat: effects of clozapine on locomotor activity, social recognition, prepulse inhibition, and executive functions deficits.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Feb 9;238(2):517-528. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Porsolt SAS, ZA de Glatigné, 53940, Le Genest-Saint-Isle, France.

Rationale: There is a need to develop animal models of schizophrenia-like behaviors that have both construct and predictive validity. Recently, a neonatal phencyclidine (PCP) and post-weaning social isolation dual-hit model was developed; however, its face and predictive validities need to be further investigated.

Objective: The aims of this study were to extend the characterization of the behavioral changes occurring in the neonatal PCP and post-weaning social isolation dual-hit rat model and to evaluate the effects of chronic treatment with clozapine on signs related to schizophrenia. Read More

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February 2021

Effects of Yuanhu- Zhitong tablets on alcohol-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 7;133:110962. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Brain Function and Disease Laboratory, Shantou University Medical College, No. 22 Xinling Road, Shantou, 515041, Guangdong Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aimed at determining the synergistic effects of Yuanhu Zhitong tablets (YHZTP) on alcohol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice, in addition, the intervention mechanism was preliminarily explored based on traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) network pharmacology on alcohol addiction.

Methods: Alcohol-induced CPP mice were used to evaluate the effects of either YHZTP or levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) plus imperatorin (IMP) administration on animal behavior. The network pharmacological strategy was used to establish the "compound-target" and "disease-drug-target" network. Read More

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January 2021

Bioactivation of clozapine by mitochondria of the murine heart: Possible cause of cardiotoxicity.

Toxicology 2021 01 7;447:152628. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, 35040 Bornova-İzmir, Turkey. Electronic address:

The mechanism of clozapine-associated cardiotoxicity has not been elucidated. The formation of a reactive nitrenium ion from the drug has been suggested as the cause, however, the reason why the heart is a target remains unknown. The heart is one of the most perfused organs; therefore, it contains a large number of mitochondria per cell; these organelles are responsible for both oxygen metabolism and energy production due to high energy expenditure. Read More

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January 2021

Unmetabolized quetiapine exerts an in vitro effect on innate immune cells by modulating inflammatory response and neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Nov 7;131:110497. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Graduate Program of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil; Graduate Program in Gerontology, Universidade Federal Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Quetiapine is an antipsychotic drug that is used to treat psychiatric and neurological disorders. Despite its efficiency and low-toxicity, quetiapine administration has been associated with undesirable side effects such as the development of low-grade inflammatory disorders and neutropenia states. As the liver rapidly metabolizes quetiapine to metabolites, the non-metabolized part of this molecule might play a role in immune alterations. Read More

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November 2020

Pattern of food, drug and chemical poisoning in Qassim region, Saudi Arabia from January 2017 to December 2017.

Toxicol Rep 2020 15;7:1438-1442. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Poisoning has become a widespread and dangerous phenomenon worldwide. The purpose of our study was to determine and analyze the pattern of poisoning cases induced with food, drugs, and chemicals reported to the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health in Qassim province in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study also evaluated the correlation of demographic variables such as age, type of toxicity and geographical distribution associated with poisoning in Qassim province. Read More

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October 2020

Metabolomic profiles associated with a mouse model of antipsychotic-induced food intake and weight gain.

Sci Rep 2020 10 29;10(1):18581. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive Mail Code 0673, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.

Antipsychotic drugs (AP) are used to treat a multitude of psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, APs also have metabolic side effects including increased food intake and body weight, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We previously reported that minocycline (MINO) co-treatment abrogates olanzapine (OLZ)-induced hyperphagia and weight gain in mice. Read More

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October 2020

The role of vimentin, Connexin-43 proteins, and oxidative stress in the protective effect of propranolol against clozapine-induced myocarditis and apoptosis in rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jan 22;890:173645. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Clozapine (CLZ) represents an effective treatment for resistant schizophrenia. However, myocarditis, recently reported in about 66% of the psychiatric patients treated with CLZ, has raised concerns about its safety. β-blocking agents have shown to be helpful in the management of myocarditis. Read More

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January 2021

Non-invasive intranasal administration route directly to the brain using dendrimer nanoplatforms: An opportunity to develop new CNS drugs.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jan 11;209:112905. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination Du CNRS, 205 Route de Narbonne, 31077, Toulouse, Cedex 4, France; Université Toulouse 118 Route de Narbonne, 31077, Toulouse, Cedex 4, France. Electronic address:

There are several routes of administration to the brain, including intraparenchymal, intraventricular, and subarachnoid injections. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) impedes the permeation and access of most drugs to the central nervous system (CNS), and consequently, many neurological diseases remain undertreated. For past decades, to circumvent this effect, several nanocarriers have been developed to deliver drugs to the brain. Read More

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January 2021

Pharmacology profile of F17464, a dopamine D receptor preferential antagonist.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jan 14;890:173635. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Innovation Unit CNS, CEPC Pierre Fabre Laboratories, Bel Air de Campans, 81106, Castres, France. Electronic address:

F17464 (N-(3-{4-[4-(8-Oxo-8H-[1,3]-dioxolo-[4,5-g]-chromen-7-yl)-butyl]-piperazin-1-yl}-phenyl)-methanesulfonamide, hydrochloride) is a new potential antipsychotic with a unique profile. The compound exhibits high affinity for the human dopamine receptor subtype 3 (hD) (K = 0.17 nM) and the serotonin receptor subtype 1a (5-HT) (K = 0. Read More

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January 2021

Increased behavioral and neuronal responses to a hallucinogenic drug after adolescent toluene exposure in mice: Effects of antipsychotic treatment.

Toxicology 2020 12 24;445:152602. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Center for Neuropsychiatric Research, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Rd. Zhunan, Miaoli, 35053, Taiwan; Institute of Neuroscience, National Chengchi University, NO. 64, Sec. 2, Zhinan Rd., Taipei, 11605, Taiwan; Ph.D. Program in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, No. 145, Xingda Rd., Taichung, 40227, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Toluene has been characterized as a non-classical hallucinogen drug through activation of 5-HT receptors and antagonism of NMDA receptors. It remains unclear whether psychotic symptoms after long-term and intense toluene exposure are associated with abnormalities in 5-HT receptor function. The present study examined whether the responses to a hallucinogenic 5-HT receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) were altered in a mouse model of toluene psychosis. Read More

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December 2020

Pimozide Suppresses the Growth of Brain Tumors by Targeting STAT3-Mediated Autophagy.

Cells 2020 09 22;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Biomedical Science, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX 79106, USA.

Brain tumors are considered as one of the most aggressive and incurable forms of cancer. The majority of the patients with brain tumors have a median survival rate of 12%. Brain tumors are lethal despite the availability of advanced treatment options such as surgical removal, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Read More

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September 2020

Atypical Antipsychotic Drug Ziprasidone Protects against Rotenone-Induced Neurotoxicity: An In Vitro Study.

Molecules 2020 Sep 14;25(18). Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan.

Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic mental illness characterized by delusions, hallucinations, negative symptoms, and cognitive dysfunction. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that the pathogenesis of schizophrenia involves mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. However, the effect of antipsychotic drugs for these events has been poorly investigated. Read More

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September 2020