738,951 results match your criteria Toxicity Mushroom - Disulfiramlike Toxins

High-dose hypofractionated pencil beam scanning carbon ion radiotherapy for lung tumors: Dosimetric impact of different spot sizes and robustness to interfractional uncertainties.

Phys Med 2021 May 10;85:79-86. Epub 2021 May 10.

CNAO, National Center for Oncological Hadrontherapy, Strada Campeggi 53, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.

Purpose: The robustness against setup and motion uncertainties of gated four-dimensional restricted robust optimization (4DRRO) was investigated for hypofractionated carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) of lung tumors.

Methods: CIRT plans of 9 patients were optimized using 4DRRO strategy with 3 mm setup errors, 3% density errors and 3 breathing phases related to the gate window. The prescription was 60 Gy(RBE) in 4 fractions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Hybrids between HS-donors and betamethasone 17-valerate or triamcinolone acetonide inhibit mast cell degranulation and promote hyperpolarization of bronchial smooth muscle cells.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 May 5;221:113517. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples «Federico II», Via D. Montesano 49, Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

Glucocorticoids represent the standard gold treatment of inflammation in asthmatic patients. More recently, HS has been described to exert positive effect on this disease. Bearing in mind that an improved pharmacological activity and a reduced toxicity can be obtained through hybridization of different molecules, simultaneously modulating multiple targets, we designed and synthesized novel betamethasone 17-valerate and triamcinolone acetonide hybrids with well-known HS-donor moieties. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol induces cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress in mouse liver.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 27;286:117238. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China; Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Ingestion of food or cereal products contaminated by deoxynivalenol (DON) and related derivatives poses a threat to the health of humans and animals. However, the toxicity and underlying mechanisms of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-Ac-DON), an acetylated form of deoxynivalenol, have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we showed that 3-Ac-DON caused significant oxidative damage, as shown by elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum, increased lipid peroxidation products, such as hydrogen peroxide (HO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metal contamination and toxicity of soils and river sediments from the world's largest platinum mining area.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 3;286:117284. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Aquatic Ecology and Centre for Water and Environmental Research, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstr. 5, 45141, Essen, Germany. Electronic address:

Mining activities in the world's largest platinum mining area in South Africa have resulted in environmental contamination with Pt (e.g., the Hex River's vicinity). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Toxic response of the freshwater green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa to combined effect of flotation reagent butyl xanthate and nickel.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 3;286:117285. Epub 2021 May 3.

School of Water Resources and Environment, Research Center of Environmental Science and Engineering, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), 29 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, 100083, Beijing, China.

Butyl Xanthate (BX) is a typical flotation reagent used to extract non-ferrous nickel ores, discharged into the surrounding environment of mining areas in large quantities. However, few studies have focused on the toxicity of combined pollution of BX and nickel (Ni) on aquatic plants, especially phytoplankton, the main producer of aquatic ecosystems. The toxicity and potential mechanism of single and combined pollution of BX and Ni at different concentrations (0-20 mg L) on typical freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) were studied. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Postoperative adjuvant dose-dense chemotherapy with bevacizumab and maintenance bevacizumab after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer: A phase II AGOG/TGOG trial.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 18;262:13-20. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Gynecologic Cancer Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Branch and Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adding bevacizumab to dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy with bevacizumab maintenance after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and interval debulking surgery (IDS) for stage III/IV ovarian, tubal, and primary peritoneal cancer.

Study Design: This phase II clinical trial using Simon's minimax two-stage design was conducted. At the first stage, 13 subjects were enrolled, and the trial would proceed to second stage if ≤3 subjects discontinued treatment for study-defined significant adverse events (AEs). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Exploring the toxic interactions between Bisphenol A and glutathione peroxidase 6 from Arabidopsis thaliana.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Apr 30;259:119891. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Applied Mycology, College of Life Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China. Electronic address:

As primary industrial raw material, the widespread usage of bisphenol A (BPA) has resulted in sustained release and accumulation in the environment. Besides its endocrine-disrupting character, BPA was reported to generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the potential toxic mechanisms of the BPA-induced oxidative damage to plants were poorly understood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fabricating multifunctional low-toxicity ratiometric fluorescent probe for individual detection of Cu/glutamate and continuous sensing for glutamate via Cu-based platform.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 May 1;259:119892. Epub 2021 May 1.

