4,300 results match your criteria Toxicity Neuroleptic Agents


Evaluation of pharmaceutical toxic effects of non-standard endpoints on the macrophyte species Lemna minor and Lemna gibba.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 2;657:926-937. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Biology, Aveiro University, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal; Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal. Electronic address:

In the last years the environmental presence of pharmaceuticals has gained increasing attention. Research data show that these compounds can cause toxicological effects in different species of fish, mollusks and macroinvertebrates. However, the literature is scarce in terms of ecotoxicity data especially focusing on plants as test organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.002DOI Listing

Agranulocytosis-Protective Olanzapine-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Engineered for CNS Delivery: Optimization and Hematological Toxicity Studies.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2019 Jan 2;20(1):22. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Sinhgad Institute of Pharmacy, Sinhgad Technical Education Society, Narhe, Pune, MS, 411041, India.

Potential risk of agranulocytosis is one of the drug-induced adverse effects of the second-generation antipsychotic agents. The present investigation aimed to formulate and investigate olanzapine (OLZ)-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (OLZ-NLCs) via intranasal (i.n. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-018-1213-yDOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

A phenotypic Caenorhabditis elegans screen identifies a selective suppressor of antipsychotic-induced hyperphagia.

Nat Commun 2018 12 10;9(1):5272. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.

Antipsychotic (AP) drugs are used to treat psychiatric disorders but are associated with significant weight gain and metabolic disease. Increased food intake (hyperphagia) appears to be a driving force by which APs induce weight gain but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we report that administration of APs to C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07684-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6288085PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Analogs of penfluridol as chemotherapeutic agents with reduced central nervous system activity.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2018 Dec 24;28(23-24):3652-3657. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, School of Pharmacy, Amarillo, TX 79106, United States. Electronic address:

Several recent reports have highlighted the feasibility of the use of penfluridol, a well-known antipsychotic agent, as a chemotherapeutic agent. In vivo experiments have confirmed the cytotoxic activity of penfluridol in triple-negative breast cancer model, lung cancer model, and further studies have been proposed to assess its anticancer activity and viability for the treatment of glioblastomas. However, penfluridol anticancer activity was observed at a dosage significantly higher than that administered in antipsychotic therapy, thus raising the concern for the potential onset of CNS side effects in patients undergoing intensive pharmacological treatment. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0960894X183083
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2018.10.036DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads
2.420 Impact Factor

Role of food‑drug interactions in neurological and psychological diseases.

Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2018 ;78(3):187-197

Gazi University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Ankara,Turkey.

Given that foods and nutrients have been shown to influence the pharmacokinetics of drugs, drugs may cause changes in the nutritional status of patients and their response to a given drug. Food‑drug interactions are particularly relevant for drugs used to treat neurological and psychological diseases. This review provides an overview of food‑drug interaction in the treatment of neurological and psychological diseases. Read More

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January 2019
5 Reads

Ondansetron and teratogenicity in rats: Evidence for a mechanism mediated via embryonic hERG blockade.

Reprod Toxicol 2018 10 24;81:237-245. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Discipline of Biomedical Sciences, Sydney Medical School, The Unvieristy of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. Electronic address:

The potent hERG channel blocking drug ondansetron is used off-label for treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Some human epidemiological studies have associated ondansetron with fetal cardiovascular defects and orofacial clefts. This study investigated the effects of ondanestron on embryonic heart rhythm of gestational day (GD) 13 rat embryos in vitro and then integrated the results with published animal teratology, and animal and human pharmacokinetic studies to perform a risk evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2018.08.018DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Albizia zygia root extract exhibits antipsychotic-like properties in murine models of schizophrenia.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Oct 11;106:831-841. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Electronic address:

Background: The root extract of Albizia zygia (DC.) J.F. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07533322183262
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.07.030DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads
2.023 Impact Factor

5-HT parital agonism and 5-HT antagonism restore episodic memory in subchronic phencyclidine-treated mice: role of brain glutamate, dopamine, acetylcholine and GABA.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Oct 31;235(10):2795-2808. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 E. Chicago Ave., Ward Building 7-014, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Rationale: The effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g., lurasidone, to improve cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS), has been suggested to be due, in part, to enhancing release of dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh), and glutamate (Glu) in cortex and hippocampus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-4972-yDOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads

Mutual activation of glutamatergic mGlu and muscarinic M receptors reverses schizophrenia-related changes in rodents.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Oct 27;235(10):2897-2913. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 12 Smętna St, 31-343, Kraków, Poland.

