21 results match your criteria Toxicity Mushroom - Hallucinogens

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Chemistry and Toxicology of Major Bioactive Substances in Mushrooms.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 23;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital, 50003 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

Mushroom poisoning has always been a threat to human health. There are a large number of reports about ingestion of poisonous mushrooms every year around the world. It attracts the attention of researchers, especially in the aspects of toxin composition, toxic mechanism and toxin application in poisonous mushroom. Read More

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February 2021

Nixing the nightshades: Traditional knowledge of intoxicating members of the Solanaceae among hallucinogenic plant and mushroom users in Slovenia.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(2):e0247688. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Univerza v Ljubljani, Fakulteta za farmacijo, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Anticholinergic plants of the family Solanaceae have a long history of use as medicines, poisons, and recreational drugs. Though they were the intoxicating substances of choice throughout Europe for centuries, their use for these purposes has declined with the globalisation of other recreational drugs. The present study sought to examine the level of knowledge surrounding these plants among individuals who had used other hallucinogenic plants or mushrooms in Slovenia. Read More

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Perceived harm, motivations for use and subjective experiences of recreational psychedelic 'magic' mushroom use.

J Psychopharmacol 2020 09 17;34(9):999-1007. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Liverpool, UK.

Background: Data on actual harm of magic mushrooms suggest that toxicity and abuse potential is low, however, their legal status suggests otherwise. We aimed to gauge perception of harm of magic mushrooms in both users and mushroom-naïve participants. We also aimed to observe differences in expectations of effects between users and mushroom-naïve participants, and whether motivations for use predicted their expected effects. Read More

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September 2020

Self-reported negative outcomes of psilocybin users: A quantitative textual analysis.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(2):e0229067. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Department of Psychology, Pontifícia Universidade Católica, São Paulo, Brazil.

Psilocybin, a substance mainly found in mushrooms of the genus psilocybe, has been historically used for ritualistic, recreational and, more recently, medicinal purposes. The scientific literature suggests low toxicity, low risk of addiction, overdose, or other causes of injury commonly caused by substances of abuse, with growing interest in the use of this substance for conditions such as treatment-resistant depression. However, the presence of negative outcomes linked to psilocybin use is not clear yet. Read More

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Does getting high hurt? Characterization of cases of LSD and psilocybin-containing mushroom exposures to national poison centers between 2000 and 2016.

J Psychopharmacol 2018 12 5;32(12):1286-1294. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Maryland Poison Center, Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin are serotonergic hallucinogens that are used primarily for recreational abuse. Small studies evaluated the efficacy of LSD and psilocybin for several psychiatric conditions. There are limited safety or toxicity data for either of these substances, especially in large populations. Read More

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December 2018

Mushroom poisoning epidemiology in the United States.

Mycologia 2018 Jul-Aug;110(4):637-641. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

c Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Saint Luke's Hospital , 190 E Bannock Street, Boise , Idaho 83712.

Ingestion of wild and potentially toxic mushrooms is common in the United States and many other parts of the world. US poison centers have been logging cases of mushroom exposure in The National Poison Data System (NPDS) annual publications for over 30 years. This study compiles and analyzes US mushroom exposures as reported by the NPDS from 1999 to 2016. Read More

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January 2019

Acute Toxicity Associated with Use of 5F-Derivations of Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists with Analytical Confirmation.

J Med Toxicol 2016 12 25;12(4):396-401. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

Department of Clinical Toxicology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's Health Partners, London, UK.

Introduction: Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists (SCRAs) are the largest group of new psychoactive substances reported to the European Warning System and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to date. The heterogeneous nature and speed of diversification of these compounds make it challenging to accurately characterise and predict harms of these compounds in pre-clinical studies, ahead of their appearance.

Case Report: We report the case of a 19-year-old female who purchased three products from a headshop: two new psychoactive substances (sachets of "cannabis tea" and "mushroom tea") as well as two LSD blotters. Read More

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December 2016

New Studies on Hallucinogenic Mushrooms: History, Diversity, and Applications in Psychiatry.

Gastón Guzmán

Int J Med Mushrooms 2015 ;17(11):1019-29

Instituto de Ecologia, Apartada Postal 63, Xalapa, Veracruz 91000, Mexico.

This paper is a review of the new studies or new explanations of the hallucinogenic mushrooms, regarding their diversity, history, traditions, and problems in their recreational use, new taxonomic studies, and their modern applications in medicine, all of them since the 1970s to the present. Read More

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October 2016

Research on acute toxicity and the behavioral effects of methanolic extract from psilocybin mushrooms and psilocin in mice.

Toxins (Basel) 2015 Mar 27;7(4):1018-29. Epub 2015 Mar 27.

Faculty of Chemistry, Opole University, 45-040 Opole, Poland.

The pharmacological activities and acute toxicity of the psilocin (PC) and dried residues of the crude extracts of psychotropic mushrooms were investigated in mice. The hallucinogenic substances were effectively isolated, by using methanol, from the species of Psilocybe semilanceata and Pholiotina cyanopus, that were collected in the north-east region of Poland. The chemical analysis of these extracts, which was performed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS), indicated the presence of psilocin and other hallucinogenic substances, including indolealkylamines and their phosphorylated analogues. Read More

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Harm potential of magic mushroom use: a review.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2011 Apr 21;59(3):423-9. Epub 2011 Jan 21.

Laboratory for Health Protection Research, RIVM, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

In 2007, the Minister of Health of the Netherlands requested the CAM (Coordination point Assessment and Monitoring new drugs) to assess the overall risk of magic mushrooms. The present paper is an updated redraft of the review, written to support the assessment by CAM experts. It summarizes the literature on physical or psychological dependence, acute and chronic toxicity, risk for public health and criminal aspects related to the consumption of magic mushrooms. Read More

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Unrecognized magic mushroom abuse in a 28-year-old man.

