654,836 results match your criteria Toxicity Medication-Induced Dystonic Reactions


Self-assembly, functionality, and in-vitro properties of quercetin loaded nanoparticles based on shellac-almond gum biological macromolecules.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Particle and Interfacial Technology Group (PaInT), Department of Green Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, Gent 9000, Belgium.

Quercetin-fortified nanoparticles were prepared from almond gum (AG), a novel biological macromolecule, and Tween 80 (T80) as stabilizers and shellac (SH) as core material using an antisolvent precipitation method. The final nanoparticles were prepared by 0.67% SH, 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.02.071DOI Listing
February 2019

Anti-cancer effect of Indanone-based thiazolyl hydrazone derivative on colon cancer cell lines.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, St. John's University, Queens, NY, 11439, USA. Electronic address:

Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Currently, Irinotecan, a topoisomerase I inhibitor, is an approved anti-cancer drug for the treatment of patients with advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer. Considering low response rate and events of high toxicity caused by irinotecan, we evaluated a series of thirteen thiazolyl hydrazone derivatives of 1-indanone for their potential antineoplastic activity and four compounds showed promising anti-cancer activity against most of the tested colon cancer cell lines with IC values ranging from 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019

A case study on the application of an expert-driven read-across approach in support of quantitative risk assessment of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, 45268, USA.

Deriving human health risk estimates for environmental chemicals has traditionally relied on in vivo toxicity databases to characterize potential adverse health effects and associated dose-response relationships. In the absence of in vivo toxicity information, new approach methods (NAMs) such as read-across have the potential to fill the required data gaps. This case study applied an expert-driven read-across approach to identify and evaluate analogues to fill non-cancer oral toxicity data gaps for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDD), an organochlorine contaminant known to occur at contaminated sites in the U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2019.02.010DOI Listing
February 2019

Oxidative and Toxicological Evolution of Engineered Nanoparticles with Atmospherically Relevant Coatings.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

The health impacts associated with engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) released into the atmosphere have not been adequately assessed. Such impacts could potentially arise from the toxicity associated with condensable atmospheric secondary organic material (SOM), or changes in the SOM composition induced by ENPs. Here, these possibilities are evaluated by investigating the oxidative and toxicological evolution of TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles which have been coated with SOM from the O3 or . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b06879DOI Listing
February 2019

Omentin protects H9c2 cells against docetaxel cardiotoxicity.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212782. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Cardiology Group, Center for Research in Molecular Medicine and Chronic Diseases (CIMUS), Universidade de Santiago de Compostela and Health Research Institute, University Clinical Hospital of Santiago de Compostela-Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Background: Association between obesity and cardiovascular diseases is well known, however increased susceptibility of obese patients to develop several cancer types is not so commonly known. Current data suggest that poorer overall survival in cancer patients might be associated to non-cancer-related causes such as higher risk of cardiotoxicity in obese patients treated with chemotherapeutic agents. Omentin, a novel adipokine decreased in obesity, is actually in the spotlight due to its favourable effects on inflammation, glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular diseases. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212782PLOS
February 2019

HEWL interacts with dissipated oleic acid micelles, and decreases oleic acid cytotoxicity.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212648. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

State Key Laboratory of Cultivation Base for Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials, Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an, China.

Senile plaques are well-known hallmarks of Alzheimer's Diseases (AD). However, drugs targeting tangles of the protein tau and plaques of β-amyloid have no significant effect on disease progression, and the studies on the underlying mechanism of AD remain in high demand. Growing evidence supports the protective role of senile plaques in local inflammation driven by S100A9. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212648PLOS
February 2019

Acute effect of low-dose thiacloprid exposure synergised by tebuconazole in a parasitoid wasp.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(2):e0212456. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Laboratory of Agrozoology, Department of Plants and Crops, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Agricultural practices often involve tank-mixing and co-application of insecticides with fungicides to control crop pests. However, natural methods relying on biological control agents such as hymenopteran parasitoids have been shown to be highly effective in suppressing crop pest populations. The current body of insecticide risk assessment data accounting for fungicide co-application is very small, the present study being the first to examine this in a parasitoid wasp. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212456PLOS
February 2019

Inhibition of tomato early blight disease by culture extracts of a Streptomyces puniceus isolate from mangrove soil.