Rationale: Metabotropic glutamate receptors and muscarinic M receptors have been proposed as novel targets for various brain disorders, including schizophrenia. Both receptors are coupled to G proteins and are expressed in brain circuits that are important in schizophrenia. Therefore, their mutual activation may be an effective treatment and allow minimizing the doses of ligands required for optimal activity. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00213-018-4980-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-018-4980-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6182605PMC
October 2018
7 Reads

Probable mechanisms involved in the antipsychotic-like activity of morin in mice.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Sep 20;105:1079-1090. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Neuropharmacology Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Evidence derived from preliminary studies suggests that morin, a neuroactive flavonoid with proven antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties possess antipsychotic-like activity. The present study was designed to evaluate the probable mechanisms involve in the antipsychotic-like activity of morin in ketamine model of schizophrenia. The effects of morin, haloperidol and risperidone on neurobehavioral and anti-schizophrenia-like effects were evaluated in mice (n = 7) following intraperitoneal (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.06.057DOI Listing
September 2018
14 Reads
2.023 Impact Factor

Protective effects of Spinacia oleracea seeds extract in an experimental model of schizophrenia: Possible behavior, biochemical, neurochemical and cellular alterations.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Sep 19;105:1015-1025. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Faculty of Medical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago. Electronic address:

Schizophrenia is one of the psychotic mental disorders characterized by symptoms of thought, behavior, and social problems. Newer biomedicine and pharmacotherapy has been investigated for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders in the past few decades. Spinacia oleracea is one of these, reported to have beneficial effect against several neurodegenerative disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.06.043DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Photolytic and photocatalytic transformation of an antipsychotic drug asenapine: Comparison of kinetics, identification of transformation products, and in silico estimation of their properties.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Oct 11;162:272-286. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 4, 20-090 Lublin, Poland.

The photolytic and photocatalytic transformation of an antipsychotic drug asenapine with the use of HO and TiO was studied. A method employing irradiation with a simulated full solar spectrum in the photostability chamber was applied, then the reverse-phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector, coupled with electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RP-UHPLC-DAD - ESI-Q-TOF) was used for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the processes. The developed quantitative method was fully validated, according to the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) guidelines, and the kinetic parameters of asenapine photodecomposition were compared. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.07.010DOI Listing
October 2018
10 Reads

In vitro screening of selected antiviral drugs against betanodavirus.

J Virol Methods 2018 09 8;259:66-73. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Division of Aquatic Environment and Health Management, ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai, India. Electronic address:

The inhibitory effects of ammonium chloride (NHCl) and chlorpromazine hydrochloride on betanodavirus were evaluated on Sahul Indian sea bass kidney (SISK) cell line. The cytotoxicity of different concentrations of NHCl (0.1 mM, 1 mM, 10 mM, 100 mM and 500 mM) and chlorpromazine hydrochloride (1 μM, 10 μM, 100 μM, 200 μM and 500 μM) were assessed in SISK cells using different cytotoxic assays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2018.06.005DOI Listing
September 2018
14 Reads

Successful intravenous lipid emulsion therapy: Olanzapine intoxication.

Acute Med 2018 ;17(2):96-97

Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Olanzapine is an antipsychotic drug used in psychiatric diseases. At high doses it exhibits cardiovascular and neurological sideeffects in particular. Lipid emulsion therapy for the removal of medication from plasma in high-dose lipophilic drug use has recently become very widespread. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

[Side Effects of Smoking Cessation].

