1,016 results match your criteria Toxicity MDMA


Differential effects of psychoactive substances on human wildtype and polymorphic T356M dopamine transporters (DAT).

Toxicology 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Neurotoxicology Research Group, Division Toxicology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Many psychoactive substances affect the human dopamine (DA) reuptake transporter (hDAT). Polymorphisms in the encoding gene could affect the functionality of the transporter and consequently alter effects of psychotropic and recreational drugs. Recently, a T356 M single nucleotide polymorphism in the human SLC6A3 gene was described, which resulted in functional impairments of DA uptake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2019.04.012DOI Listing

Variability in content and dissolution profiles of MDMA tablets collected in the UK between 2001 and 2018 - a potential risk to users?

Drug Test Anal 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Analytical Services International, St. George's University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE, UK.

MDMA ('ecstasy') tablets are widely used recreationally, and not only vary in their appearance, but also in MDMA content. Recently, the prevalence of high-content tablets is of concern to public health authorities. To compare UK data with other countries, we have evaluated MDMA content of 412 tablets collected from the UK, 2001-2018, and have investigated within-batch content variability for a sub-set of these samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.2605DOI Listing

Molecular Toxicological Mechanisms of Synthetic Cathinones on C2C12 Myoblasts.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 28;20(7). Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland.

Synthetic cathinones are popular psychoactive substances that may cause skeletal muscle damage. In addition to indirect sympathomimetic myotoxicity, these substances could be directly myotoxic. Since studies in myocytes are currently lacking, the aim of the present study was to investigate potential toxicological effects by synthetic cathinones on C2C12 myoblasts (mouse skeletal muscle cell line). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071561DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Pharmacological characterization of the aminorex analogs 4-MAR, 4,4'-DMAR, and 3,4-DMAR.

Neurotoxicology 2019 Feb 15;72:95-100. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

4,4'-Dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) is a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) that appeared on the illicit drug market in addition to the psychostimulant 4-methylaminorex (4-MAR). Both substances are methylated derivatives of aminorex, an amphetamine-like anorectic used in the 1960ies and withdrawn from the marked due to severe cardiovascular toxicity. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro pharmacological profiles of 4-MAR, 4,4'-DMAR, and 3,4-dimethylaminorex (3,4-DMAR, direx). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2019.02.011DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Sympathomimetic amine compounds and hepatotoxicity: Not all are alike-Key distinctions noted in a short review.

Authors:
Cyril Willson

Toxicol Rep 2019 1;6:26-33. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

EuSci LLC, Gretna, NE, USA.

Sympathomimetic amine compounds are often pooled together and incorrectly assumed to be interchangeable with respect to potential adverse effects. A brief and specific review of sympathomimetic compounds and one instance (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2018.11.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6288410PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Cytotoxicity of new psychoactive substances and other drugs of abuse studied in human HepG2 cells using an adopted high content screening assay.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Feb 19;301:79-89. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Toxicology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Molecular Signaling (PZMS), Saarland University, Homburg, Germany. Electronic address:

New psychoactive substances (NPS) are still an emerging issue in clinical and forensic toxicology. Information about their cytotoxic potential is limited or even unavailable before distribution and thus their intake can be of high risk for consumers. The aim of the presented study was to develop a strategy to identify cytotoxic potential of NPS based on a high content screening assay (HCSA) using HepG2 cell line and four fluorescent dyes, namely Hoechst33342, TMRM, CAL-520, and TOTO-3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.11.007DOI Listing
February 2019
21 Reads

Metabolomics predicts the pharmacological profile of new psychoactive substances.

J Psychopharmacol 2019 Mar 19;33(3):347-354. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

1 Integrative Pharmacology and Systems Neuroscience Research Group, Neurosciences Research Program, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain.

Background:: The unprecedented proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) threatens public health and challenges drug policy. Information on NPS pharmacology and toxicity is, in most cases, unavailable or very limited and, given the large number of new compounds released on the market each year, their timely evaluation by current standards is certainly challenging.