Phytopathology 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Shenzhen University, 47890, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Plant Epigenetics & Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresource & Eco-environmental Science, Shenzhen Engineering Laboratory for Marine Algal Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Oceanography, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China ;

This study investigates the potential of natural products derived from a mangrove rhizosphere bacterium in tomato early blight management. A Streptomyces puniceus strain L75 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Acanthus ilicifolius Linn in the Mai Po Reserve, Hongkong. The crude ethyl acetate (EA) extract of L75 fermentation cultures has broad-spectrum antifungal metabolites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-12-18-0444-RDOI Listing
February 2019

8:2 Fluorotelomer alcohol causes G1 cell cycle arrest and blocks granulocytic differentiation in HL-60 cells.

Environ Toxicol 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China.

Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) are fluorinated intermediates used in manufacturing specialty polymer and surfactants, with 8:2 FTOH the homologue of largest production. FTOHs were found to pose acute toxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, developmental toxicity and endocrine-disrupting risks, whereas research regarding immunotoxicity and its underlying mechanism, especially on specific immune cells is limited. Here, we investigated the immunotoxicity of 8:2 FTOH on immature immune cells in an in vitro system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.22733DOI Listing
February 2019

Gold nanostructures as cancer theranostic probe: promises and hurdles.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Biotechnology, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh, 211004, India.

Gold nanostructures (GNSts) have emerged as substitute for conventional contrast agents in imaging techniques and therapeutic probes due to their tunable surface plasmon resonance and optical properties in near-infrared region. Thus GNSts provide platform for the amalgamation of diagnosis and treatment (theranostics) into a single molecule for a more precise treatment. Hence, the article talks about the application of GNSts in imaging techniques and provide a holistic view on differently shaped GNSts in cancer theranostics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm-2018-0170DOI Listing
February 2019

Pulmonary toxicity following inhalation exposure to VX in anesthetized rats: Possible roles for compromised immunity and oxidative stress-induced lung injury.

Exp Lung Res 2019 Feb 22:1-18. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

a Biochemical and Physiology Branch, Medical Toxicology Research Division , United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense , Aberdeen Proving Ground , Maryland , USA.

The nerve agent VX is one of the most deadly threat agents available in weapons stockpiles for intentional release. While mostly considered a percutaneous toxicant, it can be fatal when aerosolized. The objective of this study was to investigate toxic responses in the lung up to two weeks following a single 10-minute exposure to inhaled VX. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01902148.2018.1519003DOI Listing
February 2019

Defining the Role of Novel β-Lactam Agents That Target Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Organisms.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Departments of Pharmacy, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

With the current carbapenem-resistant organism crisis, conventional approaches to optimizing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameters are frequently inadequate, and traditional salvage agents (eg, colistin, tigecycline, etc) confer high toxicity and/or have low efficacy. However, several β-lactam agents with activity against carbapenem-resistant organisms were approved recently by the US Food and Drug Administration, and more are anticipated to be approved in the near future. The primary goal of this review is to assist infectious disease practitioners with preferentially selecting 1 agent over another when treating patients infected with a carbapenem-resistant organism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpids/piz002DOI Listing
February 2019

Management of cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity in chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy.

Expert Rev Hematol 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

a Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine , University of Washington School of Medicine , Seattle , WA , USA.

