738,822 results match your criteria Toxicity Lithium


Ethyl acetate fraction of () attenuates lead acetate induced testicular toxicity in male Wistar rats.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pharmacology, Benjamin S. Carson (Snr.) School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Objectives: The use of in folklore medicine for the management of reproductive disorders has been poorly reported. We sought to investigate the protective potential of the ethyl acetate fraction of stem bark extract (EFSC) on lead acetate-induced (LA) testicular toxicity in male rats.

Methods: Animals during a 28 days treatment received dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, 0. Read More

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Alkylating agent rechallenge in metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

L De Mestier, Department of Gastroenterology, Beaujon University Hospital (APHP), Clichy, France.

A rechallenge is common after initial efficacy of alkylating-based chemotherapy (ALK) in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET). High MGMT expression seems associated with lower response to ALK. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of ALK rechallenge in PanNET. Read More

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Bacteria as a treasure house of secondary metabolites with anticancer potential.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Institution of Excellence, Vijnana Bhavan, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore, 570006, India. Electronic address:

Cancer stands in the frontline among leading killers worldwide and the annual mortality rate is expected to reach 16.4 million by 2040. Humans suffer from about 200 different types of cancers and many of them have a small number of approved therapeutic agents. Read More

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Synthesis of Novel Esters of Mefenamic Acid with Pronounced Anti-nociceptive Effects and a Proposed Activity on GABA Opioid and Glutamate Receptors.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 May 9:105865. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Mefenamic acid (MFA), a commonly prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), possesses a greater risk of dose-related central nervous system (CNS) toxicity than other NSAIDs. In this study, α-tocopherol and α-tocopherol acetate were selected as prodrug moieties for MFA in an attempt to reduce the CNS toxicity and enhance the therapeutic efficacy.

Method: α-tocopherol monoester of MFA (TMMA) and α-tocopherol di-ester of MFA (TDMA) were synthesized by esterification reaction and were subjected to various in vivo characterizations. Read More

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The palladacycle, BTC2, exhibits anti-breast cancer and breast cancer stem cell activity.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 May 9:114598. Epub 2021 May 9.

Division of Cell Biology, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa. Electronic address:

In women globally, breast cancer is responsible for most cancer-related deaths and thus, new effective therapeutic strategies are required to treat this malignancy. Platinum-based compounds like cisplatin are widely used to treat breast cancer, however, they come with limitations such as poor solubility, adverse effects, and drug resistance. To overcome these limitations, complexes containing other platinum group metals such as palladium have been studied and some have already entered clinical trials. Read More

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"Eating Healthy": distrust of expert nutritional knowledge among elderly adults.

Appetite 2021 May 9:105289. Epub 2021 May 9.

Research Group "Public Health, Food and Physical Activity in the Life Cycle." Faculty of Medicine, University of Cuenca, Av. 12 de Abril y Av Del Paraíso. Campus Paraíso, Cuenca, Ecuador. Electronic address:

Elderly adults in southern Ecuador often distrust nutritionists' advice when implementing changes to their dietary practices. This distrust is no overt disregard for expert nutritional knowledge but rather the result of structural and situated practices that combine suspicion, misinformation, financial limitations, and family care. In this article, we examine eating practices among elderly adults in southern Ecuador in order to understand how nutrition distrust is constructed. Read More

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Determination of "Fitness-for-Purpose" of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) Models to Predict (Eco-)Toxicological Endpoints for Regulatory Use.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 May 9:104956. Epub 2021 May 9.

School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK. Electronic address:

In silico models are used to predict toxicity and molecular properties in chemical safety assessment, gaining widespread regulatory use under a number of legislations globally. This study has rationalised previously published criteria to evaluate quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) in terms of their uncertainty, variability and potential areas of bias, into ten assessment components, or higher level groupings. The components have been mapped onto specific regulatory uses (i. Read More

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Determination of the LD with the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay as a promising alternative in nanotoxicological evaluation.

Nanotoxicology 2021 May 12:1-16. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany.

Toxicity tests in rodents are still considered a controversial topic concerning their ethical justifiability. The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay may offer a simple and inexpensive alternative. The CAM assay is easy to perform and has low bureaucratic hurdles. Read More

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Celebrating 60 Years of Accomplishments of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute1.

Radiat Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Scientific Research Department.

Chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1961, the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) is a Joint Department of Defense (DoD) entity with the mission of carrying out the Medical Radiological Defense Research Program in support of our military forces around the globe. Read More

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Skin necrosis and calcifications after extravasation of vancomycin: a localised form of calciphylaxis?

J Wound Care 2021 May;30(5):390-393

Grenoble University Hospital, Department of Vascular Medicine, F-38000 Grenoble, France.