College of Chemistry, Liaoning University, 66 Chongshan Middle Road, Shenyang, Liaoning 110036, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Herein, a multifunctional ratiometric fluorescent (RF) probe Fe-MIL-88NH@RhB was fabricated for individual detection of CuGlu and continuous sensing of Glu based on unique coordination principle by encapsulating RhB into the porous of metal-organic-framework-Fe-MIL-88NH. Designed Fe-MIL-88NH@RhB platform could selectively identify Cu(II)/Glu accompanying a turn-off/turn-on fluorescent behavior with good linearity. Moreover, if the Fe-MIL-88NH@RhB/Cu is treated with Glu continuously, the quenching fluorescence of this platform (after Cu sensing at blue emission) would be further in turn restored. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Astaxanthin and its gold nanoparticles mitigate cadmium toxicity in rice by inhibiting cadmium translocation and uptake.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 3;786:147496. Epub 2021 May 3.

National Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Institute of Crop Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the main heavy metal in rice, Cd uptake by cereal crops from soil leads to toxicity in plants and pose serious health risks due to human body's accumulation through the food chain. Astaxanthin, a natural and anti-oxidative oxycarotenoid, is widely distributed in various microorganisms and seafood. In this study, we demonstrated that astaxanthin in the form of gold nanoparticles (Ast-AuNPs) can efficiently alleviate Cd toxicity to a greater extent in hydroponically grown rice plants than single astaxanthin. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Assessing the distributions and fate of household and personal care chemicals (HPCCs) in the Songhua Catchment, Northeast China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 3;786:147484. Epub 2021 May 3.

International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China.

Many household and personal care chemicals (HPCCs) are of environmental concern due to their potential toxicity to humans and wildlife. However, few studies investigate the spatiotemporal variations and fate of HPCCs in large-scale river systems. Here, river water and sediment samples from the Songhua River in Northeast China were analyzed for seven classes of HPCCs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Antineoplastic dosing in overweight and obese cancer patients: an Associazione Italiana Oncologia Medica (AIOM)/Associazione Medici Diabetologi (AMD)/Società Italiana Endocrinologia (SIE)/Società Italiana Farmacologia (SIF) multidisciplinary consensus position paper.

ESMO Open 2021 May 10;6(3):100153. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, Section of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.

Most anticancer molecules are administered in body-size-based dosing schedules, bringing up unsolved issues regarding pharmacokinetic data in heavy patients. The worldwide spread of obesity has not been matched by improved methods and strategies for tailored drug dosage in this population. The weight or body surface area (BSA)-based approaches may fail to fully reflect the complexity of the anthropometric features besides obesity in cancer patients suffering from sarcopenia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Biomimetic nanoreactor for targeted cancer starvation therapy and cascade amplificated chemotherapy.

Biomaterials 2021 May 7;274:120869. Epub 2021 May 7.

Jiangsu Engineering Laboratory of Smart Carbon-Rich Materials and Device, Jiangsu Province Hi-Tech Key Laboratory for Bio-Medical Research, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189, China.

Consuming glucose by glucose oxidase (GOx) has attracted great interest in cancer starvation therapy, but the therapeutic effect is severely limited by the tumor hypoxia environment. Herein, to overcome such limitation, cancer cell membranes disguised biomimetic nanoreactors were elaborately established for synergetic cancer starvation therapy and cascade amplificated hypoxia activated chemotherapy. Via a metallothionein-like self-assembly and infiltration approach, GOx and hypoxia activated prodrug banoxantrone (AQ4N) were efficiently loaded into metal-organic framework ZIF-8 nanocarriers to yield nanoreactor AQ4N/GOx@ZIF-8. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Foliage application of chitosan alleviates the adverse effects of cadmium stress in wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.).

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 May 5;164:115-121. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Resources and Environment, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China. Electronic address:

Excessive cadmium (Cd) causes toxic effects on crops. The effects of chitosan (CTS) with different molecular weight (MW) (5 kDa, 3 kDa, and 1 kDa) on the growth and biochemical parameters, as well as Cd concentrations in Cd-treated wheat plants were examined in a pot experiment. The results demonstrated that foliar spraying with CTS significantly improve the wheat growth, reduce malondialdehyde content and reactive oxygen species accumulation in leaves and decrease Cd concentrations in roots and shoots of wheat seedling under Cd stress. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Biochemical and metabolic responses of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons to cadmium and copper exposure.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 May 2;236:105845. Epub 2021 May 2.

Center of Deep Sea Research, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China; CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10049, China. Electronic address:

Greater interest in commercial deep-sea mining has been accompanied by mounting environmental concerns, including metal contamination resulting from mining activities. However, little is known about the toxic effects of metal exposure on deep-sea life. Given its ability to accumulate metals from the surrounding environment, its wide distribution at both vents and seeps, and its high abundance, the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons could serve as an ideal model to investigate the toxicological responses of deep-sea organisms to metal exposure. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

What's in the soup? Visual characterization and polymer analysis of microplastics from an Indonesian manta ray feeding ground.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 May 10;168:112427. Epub 2021 May 10.

