1,083 results match your criteria Toxicity MDMA


Psychedelics: Alternative and Potential Therapeutic Options for Treating Mood and Anxiety Disorders.

Molecules 2022 Apr 14;27(8). Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

The word "psychedelic" (psyche (i.e., the mind or soul) and delos (i. Read More

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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protects serotonergic neurons against 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Ecstasy") induced cytoskeletal damage.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2022 Apr 14. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Lenggstrasse 31, CH-8032, Zurich, Switzerland.

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") use has been linked to persistent alterations of the brain serotonergic (5-HT) system in animal and human studies, but the molecular underpinnings are still unclear. Cytoskeletal structures such as neurofilament light chain (NfL) are promising markers of drug-induced brain toxicity and may be involved in MDMA neurotoxicity. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the growth and sprouting of 5-HT neurons and its differential response to MDMA administration was suggested to mediate dose- and region-dependent 5-HT damage by MDMA. Read More

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Caffeine and MDMA (Ecstasy) Exacerbate ER Stress Triggered by Hyperthermia.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Feb 10;23(4). Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Molecular Mechanisms of Cellular Stress and Inflammation Section, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Drugs of abuse can cause local and systemic hyperthermia, a known trigger of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Another trigger of ER stress and UPR is ER calcium depletion, which causes ER exodosis, the secretion of ER-resident proteins. In rodent models, club drugs such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can create hyperthermic conditions in the brain and cause toxicity that is affected by the environmental temperature and the presence of other drugs, such as caffeine. Read More

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February 2022

MDMA and memory, addiction, and depression: dose-effect analysis.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2022 Mar 18;239(3):935-949. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Molecular Cognition Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Rationale: ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a recreational drug that shows substantial promise as a psychotherapeutic agent. Still, there is some concern regarding its behavioral toxicity, and its dose-effect relationship is poorly understood. We previously explored the role of dose in the cognitive effects of MDMA in a systematic review of existing literature and found no evidence in animals that MDMA impairs memory at low doses (< 3 mg/kg) but mixed results at high doses (≥ 3 mg/kg). Read More

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Remembering Molly: Immediate and delayed false memory formation after acute MDMA exposure.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2022 Apr 3;57:59-68. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The entactogen 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is increasingly being recognized for its therapeutic potential but is also widespread in nightlife settings where it may co-occur with crime. Since previous research detected impaired verbal memory during acute MDMA intoxication, understanding the drug's ramifications in an applied legal context becomes crucial. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine acute and delayed effects of MDMA (75 mg) on false memory in 60 healthy volunteers with a history of MDMA use, using three well-established false memory methods: a basic, associative word list (Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM)) paradigm and two applied misinformation tasks using a virtual reality crime. Read More

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MDMA related neuro-inflammation and adenosine receptors.

Neurochem Int 2022 02 3;153:105275. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran. Electronic address:

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a world-wide abused psychostimulant, which has the neurotoxic effects on dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons in both rodents and non-human primates. Adenosine acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain through the activation of four specific G-protein-coupled receptors and it acts as a neuromodulator of dopamine neurotransmission. Recent studies suggest that stimulation of adenosine receptors oppose many behavioral effects of methamphetamines. Read More

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February 2022

Prevalence, beliefs and impact of drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral therapy and illicit drugs among people living with HIV in Spain.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(11):e0260334. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Spanish Interdisciplinary AIDS Society (Sociedad Española Interdisciplinaria del Sida, SEISIDA), Madrid, Spain.

Drug use implies important challenges related to HIV management, particularly due to an increased risk of potential interactions between antiretroviral therapy (ART) and illicit drugs (pDDIs). This study analyses the prevalence and severity of pDDIs among people living with HIV (PLHIV). It also explores their awareness of pDDIs and their beliefs about the toxicity that they may cause, as well as the impact of pDDIs on selected health variables. Read More

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January 2022

Protective effects of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-induced spatial learning and memory impairment.

Inflammopharmacology 2021 Dec 15;29(6):1807-1818. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Genetics and Advanced Medical Technology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or "Ecstasy", which has been used for recreational purposes, is shown to impair memory and brain functions. Statins, beyond their efficient cholesterol-lowering impact through inhibition of HMG-COA reductase enzyme, possess multiple actions referred to as pleiotropic effects. In this regard, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin on MDMA-induced neurotoxicity. Read More

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December 2021

Developmental exposure to MDMA (ecstasy) in zebrafish embryos reproduces the neurotoxicity adverse outcome 'lower motor activity' described in humans.