Vancomycin is a tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic produced from . There is much variation in the literature with regard to the recommended dose, dilution rate and type of infusion. Given the vesicant properties of vancomycin at supratherapeutic doses (>10mg/ml), tissue damage including blistering and necrosis have been reported. Read More

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Characterize, Optimize, and Harmonize: Caring for Older Adults With Hematologic Malignancies.

Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2021 Mar;41:1-9

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope, Duarte, CA.

With the aging of the population, the number of older adults with hematologic malignancies is growing, and treatment paradigms for these patients are rapidly evolving. Use of allogeneic stem cell transplant has been expanding to include septuagenarians but remains a potentially morbid procedure, creating an opportunity for a geriatric-focused evaluation to improve assessment of the individual's risk in undergoing the procedure. Although age alone should not be the sole determinant for transplant eligibility, geriatric assessment often identifies vulnerabilities that are not captured in assessing performance status and comorbidities alone. Read More

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Silver(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes challenge cancer; evaluation of their anticancer properties and in silico studies.

Drug Dev Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sivas Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey.

Because of the continuous need for efficient therapeutic agents against various kinds of cancers and infectious diseases, the pharmaceutical industry has to find new candidates and strategies to develop novel and efficient drugs. They increasingly use computational tools in R&D stages for screening extensive sets of drug candidates before starting pre-clinical and clinical trials. N-Heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) can be evaluated as good drug candidates because they offer both anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory features with their general low-toxicity profiles. Read More

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Pharmacokinetic study of an anti-trypanosome agent with different formulations and administration routes in mice by HPLC-MS/MS.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 May 12:e5169. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Chemistry, Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, College of Sciences and Health Professions, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Previously compound 12 showed great anti-trypanosome activity without toxicity in the in vivo study. In the current study, a sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to investigate the pharmacokinetics of compound 12 in mouse plasma. Protein precipitation method was applied to extract the compound, and it was then separated by using a Kinetex C column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-0. Read More

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Pegaspargase in Practice: Minimizing Toxicity, Maximizing Benefit.

Curr Hematol Malig Rep 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, 1215 Lee Street, Charlottesville, VA, 22903, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The incorporation of pegaspargase in chemotherapy regimens has significantly improved the prognosis of ALL in adults. However, pegaspargase use poses many challenges due to its unique toxicity profile. Here, we review pegaspargase's most clinically significant toxicities, and provide guidance for their prevention and management in order to avoid unnecessary drug discontinuation and achieve maximum clinical benefit. Read More

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Reduced microglia activity in patients with long-term immunosuppressive therapy after liver transplantation.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Purpose: Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) can cause long-term impairment of brain function. Possible pathomechanisms include alterations of the cerebral immune system. This study used positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the translocator protein (TSPO) ligand F-GE-180 to evaluate microglial activation in liver-transplanted patients under different regimens of immunosuppression. Read More

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Gadolinium retention: should pediatric radiologists be concerned, and how to frame conversations with families.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Radiology, Seattle Children's Hospital, M/S MA.7.220, P.O. Box 5731, Seattle, WA, 98145-5005, USA.

Gadolinium retention in the brain and other organs has recently been identified by imaging and confirmed histologically. No direct clinical effects of gadolinium retention, which occurs after gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) administration for MRI, have been scientifically accepted at this time. However, there is understandable concern among medical professionals and the public about the potential effects of gadolinium retention, particularly in the brain. Read More

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Total Arsenic Concentrations in Sea Turtle Tissues from the Mediterranean Coast of Spain.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Fisheries and Aquaculture Service (CARM), 30100, Murcia, Spain.

In this work we studied total arsenic concentrations in liver, muscle and kidney of 49 individuals of two sea turtle species (loggerhead sea turtles, n = 45; leatherback turtles, n = 4) stranded in Murcia (South-eastern Spain) coastline between 2009 and 2018. In accordance with the literature, muscle was the tissue with the highest concentrations in both species, followed by liver and kidney. Although differences in arsenic concentrations were not statistically significant between the study species, loggerhead sea turtles showed concentrations two or three times higher than those of leatherback turtles, which we attribute to differences on feeding behavior and habitat preferences. Read More

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Ferroptosis in infection, inflammation, and immunity.

J Exp Med 2021 Jun 12;218(6). Epub 2021 May 12.

Guangzhou Municipal and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Modification and Degradation, The Third Affiliated Hospital, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Ferroptosis is a type of regulated necrosis that is triggered by a combination of iron toxicity, lipid peroxidation, and plasma membrane damage. The upstream inducers of ferroptosis can be divided into two categories (biological versus chemical) and activate two major pathways (the extrinsic/transporter versus the intrinsic/enzymatic pathways). Excessive or deficient ferroptotic cell death is implicated in a growing list of physiological and pathophysiological processes, coupled to a dysregulated immune response. Read More

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Mitochondrial activities play a pivotal role in regulating cell cycle in response to doxorubicin.