Praxis (Bern 1994) 2018 Jun;107(12):655-657

1 Psychiatrische Klinik, Regionalspital Emmental, Langnau im Emmental.

Side Effects of Smoking Cessation Abstract. We present the case of a clozapine intoxication associated with aspiration pneumonia due to smoking cessation. Clozapine is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/1661-8157/a002991DOI Listing
June 2018
3 Reads

Metabolic Syndrome and Antipsychotics: The Role of Mitochondrial Fission/Fusion Imbalance.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 23;9:144. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are known to increase cardiovascular risk through several physiological mechanisms, including insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, hyperphagia, and accelerated weight gain. There are limited prophylactic interventions to prevent these side effects of SGAs, in part because the molecular mechanisms underlying SGAs toxicity are not yet completely elucidated. In this perspective article, we introduce an innovative approach to study the metabolic side effects of antipsychotics through the alterations of the mitochondrial dynamics, which leads to an imbalance in mitochondrial fusion/fission ratio and to an inefficient mitochondrial phenotype of muscle cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5924798PMC
April 2018
3 Reads

LL-37-induced human osteoblast cytotoxicity and permeability occurs independently of cellular LL-37 uptake through clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 06 5;501(1):280-285. Epub 2018 May 5.

Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, BMC D12, SE-221 84, Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:

The host defense peptide LL-37 is cytotoxic for bacteria but it has also been reported to reduce host cell viability through an intracellular mechanism. LL-37-evoked cytotoxicity may be involved in the loss of bone tissue in periodontitis which is an inflammatory disease characterized by high concentrations of LL-37 observed locally in the periodontal tissue at the inflammation process. Here, we showed that LL-37 reduced human osteoblast-like MG63 cell viability assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and increased plasma membrane permeability determined by measuring intracellular Ca levels and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.04.235DOI Listing
June 2018
3 Reads

Selegiline Nanoformulation in Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Upregulation of Dopamine in the Brain for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

Rejuvenation Res 2018 Oct 21;21(5):464-476. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

1 Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University) , New Delhi, India .

Objective of this study was to determine whether the prepared nanoemulsion would be able to deliver selegiline to the brain by intranasal route, improving its bioavailability. Antioxidant activity, pharmacokinetic parameters, and dopamine concentration were determined. Oxidative stress models, which had Parkinson's disease-like symptoms, were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of nanoemulsion loaded with selegiline in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/rej.2017.2035DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Investigation of the photolysis and TiO, SrTiO, HO-mediated photocatalysis of an antipsychotic drug loxapine - Evaluation of kinetics, identification of photoproducts, and in silico estimation of properties.

Chemosphere 2018 Aug 5;204:1-10. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Drug Analyses and Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lodz, Muszyńskiego 1, 90-151 Łodź, Poland.

The photolytic and photocatalytic transformation of loxapine with the use of HO, TiO and SrTiO under the simulated solar radiation was studied. A micro-scale method for simultaneous irradiation of multiple samples in photostability chamber was applied. RP-UHPLC-DAD coupled with ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometer was used for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.04.022DOI Listing
August 2018
8 Reads

-Theanine Decreases Orofacial Dyskinesia Induced by Reserpine in Rats.

Neurotox Res 2018 Oct 9;34(3):375-387. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, B1F., No. 95, Wen-Chang Road, Shih-Lin District, Taipei City, 11101, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Reserpine (RES)-induced orofacial dyskinesia (OD) has been used as an animal model for human tardive dyskinesia (TD) for decades, due to its strong pathophysiological association with striatal oxidative stress and neural cytoarchitecture alteration. -Theanine (LT), one of the major amino acid components in green tea, has potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the potential protective effects of LT on RES-induced behavioral and neurochemical dysfunction in rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-018-9897-zDOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Endocrinopathies and renal outcomes in lithium therapy: impact of lithium toxicity.

