1,035 results match your criteria Toxicity MDMA


Drinking to death: Hyponatraemia induced by synthetic phenethylamines.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 Apr 29;212:108045. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, Porto, 4050-313, Portugal. Electronic address:

Synthetic phenethylamines are widely abused drugs, comprising new psychoactive substances such as synthetic cathinones, but also well-known amphetamines such as methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy). Cathinones and amphetamines share many toxicodynamic mechanisms. One of their potentially life-threatening consequences, particularly of MDMA, is serotonin-mediated hyponatraemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108045DOI Listing

MDMA interactions with pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse.

Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2020 May 12;16(5):357-369. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

Departments of Clinical Pharmacology and Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias I Pujol-IGTP, Badalona, Spain.

: MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), a synthetic ring-substituted amphetamine, has become one of the most widely used recreational psychostimulant drugs in the world. Among recreational ecstasy/MDMA users, polydrug use is a phenomenon whose common purpose is to experience the synergistic effect of the combined drugs, moderate MDMA effects, prevent potential toxicity, enhance a high or come down from a high from other drugs, or simply to treat existing medical conditions. Thus, MDMA-drug interactions (MDMA-DIs) lead to a higher risk of acute and life-threatening MDMA toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17425255.2020.1749262DOI Listing

High ambient temperature increases the toxicity and lethality of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methcathinone.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2020 May 19;192:172912. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, College of Pharmacology and Pharmacological Science, University of Toledo, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Rationale: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methcathinone (MCAT) are abused psychostimulant drugs that produce adverse effects in human users that include hepatotoxicity and death. Recent work has suggested a connection between hepatotoxicity, elevations in plasma ammonia, and brain glutamate function for methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity.

Objectives: These experiments investigated the effect of ambient temperature on the toxicity and lethality produced by MDMA and MCAT in mice, and whether these effects might involve similar mechanisms to those described for METH neurotoxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2020.172912DOI Listing

Effect of the UK Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 on episodes of toxicity related to new psychoactive substances as reported to the National Poisons Information Service. A time series analysis.

Int J Drug Policy 2020 Mar 4;77:102672. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Health Protection Research Unit for Chemical and Radiation Threats and Hazards, Newcastle University, Newcastle NE2 4HH, United Kingdom.

Background: There have been recent increases in use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) associated with acute health harms including hospital presentations due to toxicity and increasing numbers of deaths. In response, the UK Government enacted generic legislation on 26th May 2016 (the Psychoactive Substances Act) making it an offence to produce, possess with intent to supply, supply, import or export, or possess within a custodial setting a psychoactive substance. We studied the impact of this Act on monthly frequency of enquiries made by health professionals to the UK National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) about NPS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102672DOI Listing

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Hepatotoxicity under the Heat Stress Condition: Novel Insights from in Vitro Metabolomic Studies.

J Proteome Res 2020 Mar 6;19(3):1222-1234. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

Hyperthermia has been extensively reported as a life-threatening consequence of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) abuse. In this work, we used a sensitive untargeted metabolomic approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to evaluate the impact of hyperthermia on the hepatic metabolic changes caused by MDMA. For this purpose, primary mouse hepatocytes were exposed to subtoxic (LC and LC) and toxic (LC) concentrations of MDMA for 24 h, at 37 or 40. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.9b00741DOI Listing

MDMA-related deaths in Australia 2000 to 2018.

Int J Drug Policy 2020 02 19;76:102630. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC), University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia; School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

Background: MDMA markets have undergone substantial changes internationally, with increasing manufacture of high purity MDMA recorded. This study examined trends in MDMA-related deaths in Australia, investigating characteristics, circumstances and toxicology of these deaths.

Methods: Analysis of MDMA-related deaths in Australia between 2001 and 2018, extracted from the National Coronial Information System (NCIS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.102630DOI Listing
February 2020

[Neurotrophic mechanisms of psychedelic therapy].

Biol Aujourdhui 2019 12;213(3-4):121-129. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

CNRS ERL 3649 « Neuroplasticité et thérapies des addictions », UMR-S 1124, Université Paris Descartes, 4, avenue de l'Observatoire, 75006 Paris, France.