Am J Emerg Med 2008 Oct;26(8):972.e3-4

Department of Emergency Medicine, St. Luke's Hospital, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA.

A 28-year-old man with a history of drug and alcohol abuse presented multiple times to the hospital over 2 months with an elusive constellation of symptoms, resolving spontaneously in each instance. This patient required a high level of care for management and stabilization, including 3 emergency department visits, 2 medical floor admissions, and 1 intensive care unit admission. In both the emergency department and inpatient setting, all laboratory and imaging study results, including gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry of the urine, were negative/normal. Read More

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October 2008

[Automutilation after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2007 Dec;151(52):2869-72

Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Oosterpark 9, 1091 AC Amsterdam.

Two young men, 25 and 32 years old, presented with severe automutilation by knife wounds after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms. The first patient had also used cocaine, cannabis and alcohol, while the second patient had only used the hallucinogenic mushrooms. Both patients were treated symptomatically and survived despite their severe stab wounds. Read More

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December 2007

[Mushroom poisonings: syndromic diagnosis and treatment].

Peter Kaufmann

Wien Med Wochenschr 2007 ;157(19-20):493-502

Universitätsklinik für Innere Medizin, Medizinische Universität Graz, Graz, Osterreich.

The major syndromes of mushroom poisoning can be divided by presentation timing: Early syndromes (symptom onset <6 hrs after ingestion) have little probability to cause organ damage. Epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea occur in most cases and treatment includes initial gastrointestinal decontamination with oral activated charcoal and fluid rehydration. In addition, an acute gastrointestinal syndrome can be combined with cholinergic toxicity, epileptiformic response or immuno-hemolytic anemia. Read More

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[Concentration of selected microelements in blood serum of rats exposed to the action of psilocin and phenylethylamine].

Ann Acad Med Stetin 2007 ;53 Suppl 2:153-8

Zakład Medycyny Sadowej Pomorskiej Akademii Medycznej w Szczecinie, al. Powstańców Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin.

Natural hallucinogens (including Psilocybe mushrooms) became popular in Europe since the nineties. They have been in the focus of clinicians interest for years because of their biological effects. Mechanism of action of these hallucinogens, both Psilocin and Psilocibin, is based on the physiological structure similarity to human neurotransmitters as serotonin and catecholamines. Read More

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[Hallucinogenic mushrooms].

Medicina (Kaunas) 2005 ;41(12):1067-70

Clinic of Intensive Therapy, Kaunas University of Medicine,Kaunas, Lithuania.

The group of hallucinogenic mushrooms (species of the genera Conocybe, Gymnopilus, Panaeolus, Pluteus, Psilocybe, and Stropharia) is psilocybin-containing mushrooms. These "magic", psychoactive fungi have the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin. Toxicity of these mushrooms is substantial because of the popularity of hallucinogens. Read More

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[Hallucinogens, amphetamines and entactogens].

Ther Umsch 2003 Jun;60(6):323-8

Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik Zürich, Klinische Forschung, Lenggstrasse 31, CH-8029 Zürich.

MDMA ("Ecstasy") and its analogues such as MDE and MDA are amphetamine derivatives reported to produce an altered state with emotional overtones. Since more than ten years, ecstasy is after cannabis the most frequently used recreational drug by young adults, particularly in the so-called techno-scene. However, according to a recent survey there is an increasing trend for a revival of classic amphetamine and hallucinogen abuse, possibly due to the concern about the potential neurotoxicity and somatic risks associated with ecstasy use. Read More

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[Psychotropic mushrooms and plants].

R B Hämmig

Ther Umsch 2003 Jun;60(6):317-21

Universitäre Psychiatrische Dienste Bern, Direktion Sozial- und Gemeindepsychiatrie.

There are a lot of medical applications of psychotropic plants. However, there are many more mushrooms and plants with psychotropic effects considered useless by scholar medicine. The resulting regulations make the users criminal law breakers. Read More

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Psilocybin mushroom (Psilocybe semilanceata) intoxication with myocardial infarction.

J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1998 ;36(1-2):47-9

Pomeranian Medical Academy, Szczecin, Poland.

Case Report: Intentional intoxication with natural hallucinogenic substances such as hallucinogenic mushrooms continues to be a major problem in the US and Europe, particularly in the harbor complex of northwest Poland (Pomerania). A case is described of Psilocybe intoxication in an 18-year-old man resulting in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, arrhythmia, and myocardial infarction. The indole concentrations of hallucinogenic mushrooms may predict the risk for adverse central nervous system and cardiac toxicity. Read More

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[The toxicological aspects of poisonings by psilocybine-containing mushrooms].

Sud Med Ekspert 1997 Jul-Sep;40(3):20-2

Cases involving the investigation of psylocybin-containing mushrooms became more frequent in forensic chemical and criminological expert evaluation in recent years. The authors present the data on the main chemical factors contained in these mushrooms, on the mechanism of their toxic effect, clinical picture of poisoning, and methods of chemical and toxicological analysis. Read More

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September 1997

Mushroom madness. Psychoactive fungi and the risk of fatal poisoning.

J F Rold

Postgrad Med 1986 Apr;79(5):217-8

Despite its illegality, mushroom use as a hallucinogen is widespread. The reported toxicity of hallucinogenic mushrooms ranges from significant to relatively harmless. The greatest danger lies in the potential for mistaking a highly poisonous variety that contains cyclopeptides for the relatively innocuous hallucinogenic varieties. Read More

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