QJM 2017 Dec;110(12):821-827

From the Department of Endocrinology.

Background: Lithium is the mainstay of treatment for bipolar disorder, mania and an augmentation therapy in patients with treatment resistant depression. It has a narrow therapeutic index, with recognized adverse multi-system and endocrine side effects.

Aim: To assess the impact of lithium therapy, in particular lithium toxicity, on the development of endocrine and renal disorders in a cohort of patients in a single tertiary referral centre in Ireland. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcx171DOI Listing
December 2017
4 Reads

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of 1,2-bis-(4 methoxyphenylselanyl) styrene in mice: involvement of the serotonergic system.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2018 Jul 27;70(7):901-909. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Grupo de Pesquisa em Neurobiotecnologia - GPN- Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico, CDTec, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, UFPel, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Background: Pain is one of the most prevalent, costly and disabling conditions that reduces quality of life. Although there are many analgesics available, there is some concern regarding their efficacy, safety and side effects. Organic selenium compounds are attractive targets of various research groups due to their pharmacological properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12907DOI Listing
July 2018
3 Reads

Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: Public Health Implications and a Novel Model Treatment Guideline.

West J Emerg Med 2018 Mar 8;19(2):380-386. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

University of California, San Diego, Department of Emergency Medicine, San Diego, California.

Introduction: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is an entity associated with cannabinoid overuse. CHS typically presents with cyclical vomiting, diffuse abdominal pain, and relief with hot showers. Patients often present to the emergency department (ED) repeatedly and undergo extensive evaluations including laboratory examination, advanced imaging, and in some cases unnecessary procedures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5811/westjem.2017.11.36368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5851514PMC
March 2018
11 Reads

The antipsychotics sulpiride induces fatty liver in rats via phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 at Serine 307-mediated adipose tissue insulin resistance.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018 04 15;345:66-74. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Department of Pharmacy, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:

Cumulative evidence has suggested that many antipsychotics cause metabolic abnormalities. Adipose tissue insulin resistance (Adipo-IR) contributes to the development and progress of metabolic abnormalities including fatty liver by inducing excessive free fatty acid release from adipose tissue. Sulpiride is an old antipsychotic still frequently used in many developing countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2018.02.023DOI Listing
April 2018
3 Reads

Antipsychotic drug poisoning monitoring of clozapine in urine by using coffee ring effect based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

Anal Chim Acta 2018 Jul 20;1014:64-70. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 201999, China. Electronic address:

Antipsychotics are the drugs most often involved in drug poisoning cases, and therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is necessary for safe and effective medication administration of these drugs. In this study, a coffee ring effect-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (CRE-SERS) method was developed and successfully used to monitor antipsychotic poisoning by using urine samples for the first time. The established method exhibited excellent SERS performance since more hot spots were obtained in the "coffee ring". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2018.02.027DOI Listing
July 2018
14 Reads

Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Supported Nanocomposite as Drug Carrier System for Controlled Delivery of Ondansetron.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 02 27;15(3). Epub 2018 Feb 27.

School of Public Health, 3rd Floor, SRM Medical College and Research, Centre, Kattankulathur 603211, India.

Sodium dodecyl sulphate-supported iron silicophosphate (SDS/FeSP) nanocomposite was successfully fabricated by the co-precipitation method. The SDS/FeSP nanocomposite was investigated as a drug carrier for ondansetron. The cumulative drug release of ondansetron was observed at various pH values for different time intervals, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5876959PMC
February 2018
26 Reads
2.060 Impact Factor

The therapeutic potential of metabotropic glutamate receptor modulation for schizophrenia.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2018 02 24;38:31-36. Epub 2018 Feb 24.

Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Vanderbilt Center for Neuroscience Drug Discovery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:

Accumulating evidence suggests that a dysregulation of the glutamatergic system exists in the brains of schizophrenia patients. The metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are being investigated as novel drug targets for this disease, and have shown promise in both preclinical and clinical studies. Activation of mGlu receptors may be efficacious for several symptom domains (positive, negative, and cognitive) and the potential for targeting mGlu receptors has been bolstered by recent research on mitigating toxicity profiles associated with mGlu activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2018.02.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5949078PMC
February 2018
6 Reads

Therapeutic drug monitoring of atypical antipsychotics.

Psychiatr Pol 2017 Dec 30;51(6):1059-1077. Epub 2017 Dec 30.

Klinika Psychiatrii Dorosłych Gdańskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego.

The paper presents an overview and analysis of the results of research on therapeutic ranges of concentrations and receptor occupancy, mainly D2 receptors, in the treatment with some atypical antipsychotic drugs. Amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, quetiapine, olanzapine, risperidone, paliperidone, sertindole, and ziprasidone were taken into account. The benefits of therapeutic drug monitoring to optimize the effectiveness of treatment and avoid side effects or toxicity were shown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12740/PP/65307DOI Listing
December 2017
2 Reads

Combined treatment with a selective PDE10A inhibitor TAK-063 and either haloperidol or olanzapine at subeffective doses produces potent antipsychotic-like effects without affecting plasma prolactin levels and cataleptic responses in rodents.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2018 02;6(1)

CNS Drug Discovery Unit, Research, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan.

Activation of indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (MSNs) via promotion of cAMP production is the principal mechanism of action of current antipsychotics with dopamine D receptor antagonism. TAK-063 [1-[2-fluoro-4-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl]-5-methoxy-3-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridazin-4(1H)-one] is a novel phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor that activates both direct and indirect pathway MSNs through increasing both cAMP and cGMP levels by inhibition of their degradation. The activation of indirect pathway MSNs through the distinct mechanism of action of these drugs raises the possibility of augmented pharmacological effects by combination therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prp2.372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5817828PMC
February 2018
5 Reads

Protective Effect of L-Theanine on Haloperidol-Induced Orofacial.

Chin J Physiol 2018 Feb;61(1):35-41

Department of Psychiatry, Yuan-Shan Br. of Taipei Veteran General Hospital, Yilan County 26604, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a severe side effect of chronic neuroleptic treatment consisting of abnormal involuntary movements, characterized by orofacial dyskinesia (OD). Haloperidol (HAL)- induced OD has been widely used as an animal model to study the neuropathophysiology of human TD with its pathophysiology strongly associated with striatal oxidative stress. L-Theanine (LT), one of the major amino acid components in green tea, has potent antioxidative effects and is able to protect against various oxidative injuries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4077/CJP.2018.BAG529DOI Listing
February 2018
3 Reads

Gabapentin reduces haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements in mice.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2018 03 31;166:21-26. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a common adverse effect observed in patients with long-term use of typical antipsychotic medications. A vacuous chewing movement (VCM) model induced by haloperidol has been used to study these abnormalities in experimental animals. The cause of TD and its treatment remain unknown, but several lines of evidence suggest that dopamine receptor supersensitivity and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) insufficiency play important roles in the development of TD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2018.01.003DOI Listing
March 2018
37 Reads

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: Diagnosis and Management.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2018 Jan 4;20(1). Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Department of Community Health and Family Medicine, 1707 N Main St, Gainesville, FL 32609.

Objective: To provide an overview of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) for the general practitioner with the most up-to-date information on etiology, workup, and management.

Data Sources: The search using PubMed included articles with the key words neuroleptic malignant syndrome, antipsychotics, neuroleptics, diagnosis, and treatment of neuroleptic malignant syndrome published in English from January 2000 to 2017. Single-case reports and articles dealing with the pediatric patient population were excluded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/PCC.17r02185DOI Listing
January 2018
2 Reads

Oxidative stress induced by chlorpromazine in patients treated and acutely poisoned with the drug.