Psychedelic drugs, often referred to as hallucinogens, are quite distinct from other classes of psychotropic drugs. Although the subjective and behavioral effects they induce are quite dramatic, they possess little addictive potential when compared to nicotine, alcohol or opiates. Since the discovery of ketamine antidepressant effects, there has been growing interest for these molecules. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jbio/2019015DOI Listing
May 2020
5 Reads

Neuronal and peripheral damages induced by synthetic psychoactive substances: an update of recent findings from human and animal studies.

Neural Regen Res 2020 May;15(5):802-816

Department of Biomedical Sciences; National Institute of Neuroscience (INN), University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Preclinical and clinical studies indicate that synthetic psychoactive substances, in addition to having abuse potential, may elicit toxic effects of varying severity at the peripheral and central levels. Nowadays, toxicity induced by synthetic psychoactive substances poses a serious harm for health, since recreational use of these substances is on the rise among young and adult people. The present review summarizes recent findings on the peripheral and central toxicity elicited by "old" and "new" synthetic psychoactive substances in humans and experimental animals, focusing on amphetamine derivatives, hallucinogen and dissociative drugs and synthetic cannabinoids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.268895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6990793PMC

MDMA-Associated Liver Toxicity: Pathophysiology, Management, and Current State of Knowledge.

AACN Adv Crit Care 2019 ;30(3):232-248

Ruff Joseph Macale Cajanding is Charge Nurse, Adult Critical Care Unit, 6th Floor, King George V Building, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Barts Health NHS Trust, 2 King Edward Street, London EC1A 1HQ, United Kingdom

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) has become a popular recreational drug of abuse among young adults, partly because of the belief that it is relatively safe compared with other drugs with the same stimulant and hallucinogenic effects. However, MDMA use has been associated with a wide spectrum of organ toxicities, with the liver being severely affected by its deleterious effects. This article discusses the essential pharmacology of MDMA and describes the effects MDMA has on various organ systems of the body, with particular focus on the liver. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4037/aacnacc2019852DOI Listing
February 2020
3 Reads

False positive amphetamines and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine immunoassays in the presence of metoprolol-two cases reported in clinical toxicology.

J Anal Toxicol 2020 Mar;44(2):200-205

Service de Toxicologie, Hôpital Lariboisière, AP-HP, 2 Rue Ambroise Paré, Paris 75010, France.

Amphetamines, frequently used recreational drugs with high risk of toxicity, are commonly included in urine drug screens. This screening is based on enzyme immunoassay, which is a quick and easy-to-perform technique, but may lack specificity resulting from cross-reactivity with other compounds, causing false positive results. We present two cases of presumed false positive MULTIGENT® amphetamine/methamphetamine and MULTIGENT® ecstasy (Abbott®) immunoassays with the beta-blocker metoprolol. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jat/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jat
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkz051DOI Listing
March 2020
3 Reads

Differential role of dose and environment in initiating and intensifying neurotoxicity caused by MDMA in rats.

BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2019 08 5;20(1):47. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Department of Biomedical Science, Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, USA.

Background: MDMA causes serotonin (5-HT) syndrome immediately after administration and serotonergic injury in a few days or weeks. However, a serotonin syndrome is not always followed by serotonergic injury, indicating different mechanisms responsible for two adverse effects. The goal of present study was to determine causes for two adverse events and further test that dose and environment have a differential role in initiating and intensifying MDMA neurotoxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40360-019-0326-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6683525PMC
August 2019
4 Reads

A case of fatal 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) intoxication with delayed onset methaemoglobinaemia.

Authors:
Johan Duflou

Pathology 2019 Aug 18;51(5):548-549. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pathol.2019.03.006DOI Listing
August 2019
6 Reads

Long-term treatment with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine caused retina damage in C57BL/6 mice.

Arq Bras Oftalmol 2019 06 3;82(5):363-371. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Changping Hospital of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Beijing 102208, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: As a class of psychostimulant drugs, amphetamines are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Following the onset of these effects, 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine produces persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin nerve terminals, resulting in long-lasting neurotoxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0004-2749.20190070DOI Listing
June 2019
11 Reads

Acute and repeated administration of MDPV increases aggressive behavior in mice: forensic implications.

Int J Legal Med 2019 Nov 1;133(6):1797-1808. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

Collaborative Center for the Italian National Early Warning System, Department of Anti-Drug Policies, Presidency of the Council of Ministers, Ferrara, Italy.