Aims:: We present here a metabolomics-targeted approach to predict the pharmacological profile of NPS. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0269881118812103
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881118812103DOI Listing
March 2019
35 Reads
3.593 Impact Factor

Long-term systemic administration with low dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine causes photoreceptor cell damage in CD1 mice.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2019 Mar 26;38(1):81-87. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

b Department of Ophthalmology , Shenzhen Children's Hospital , Shenzhen , People's Republic of China.

Objective: As a powerful psychostimulant with high potential for abuse, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes long-lasting neurotoxicity. This study was to investigate the effects of systemic administration of MDMA on retinal damage in CD1 mice and its underlying mechanisms.

Material And Methods: CD1 mice were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10): group 1 receiving PBS by intraperitoneal injection daily; group 2 receiving 2 mg/kg MDMA by intraperitoneal injection daily for 3 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15569527.2018.1539007DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

GC-MS metabolomics reveals disturbed metabolic pathways in primary mouse hepatocytes exposed to subtoxic levels of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

Arch Toxicol 2018 Nov 25;92(11):3307-3323. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313, Porto, Portugal.

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a well-known hepatotoxic drug. Although its toxicity has been thoroughly studied at high concentrations, there is still insufficient knowledge on possible alterations of cell function at subtoxic concentrations, which are in fact more representative concentrations of intoxication scenarios. In this study, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics approach was used to investigate the metabolic changes in primary mouse hepatocytes (PMH) exposed to two subtoxic concentrations of MDMA (LC and LC) for 24 h. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-018-2314-9DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

Dopaminergic neurotoxic effects of 3-TFMPP derivatives.

Life Sci 2018 Sep 29;209:357-369. Epub 2018 Jul 29.

Department of Drug Discovery and Development, Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA. Electronic address:

Designer drugs are synthetically formulated to mimic the psychostimulatory effects of an original controlled/illegal drug of abuse. Designer drugs have similar chemical structure or functional analog as compared to existing controlled psychostimulatory drugs. There is a substantial rise in the production and use of designer drugs globally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2018.07.052DOI Listing
September 2018
24 Reads

The psychostimulant (±)-cis-4,4'-dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) interacts with human plasmalemmal and vesicular monoamine transporters.

Neuropharmacology 2018 08 23;138:282-291. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Medical University of Vienna, Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Währingerstraße 13A, 1090, Vienna, Austria; Center for Addiction Research and Science, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13A, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

(±)-cis-4,4'-Dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) that has been associated with 31 fatalities and other adverse events in Europe between June 2013 and February 2014. We used in vitro uptake inhibition and transporter release assays to determine the effects of 4,4'-DMAR on human high-affinity transporters for dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin (SERT). In addition, we assessed its binding affinities to monoamine receptors and transporters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.06.018DOI Listing
August 2018
6 Reads

MDMA toxicity: management of acute and life-threatening presentations.

Br J Nurs 2018 Jun;27(11):616-622

Emergency Medicine and Intensive Care Consultant, Royal London Hospital.

Since the 1980s, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has been a popular recreational drug, used particularly among those who attend raves and nightclubs. Over the past 3 years, the popularity of this drug has once again increased and there has been an associated rise in deaths. The pathophysiology of MDMA toxicity is complex and much remains to be understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2018.27.11.616DOI Listing
June 2018
12 Reads

Aged rats are more vulnerable than adolescents to "ecstasy"-induced toxicity.

Arch Toxicol 2018 Jul 4;92(7):2275-2295. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

UCIBIO, REQUIMTE (Rede de Química e Tecnologia), Laboratório de Toxicologia, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313, Porto, Portugal.

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") is a widespread drug of abuse with known neurotoxic properties. The present study aimed to evaluate the differential toxic effects of MDMA in adolescent and aged Wistar rats, using doses pharmacologically comparable to humans. Adolescent (post-natal day 40) (3 × 5 mg/kg, 2 h apart) and aged (mean 20 months old) (2 × 5 mg/kg, 2 h apart) rats received MDMA intraperitoneally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-018-2226-8DOI Listing
July 2018
5 Reads

Two Simulation Cases to Prepare for a Public Festival: Pediatric Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) Ingestion and Alcohol Toxicity.

Cureus 2018 Feb 21;10(2):e2218. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Emergency Medicine, University of Alabama Birmingham.

Introduction Emergency departments (EDs) see a surge of intoxicated patients during large public summer events. These patients can be distracting and complicated for ED staff to care for. Methods We developed two cases to prepare emergency department staff for an anticipated surge of patients related to a large music festival that occurs proximal to our pediatric hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5910007PMC
February 2018
9 Reads

Pharmacology of MDMA- and Amphetamine-Like New Psychoactive Substances.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018;252:143-164

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

New psychoactive substances (NPS) with amphetamine-, aminoindan-, and benzofuran basic chemical structures have recently emerged for recreational drug use. Detailed information about their psychotropic effects and health risks is often limited. At the same time, it emerged that the pharmacological profiles of these NPS resemble those of amphetamine or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/164_2018_113DOI Listing
January 2018
15 Reads

Repeated Administration of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) Elevates the Levels of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Nigrostriatal System: Possible Relevance to Neurotoxicity.

Neurotox Res 2018 Nov 9;34(4):763-768. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section of Neuropsychopharmacology, University of Cagliari, Building A, Monserrato University Campus, SP 8, Km 0.700, 09042, Monserrato, Italy.

Previous studies have consistently demonstrated that the amphetamine-related drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induces dopaminergic damage in the mouse brain, and that this effect is most marked in the nigrostriatal system. Moreover, it has been suggested that the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) may participate in the dopaminergic damage induced by MDMA. To further elucidate this issue, we evaluated the levels of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which catalyzes the production of NO, in mice treated with regimens of MDMA that induce progressive and persistent neurotoxicity in the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-018-9892-4DOI Listing
November 2018
4 Reads

Chronic administration of amphetamines disturbs development of neural progenitor cells in young adult nonhuman primates.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 07 28;85:46-53. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute,USA; VA San Diego Healthcare System, USA; Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA. Electronic address:

The detrimental effects of amphetamines on developmental stages of NPCs are limited to rodent brain and it is not known if these effects occur in nonhuman primates which are the focus of the current investigation. Young adult rhesus macaques either experienced MDMA only, a combination of amphetamines (MDMA, MDA and methamphetamine) or no amphetamines (controls) and hippocampal tissue was processed for immunohistochemical analysis.Quantitative stereological analysis showed that intermittent exposure to MDMA or the three amphetamines over 9. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2018.03.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5962428PMC
July 2018
3 Reads

Dibutylone (bk-DMBDB): Intoxications, Quantitative Confirmations and Metabolism in Authentic Biological Specimens.

J Anal Toxicol 2018 Sep;42(7):437-445

Center for Forensic Science Research and Education at the Fredric Rieders Family Foundation, 2300 Stratford Ave, Willow Grove, PA, USA.

The number of emerging novel stimulants modified based on beta-keto variations of amphetamine-like substances continues to rise. Dibutylone reports described in the medical and toxicological literature are limited, therefore little information is available in terms of quantitative confirmation or metabolism. During this study, authentic human specimens, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, oral fluid and liver were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for the presence of dibutylone and butylone, with paired case history and demographic information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bky022DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

Isolated persistent acute global amnesia after acute abuse of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA).