Vojnosanit Pregl 2017 Apr;73(4):312-7

Background/aim: Although chlorpromazine (CPZ) is an antipsychotic drug widely used in clinical practice for a long time, its mechanism of action has not been entirely defined. An extremely difficult managing of patients acutely poisoned with CPZ is additional reason for detailed studying its toxicity mechanisms. In this clinical study, we investigated whether the oxidative stress (OS) mediates CPZ toxic effects in the exposed patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/VSP140423047DDOI Listing
April 2017
3 Reads

Potential effect of spermidine on GABA, dopamine, acetylcholinesterase, oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines to diminish ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms in rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Feb 27;98:207-213. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar, 125001 Haryana, India.

Ketamine, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist has been implanted in such behavioural and biochemical alterations in animals similar to human psychosis. Spermidine, a biogenic polyamine, involved in various cellular functions in living organisms, on the contrary possess NMDA receptor agonistic effect. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of spermidine (10 and 20 mg/kg, i. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07533322173469
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.12.016DOI Listing
February 2018
8 Reads

Fat Distribution in Schizophrenia Patients: A Pilot Study Comparing First- and Second-Generation Antipsychotics.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2018 Feb;38(1):68-71

From the *Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Salem; †Department of Medicine, Lewis-Gale Montgomery Regional, Blacksburg; and ‡Department of Endocrinology, Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Salem, VA.

Background: Introduction of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) has reduced neurologic toxicity but are associated with increased weight gain and obesity. The objective of this pilot study is to compare the effects of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and SGAs in patients with schizophrenia on body fat and presumed concomitant metabolic parameters.

Methods: Study compared schizophrenia nondiabetic men treated with FGAs (group 1, n = 5) and men treated with SGAs (group 2, n = 9). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000000810DOI Listing
February 2018
6 Reads

Psychotropics and Male Reproduction.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 ;1034:63-101

Department of Urology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.

Psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anticonvulsants, all have negative effects on sexual function and semen quality. These adverse events vary among men and are less pronounced for some medications, allowing their effects to be managed to some extent. Use of specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is prevalent in men of reproductive age; and application to treat premature ejaculation increases the number of young men on SSRI therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69535-8_8DOI Listing
June 2018
12 Reads

Steady-State Clozapine and Norclozapine Pharmacokinetics in Maori and European Patients.

EBioMedicine 2018 Jan 13;27:134-137. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Zenith Technology, 156 Frederick Street, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Background: Clozapine is the most effective drug for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but its use is limited by toxicity. Because ethnicity has been reported to affect clozapine metabolism, we compared its steady state pharmacokinetics in New Zealand Maori and European patients.

Methods: Clozapine and norclozapine steady state bioavailability was assessed over 24h under fasting and fed conditions in 12 Maori and 16 European patients treated for chronic psychotic illnesses with stable once-daily clozapine doses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.11.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5828556PMC
January 2018
5 Reads

Comparison of various methods to analyse toxic effects in human skin explants: Rediscovery of TTC assay.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2018 Jan 9;178:530-536. Epub 2017 Dec 9.

Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University, Hněvotínská 3, 775 15 Olomouc, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Skin explants are a suitable model which can replace dermatological experiments on animals or human volunteers. In this study, we searched for a fast, cheap and reproducible method for screening skin explant viability after treatment with UVA radiation or/and chemical agents. We compared frequently used methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), neutral red (NR) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay with a rarely used 2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) assay for the evaluation of UVA radiation and/or chlorpromazine and 8-methoxypsoralen effect as model agents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2017.12.011DOI Listing
January 2018
4 Reads

Antiallergic and antihistaminic actions of Ceasalpinia bonducella seeds: Possible role in treatment of asthma.

J Ethnopharmacol 2018 Apr 14;216:251-258. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Pravara Rural College of Pharmacy, Loni 413736, Maharashtra, India.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Seed kernel of the plant Ceasalpinia bonducella Linn (Caesalpiniacaeae) are used for the treatment of asthma in folk medicine and ancient books.