Marine Megafauna Foundation, Truckee, CA, United States; Environmental and Conservation Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; Aquatic Megafauna Research Unit, Centre for Sustainable Aquatic Ecosystems, Harry Butler Institute, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia.

Plastics in marine environments vary in their physical and chemical properties, influencing their risk to biota once ingested. Manta rays are large filter-feeders that ingest plastics. To assess this risk, we characterized the plastics in a critical feeding habitat off Nusa Penida, Indonesia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

High silver concentrations in biological samples following different exposures: Two case reports.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 May 7;67:126775. Epub 2021 May 7.

Centre anti-poison-toxicovigilance, CHU Angers, France.

Background: Silver is used in various industrial applications, but also in confectioneries and for therapeutic use due to its antibiotic properties. Its toxicity is not well documented and most often only in the context of professional exposure.

Aim: Here we report two cases of high silver concentrations in biological samples in two women: the first patient presented grey marks around her cuticles, probably due to her consumption of silvered sweets and the second patient presented agranulocytosis and thrombocytopenia occurring within 24 h after the topical application of a cream containing sulfadiazine and silver to burns over a large surface area. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The protective effect of zinc on morphine-induced testicular toxicity via p53 and Akt pathways: An in vitro and in vivo approach.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 May 8;67:126776. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Chronic use of morphine is associated with reproductive complications, such as hypogonadism and infertility. While the side effects of morphine have been extensively studied in the testis, much less is known regarding the effects of morphine on Sertoli cells and the effects of zinc on morphine-induced testicular injury as well as their underlying mechanisms. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of morphine (alone and co-administered with zinc) on cell viability and apoptosis of the testicular (Sertoli) cells as well as the tumor suppressor p53 and phosphorylated-protein kinase B (p-Akt) protein levels in both in vitro and in vivo models. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Promising anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs by effective dual targeting against the viral and host proteases.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 May 10:128099. Epub 2021 May 10.

Research Institute for Medical and Health sciences, University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 27272, Sharjah, UAE; College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 27272, Sharjah, UAE. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2 caused dramatic health, social and economic threats to the globe. With this threat, the expectation of future outbreak, and the shortage of anti-viral drugs, scientists were challenged to develop novel antivirals. The objective of this study is to develop novel anti-SARS-CoV-2 compounds with dual activity by targeting valuable less-mutated enzymes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Molecular scaffolds from mother nature as possible lead compounds in drug design and discovery against coronaviruses: A landscape analysis of published literature and molecular docking studies.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 10:104933. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Chemistry, Islamic University of Science and Technology, Awanti Pora, 192122, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

The recent outbreak of viral infection and its transmission has highlighted the importance of its slowdown for the safeguard of public health, globally. The identification of novel drugs and efficient therapies against these infectious viruses is need of the hour. The eruption of COVID-19 is caused by a novel acute respiratory syndrome virus SARS-CoV-2 which has taken the whole world by storm as it has transformed into a global pandemic. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ethnopharmacology, biological activities and chemical compounds of Canarium strictum: An important resin-yielding medicinal tree in India.

Fitoterapia 2021 May 10:104920. Epub 2021 May 10.

Section for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

The resin of Canarium strictum Roxb. is used for rheumatism and asthma; the bark is used as a mosquito repellent. The major compounds in the resin are triterpenoids, but as no studies have been performed on the bark, this study investigated this economically important resource. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Versicolorin A enhances the genotoxicity of Aflatoxin B1 in human liver cells by inducing the transactivation of the Ah-Receptor.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 May 10:112258. Epub 2021 May 10.

Toxalim (Research Centre in Food Toxicology), University of Toulouse, INRAE, ENVT, INP-Purpan, UPS, 31027 Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins that have major adverse effects on human health. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most important aflatoxin and a potent carcinogen once converted into a DNA-reactive form by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450). AFB1 biosynthesis involves the formation of Versicolorin A (VerA) which shares structural similarities with AFB1 and can be found in contaminated commodities, often co-occurring with AFB1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The screening of the safety profile of polymeric based amoxicillin nanoparticles in various test systems.

Toxicol Lett 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Nanotechnology-based drugs show superiority over conventional medicines because of increased bioavailability, lower accumulation in non-target tissues, and improved therapeutic index with increased accumulation at target sites. However, it is important to be aware of possible problems related to the toxicity of these products, which have therapeutically superior properties. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the safety profile of amoxicillin nanoparticles (AmxNPs) that we developed to increase the oral bioavailability of amoxicillin (Amx) in poultry. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Implementation of the Principles of the 3Rs of Animal Testing at CDER: Past, Present and Future.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 May 10:104953. Epub 2021 May 10.