J Neurol Sci 2018 03 4;386:36-38. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Hôpital Delafontaine, Neurology Department, F-93200 Saint-Denis, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2018.01.005DOI Listing
March 2018
5 Reads

Acute recreational drug toxicity: Comparison of self-reports and results of immunoassay and additional analytical methods in a multicenter European case series.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 02;97(5):e9784

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Basel University Hospital and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

The aim of the study was to compare self-reported and analytically confirmed substance use in cases of acute recreational drug toxicity.We performed a retrospective analysis of emergency department presentations of acute recreational drug toxicity over 2 years (October 2013 to September 2015) within the European Drug Emergencies Network Plus project.Among the 10,956 cases of acute recreational drug toxicity during the study period, 831 could be included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000009784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5805445PMC
February 2018
26 Reads

Mephedrone (4-Methylmethcathinone): Acute Behavioral Effects, Hyperthermic, and Pharmacokinetic Profile in Rats.

Front Psychiatry 2017 10;8:306. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Department of Experimental Neurobiology, National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, Czech Republic.

Mephedrone (MEPH) is a synthetic cathinone derivative with effects that mimic MDMA and/or cocaine. Our study in male Wistar rats provides detailed investigations of MEPH's and its primary metabolite nor-mephedrone's (nor-MEPH) pharmacokinetics and bio-distribution to four different substrates (serum, brain, lungs, and liver), as well as comparative analysis of their effects on locomotion [open field test (OFT)] and sensorimotor gating [prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reaction (PPI ASR)]. Furthermore, in order to mimic the crowded condition where MEPH is typically taken (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5767720PMC
January 2018
9 Reads

Ghrelin Alleviates MDMA-Induced Disturbance of Serum Glucose and Lipids Levels in the Rat.

Acta Med Iran 2017 Dec;55(12):736-743

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Hepatotoxicity is one of the clinically adverse effects of ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) consumption. The detoxification tissue, liver, plays a central role in maintaining circulating levels of glucose and lipid. Hypoglycemia and hypotriglyceridemia have been reported due to ecstasy abuse. Read More

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December 2017
24 Reads

Key interindividual determinants in MDMA pharmacodynamics.

Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2018 Feb;14(2):183-195

a Departments of Clinical Pharmacology and Internal Medicine , Hospital Universitari Germans Trias I Pujol-IGTP , Badalona , Spain.

Introduction: MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, is a synthetic phenethylamine derivative with structural and pharmacological similarities to both amphetamines and mescaline. MDMA produces characteristic amphetamine-like actions (euphoria, well-being), increases empathy, and induces pro-social effects that seem to motivate its recreational consumption and provide a basis for its potential therapeutic use. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to present the main interindividual determinants in MDMA pharmacodynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17425255.2018.1424832DOI Listing
February 2018
7 Reads

Pharmacokinetic, Ambulatory, and Hyperthermic Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxy--Methylcathinone (Methylone) in Rats.

Front Psychiatry 2017 17;8:232. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

Department of Experimental Neurobiology, National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, Czechia.

Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxy--methylcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone analog of the recreational drug ecstasy. Although it is marketed to recreational users as relatively safe, fatalities due to hyperthermia, serotonin syndrome, and multi-organ system failure have been reported. Since psychopharmacological data remain scarce, we have focused our research on pharmacokinetics, and on a detailed evaluation of temporal effects of methylone and its metabolite nor-methylone on behavior and body temperature in rats. Read More

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http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5698284PMC
November 2017
18 Reads

No major role of norepinephrine transporter gene variations in the cardiostimulant effects of MDMA.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Mar 2;74(3):275-283. Epub 2017 Dec 2.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Biomedicine, Department of Clinical Research, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Schanzenstrasse 55, 4056, Basel, Switzerland.

Purpose: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is used recreationally and frequently leads to sympathomimetic toxicity. MDMA produces cardiovascular and subjective stimulant effects that were shown to partially depend on the norepinephrine transporter (NET)-mediated release of norepinephrine and stimulation of α-adrenergic receptors. Genetic variants, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of the NET gene (SLC6A2) may explain interindividual differences in the acute stimulant-type responses to MDMA in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-017-2392-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5808057PMC
March 2018
13 Reads

Lack of Detection of New Amphetamine-Like Drugs Using Conventional Urinary Immunoassays.