Aim Of Study: To assess the pharmacological efficacy of the plant in asthma and to confine and describe the synthetic constituents from the seeds that are in charge of the action.

Material And Methods: The viability of petroleum ether, ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of C. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03788741173043
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.12.007DOI Listing
April 2018
17 Reads

Therapy development in Huntington disease: From current strategies to emerging opportunities.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 04 8;176(4):842-861. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

Departments of Neurology, Neurobiology, and Cell Biology, Duke Center for Neurodegeneration & Neurotherapeutics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder in which patients typically present with uncontrolled involuntary movements and subsequent cognitive decline. In 1993, a CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the coding region of the huntingtin (HTT) gene was identified as the cause of this disorder. This extended CAG repeat results in production of HTT protein with an expanded polyglutamine tract, leading to pathogenic HTT protein conformers that are resistant to protein turnover, culminating in cellular toxicity and neurodegeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5975251PMC
April 2018
15 Reads

Cav2.3 (R-Type) Calcium Channels are Critical for Mediating Anticonvulsive and Neuroprotective Properties of Lamotrigine In Vivo.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2017 24;44(3):935-947. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

Institute for Neurophysiology, Cologne, Germany.

Background/aims: Lamotrigine (LTG) is a popular modern antiepileptic drug (AED), however, its mechanism of action has yet to be fully understood, as it is known to modulate many members of several ion channel families. In heterologous systems, LTG inhibits Cav2.3 (R-type) calcium currents, which contribute to kainic-acid- (KA) induced epilepsy in vivo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000485361DOI Listing
January 2018
9 Reads

Glycol chitosan functionalized asenapine nanostructured lipid carriers for targeted brain delivery: Pharmacokinetic and teratogenic assessment.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Mar 7;108:1092-1100. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi, 221005, India. Electronic address:

Blood brain barrier (BBB) is a complex, tight barrier between endothelial cells of cerebral blood vessels. It acts as a physical barrier and provides access to only those moieties which are necessary for proper brain functioning. However, this selective prudence also acts as a hindrance in therapeutic targeting of brain necessitating pharmaceutical intervention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.11.031DOI Listing
March 2018
17 Reads

Blockade of platelet-activating factor receptor attenuates abnormal behaviors induced by phencyclidine in mice through down-regulation of NF-κB.

Brain Res Bull 2018 03 7;137:71-78. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Neuropsychopharmacology and Toxicology Program, College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation is one of the important etiologic factors of abusive and neuropsychiatric disorders. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is potent proinflammatory lipid mediat1or and plays a pivotal role in neuroinflammatory disorders through the specific PAF receptor (PAF-R). Phencyclidine (PCP) induces a psychotomimetic state that closely resembles schizophrenia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2017.11.004DOI Listing
March 2018
17 Reads

Quetiapine prevents Aβ25-35-induced cell death in cultured neuron by enhancing brain-derived neurotrophic factor release from astrocyte.

Neuroreport 2018 Jan;29(2):92-98

Department of Interventional Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing.

β-Amyloid (Aβ)-induced neuronal toxicity is an early event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Quetiapine (QTP) is an atypical antipsychotic drug that has neuroprotectant properties, but little is known about its direct protective effects on neurons against the Aβ-induced cell toxicity. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of QTP on Aβ25-35-induced cell death and the possible underlying mechanisms in primary cultures of neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000000911DOI Listing
January 2018
9 Reads

Effect of inhibitors of endocytosis and NF-kB signal pathway on folate-conjugated nanoparticle endocytosis by rat Kupffer cells.

Int J Nanomedicine 2017 18;12:6937-6947. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing.

The regular accumulation of nanoparticles in the liver makes them hepatotoxic and decreases the circulation time, thus reducing their therapeutic effect. Resolving this problem will be significant in improving bioavailability and reducing side effects. In this study, we reduced the phagocytosis of epirubicin (EPI)-loaded folic acid-conjugated pullulan acetate (FPA/EPI) nanoparticles by Kupffer cells (KCs) through internalization and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) signal pathway inhibitors, thus allowing development of FPA/EPI nanoparticles as a nanodrug delivery system (NDDS) based on our previous study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S141407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5609780PMC
February 2018
15 Reads

Combination of experimental and in silico methods for the assessment of the phototransformation products of the antipsychotic drug/metabolite Mesoridazine.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Mar 19;618:697-711. Epub 2017 Oct 19.