MDPV is a synthetic cathinone illegally marketed and consumed for its psychostimulant effects, which are similar to those produced by cocaine, amphetamines, and MDMA. Clinical reports indicate that MDPV produces euphoria, increases alertness, and at high doses causes agitation, psychosis, tachycardia and hypertension, hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, and even death. In rodents, MDPV reproduces the typical physiological effects of psychostimulant drugs, demonstrating greater potency than cocaine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-019-02092-3DOI Listing
November 2019
4 Reads

Changes in neuronal activity in rat primary cortical cultures induced by illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances (NPS) following prolonged exposure and washout to mimic human exposure scenarios.

Neurotoxicology 2019 09 9;74:28-39. Epub 2019 May 9.

Neurotoxicology Research Group, Division Toxicology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is increasing despite associated health risks and limited pharmacological and toxicological knowledge. Information is available mainly for acute effects on specific targets like monoamine transporters and receptors. Recently, we have shown the ability of several NPS and illicit drugs to modulate neuronal activity during acute exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2019.05.004DOI Listing
September 2019
3 Reads

MDMA Induced Cardio-toxicity and Pathological Myocardial Effects: A Systematic Review of Experimental Data and Autopsy Findings.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2019 12;19(6):493-499

Department of Legal and Forensic Medicine, University of Genova, Via Antonio De Toni 12, 16132, Genoa, Italy.

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), more commonly known as "ecstasy," is a semi-synthetic entactogenic phenylethylamine. In recent years it has gained popularity as a recreational drug whose use has registered an upward trend especially among adolescents and young adults. Despite its unwarranted reputation of being a "safe" drug, the actual scientific data denote that it actually leaves a trail of cardio-toxicity, above and beyond its neurotoxicity and other somatic effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12012-019-09526-9DOI Listing
December 2019
12 Reads

Differential effects of psychoactive substances on human wildtype and polymorphic T356M dopamine transporters (DAT).

Toxicology 2019 06 19;422:69-75. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Neurotoxicology Research Group, Division Toxicology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Many psychoactive substances affect the human dopamine (DA) reuptake transporter (hDAT). Polymorphisms in the encoding gene could affect the functionality of the transporter and consequently alter effects of psychotropic and recreational drugs. Recently, a T356 M single nucleotide polymorphism in the human SLC6A3 gene was described, which resulted in functional impairments of DA uptake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2019.04.012DOI Listing
June 2019
15 Reads

Variability in content and dissolution profiles of MDMA tablets collected in the UK between 2001 and 2018 - A potential risk to users?

Drug Test Anal 2019 Aug 15;11(8):1172-1182. Epub 2019 May 15.

Analytical Services International, St. George's University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, UK.

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy) tablets are widely used recreationally, and not only vary in appearance, but also in MDMA content. Recently, the prevalence of high-content tablets is of concern to public health authorities. To compare UK data with other countries, we evaluated MDMA content of 412 tablets collected from the UK, 2001-2018, and investigated within-batch content variability for a sub-set of these samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.2605DOI Listing
August 2019
6 Reads

Molecular Toxicological Mechanisms of Synthetic Cathinones on C2C12 Myoblasts.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Mar 28;20(7). Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland.

Synthetic cathinones are popular psychoactive substances that may cause skeletal muscle damage. In addition to indirect sympathomimetic myotoxicity, these substances could be directly myotoxic. Since studies in myocytes are currently lacking, the aim of the present study was to investigate potential toxicological effects by synthetic cathinones on C2C12 myoblasts (mouse skeletal muscle cell line). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6479684PMC
March 2019
9 Reads

Pharmacological characterization of the aminorex analogs 4-MAR, 4,4'-DMAR, and 3,4-DMAR.

Neurotoxicology 2019 05 15;72:95-100. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

4,4'-Dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) is a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) that appeared on the illicit drug market in addition to the psychostimulant 4-methylaminorex (4-MAR). Both substances are methylated derivatives of aminorex, an amphetamine-like anorectic used in the 1960ies and withdrawn from the marked due to severe cardiovascular toxicity. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro pharmacological profiles of 4-MAR, 4,4'-DMAR, and 3,4-dimethylaminorex (3,4-DMAR, direx). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2019.02.011DOI Listing
May 2019
19 Reads

Sympathomimetic amine compounds and hepatotoxicity: Not all are alike-Key distinctions noted in a short review.

Authors:
Cyril Willson

Toxicol Rep 2019 1;6:26-33. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

EuSci LLC, Gretna, NE, USA.

Sympathomimetic amine compounds are often pooled together and incorrectly assumed to be interchangeable with respect to potential adverse effects. A brief and specific review of sympathomimetic compounds and one instance (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2018.11.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6288410PMC
December 2018
12 Reads

Cytotoxicity of new psychoactive substances and other drugs of abuse studied in human HepG2 cells using an adopted high content screening assay.

Toxicol Lett 2019 Feb 19;301:79-89. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Toxicology, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Molecular Signaling (PZMS), Saarland University, Homburg, Germany. Electronic address:

New psychoactive substances (NPS) are still an emerging issue in clinical and forensic toxicology. Information about their cytotoxic potential is limited or even unavailable before distribution and thus their intake can be of high risk for consumers. The aim of the presented study was to develop a strategy to identify cytotoxic potential of NPS based on a high content screening assay (HCSA) using HepG2 cell line and four fluorescent dyes, namely Hoechst33342, TMRM, CAL-520, and TOTO-3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.11.007DOI Listing
February 2019
48 Reads

Metabolomics predicts the pharmacological profile of new psychoactive substances.

J Psychopharmacol 2019 03 19;33(3):347-354. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

1 Integrative Pharmacology and Systems Neuroscience Research Group, Neurosciences Research Program, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The unprecedented proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS) threatens public health and challenges drug policy. Information on NPS pharmacology and toxicity is, in most cases, unavailable or very limited and, given the large number of new compounds released on the market each year, their timely evaluation by current standards is certainly challenging.

Aims: We present here a metabolomics-targeted approach to predict the pharmacological profile of NPS. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0269881118812103
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881118812103DOI Listing
March 2019
64 Reads
3.593 Impact Factor

Long-term systemic administration with low dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine causes photoreceptor cell damage in CD1 mice.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2019 Mar 26;38(1):81-87. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

b Department of Ophthalmology , Shenzhen Children's Hospital , Shenzhen , People's Republic of China.

Objective: As a powerful psychostimulant with high potential for abuse, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes long-lasting neurotoxicity. This study was to investigate the effects of systemic administration of MDMA on retinal damage in CD1 mice and its underlying mechanisms.

Material And Methods: CD1 mice were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10): group 1 receiving PBS by intraperitoneal injection daily; group 2 receiving 2 mg/kg MDMA by intraperitoneal injection daily for 3 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15569527.2018.1539007DOI Listing
March 2019
10 Reads

GC-MS metabolomics reveals disturbed metabolic pathways in primary mouse hepatocytes exposed to subtoxic levels of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA).

Arch Toxicol 2018 11 25;92(11):3307-3323. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313, Porto, Portugal.

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is a well-known hepatotoxic drug. Although its toxicity has been thoroughly studied at high concentrations, there is still insufficient knowledge on possible alterations of cell function at subtoxic concentrations, which are in fact more representative concentrations of intoxication scenarios. In this study, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) metabolomics approach was used to investigate the metabolic changes in primary mouse hepatocytes (PMH) exposed to two subtoxic concentrations of MDMA (LC and LC) for 24 h. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-018-2314-9DOI Listing
November 2018
35 Reads

Dopaminergic neurotoxic effects of 3-TFMPP derivatives.

Life Sci 2018 Sep 29;209:357-369. Epub 2018 Jul 29.

Department of Drug Discovery and Development, Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA. Electronic address:

Designer drugs are synthetically formulated to mimic the psychostimulatory effects of an original controlled/illegal drug of abuse. Designer drugs have similar chemical structure or functional analog as compared to existing controlled psychostimulatory drugs. There is a substantial rise in the production and use of designer drugs globally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2018.07.052DOI Listing
September 2018
45 Reads

The psychostimulant (±)-cis-4,4'-dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) interacts with human plasmalemmal and vesicular monoamine transporters.