Ther Drug Monit 2018 02;40(1):135-139

Department of Pharmacy, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: The number of reports of serious adverse effects and intoxication after the use of the new drug 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) increases. At the Emergency Department of the OLVG-Oost Hospital in Amsterdam, an on-site drug test, the Triage TOX Drug Screen, is available to assist in a rapid diagnosis. In less urgent cases, an EMIT II Plus immunoassay is used to determine semiquantitatively the presence of drugs of abuse (DOA). Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00007691-900000000-9903
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0000000000000475DOI Listing
February 2018
7 Reads

Peripheral endocannabinoid concentrations are not associated with verbal memory impairment during MDMA intoxication.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 03 16;235(3):709-717. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Preclinical data have suggested involvement of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in MDMA-induced memory impairment. Clinical research has shown that blockade of the 5-HT receptor nulls memory impairment during MDMA intoxication. Interestingly, studies have demonstrated that the eCB and the 5-HT system interact. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-017-4787-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5847074PMC
March 2018
2 Reads

Effects of MDMA (ecstasy) on apoptosis and heat shock protein (HSP70) expression in adult rat testis.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2018 Mar 5;28(3):219-229. Epub 2017 Nov 5.

a Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine , Mashhad University of Medical Sciences , Mashhad , Iran.

Background: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy) on apoptosis and heat shock protein expression in adult rat testis.

Methods: Twenty male rats were divided into four groups, two experimental groups (1 and 2), sham control and control. For 16 consecutive days, the experimental groups 1 and 2 were received 5 and 10 mg/kg intraperitoneal (ip) injection of ecstasy, respectively, and in the sham control group, the only saline was injected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2017.1388461DOI Listing
March 2018
10 Reads
1.550 Impact Factor

Studies on Para-Methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) Metabolite Pattern and Influence of CYP2D6 Genetics in Human Liver Microsomes and Authentic Samples from Fatal PMMA Intoxications.

Drug Metab Dispos 2017 12 4;45(12):1326-1335. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

Department of Forensic Sciences, Oslo University Hospital (M.V., E.L.Ø., E.N., M.A., I.L.B.), and Institute of Clinical Medicine (M.V.), School of Pharmacy (E.L.Ø.), and Institute of Basic Medical Sciences (I.L.B.), University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Para-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) has caused numerous fatal poisonings worldwide and appears to be more toxic than other ring-substituted amphetamines. Systemic metabolism is suggested to be important for PMMA neurotoxicity, possibly through activation of minor catechol metabolites to neurotoxic conjugates. The aim of this study was to examine the metabolism of PMMA in humans; for this purpose, we used human liver microsomes (HLMs) and blood samples from three cases of fatal PMMA intoxication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.117.077263DOI Listing
December 2017
8 Reads

Preventive effects of fructose and N-acetyl-L-cysteine against cytotoxicity induced by the psychoactive compounds N-methyl-5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine in isolated rat hepatocytes.

J Appl Toxicol 2018 Feb 26;38(2):284-291. Epub 2017 Sep 26.

Division of Toxicology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health, 3-24-1, Hyakunin-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 169-0073, Japan.

Psychoactive compounds, N-methyl-5-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5-MAPB) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA), are known to be hepatotoxic in humans and/or experimental animals. As previous studies suggested that these compounds elicited cytotoxicity via mitochondrial dysfunction and/or oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes, the protective effects of fructose and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) on 5-MAPB- and MDMA-induced toxicity were studied in rat hepatocytes. These drugs caused not only concentration-dependent (0-4 mm) and time-dependent (0-3 hours) cell death accompanied by the depletion of cellular levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glutathione (reduced form; GSH) but also an increase in the oxidized form of GSH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.3523DOI Listing
February 2018
10 Reads

Comparing the dopaminergic neurotoxic effects of benzylpiperazine and benzoylpiperazine.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2018 Mar 28;28(3):177-186. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

a Department of Drug Discovery and Development , Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University , Auburn , AL , USA.