Neurotoxicology 2022 01 8;88:116-123. Epub 2021 Nov 8.

GRET, INSA-UB and Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

The recreational use of MDMA (ecstasy) by pregnant women is associated with impaired neuromotor function in infants, but the Adverse Outcome Pathway behind this effect is not clear yet. We present for the first time the evaluation of developmental neurotoxic (DNT) effects of MDMA in zebrafish embryos. The aim of the study was to determine whether the zebrafish model reproduces the adverse outcome occurring in humans. Read More

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January 2022

Neurotoxicity of MDMA: Main effects and mechanisms.

Exp Neurol 2022 01 13;347:113894. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Maj Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Pharmacology, 12 Smętna, 31-343 Kraków, Poland.

Preclinical and clinical studies indicate that 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy'), in addition to having abuse potential, may elicit acute and persistent abnormalities of varying severity at the central level. Importantly, neurotoxic effects of MDMA have been demonstrated in experimental animals. Accordingly, central toxicity induced by MDMA may pose a serious harm for health, since MDMA is among the substances that are used for recreational purposes by young and adult people. Read More

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January 2022

In Vitro and In Vivo Sequestration of Methamphetamine by a Sulfated Acyclic CB[n]-Type Receptor.

Chemistry 2021 Dec 27;27(69):17476-17486. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742, United States.

We report the synthesis of two new acyclic sulfated acyclic CB[n]-type receptors (TriM0 and Me TetM0) and investigations of their binding properties toward a panel of drugs of abuse (1-13) by a combination of H NMR spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry. TetM0 is the most potent receptor with K ≥10  M toward methamphetamine, fentanyl, MDMA and mephedrone. TetM0 is not cytotoxic toward HepG2 and HEK 293 cells below 100 μM according to MTS metabolic and adenylate kinase release assays and is well tolerated in vivo when dosed at 46 mg kg . Read More

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December 2021

Toxicological Analysis of Intoxications with Synthetic Cathinones.

J Anal Toxicol 2021 Oct 1. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Cytophysiology, Chair of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Synthetic cathinones (SCs) are currently the second largest and the second most frequently seized group of new psychoactive substances. They are sold as replacements for controlled stimulants such as amphetamine, cocaine and MDMA. Administration of low doses of SCs can cause euphoria and increased alertness, and administration of high doses or chronic use of cathinones can cause serious adverse effects, such as hallucinations, delirium, hyperthermia, and tachycardia. Read More

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October 2021

Investigation of MDMA Inhibitory Effect on CytochromeP450 3A4 in Isolated Perfused Rat Liver Model Using Tramadol.

Adv Pharm Bull 2021 May 5;11(3):530-536. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics Division, Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a synthetic compound, which is a structurally derivative of amphetamine. Also, it acts like an amphetamine, structurally, and functionally. MDMA uses mechanism-based inhibition, to inhibit isoenzyme CYP2D6. Read More

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Three regulatory compliant test systems show no signs of MDMA-related genotoxicity.

J Psychopharmacol 2021 11 31;35(11):1431-1434. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Executive Department, Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, San Jose, CA, USA.

3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted therapy has been recently found to be highly effective for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous studies have been inconclusive in elucidating potential MDMA genotoxicity. We performed three regulatory compliant studies to investigate the potential of genotoxic effects of MDMA treatment in humans: (1) an bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) assay, (2) an chromosome aberration test in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and (3) an micronucleus study in male Sprague Dawley rats. Read More

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November 2021

Serotonin toxicity of serotonergic psychedelics.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Touro University California, Vallejo, CA, 94590, USA.

Rationale: In recent years, psychedelic substances with serotonergic mechanisms have accumulated substantial evidence that they may provide therapeutic benefits for people suffering with psychiatric symptoms. Psychiatric disorders targeted by these psychedelic-assisted therapies are managed with serotonergic drugs like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as the current standard of care, so it is important to evaluate the potential risks of drug-drug interactions and serotonin toxicity (ST) between these agents.

Objectives: A critical evaluation of the scientific literature is necessary to delineate the risks of ST when combining psychedelics with available serotonergic pharmacotherapy options. Read More

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Human Neuronal Cell Lines as An In Vitro Toxicological Tool for the Evaluation of Novel Psychoactive Substances.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 24;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, 09042 Monserrato, Italy.

Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are synthetic substances belonging to diverse groups, designed to mimic the effects of scheduled drugs, resulting in altered toxicity and potency. Up to now, information available on the pharmacology and toxicology of these new substances is very limited, posing a considerable challenge for prevention and treatment. The present in vitro study investigated the possible mechanisms of toxicity of two emerging NPS (i) 4'-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinoexanophenone (3,4-MDPHP), a synthetic cathinone, and (ii) 2-chloro-4,5-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (2-Cl-4,5-MDMA), a phenethylamine. Read More

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Nicotine and modafinil combination protects against the neurotoxicity induced by 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine in hippocampal neurons of male rats.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 10 10;116:101986. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a common recreational drug of abuse which causes neurodegeneration. Nicotine and modafinil provide antioxidant and neuroprotective properties and may be beneficial in the management of MDMA-induced neurotoxicity. The purpose of this study was to characterize how acute and chronic administration of nicotine and/or modafinil exert protective effects against the MDMA-induced impaired cognitive performance, oxidative stress, and neuronal loss. Read More

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October 2021

The Effects of Folic Acid on Testicular Histology, Sperm Quality, and Spermatogenesis Indices Following 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Exposure in Adult Male Rats.

Addict Health 2021 Jan;13(1):36-44

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: There is an increasing concern over acute exposure of amphetamine and its derivative such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on male reproductive toxicity. Supplementary vitamins can reduce the oxidative stresses and repair the damages on reproductive organs. This experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effects of folic acid (FA) on reproductive indices, the antioxidant enzyme activities, and histological changes of testis on adult male rats treated by MDMA. Read More

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January 2021

Synthetic Cannabinoids and Cathinones Cardiotoxicity: Facts and Perspectives.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 ;19(11):2038-2048

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health, University of Trieste, Italy.

New psychoactive substances (NPS) constitute a group of psychotropic substances, designed to mimic the effects of traditional substances like cannabis, cocaine, MDMA, khat, which was not regulated by the 1961 United Nations Convention on Narcotics or the 1971 United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Illegal laboratories responsible for their production regularly developed new substances and placed them on the market to replace the ones that have been banned; for this reason, during the last decade this class of substances has represented a great challenge for the public health and forensic toxicologists. The spectrum of side effects caused by the intake of these drugs of abuse is very wide since they act on different systems with various mechanisms of action. Read More

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November 2021

Cardiovascular and temperature adverse actions of stimulants.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 07 6;178(13):2551-2568. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Physiology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

The vast majority of illicit stimulants act at monoaminergic systems, causing both psychostimulant and adverse effects. Stimulants can interact as substrates or antagonists at the nerve terminal monoamine transporter that mediates the reuptake of monoamines across the nerve synaptic membrane and at the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT-2) that mediates storage of monoamines in vesicles. Stimulants can act directly at presynaptic or postsynaptic receptors for monoamines or have indirect monoamine-mimetic actions due to the release of monoamines. Read More

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Breathing new life into neurotoxic-based monkey models of Parkinson's disease to study the complex biological interplay between serotonin and dopamine.

Prog Brain Res 2021 18;261:265-285. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5229, Institut des Sciences Cognitives Marc Jeannerod, Bron, France. Electronic address:

Numerous clinical studies have shown that the serotonergic system also degenerates in patients with Parkinson's disease. The causal role of this impairment in Parkinson's symptomatology and the response to treatment remains to be refined, in particular thanks to approaches allowing the two components DA and 5-HT to be isolated if possible. We have developed a macaque monkey model of Parkinson's disease exhibiting a double lesion (dopaminergic and serotonergic) thanks to the sequential use of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine) (or MDMA prior MPTP). Read More

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October 2021

Trends in MDMA-related mortality across four countries.

Addiction 2021 11 15;116(11):3094-3103. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Lisbon, Portugal.

Aims: To determine trends in 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-related death rates across Australia, Finland, Portugal and Turkey and to analyse the toxicology and causes of death across countries.