Introduction: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell immunotherapy has demonstrated remarkable anti-tumor activity in B-cell malignancies and is under investigation in other hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. While highly efficacious, post-infusion T cell activity often results in massive cytokine release precipitating cytokine release syndrome (CRS), the signature toxicity of CAR T cells. This toxicity is characterized by systemic immune activation resulting in fever, hypotension, respiratory insufficiency and capillary leak. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474086.2019.1585238DOI Listing
February 2019

Increased secondary nucleation underlies accelerated aggregation of the four-residue N-terminally truncated Aβ42 species Aβ5-42.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into plaques is believed to play a crucial role in Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid plaques consist of fibrils of full length Aβ peptides as well as N-terminally truncated species. β-Site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) cleaves amyloid precursor protein in the first step in Aβ peptide production and is an attractive therapeutic target to limit Aβ generation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00676DOI Listing
February 2019

Combinational Effects of Active Targeting, Shape, and Enhanced Permeability and Retention for Cancer Theranostic Nanocarriers.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Combinatory modulation of the physical and biochemical characteristics of nanocarrier delivery systems have only begun to be investigated. Here, we studied the combined effects of incorporation of active targeting moieties into nanocarriers and their morphology affecting the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect for nonomedicinal cancer therapy. Self-assembled lipid nanoparticles with low-polydispersity sub-50 nm size range and identical chemical compositions were synthesized, characterized, and correlated with in vitro cancer cellular internalization and in vivo tumor accumulation and treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b21609DOI Listing
February 2019

Curcumin-galactomannosides mitigate alcohol-induced liver damage by inhibiting oxidative stress, hepatic inflammation, and enhance bioavailability on TLR4/MMP events compared to curcumin.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2019 Feb 21:e22315. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

R&D Centre, Akay Flavours & Aromatics Pvt Ltd, Cochin, Kerala, India.

Alcoholic liver diseases are classified as one of the major reasons for worldwide morbidity and mortality. Curcuminoids exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities that are beneficial for health, including hepatoprotective effects, but its clinical significance is limited due to poor oral bioavailability. In the present study, a novel formulation of curcumin as curcumin-galactomannosides (CGM) with enhanced oral bioavailability alleviated alcohol-induced liver damage in wistar rats with an increased potency compared to the unformulated natural curcuminoids (CM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22315DOI Listing
February 2019

Cerebrospinal fluids from Alzheimer's disease patients exhibit neurotoxic effects on neuronal cell cultures.

Eur J Neurosci 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Neuroscience Institute, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Eiveniu str. 4, LT-50161, Kaunas, Lithuania.

A growing number of studies suggest amyloid-β and tau present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood as putative biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is a question whether these compounds present in patients' bodily fluids can directly cause neurotoxic effects. We investigated effects of AD and other dementia (OD) patients' blood serum and CSF on viability of cells in primary cerebellar granule cell cultures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14389DOI Listing
February 2019

Cardenolide Intake, Sequestration, and Excretion by the Monarch Butterfly along Gradients of Plant Toxicity and Larval Ontogeny.

J Chem Ecol 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, migrate long distances over which they encounter host plants that vary broadly in toxic cardenolides. Remarkably little is understood about the mechanisms of sequestration in Lepidoptera that lay eggs on host plants ranging in such toxins. Using closely-related milkweed host plants that differ more than ten-fold in cardenolide concentrations, we mechanistically address the intake, sequestration, and excretion of cardenolides by monarchs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-019-01055-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Tegavivint and the β-catenin/ALDH Axis in Chemotherapy-Resistant and Metastatic Osteosarcoma.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Texas Children's Cancer and Hematology Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: The Wnt/β-catenin pathway is closely associated with osteosarcoma (OS) development and metastatic progression. We investigated the antitumor activity of Tegavivint, a novel β-catenin/transducing β-like protein 1 (TBL1) inhibitor, against OS employing in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo cell line and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models that recapitulate high risk disease.

Methods: The antitumor efficacy of Tegavivint was evaluated in vitro using established OS and PDX-derived cell lines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz026DOI Listing
February 2019

Mimicry in viceroy butterflies is dependent on abundance of the model queen butterfly.