US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

The safety testing of pharmaceutical candidates has traditionally relied on data gathered from studies in animals, and these sources of information remain a vital component of the safety assessment for new drug and biologic products. However, there are clearly ethical implications that attend the use of animals for safety testing, and FDA fully supports the principles of the 3Rs, as it relates to animal usage; these being to replace, reduce and refine. We provide an overview of some of the events and activities (legal and programmatic) that have had, and continue to have, the greatest impact on animal use in pharmaceutical development, and highlight some ongoing efforts to further meet the challenge of achieving our mission as humanely as possible. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A review on the Potential Mechanism of Lead Poisoning to the growth and development of ovarian follicle.

Toxicology 2021 May 10:152810. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory for Animal Genetics & Molecular Breeding of Jiangsu Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China. Electronic address:

With the rapid development of economic globalization and industrialization, lead (Pb), one of the most important heavy metals, has been used widely since antiquity for several purposes. In fact, its impact on the health of animals and humans is a significant public health risk all the time. Pb could be accumulated in the body for a long time, causing irreversible damage to the health of animals and humans, including hostile reproductive health. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recommendations for postoperative radiotherapy in head & neck squamous cell carcinoma in the presence of flaps: a GORTEC internationally-reviewed HNCIG-endorsed consensus.

Radiother Oncol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital clinic, Barcelona, Spain.

Isntroduction Head and neck reconstructive surgery using a flap is increasingly common. Best practices and outcomes for postoperative radiotherapy (poRT) with flaps have not been specified. We aimed to provide consensus recommendations to assist clinical decision-making highlighting areas of uncertainty in the presence of flaps. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Basic Principles and New Advances in Kidney Imaging.

Kidney Int 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Over the past few years, clinical renal imaging has seen great advances, allowing assessments of kidney structure and morphology, perfusion, function and metabolism, oxygenation, as well as microstructure and interstitium. Medical imaging is becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of kidney physiology and pathophysiology, showing promise in management of patients with renal disease, in particular with regard to diagnosis, classification, and prediction of disease development and progression, monitoring response to therapy, detection of drug toxicity, and patient selection for clinical trials. A variety of imaging modalities, ranging from routine to advanced tools, are currently available to probe the kidney both spatially and temporally, particularly ultrasonography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, renal scintigraphy, and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

PanD Structure-Function Analysis and Identification of a Potent Pyrazinoic Acid-Derived Enzyme Inhibitor.

ACS Chem Biol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Republic of Singapore.

A common strategy employed in antibacterial drug discovery is the targeting of biosynthetic processes that are essential and specific for the pathogen. Specificity in particular avoids undesirable interactions with potential enzymatic counterparts in the human host, and it ensures on-target toxicity. Synthesis of pantothenate (Vitamine B5), which is a precursor of the acyl carrier coenzyme A, is an example of such a pathway. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of Human Cathelicidin LL-37 as a Novel Therapeutic Inhibitor of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin Toxin of Methicillin-Resistant .

Microb Drug Resist 2021 May 13;27(5):602-615. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

P.G. Department of Genetics, Ashok and Rita Patel Institute of Integrated Study and Research in Biotechnology and Allied Sciences (ARIBAS), Sardar Patel University, Anand, India.

Incidence of drug resistance in clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) is attributed to its diverse repertoire of virulence factors. Of these virulence determinants, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) has been experimentally validated as a prospective drug target due to its conspicuous and comprehensive role in nosocomial infections. This study encompassed an approach to elucidate the antimicrobial potentiality of human cathelicidin LL-37 against PVL toxin of MRSA. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Common Reference-Based Tandem Mass Tag Multiplexing for the Relative Quantification of Peptides: Design and Application to Degradome Analysis of Diphtheria Toxoid.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Intravacc, Institute for Translational Vaccinology, 3721 MA Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

Currently, animal tests are being used to confirm the potency and lack of toxicity of toxoid vaccines. In a consistency approach, animal tests could be replaced if production consistency (compared to known good products) can be proven in a panel of in vitro assays. By mimicking the in vivo antigen processing in a simplified in vitro approach, it may be possible to distinguish aberrant products from good products. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Influences and mechanisms of nanoparticles on pentachloronitrobenzene accumulation by earthworms.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130102, China.

Pesticides and nanoparticles may coexist in soil; however, influences of nanoparticles on accumulation of pesticides in terrestrial organisms are still unclear. This study aims to investigate the influences and mechanisms of metal oxide nanoparticles (nano ZnO and nano CuO) on accumulation of pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) in earthworms and their combined toxicity. The earthworms were cultivated in the soil spiked with nanoparticles (10, 50, 250 mg/kg) and PCNB (100 μg/kg) for 21 days. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF