49 results match your criteria Toxicity Mushroom - Amatoxin

Occurrence and chemotaxonomical analysis of amatoxins in Lepiota spp. (Agaricales).

Phytochemistry 2022 Mar 26;195:113069. Epub 2021 Dec 26.

Mycology Working Group, Institute of Ecology, Evolution, and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 13, 60438, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Electronic address:

About 95% of fatal mushroom poisonings worldwide are caused by amatoxins and phallotoxins mostly produced by species of Amanita, Galerina, and Lepiota. The genus Lepiota is supposed to include a high number of species producing amatoxins. In this study, we investigated 16 species of Lepiota based on 48 recently collected specimens for the presence of amatoxins by liquid chromatography coupled to a diode-array detector and mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS). Read More

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Design, Synthesis, and Biochemical Evaluation of Alpha-Amanitin Derivatives Containing Analogs of the trans-Hydroxyproline Residue for Potential Use in Antibody-Drug Conjugates.

Chemistry 2021 Jul 18;27(40):10282-10292. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Chemistry Department, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T-1Z1, Canada.

Alpha-amanitin, an extremely toxic bicyclic octapeptide extracted from the death-cap mushroom, Amanita phalloides, is a highly selective allosteric inhibitor of RNA polymerase II. Following on growing interest in using this toxin as a payload in antibody-drug conjugates, herein we report the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of several new derivatives of this toxin to probe the role of the trans-hydroxyproline (Hyp), which is known to be critical for toxicity. This structure activity relationship (SAR) study represents the first of its kind to use various Hyp-analogs to alter the conformational and H-bonding properties of Hyp in amanitin. Read More

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In vivo and in vitro α-amanitin metabolism studies using molecular networking.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Aug 16;346:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Univ Rennes, INSERM, INRAE, CHU Rennes, Institut NuMeCan (Nutrition, Metabolism and Cancer), PREVITOX Network, F-35033, Rennes, France; Rennes University Hospital, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, F-35033, Rennes, France.

Amanitin poisonings are among the most life-threatening mushroom poisonings, and are mainly caused by the genus Amanita. Hepatotoxicity is the hallmark of amanitins, powerful toxins contained in these mushrooms, and can require liver transplant. Among amatoxins, α-amanitin is the most studied. Read More

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Intravenous rifampicin use in the management of amanita phalloides toxicity.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Sep 19;59(9):843-845. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Victorian Poisons Information Centre, Austin Toxicology and Emergency Department, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Australia.

Amanita phalloides related toxicity from amatoxins can result in acute liver and multi-organ failure and is responsible for 90% of all mushroom poisoning death. However, more evidence is needed in regards to different management strategies. We present two cases of amanita mushroom ingestion who were treated with intravenous rifampicin. Read More

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September 2021

Clinical recovery of 5 dogs from amatoxin mushroom poisoning using an adapted Santa Cruz protocol for people.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2021 May 17;31(3):414-427. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Department of Family Medicine.

Objective: To describe the clinical course, treatment, and outcome of 5 dogs following ingestion of toxic Amanita spp. mushrooms containing amatoxins using an adapted version of the Santa Cruz protocol developed for people.

Case Series Summary: Five dogs were presented with clinical signs compatible with amanitin toxicity with witnessed ingestion noted in 3 of 5 dogs. Read More

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Energy disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to α-amatoxin-induced liver function damage and liver failure.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Jan 22;336:68-79. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 29th Nanwei Road, Xicheng District, Beijing, 102206, China. Electronic address:

Mushroom toxicity is the main branch of foodborne poisoning, and liver damage caused by amatoxin poisoning accounts for more than 90 % of deaths due to mushroom poisoning. Alpha-amatoxin (α-AMA) has been considered the primary toxin from amatoxin-containing mushrooms, which is responsible for hepatotoxicity and death. However, the mechanism underlying liver failure due to α-AMA remains unclear. Read More

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January 2021

Toxin components and toxicological importance of Galerina marginata from Turkey.

Toxicon 2020 Nov 28;187:29-34. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Natural, Herbal and Cosmetic Products, Duzce University, Duzce, Turkey.

Amatoxins, most of which are hepatotoxic, can cause fatal intoxication. While mushrooms in the amatoxin-containing Galerina genus are rare, they can poison humans and animals worldwide. Few studies have profiled the toxicity of Galerina marginata. Read More

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November 2020

Lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for the detection of lethal amatoxins from mushrooms.

PLoS One 2020 17;15(4):e0231781. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Albany, California, United States of America.

The mushroom poison that causes the most deaths is the class of toxins known as amatoxins. Current methods to sensitively and selectively detect these toxins are limited by the need for expensive equipment, or they lack accuracy due to cross-reactivity with other chemicals found in mushrooms. In this work, we report the development of a competition-based lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for the rapid, portable, selective, and sensitive detection of amatoxins. Read More

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Simultaneous identification and characterization of amanita toxins using liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometry and its applications.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Oct 11;296:95-104. Epub 2018 Aug 11.

School of Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 76(#) Yanta West Road, Xi'an 710061, Shaanxi, PR China; School of Forensic Science and Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, 76(#) Yanta West Road, Xi'an 710061, Shaanxi, PR China. Electronic address:

Rapid and accurate identification of multiple toxins for clinical diagnosis and treatment of mushroom poisoning cases is still a challenge, especially with the lack of authentic references. In this study, we developed an effective method for simultaneous identification of amanita peptide toxins by liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The accuracy and selectivity of the methodology were validated through similar multiple fragmentation patterns and characteristic ions of standard α- and β-amanitin. Read More

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October 2018

Effect of Biliary Drainage on the Toxicity and Toxicokinetics of in Beagles.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 05 25;10(6). Epub 2018 May 25.

National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Amatoxin poisoning induces delayed-onset acute liver failure, which are responsible for more than 90% of deaths in mushroom poisoning. It has been postulated from animal and human studies that biliary drainage interrupting enterohepatic amatoxin circulation may affect amatoxin poisoning. Dogs were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each. Read More

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Toxicity and toxicokinetics of Amanita exitialis in beagle dogs.

Toxicon 2018 Mar 16;143:59-67. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:

In this study, the toxicology of A. exitialis, a lethal mushroom found in China, and the toxicokinetics of peptide toxins contained in it were evaluated. Beagles were fed A. Read More

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Amatoxin-Containing Mushroom Poisonings: Species, Toxidromes, Treatments, and Outcomes.

James H Diaz

Wilderness Environ Med 2018 03 8;29(1):111-118. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA. Electronic address:

Amatoxins are produced primarily by 3 species of mushrooms: Amanita, Lepiota, and Galerina. Because amatoxin poisonings are increasing, the objective of this review was to identify all amatoxin-containing mushroom species, present a toxidromic approach to earlier diagnoses, and compare the efficacies and outcomes of therapies. To meet these objectives, Internet search engines were queried with keywords to select peer-reviewed scientific articles on amatoxin-containing mushroom poisoning and management. Read More

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Clinical characteristics and outcome of toxicity from Amanita mushroom poisoning.

Int J Gen Med 2017 3;10:395-400. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

Ramthibodi Poison Center.

Objective: To describe and analyze the clinical characteristics and outcome of amatoxin poisoning cases.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of amatoxin poisoning cases from Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System, from May 2013 to August 2015.

Results: There were 30 consultations with a total of 55 poisoning cases. Read More

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November 2017

Epidemiology and clinics of mushroom poisoning in Northern Italy: A 21-year retrospective analysis.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2018 Jul 14;37(7):697-703. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

5 Section of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Background: Limited information exists about epidemiology and management of mushroom poisoning. We analyzed and described epidemiology, clinical presentation, and clinical course of mushroom-poisoned patients admitted to emergency departments (EDs) of the Province of Parma, Italy.

Methods: Data from the database of mycological service were matched with clinical information retrieved from hospitals' database, from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2016. Read More

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A universal method for the identification of genes encoding amatoxins and phallotoxins in poisonous mushrooms

Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2017;68(3):247-251

Gdansk University of Technology, Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Microbiology, Gdansk, Poland

Background: As the currently known diagnostic DNA targets amplified in the PCR assays for detection of poisonous mushrooms have their counterparts in edible species, there is a need to design PCR primers specific to the genes encoding amanitins and phallotoxins, which occur only in poisonous mushrooms.

Objective: The aim of the study was testing of PCR-based method for detection of all genes encoding hepatotoxic cyclic peptides - amanitins and phallotoxins present in the most dangerous poisonous mushrooms.

Material And Methods: Degenerate primers in the PCR were designed on the basis of amanitins (n=13) and phallotoxins (n=5) genes in 18 species of poisonous mushrooms deposited to Genbank of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Read More

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November 2017

Liver transplantation: a life-saving procedure following amatoxin mushroom poisoning.

Hong Kong Med J 2017 Feb;23(1):93-6

Department of Surgery, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.

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February 2017

Cyclopeptide toxins of lethal amanitas: Compositions, distribution and phylogenetic implication.

Toxicon 2016 Sep 28;120:78-88. Epub 2016 Jul 28.

College of Life Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China. Electronic address:

Lethal amanitas (Amanita sect. Phalloideae) are responsible for 90% of all fatal mushroom poisonings. Since 2000, more than ten new lethal Amanita species have been discovered and some of them had caused severe mushroom poisonings in China. Read More

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September 2016

Acute liver injury and acute liver failure from mushroom poisoning in North America.

Liver Int 2016 07 4;36(7):1043-50. Epub 2016 Mar 4.

Organ Transplant Program, Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background & Aims: Published estimates of survival associated with mushroom (amatoxin)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) and injury (ALI) with and without liver transplant (LT) are highly variable. We aimed to determine the 21-day survival associated with amatoxin-induced ALI (A-ALI) and ALF (A-ALF) and review use of targeted therapies.

Methods: Cohort study of all A-ALI/A-ALF patients enrolled in the US ALFSG registry between 01/1998 and 12/2014. Read More

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A Case Study: What Doses of Amanita phalloides and Amatoxins Are Lethal to Humans?

Wilderness Environ Med 2015 Dec 9;26(4):491-6. Epub 2015 Oct 9.

Department of Pharmacology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Duzce, Turkey (Dr Kaya).

There are few data estimating the human lethal dose of amatoxins or of the toxin level present in ingested raw poisonous mushrooms. Here, we present a patient who intentionally ingested several wild collected mushrooms to assess whether they were poisonous. Nearly 1 day after ingestion, during which the patient had nausea and vomiting, he presented at the emergency department. Read More

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December 2015

Co-ingestion of amatoxins and isoxazoles-containing mushrooms and successful treatment: A case report.

Toxicon 2015 Sep 16;103:55-9. Epub 2015 Jun 16.

UCIBIO-REQUIMTE/Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua José Viterbo Ferreira nº 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Mushroom poisonings occur when ingestion of wild mushrooms containing toxins takes place, placing the consumers at life-threatening risk. In the present case report, an unusual multiple poisoning with isoxazoles- and amatoxins-containing mushrooms in a context of altered mental state and poorly controlled hypertension is presented. A 68-year-old female was presented to São João hospital (Portugal) with complaints of extreme dizziness, hallucinations, vertigo and imbalance, 3 h after consuming a stew of wild mushrooms. Read More

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September 2015

Amatoxin-containing mushroom (Lepiota brunneoincarnata) familial poisoning.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2015 Apr;31(4):277-8

From the *Department of Pediatric Emergency, †Department of Pediatrics, and ‡Department of Pediatric Intensive Care, CHU Nord, Chemin des Bourrelly; and §Poison Control Center in Marseille, Marseille, France.

Serious to fatal toxicity may occur with amanitin-containing mushrooms ingestions. A Lepiota brunneoincarnata familial poisoning with hepatic toxicity is reported. In such poisonings, acute gastroenteritis may be firstly misdiagnosed leading to delay in preventing liver dysfunction by silibinin or penicillin G. Read More

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A Case Study: Rare Lepiota brunneoincarnata Poisoning.

Wilderness Environ Med 2015 Sep 12;26(3):350-4. Epub 2015 Mar 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey (Drs Kose and Guler).

Amatoxin poisoning from the genus Lepiota may have a deadly outcome, although this is not seen as often as it is from the genus Amanita. In this report, we present a patient who was poisoned by a sublethal dose of Lepiota brunneoincarnata mushrooms. The patient was hospitalized 12 hours after eating the mushrooms. Read More

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September 2015

Wild mushroom poisoning in north India: case series with review of literature.

J Clin Exp Hepatol 2014 Dec 26;4(4):361-5. Epub 2014 Sep 26.

Department of Hepatology, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012, India.

Mushroom is an important constituent of diet in many ethnic tribes in India. Ethnic Indian tribes are known to consume nearly 283 species of wild mushrooms out of 2000 species recorded world over. Although they are experts in distinguishing the poisonous from edible mushrooms, yet occasional cases of toxicity are reported due to accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. Read More

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December 2014

Elevated cardiac enzymes due to mushroom poisoning.

Acta Biomed 2014 Dec 17;85(3):275-6. Epub 2014 Dec 17.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Mushroom poisoning is an important reason of plant toxicity. Wild mushrooms that gathered from pastures and forests can be dangerous for human health. The clinical outcomes and symptoms of mushroom toxicity vary from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to acute multiple organ failure. Read More

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December 2014

Ataxia caused by a single dose of dexketoprofen trometamol.

Acta Biomed 2014 Dec 17;85(3):269-70. Epub 2014 Dec 17.

Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Mushroom poisoning is an important reason of plant toxicity. Wild mushrooms that gathered from pastures and forests can be dangerous for human health. The clinical outcomes and symptoms of mushroom toxicity vary from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to acute multiple organ failure. Read More

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December 2014

[Management of poisoning with Amanita phalloides].

Ugeskr Laeger 2014 Mar;176(7)

Lægerne Banepladsen, 5450 Otterup.

Death cap (Amanita phalloides) is commonly found and is one of the five most toxic fungi in Denmark. Toxicity is due to amatoxin, and poisoning is a serious medical condition, causing organ failure with potential fatal outcome. Acknowledgement and clarification of exposure, symptomatic and focused treatment is of primary importance. Read More

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Clinical importance of toxin concentration in Amanita verna mushroom.

Toxicon 2014 Sep 7;87:68-75. Epub 2014 Jun 7.

Duzce University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Duzce, Turkey.

Poisoning from Amanita group of mushrooms comprises approximately 3% of all poisonings in our country and their being responsible for nearly the entire fatal mushroom poisonings makes them important. These mushrooms contain primarily two types of toxins, amatoxins and phallotoxins. Phallotoxins have a more limited toxicity potential and they primarily consist of phalloidin (PHN) and phallacidin (PCN). Read More

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September 2014

[Poisoning with Amanita mushrooms].

Praxis (Bern 1994) 2013 Dec;102(25):1507-15

Klinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin, Universitätsspital Zürich.

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December 2013

Amatoxin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides spores and tissues.

Toxicol Ind Health 2015 Dec 29;31(12):1172-7. Epub 2013 May 29.

Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Düzce University, Düzce, Turkey.

Most of the fatal cases of mushroom poisoning are caused by Amanita phalloides. The amount of toxin in mushroom varies according to climate and environmental conditions. The aim of this study is to measure α-, β-, and γ-amanitin with phalloidin and phallacidin toxin concentrations. Read More

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December 2015