Commun Biol 2019 18;2:68. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

6Office of Digital Innovation & Stewardship, University Libraries, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA.

Mimics should not exist without their models, yet often they do. In the system involving queen and viceroy butterflies, the viceroy is both mimic and co-model depending on the local abundance of the model, the queen. Here, we integrate population surveys, chemical analyses, and predator behavior assays to demonstrate how mimics may persist in locations with low-model abundance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-019-0303-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379391PMC
February 2019

Anticancer response to disulfiram may be enhanced by co-treatment with MEK inhibitor or oxaliplatin: modulation by tetrathiomolybdate, KRAS/BRAF mutations and c-MYC/p53 status.

Ecancermedicalscience 2019 8;13:890. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Tumor Cell Biology Laboratory, Caracas 1020-A, Venezuela.

Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and disulfiram (DSF) are copper (Cu) chelators in cancer clinical trials partly because Cu chelation: a) restricts the activity of Cu-binding MEK1/2 enzymes which drive tumourigenesis by KRAS or BRAF oncogenic mutations and b) enhances uptake of oxaliplatin (OxPt), clinically used in advanced KRAS-mutant colorectal carcinomas (CRC). Whereas TTM decreases intracellular Cu trafficking, DSF can reach other Cu-dependent intracellular proteins. Since the use of individual or combined Cu chelation may help or interfere with anti-cancer therapy, this study investigated whether TTM modifies the response to DSF supplemented with: 1) UO126, a known MEK1/2 inhibitor; 2) other Cu chelators like neocuproine (NC) or 1, 10-o-phenanthroline (OPT) in wt p53 melanoma cells differing in BRAF or KRAS mutations; 3) OxPt in mutant p53 CRC cells devoid of KRAS and BRAF mutations or harbouring either KRAS or BRAF mutations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3332/ecancer.2019.890DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369974PMC
January 2019

Endocrine-Mediated Mechanisms of Metabolic Disruption and New Approaches to Examine the Public Health Threat.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019 7;10:39. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States.

Obesity and metabolic disorders are of great societal concern and generate substantial human health care costs globally. Interventions have resulted in only minimal impacts on disrupting this worsening health trend, increasing attention on putative environmental contributors. Exposure to numerous environmental contaminants have, over decades, been demonstrated to result in increased metabolic dysfunction and/or weight gain in cell and animal models, and in some cases, even in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374316PMC
February 2019

Significance of Earlier Initiation of Chemotherapy for Lung Cancer Complicated with Primary or Secondary Nephrotic Syndrome following Its Appropriate Differential Diagnosis.

Case Rep Oncol 2019 Jan-Apr;12(1):53-58. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

We encountered a case of primary lung cancer complicated with membranous nephropathy as primary nephrotic syndrome. Because treatment approaches vary greatly for primary and secondary nephrotic syndrome, a renal biopsy was performed for diagnosis. Much time was required to make a definitive diagnosis of primary nephrotic syndrome, as opposed to paraneoplastic nephrotic syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000493851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381920PMC
January 2019

Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Thrombotic Microangiopathy with Eculizumab in a Patient with Metastatic Breast Cancer.

Case Rep Oncol 2019 Jan-Apr;12(1):1-6. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Dialysis Center Ludwigsburg, Ludwigsburg, Germany.

The unexpected occurrence of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), characterised by microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia, in a patient with cancer requires urgent diagnosis and appropriate management. TMA in patients with metastatic cancer can be a manifestation of the malignancy itself or a therapeutic complication. Distinguishing the cause of TMA is complicated but clinically important to initiate appropriate treatment of metastatic cancer and avoid potential drug toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000495031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381888PMC
January 2019

Safety and Efficacy of Ketamine Versus Ketamine-Fentanyl-Dexmedetomidine Combination for Anesthesia and Analgesia in Rats.

Dose Response 2019 Jan-Mar;17(1):1559325819825902. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Center for Specialty Strategy Research of Shanghai Jiao Tong University China Hospital Development Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Ketamine (KET), a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is most frequently used as an anesthetic, analgesic, and sedative drug in pediatric clinical practices. However, the adverse effects of KET administration such as psychotic episodes limited the use of KET. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the addition of small doses of fentanyl (FENT) and dexmedetomidine would reduce the overall KET consumption without concession on the safety and efficacy of anesthesia and analgesia in rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1559325819825902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376518PMC
February 2019

Radiotherapy toxicity.

Nat Rev Dis Primers 2019 Feb 21;5(1):13. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Radiotherapy is used in >50% of patients with cancer, both for curative and palliative purposes. Radiotherapy uses ionizing radiation to target and kill tumour tissue, but normal tissue can also be damaged, leading to toxicity. Modern and precise radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy, may prevent toxicity, but some patients still experience adverse effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41572-019-0064-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Optimal design, anti-tumour efficacy and tolerability of anti-CXCR4 antibody drug conjugates.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 21;9(1):2443. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Cancer Immunology Discovery, Oncology Research and Development, Worldwide Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., 230 E Grand Ave, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA.

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are promising therapies for haematological cancers. Historically, their therapeutic benefit is due to ADC targeting of lineage-restricted antigens. The C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is attractive for targeted therapy of haematological cancers, given its expression in multiple tumour types and role in cancer "homing" to bone marrow. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38745-xDOI Listing
February 2019

Radiotherapy toxicity.

Authors:

Nat Rev Dis Primers 2019 Feb 21;5(1):14. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41572-019-0068-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Reactive species and pathogen antioxidant networks during phagocytosis.

J Exp Med 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay

The generation of phagosomal cytotoxic reactive species (i.e., free radicals and oxidants) by activated macrophages and neutrophils is a crucial process for the control of intracellular pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20181886DOI Listing
February 2019

Risk Factors of QTc Prolongation in Women With Hormone Receptor‒Positive/Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2‒Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis of Health Care Claims Data.

Clin Ther 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: In addition to biomarker status, treatment selection for metastatic breast cancer (mBC) includes individual patient and clinical characteristics such as tumor burden, timing of disease recurrence, and comorbidities. Women with mBC may take medications that can increase the risk of drug-induced toxicities, including prolongation of cardiac repolarization (prolongation of QT interval). Corrected QT (QTc) prolongation, a toxicity associated with many cancer treatments, can lead to potentially life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2019.01.012DOI Listing
February 2019

Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Small Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinomas.

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Center, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

Aims: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an option for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients ineligible for standard local therapies. This study reports on the safety and efficacy of SBRT in small HCC tumours (≤5 cm) in the province of British Columbia.

Materials And Methods: Between March 2011 and July 2015, 31 patients with Child-Pugh Class A or B, with small HCCs measuring ≤5 cm were treated with SBRT at our institution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2019.01.012DOI Listing
February 2019

Monte Carlo study of the relationship between skin dose and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter dose in Pd-103 permanent breast seed implant brachytherapy.

Brachytherapy 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary Alberta, Canada; Department of Medical Physics, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital NHS, Exeter, Devon, UK.

Purpose: To establish a method for estimating skin dose for patients with permanent breast seed implant based on in vivo optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) measurements.

Methods And Materials: Monte Carlo simulations were performed in a simple breast phantom using the EGSnrc user code egs_brachy. Realistic models of the IsoAid Advantage Pd-103 brachytherapy source and Landauer nanoDot OSLD were created to model in vivo skin dose measurements where an OSLD would be placed on the skin of a patient with permanent breast seed implant following implantation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2019.01.008DOI Listing
February 2019

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (55 Gy in 20 fractions) for high-grade laryngeal dysplasia: report of acute toxicity and functional outcome.

J Laryngol Otol 2019 Feb 22:1-4. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Department of Clinical Oncology,Northern Centre for Cancer Care, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,UK.