Neuropharmacology 2018 08 23;138:282-291. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Medical University of Vienna, Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Währingerstraße 13A, 1090, Vienna, Austria; Center for Addiction Research and Science, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13A, 1090 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

(±)-cis-4,4'-Dimethylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) that has been associated with 31 fatalities and other adverse events in Europe between June 2013 and February 2014. We used in vitro uptake inhibition and transporter release assays to determine the effects of 4,4'-DMAR on human high-affinity transporters for dopamine (DAT), norepinephrine (NET) and serotonin (SERT). In addition, we assessed its binding affinities to monoamine receptors and transporters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.06.018DOI Listing
August 2018
16 Reads

MDMA toxicity: management of acute and life-threatening presentations.

Br J Nurs 2018 Jun;27(11):616-622

Emergency Medicine and Intensive Care Consultant, Royal London Hospital.

Since the 1980s, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has been a popular recreational drug, used particularly among those who attend raves and nightclubs. Over the past 3 years, the popularity of this drug has once again increased and there has been an associated rise in deaths. The pathophysiology of MDMA toxicity is complex and much remains to be understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2018.27.11.616DOI Listing
June 2018
19 Reads

Aged rats are more vulnerable than adolescents to "ecstasy"-induced toxicity.

Arch Toxicol 2018 07 4;92(7):2275-2295. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

UCIBIO, REQUIMTE (Rede de Química e Tecnologia), Laboratório de Toxicologia, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313, Porto, Portugal.

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") is a widespread drug of abuse with known neurotoxic properties. The present study aimed to evaluate the differential toxic effects of MDMA in adolescent and aged Wistar rats, using doses pharmacologically comparable to humans. Adolescent (post-natal day 40) (3 × 5 mg/kg, 2 h apart) and aged (mean 20 months old) (2 × 5 mg/kg, 2 h apart) rats received MDMA intraperitoneally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-018-2226-8DOI Listing
July 2018
12 Reads

Placentation-related processes in a human first-trimester extravillous trophoblast cell line (HTR-8/SVneo cells) are affected by several xenobiotics.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2019 Sep 3;42(5):541-545. Epub 2018 May 3.

a Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine , University of Porto , Porto , Portugal.

Our aim was to investigate the effect of some xenobiotics on placentation-related processes in an extravillous trophoblastic cell line (HTR-8/SVneo cells). Amphetamine, MDMA, theophylline, and fluoxetine, but not nicotine, cocaine, and caffeine, had a negative effect on cell proliferation rates, culture growth, viability, or migratory capacity. These compounds have a detrimental effect in placentation-related processes of HTR-8/SVneo cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2018.1463240DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

Two Simulation Cases to Prepare for a Public Festival: Pediatric Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) Ingestion and Alcohol Toxicity.

Cureus 2018 Feb 21;10(2):e2218. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Emergency Medicine, University of Alabama Birmingham.

Introduction Emergency departments (EDs) see a surge of intoxicated patients during large public summer events. These patients can be distracting and complicated for ED staff to care for. Methods We developed two cases to prepare emergency department staff for an anticipated surge of patients related to a large music festival that occurs proximal to our pediatric hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5910007PMC
February 2018
17 Reads

New types of drug use and risks of drug use among men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional study in Hangzhou, China.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 04 17;18(1):182. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Hangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Background: The use of new types of drugs has become more common among men who have sex with men (MSM). The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of the use of new types of drugs, such as methamphetamine, ketamine, ecstasy, and rush poppers, and to examine the factors associated with drug use and HIV infection among MSM in Hangzhou, China.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2015 and April 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3091-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5904980PMC
April 2018
45 Reads

Pharmacology of MDMA- and Amphetamine-Like New Psychoactive Substances.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018;252:143-164

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

New psychoactive substances (NPS) with amphetamine-, aminoindan-, and benzofuran basic chemical structures have recently emerged for recreational drug use. Detailed information about their psychotropic effects and health risks is often limited. At the same time, it emerged that the pharmacological profiles of these NPS resemble those of amphetamine or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/164_2018_113DOI Listing
June 2019
39 Reads

Repeated Administration of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) Elevates the Levels of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Nigrostriatal System: Possible Relevance to Neurotoxicity.

Neurotox Res 2018 Nov 9;34(4):763-768. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section of Neuropsychopharmacology, University of Cagliari, Building A, Monserrato University Campus, SP 8, Km 0.700, 09042, Monserrato, Italy.

Previous studies have consistently demonstrated that the amphetamine-related drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induces dopaminergic damage in the mouse brain, and that this effect is most marked in the nigrostriatal system. Moreover, it has been suggested that the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) may participate in the dopaminergic damage induced by MDMA. To further elucidate this issue, we evaluated the levels of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which catalyzes the production of NO, in mice treated with regimens of MDMA that induce progressive and persistent neurotoxicity in the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-018-9892-4DOI Listing
November 2018
16 Reads

Chronic administration of amphetamines disturbs development of neural progenitor cells in young adult nonhuman primates.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 07 28;85:46-53. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute,USA; VA San Diego Healthcare System, USA; Department of Anesthesiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA. Electronic address:

The detrimental effects of amphetamines on developmental stages of NPCs are limited to rodent brain and it is not known if these effects occur in nonhuman primates which are the focus of the current investigation. Young adult rhesus macaques either experienced MDMA only, a combination of amphetamines (MDMA, MDA and methamphetamine) or no amphetamines (controls) and hippocampal tissue was processed for immunohistochemical analysis.Quantitative stereological analysis showed that intermittent exposure to MDMA or the three amphetamines over 9. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2018.03.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5962428PMC
July 2018
11 Reads

Dibutylone (bk-DMBDB): Intoxications, Quantitative Confirmations and Metabolism in Authentic Biological Specimens.

J Anal Toxicol 2018 Sep;42(7):437-445

Center for Forensic Science Research and Education at the Fredric Rieders Family Foundation, 2300 Stratford Ave, Willow Grove, PA, USA.

The number of emerging novel stimulants modified based on beta-keto variations of amphetamine-like substances continues to rise. Dibutylone reports described in the medical and toxicological literature are limited, therefore little information is available in terms of quantitative confirmation or metabolism. During this study, authentic human specimens, including blood, urine, vitreous humor, oral fluid and liver were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed for the presence of dibutylone and butylone, with paired case history and demographic information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bky022DOI Listing
September 2018
30 Reads

Isolated persistent acute global amnesia after acute abuse of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA).

J Neurol Sci 2018 03 4;386:36-38. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Hôpital Delafontaine, Neurology Department, F-93200 Saint-Denis, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2018.01.005DOI Listing
March 2018
14 Reads

Acute recreational drug toxicity: Comparison of self-reports and results of immunoassay and additional analytical methods in a multicenter European case series.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 02;97(5):e9784

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Basel University Hospital and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

The aim of the study was to compare self-reported and analytically confirmed substance use in cases of acute recreational drug toxicity.We performed a retrospective analysis of emergency department presentations of acute recreational drug toxicity over 2 years (October 2013 to September 2015) within the European Drug Emergencies Network Plus project.Among the 10,956 cases of acute recreational drug toxicity during the study period, 831 could be included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000009784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5805445PMC
February 2018
56 Reads

Mephedrone (4-Methylmethcathinone): Acute Behavioral Effects, Hyperthermic, and Pharmacokinetic Profile in Rats.

Front Psychiatry 2017 10;8:306. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Department of Experimental Neurobiology, National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, Czech Republic.

Mephedrone (MEPH) is a synthetic cathinone derivative with effects that mimic MDMA and/or cocaine. Our study in male Wistar rats provides detailed investigations of MEPH's and its primary metabolite nor-mephedrone's (nor-MEPH) pharmacokinetics and bio-distribution to four different substrates (serum, brain, lungs, and liver), as well as comparative analysis of their effects on locomotion [open field test (OFT)] and sensorimotor gating [prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reaction (PPI ASR)]. Furthermore, in order to mimic the crowded condition where MEPH is typically taken (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5767720PMC
January 2018
20 Reads

Ghrelin Alleviates MDMA-Induced Disturbance of Serum Glucose and Lipids Levels in the Rat.

Acta Med Iran 2017 Dec;55(12):736-743

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Hepatotoxicity is one of the clinically adverse effects of ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) consumption. The detoxification tissue, liver, plays a central role in maintaining circulating levels of glucose and lipid. Hypoglycemia and hypotriglyceridemia have been reported due to ecstasy abuse. Read More

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December 2017
53 Reads

Key interindividual determinants in MDMA pharmacodynamics.

Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2018 Feb;14(2):183-195

a Departments of Clinical Pharmacology and Internal Medicine , Hospital Universitari Germans Trias I Pujol-IGTP , Badalona , Spain.