Benzylpiperazine has been designated as Schedule I substance under the Controlled Substances Act by Drug Enforcement Administration. Benzylpiperazine is a piperazine derivative, elevates both dopamine and serotonin extracellular levels producing stimulatory and hallucinogenic effects, respectively, similar to methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). However, the comparative neurotoxic effects of Piperazine derivatives (benzylpiperazine and benzoylpiperazine) have not been elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2017.1376024DOI Listing
March 2018
14 Reads
1.550 Impact Factor

Flibanserin toxicity in a toddler following ingestion.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 03 17;56(3):226-228. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

a Division of Emergency Medicine , University of Washington , Seattle , WA , USA.

Introduction: Flibanserin is a medication recently approved by the FDA for treatment of generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood but is thought to modulate serotonin receptors and increase levels of norepinephrine and dopamine. While much is known about toxicity of other drugs which affect these systems, there is little information about toxicity of flibanserin at this time. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2017.1355465DOI Listing
March 2018
13 Reads

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine causes cytotoxicity on 661W cells through inducing macrophage polarization.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2018 Jun 16;37(2):143-150. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

a Department of Ophthalmology , Daqing Oil General Hospital , Daqing , People's Republic of China.

The abuse of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a psychedelic drug, can lead to a variety of disorders in neural system, including the death of retinal neural cells. MDMA at lower doses does not cause obvious cytotoxicity to photoreceptor cells, indicating potential indirect mechanisms which have not yet been elucidated. This study investigated the effect of MDMA at nontoxic concentration on macrophage activation state and its resultant toxicity to photoreceptor cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15569527.2017.1359838DOI Listing
June 2018
19 Reads

Inhibition of serotonin transporters disrupts the enhancement of fear memory extinction by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2017 Oct 24;234(19):2883-2895. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 954 Gatewood Rd NE #2101, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.

Rationale: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) persistently improves symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) when combined with psychotherapy. Studies in rodents suggest that these effects can be attributed to enhancement of fear memory extinction. Therefore, MDMA may improve the effects of exposure-based therapy for PTSD, particularly in treatment-resistant patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-017-4684-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5693755PMC
October 2017
27 Reads

Isolated non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema - A rare complication of MDMA toxicity.

Am J Emerg Med 2017 Sep 27;35(9):1385.e3-1385.e6. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Maimonides Medical Center, 4802 Tenth Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219, USA. Electronic address:

This is a case of a 19-year-old male who presented to the medical tent at an outdoor electronic dance music festival (EDMF) due to an altered mental state in the setting of acute 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) intoxication. He was noted to be in severe respiratory distress, required endotracheal intubation in the field and subsequently developed Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) without other acute organ dysfunction. He was hospitalized for 5days requiring endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2017.06.040DOI Listing
September 2017
7 Reads

First Time View on Human Metabolome Changes after a Single Intake of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine in Healthy Placebo-Controlled Subjects.

J Proteome Res 2017 09 9;16(9):3310-3320. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

Department of Forensic Pharmacology & Toxicology, Zurich Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich ,Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "ecstasy") is widely consumed recreationally. Little is known about its effects on the human metabolome. Mapping biochemical changes after drug exposure can complement traditional approaches by revealing potential biomarkers of organ toxicity or discovering new metabolomic features in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.7b00294DOI Listing
September 2017
21 Reads

Ecstasy induces reactive oxygen species, kidney water absorption and rhabdomyolysis in normal rats. Effect of N-acetylcysteine and Allopurinol in oxidative stress and muscle fiber damage.