Objective: Radiotherapy is an option to treat high-grade laryngeal dysplasia. This study aimed to evaluate the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy, 55 Gy in 20 daily fractions, in treating this disease.

Methods: Acute toxicity was evaluated in all 14 patients treated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022215119000306DOI Listing
February 2019

New combinatorial strategies to improve the PARP inhibitors efficacy in the urothelial bladder Cancer treatment.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2019 Feb 22;38(1):91. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Institute for the Experimental Endocrinology and Oncology, Research National Council, CNR, Naples, Italy.

Background: Novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed for the treatment of metastatic Urothelial Bladder Cancer. DNA damaging repair (DDR) targeting has been introduced in cinical trials for bladder cancer patients that carry alterations in homologous DNA repair genes, letting to envisage susceptibility to the Poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]) ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors.

Main Body: PARP inhibition, by amplifying the DNA damage, augments the mutational burden and promotes the immune priming of the tumor by increasing the neoantigen exposure and determining upregulation of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-019-1089-zDOI Listing
February 2019

The hazards and risks of inhaled poorly soluble particles - where do we stand after 30 years of research?

Part Fibre Toxicol 2019 Feb 21;16(1):11. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA.

Background: In 2006, titanium dioxide and carbon black were classified by IARC as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" and in 2017 the European Chemicals Agency's (ECHA) Committee for Risk Assessment concluded titanium dioxide meets the criteria to be classified as suspected of causing cancer (category 2, through the inhalation route). These classifications were based primarily on the occurrence of lung cancer in rats exposed chronically to high concentrations of these materials, as no such responses have been observed in other animal species similarly exposed. After the EU classification of titanium dioxide, it was suggested that Poorly Soluble particles of Low Toxicity (PSLTs) can be evaluated as a group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12989-019-0294-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Establishment and utility assessment of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome early warning scoring (PEWS) scale establishment and utility assessment of PEWS scale.

BMC Neurol 2019 Feb 21;19(1):30. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, People's Republic of China.

Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a complication that occurs during various diseases' treatment. Imaging examination is the gold standard for diagnosis. PRES frequently occurrence in patients with hematological malignancies results in poorer prognosis and higher mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-019-1247-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Efficacy and safety of selective internal radiotherapy versus sorafenib for intermediate-locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Mar 25;13(3):271-279. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

a Oncology Center , Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University , Guangzhou , Guangdong Province , China.

Background: Sorafenib (SOR) is recommended for locally advanced and metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the tolerability of SOR is unsatisfactory. Selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) has shown efficacy in intermediate-locally advanced HCC patients. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of SIRT and SOR in the treatment of intermediate-locally advanced HCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2019.1570135DOI Listing

Nonclinical Toxicology and Toxicokinetic Profile of an Oral Lanthionine Synthetase C-Like 2 (LANCL2) Agonist, BT-11.

Int J Toxicol 2019 Feb 21:1091581819827509. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

1 Landos Biopharma Inc, Blacksburg, VA, USA.

BT-11 is an orally active, gut-restricted investigational therapeutic targeting the lanthionine synthetase C-like 2 pathway with lead indications in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD), 2 manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In 5 mouse models of IBD, BT-11 is effective at oral doses of 8 mg/kg. BT-11 was also efficacious at nanomolar concentrations in primary human samples from patients with UC and CD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1091581819827509DOI Listing
February 2019

Language Consideration and Methodological Transparency in "Systematic" Reviews of Animal Toxicity Studies.

Int J Toxicol 2019 Feb 21:1091581819827232. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

3 Molecular Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.

This study evaluated the use of non-English literature (NEL) in systematic reviews (SRs) or meta-analyses (MAs) of animal-based toxicity or communicable disease (CD) studies. A secondary goal was to assess how grant funding, country of primary authorship, or study quality reporting influenced the use of NEL in these reviews. Inclusion criteria and data extraction forms were based on a pilot evaluation of a 10% random sample of reviews that were identified from a PubMed search (2006 to May 2017). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1091581819827232DOI Listing
February 2019

Immunotherapy of Cancer: Developments and Reference Points, an Unorthodox Approach.