Design: Analysis of MDMA-related deaths extracted from a national coronial database in Australia (2001-19) and national forensic toxicology databases in Finland (2001-17), Portugal (2008-19) and Turkey (2007-17). Presentation of MDMA use and seizure data (market indicators). Read More

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November 2021

Increased kynurenine concentration attenuates serotonergic neurotoxicity induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in rats through activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

Neuropharmacology 2021 04 16;187:108490. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Departamento de Farmacología y Toxicología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, Pza. Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040, Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; Red de Trastornos Adictivos, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Instituto Universitario de Investigación Neuroquímica (IUIN), Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an amphetamine derivative that has been shown to produce serotonergic damage in the brains of primates, including humans, and of rats. Tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin, is primarily degraded through the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, producing among others KYN, the main metabolite of this route. KYN has been reported as an endogenous agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor involved in several neurological functions. Read More

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Combining ecstasy and ethanol: higher risk for toxicity? A review.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2021 01 19;51(1):1-14. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Dutch Poisons Information Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Ecstasy use is commonly combined with ethanol consumption. While combination drug use in general is correlated with a higher risk for toxicity, the risk of the specific combination of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)) and ethanol is largely unknown. Therefore, we have reviewed the literature on changes in MDMA pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics due to concurrent ethanol exposure in human, animal and studies. Read More

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January 2021

From street to lab: in vitro hepatotoxicity of buphedrone, butylone and 3,4-DMMC.

Arch Toxicol 2021 04 7;95(4):1443-1462. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira No. 228, 4050-313, Porto, Portugal.

Synthetic cathinones are among the most popular new psychoactive substances, being abused for their stimulant properties, which are similar to those of amphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Considering that the liver is a likely target for cathinones-induced toxicity, and for their metabolic activation/detoxification, we aimed to determine the hepatotoxicity of three commonly abused synthetic cathinones: butylone, α-methylamino-butyrophenone (buphedrone) and 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC). We characterized their cytotoxic profile in primary rat hepatocytes (PRH) and in the HepaRG and HepG2 cell lines. Read More

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Sympathomimetic-Induced Hyperthermia and Hyponatremia: A Simulation Case for Emergency Medicine Residents.

MedEdPORTAL 2021 01 29;17:11092. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Director of Cook County Simulation Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Cook County Health; Co-Executive Director, Rush Center for Clinical Skills and Simulation.

Introduction: MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a popular drug of abuse associated with a variety of clinical manifestations. There are a number of life-threatening sequelae, including, but not limited to, agitated delirium, cardiac dysrhythmias, and hyperthermia. Similar to other substances that cause sympathomimetic toxidromes, MDMA also induces a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion-like state resulting in hyponatremia. Read More

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January 2021

Novel Psychoactive Phenethylamines: Impact on Genetic Material.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 17;21(24). Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy.

Psychedelic and stimulating phenethylamines belong to the family of new psychoactive substances (NPS). The acute toxicity framework has begun to be investigated, while studies showing genotoxic potential are very limited or not available. Therefore, in order to fill this gap, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the genotoxicity by treating TK6 cells with 2C-H, 2C-I, 2C-B, 25B-NBOMe, and the popular 3,4-Methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA). Read More

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December 2020

In utero exposure to dexamethasone causes a persistent and age-dependent exacerbation of the neurotoxic effects and glia activation induced by MDMA in dopaminergic brain regions of C57BL/6J mice.

Neurotoxicology 2021 03 15;83:1-13. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section of Neuroscience, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy; National Research Council of Italy, Neuroscience Institute, Cagliari, Italy.

Clinical and preclinical evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids may induce detrimental effects in the offspring, including reduction in fetal growth and alterations in the CNS. On this basis, the present study investigated whether in utero exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids is a risk factor that may lead to an exacerbation of the central noxious effects induced by psychoactive drugs consumed later in life. To this end, pregnant C57BL6/J dams were treated with dexamethasone (DEX, 0. Read More

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Eutylone Intoxications-An Emerging Synthetic Stimulant in Forensic Investigations.

J Anal Toxicol 2021 Feb;45(1):8-20

NMS Labs, Toxicology Department, Horsham, PA 19044, USA.

Synthetic stimulants are the largest class of novel psychoactive substances identified each year by forensic laboratories internationally. While hundreds of these drugs appear in drug powders, only a few proliferate in use among forensically relevant populations and eventually emerge in postmortem and clinical investigations. Beta-keto-methylenedioxyamphetamines (i. Read More

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February 2021

The ameliorating effects of Vitamin E on hepatotoxicity of ecstasy.

J Res Med Sci 2020 30;25:91. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Anatomy, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IR Iran.

Background: The production of stress oxidative condition in body which is caused by consumption of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) leads to a liver damage. As an antioxidant, Vitamin E can protect cells and tissues against the deleterious effects of free radicals. This study evaluates the protective effects of Vitamin E on MDMA induced liver toxicity. Read More

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September 2020