PLoS One 2017 5;12(7):e0179199. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Clinical Hospital, School of Medicine-Department of Nephrology- Basic Research Laboratory-LIM12, University of Sâo Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: Ecstasy (Ec) use produces hyperthermia, excessive sweating, intense thirst, an inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and a multisystemic toxicity due to oxidative stress (OS). Intense thirst induces high intake of pure water, which associated with SIADH, usually develops into acute hyponatremia (Hn). As Hn is induced rapidly, experiments to check if Ec acted directly on the Inner Medullary Collecting Ducts (IMCD) of rats were conducted. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0179199PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5497951PMC
October 2017
66 Reads

Patterns of use and toxicity of new para-halogenated substituted cathinones: 4-CMC (clephedrone), 4-CEC (4-chloroethcatinone) and 4-BMC (brephedrone).

Hum Psychopharmacol 2017 05;32(3)

IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: This paper aims to present results of the analysis of clephedrone (4-CMC), 4-chloroethcathinone (4-CEC), and brephedrone (4-BMC) on recreational drug markets and a systematic review of all the available information concerning these substances.

Material And Methods: Samples collected by the drug checking service of the Spanish harm reduction NGO-Energy Control were analyzed and systematic research was conducted. Between June 2014 and October 2016, 1,471 samples with at least one NPS were analyzed, 397 of which contained cathinones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hup.2621DOI Listing
May 2017
25 Reads
1 Citation
2.192 Impact Factor

Widespread reduction of dopamine cell bodies and terminals in adult rats exposed to a low dose regimen of MDMA during adolescence.

Neuropharmacology 2017 Sep 8;123:385-394. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Neuroscience, Cagliari Section, Italy; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Neuropsychopharmacology Section, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy; Centre of Excellence "Neurobiology of Dependence", University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Although MDMA (3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy) neurotoxicity in serotonin neurons is largely recognized in a wide variety of species including man, neurotoxicity in dopamine (DA) neurons is thought to be species-specific. MDMA is mainly consumed by adolescents, often in conjunction with caffeine (Energy Drinks) and this association has been reported to exacerbate MDMA toxic effects. In order to model these aspects of MDMA use, vis-à-vis their impact on DA neurons, we investigated the effects of adolescent exposure to low doses of MDMA (5 mg/kg for 10 days), alone or in combination with caffeine (10 mg/kg) on neuronal and functional DA indices and on recognition memory in adult rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.06.008DOI Listing
September 2017
8 Reads

Treadmill exercise attenuates 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced memory impairment through a decrease apoptosis in male rat hippocampus.

J Neurosci Res 2017 12 11;95(12):2448-2455. Epub 2017 May 11.

Research Center for Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) leads to apoptosis in the hippocampus with consequent induction of learning and memory impairment. In this study, we have investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on memory in relation to apoptosis and oxidative stress in the hippocampi of MDMA-treated rats. Male Wistar rats received multiple intraperitoneal (IP) injections of MDMA (10 mg/kg) and exercised for one month on a treadmill (simultaneously or asynchronously with MDMA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24078DOI Listing
December 2017
32 Reads

The involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced place preference and behavioral sensitization.

Behav Brain Res 2017 06 1;329:157-165. Epub 2017 May 1.

Advanced Diagnostic System Research Laboratory, Fujita Health University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Toyoake 470-1192, Japan; Department of Chemical Pharmacology, Meijo University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya 468-8503, Japan; Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Hospital Pharmacy, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya 466-8560, Japan; Japanese Drug Organization of Appropriate Use and Research, Nagoya 468-0069, Japan; Aino University, Ibaraki 567-0012, Japan. Electronic address:

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is known to induce dependence and psychosis in humans. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the synaptic plasticity and neurotrophy in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This study aimed to investigate the role of BDNF in MDMA-induced dependence and psychosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2017.04.052DOI Listing
June 2017
10 Reads

Sex differences in the strategies of spatial learning in prenatally-exposed rats treated with various drugs in adulthood.