Introduction: MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, is a synthetic phenethylamine derivative with structural and pharmacological similarities to both amphetamines and mescaline. MDMA produces characteristic amphetamine-like actions (euphoria, well-being), increases empathy, and induces pro-social effects that seem to motivate its recreational consumption and provide a basis for its potential therapeutic use. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to present the main interindividual determinants in MDMA pharmacodynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17425255.2018.1424832DOI Listing
February 2018
17 Reads

Pharmacokinetic, Ambulatory, and Hyperthermic Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxy--Methylcathinone (Methylone) in Rats.

Front Psychiatry 2017 17;8:232. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

Department of Experimental Neurobiology, National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, Czechia.

Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxy--methylcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone analog of the recreational drug ecstasy. Although it is marketed to recreational users as relatively safe, fatalities due to hyperthermia, serotonin syndrome, and multi-organ system failure have been reported. Since psychopharmacological data remain scarce, we have focused our research on pharmacokinetics, and on a detailed evaluation of temporal effects of methylone and its metabolite nor-methylone on behavior and body temperature in rats. Read More

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http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5698284PMC
November 2017
35 Reads

No major role of norepinephrine transporter gene variations in the cardiostimulant effects of MDMA.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Mar 2;74(3):275-283. Epub 2017 Dec 2.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Biomedicine, Department of Clinical Research, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Schanzenstrasse 55, 4056, Basel, Switzerland.

Purpose: Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is used recreationally and frequently leads to sympathomimetic toxicity. MDMA produces cardiovascular and subjective stimulant effects that were shown to partially depend on the norepinephrine transporter (NET)-mediated release of norepinephrine and stimulation of α-adrenergic receptors. Genetic variants, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of the NET gene (SLC6A2) may explain interindividual differences in the acute stimulant-type responses to MDMA in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-017-2392-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5808057PMC
March 2018
36 Reads

Lack of Detection of New Amphetamine-Like Drugs Using Conventional Urinary Immunoassays.

Ther Drug Monit 2018 02;40(1):135-139

Department of Pharmacy, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: The number of reports of serious adverse effects and intoxication after the use of the new drug 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) increases. At the Emergency Department of the OLVG-Oost Hospital in Amsterdam, an on-site drug test, the Triage TOX Drug Screen, is available to assist in a rapid diagnosis. In less urgent cases, an EMIT II Plus immunoassay is used to determine semiquantitatively the presence of drugs of abuse (DOA). Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00007691-900000000-9903
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0000000000000475DOI Listing
February 2018
15 Reads

Peripheral endocannabinoid concentrations are not associated with verbal memory impairment during MDMA intoxication.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 03 16;235(3):709-717. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Department of Neuropsychology and Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Preclinical data have suggested involvement of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in MDMA-induced memory impairment. Clinical research has shown that blockade of the 5-HT receptor nulls memory impairment during MDMA intoxication. Interestingly, studies have demonstrated that the eCB and the 5-HT system interact. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-017-4787-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5847074PMC
March 2018
9 Reads

Effects of MDMA (ecstasy) on apoptosis and heat shock protein (HSP70) expression in adult rat testis.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2018 Mar 5;28(3):219-229. Epub 2017 Nov 5.

a Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine , Mashhad University of Medical Sciences , Mashhad , Iran.

Background: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy) on apoptosis and heat shock protein expression in adult rat testis.

Methods: Twenty male rats were divided into four groups, two experimental groups (1 and 2), sham control and control. For 16 consecutive days, the experimental groups 1 and 2 were received 5 and 10 mg/kg intraperitoneal (ip) injection of ecstasy, respectively, and in the sham control group, the only saline was injected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2017.1388461DOI Listing
March 2018
20 Reads
1.550 Impact Factor

Diffusion tensor imaging marks dopaminergic and serotonergic lesions in the Parkinsonian monkey.

Mov Disord 2018 02 27;33(2):298-309. Epub 2017 Oct 27.

Université de Lyon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut des Sciences Cognitives Marc Jeannerod, Bron, France.

Background: Diffusion tensor imaging has received major interest to highlight markers of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Whether the alteration of diffusion parameters mostly depicts dopaminergic lesions or can also reveal serotonergic denervation remains a question.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the best diffusion tensor imaging markers of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 3,4-methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA; also known as ecstasy) lesions in the nonhuman primate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.27201DOI Listing
February 2018
14 Reads