Integr Cancer Ther 2019 Jan-Dec;18:1534735419827090

6 University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece.

Oncology is currently a sector of medical science with accelerated progress due to rapid technological development, the advancement in molecular biology, and the invention of many innovative therapies. Immunotherapy partially accounts for this advance, since it is increasingly playing an important role in the treatment of cancer patients, bringing on a sense of hope and optimism through a series of clinical studies and cases with spectacular results. Immunotherapy, after the initial successes it experienced in the early 20th century, was forgotten after chemotherapy and radiotherapy prevailed and developed slowly in the background. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534735419827090DOI Listing
February 2019

Strontium Sulfite: A New pH-Responsive Inorganic Nanocarrier to Deliver Therapeutic siRNAs to Cancer Cells.

Pharmaceutics 2019 Feb 20;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, 47500 Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

Inorganic nanoparticles hold great potential in the area of precision medicine, particularly for treating cancer owing to their unique physicochemical properties, biocompatibility and improved pharmacokinetics properties compared to their organic counterparts. Here we introduce strontium sulfite nanoparticles as new pH-responsive inorganic nanocarriers for efficient transport of siRNAs into breast cancer cells. We employed the simplest nanoprecipitation method to generate the strontium sulfite nanoparticles (SSNs) and demonstrated the dramatic roles of NaCl and d-glucose in particle growth stabilization in order to produce even smaller nanosize particles (Na-Glc-SSN) with high affinity towards negatively charged siRNA, enabling it to efficiently enter the cancer cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11020089DOI Listing
February 2019

Development and Validation of an Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for the Determination of Wedelolactone in Rat Plasma and its Application in a Pharmacokinetic Study.

Molecules 2019 Feb 20;24(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Innovative Drug Target Research, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361002, China.

Wedelolactone is a coumarin ether with significant hepatoprotective effects. However, there are few pharmacokinetic studies of wedelolactone, which will affect the studies of its efficacy and potential toxicity. In this study, a selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was developed to confirm the pharmacokinetic parameters of wedelolactone in rat plasma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040762DOI Listing
February 2019

Overview of Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical Applications.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Feb 20;12(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale, IPBS, Université de Toulouse Paul Sabatier, 205, Route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse CEDEX 4, France.

The unique combination of mechanical, optical and electrical properties offered by carbon nanotubes has fostered research for their use in many kinds of applications, including the biomedical field. However, due to persisting outstanding questions regarding their potential toxicity when considered as free particles, the research is now focusing on their immobilization on substrates for interface tuning or as biosensors, as load in nanocomposite materials where they improve both mechanical and electrical properties or even for direct use as scaffolds for tissue engineering. After a brief introduction to carbon nanotubes in general and their proposed applications in the biomedical field, this review will focus on nanocomposite materials with hydrogel-based matrices and especially their potential future use for diagnostics, tissue engineering or targeted drug delivery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12040624DOI Listing
February 2019

Autophagy Activator Drugs: A New Opportunity in Neuroprotection from Misfolded Protein Toxicity.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Feb 19;20(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Sezione di Farmacologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna & Centro di Eccellenza per la Ricerca Biomedica (CEBR), Università di Genova, 16132 Genova, Italy.

The aim of this review is to critically analyze promises and limitations of pharmacological inducers of autophagy against protein misfolding-associated neurodegeneration. Effective therapies against neurodegenerative disorders can be developed by regulating the "self-defense" equipment of neurons, such as autophagy. Through the degradation and recycling of the intracellular content, autophagy promotes neuron survival in conditions of trophic factor deprivation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial and lysosomal damage, or accumulation of misfolded proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040901DOI Listing
February 2019

Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Thiazolyl-Coumarin Derivatives as Potent Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Antifibrotic Activity.