Behav Brain Res 2017 06 27;327:83-93. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Charles University, Third Faculty of Medicine, Department of Normal, Pathological and Clinical Physiology, Ke Karlovu 4, 120 00 Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

In the present study we investigated the sex differences in the effect of adult long-term drug treatment on cognitive functions of Wistar rats, which were prenatally exposed to MA (5mg/kg) or saline. Cognitive functions were tested as an ability of spatial learning in the Morris Water Maze (MWM), which consisted of three types of tests: "Place Navigation Test"; "Probe Test", and "Memory Recall Test". Adult animals were injected daily, after completion of the last trial, either with saline or cocaine (COC; 5mg/kg), MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine; 5mg/kg), morphine (MOR; 5mg/kg), or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; 2mg/kg). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2017.03.041DOI Listing
June 2017
11 Reads

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) produces edema due to BBB disruption induced by MMP-9 activation in rat hippocampus.

Neuropharmacology 2017 05 16;118:157-166. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, Pza. Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital 12 de Octubre, 28041 Madrid, Spain; Red de Trastornos Adictivos del Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

The recreational drug of abuse, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) disrupts blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in rats through an early P2X receptor-mediated event which induces MMP-9 activity. Increased BBB permeability often causes plasma proteins and water to access cerebral tissue leading to vasogenic edema formation. The current study was performed to examine the effect of a single neurotoxic dose of MDMA (12. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.03.019DOI Listing
May 2017
13 Reads

Acute ascending aortic dissection after MDMA/ecstasy use: A case report.

Hellenic J Cardiol 2016 Sep - Oct;57(5):351-354. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

Department of Medicine and Section of Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Acute aortic dissection is rare among young patients in the absence of connective tissue disorders. One of the risk factors associated with aortic dissection among young patients is amphetamine use. We report a case of a 37-year-old female with a past medical history of hypertension presenting with syncope and altered mental status who was found to have an acute DeBakey Type I aortic dissection after ingestion of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hjc.2016.11.026DOI Listing
September 2017
18 Reads

The combined effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and selected substituted methcathinones on measures of neurotoxicity.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2017 05 16;61:74-81. Epub 2017 Feb 16.

Research Service, VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, OR, USA; Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; The Methamphetamine Abuse Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA. Electronic address:

The rise in popularity of substituted methcathinones (aka "bath salts") has increased the focus on their neurotoxic effects. Two commonly abused methcathinones, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone, MDMC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), are often concomitantly ingested with the illicit drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). To examine potential neurotoxic effects of these drug combinations, C57BL/6J mice were administered 4 i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2017.02.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5453829PMC
May 2017
10 Reads

NMDA receptor adjusted co-administration of ecstasy and cannabinoid receptor-1 agonist in the amygdala via stimulation of BDNF/Trk-B/CREB pathway in adult male rats.

Brain Res Bull 2017 04 3;130:221-230. Epub 2017 Feb 3.

Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Cognitive and Neuroscience Research Center (CNRC), Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran; Institute for Cognitive Science Studies (ICSS), Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Cognitive Sciences, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, Iran; Medical Genomics Research Center, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Consumption of cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB-1) agonist such as cannabis is widely taken in 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy users; it has been hypothesized that co-consumption of CB-1 agonist might protect neurons against MDMA toxicity. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors regulate neuronal plasticity and firing rate in the brain through Tyrosine-kinase B (Trk-B) activation. The molecular and electrophysiological association among NMDA and MDMA/Arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA, a selective CB-1 receptor agonist) co-consumption was not well-known. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03619230163037
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2017.01.020DOI Listing
April 2017
9 Reads

MDMA-induced neurotoxicity of serotonin neurons involves autophagy and rilmenidine is protective against its pathobiology.

Neurochem Int 2017 May 23;105:80-90. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) towards biogenic amine neurons is well documented and in primate brain predominantly affects serotonin (5-HT) neurons. MDMA induces damage of 5-HT axons and nerve fibres and intracytoplasmic inclusions. Whilst its pathobiology involves mitochondrially-mediated oxidative stress, we hypothesised MDMA possessed the capacity to activate autophagy, a proteostatic mechanism for degradation of cellular debris. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2017.01.010DOI Listing
May 2017
7 Reads