Sustainable Chemistry and Material Resources, Institute of Sustainable Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University Lüneburg, C13, DE-21335 Lüneburg, Germany. Electronic address:

The lack of studies on the fate and effects of drug metabolites in the environment is of concern. As their parent compounds, metabolites enter the aquatic environment and are subject to biotic and abiotic process. In this regard, photolysis plays an important role. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.040DOI Listing
March 2018
5 Reads

Hearts and Minds: Real-Life Cardiotoxicity With Clozapine in Psychosis.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2017 Dec;37(6):708-712

From the *Department of Cardiology, King's College Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust; †Pharmacy Department, South London & Maudsley Hospital, Denmark Hill, United Kingdom; ‡Mental Health Service, Granada University Hospital, Granada, Spain; §Cardiology Department, King's College Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill; ∥Cardiology Department, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London; ¶Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London and Maudsley Hospital London, Denmark Hill, United Kingdom.

Background: Schizophrenia has a 1% prevalence in the population; 30% of these patients are treatment refractory. Clozapine is the only drug licensed to treat treatment refractory psychosis, but concerns about potential adverse effects result in only a proportion of eligible patients being treated. Although a well-documented neutropenia risk is mitigated by routine blood testing, cardiac toxicity is a commonly cited reason to discontinue clozapine treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000000792DOI Listing
December 2017
4 Reads

The Analgesic Acetaminophen and the Antipsychotic Clozapine Can Each Redox-Cycle with Melanin.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2017 12 9;8(12):2766-2777. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland , 5115 Plant Sciences Building, College Park, Maryland 20742, United States.

Melanins are ubiquitous but their complexity and insolubility has hindered characterization of their structures and functions. We are developing electrochemical reverse engineering methodologies that focus on properties and especially on redox properties. Previous studies have shown that melanins (i) are redox-active and can rapidly and repeatedly exchange electrons with diffusible oxidants and reductants, and (ii) have redox potentials in midregion of the physiological range. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00310DOI Listing
December 2017
8 Reads

Essential Oils as an Alternative to Pyrethroids' Resistance against Anopheles Species Complex Giles (Diptera: Culicidae).

Molecules 2017 Sep 22;22(10). Epub 2017 Sep 22.

Laboratoire de biologie moléculaire, d'épidémiologie et de surveillance des bactéries et virus transmis par les aliments (Labesta), Université Ouaga I Pr Joseph KI-ZERBO, 03 P.O. 7021 Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Widespread resistance of sp. populations to pyrethroid insecticides has led to the search for sustainable alternatives in the plant kingdom. Among many botanicals, there is great interest in essential oils and their constituents. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules22101321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6151604PMC
September 2017
13 Reads

Awakenings in rats by ultrasounds: A new animal model for paradoxical kinesia.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Jan 13;337:204-209. Epub 2017 Sep 13.

Experimental and Biological Psychology, Behavioral Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology, Philipps-University of Marburg, Gutenbergstrasse 18, 35032 Marburg, Germany; Behavioral Neurosciences Institute (INeC), Av. do Café, 2450, Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, 14050-220, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Paradoxical kinesia refers to a sudden transient ability of akinetic patients to perform motor tasks they are otherwise unable to perform. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unknown due a paucity of valid animal models that faithfully reproduce paradoxical kinesia. Here, in a first experiment, we present a new method to study paradoxical kinesia by "awakening" cataleptic rats through presenting appetitive 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV), which are typical for social situations with positive valence, like juvenile play or sexual encounters ("rat laughter"). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2017.09.021DOI Listing
January 2018
3 Reads