Molecules 2019 Feb 19;24(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacological & Toxicological Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences; University of Chile, Santiago 8380000, Chile.

New histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors with low toxicity to non-cancerous cells, are a prevalent issue at present because these enzymes are actively involved in fibrotic diseases. We designed and synthesized a novel series of thiazolyl-coumarins, substituted at position 6 (R = H, Br, OCH₃), linked to classic zinc binding groups, such as hydroxamic and carboxylic acid moieties and alternative zinc binding groups such as disulfide and catechol. Their in vitro inhibitory activities against HDACs were evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24040739DOI Listing
February 2019

Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles-Current and Prospective Medical Applications.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Feb 19;12(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, 2 Gronostajowa St., 30-387 Kraków, Poland.

The recent, fast development of nanotechnology is reflected in the medical sciences. Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) are an excellent example. Thanks to their superparamagnetic properties, SPIONs have found application in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and magnetic hyperthermia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12040617DOI Listing
February 2019

Parental exposure to 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F-53B) induced transgenerational thyroid hormone disruption in zebrafish.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Feb 13;665:855-863. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:

Although 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F-53B), an alternative to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), has been regularly detected in different environmental matrices, information regarding its toxicity remains limited. To explore the transgenerational thyroid-disrupting capacity of F-53B, adult zebrafish (F0) were exposed to different concentrations of F-53B (0, 5, 50, or 500μg/L) for 180d, with their offspring (F1 and F2) subsequently reared in uncontaminated water. Thyroid disturbances were then examined in the three (F0, F1, and F2) generations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.198DOI Listing
February 2019

The toxicity of potentially toxic elements (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni) to the cnidarian Hydra attenuata at environmentally relevant concentrations.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Feb 14;665:848-854. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

School of Health and Life Sciences, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, Scotland, United Kingdom.

The domestic, agricultural, industrial, technological and medical applications of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) have led to global pollution in all environments. In this study, the cnidarian Hydra attenuata was exposed individually and to a mixture of 5 metals (copper, iron, manganese, zinc and nickel) at environmentally relevant concentrations (1×) within the Clyde estuary, Scotland and incremental concentrations ranging from 0.0001× to 1000×. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.193DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of acute exposure in swiss mice (Mus musculus) to a fibrinolytic protease produced by Mucor subtilissimus UCP 1262: An histomorphometric, genotoxic and cytological approach.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Laboratory of Bioactive Technology, Department of Morphology and Animal Physiology, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manoel de Medeiros, s / n, Dois Irmãos, 52171-900, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Electronic address:

The fibrinolytic enzyme produced by Mucor subtilissimus UCP 1262 was obtained by solid fermentation and purified by ion exchange chromatography using DEAE-Sephadex A50. The enzyme toxicity was evaluated using mammalian cell lineages: HEK-293, J774.A1, Sarcoma-180 and PBMCs which appeared to be viable at a level of 80%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2019.02.009DOI Listing
February 2019

Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(d,l-lactic acid) micelles containing oligo(lactic acid)-paclitaxel prodrug: In Vivo conversion and antitumor efficacy.

J Control Release 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Division, School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 777 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705-2222, USA. Electronic address:

Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) micelles affect drug solubilization, and a paclitaxel (PTX) loaded-PEG-b-PLA micelle (PTX-PM) is approved for cancer treatment due to injection safety and dose escalation (Genexol-PM®) compares to Taxol®. However, PTX-PM is unstable in blood, has rapid clearance, and causes dose-limiting toxicity. We have synthesized a prodrug for PTX (7-OH), using oligo(lactic acid) as a novel pro-moiety (o(LA)-PTX) specifically for PEG-b-PLA micelles, gaining higher loading and slower release of o(LA)-PTX over PTX. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.02.017DOI Listing
February 2019
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