Cell Cycle 2021 May 12:1-13. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Biomedical Science, University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth Campus, USA.

Doxorubicin induces both DNA damage and metabolic interference. How these effects interact to modulate cellular toxicity is not completely understood but important given the widespread use of doxorubicin in cancer treatment. This study tests the hypothesis that cell cycle arrest and survival are affected by distinct mitochondrial activities during doxorubicin exposure. Read More

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Innate Immune Invisible Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles-Framework for Synthesis and Evaluation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0AS, U.K.

Nanomedicine is seen as a potential central player in the delivery of personalized medicine. Biocompatibility issues of nanoparticles have largely been resolved over the past decade. Despite their tremendous progress, less than 1% of applied nanosystems can hit their intended target location, such as a solid tumor, and this remains an obstacle to their full ability and potential with a high translational value. Read More

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Tobramycin Liquid Crystal Nanoparticles Eradicate Cystic Fibrosis-Related Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

Small 2021 May 12:e2100531. Epub 2021 May 12.

Clinical and Health Science, University of South Australia, North Tce, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms cause persistent and chronic infections, most known clinically in cystic fibrosis (CF). Tobramycin (TOB) is a standard anti-pseudomonal antibiotic; however, in biofilm infections, its efficacy severely decreases due to limited permeability across the biofilm matrix. Herewith, a biomimetic, nanostructured, lipid liquid crystal nanoparticle-(LCNP)-formulation is discovered to significantly enhance the efficacy of TOB and eradicate P. Read More

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Effect of prenatal exposure to Benzo[a]pyrene on ovarian toxicity and reproductive dysfunction: Protective effect of atorvastatin in the embryonic period.

Environ Toxicol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

As an environmental contaminant, Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P; BaP) disrupts the antioxidant signaling and thus leads to the induction of oxidative stress and the damage of DNA in the ovary. low-dose atorvastatin (ATV) has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. The present study aimed to survey the effects of prenatal exposure to BaP on ovarian toxicity and also to investigate the protective role of ATV in reducing ovarian toxicity. Read More

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Widespread displacement of DNA- and RNA-binding factors underlies toxicity of arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides.

EMBO J 2021 May 12:e103311. Epub 2021 May 12.

Genomic Instability Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain.

Due to their capability to transport chemicals or proteins into target cells, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are being developed as therapy delivery tools. However, and despite their interesting properties, arginine-rich CPPs often show toxicity for reasons that remain poorly understood. Using a (PR)n dipeptide repeat that has been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) as a model of an arginine-rich CPP, we here show that the presence of (PR)n leads to a generalized displacement of RNA- and DNA-binding proteins from chromatin and mRNA. Read More

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Implications of the germline variants of DNA damage response genes detected by cancer precision medicine for radiological risk communication and cancer therapy decisions.

J Radiat Res 2021 May;62(Supplement_1):i44-i52

Laboratory of Molecular Radiology, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Large-scale cancer-associated gene testing is now being rapidly incorporated into clinical settings, and is leading to incidental identification of the germline variants present in cancer patients. Because many cancer susceptibility genes are related to DNA damage response and repair, the variants may reflect not only the susceptibility to cancer but also the genetically defined radiation sensitivity of the patients and their relatives. When the presence of a certain germline variant increases the risk for developing radiation toxicity or radiation-induced secondary cancers, it will greatly influence the clinical decision-making. Read More

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Assessment of carbamazepine acute toxicity in the cockle Cerastoderma edule through chemical, physiological and biochemical tools.

Braz J Biol 2021 10;82:e247035. Epub 2021 May 10.

University of Carthage, Laboratory of Biomonitoring of the Environment LR01 ES14, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, Zarzouna 7021, Tunisia.

The cockle Cerastoderma edule was exposed to four concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 70 μg L-1) of carbamazepine (CBZ). This anticonvulsant was found to alter the mussel behavior of by reducing its clearance rate (CR). Analysis of CBZ accumulation in tissues of C. Read More

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Antiproliferative, genotoxic and mutagenic potential of synthetic chocolate food flavoring.

Braz J Biol 2021 10;82:e243628. Epub 2021 May 10.

Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná - UTFPR, Departamento de Biodiversidade e Conservação da Natureza - DABIC, Campus de Campo Mourão, Campo Mourão, PR, Brasil.

Flavoring additives are of great technological importance for the food industry. However, there is little information regarding the toxicological properties of these micro-ingredients, especially at the cellular level. The present study used meristematic root cells of Allium cepa L. Read More

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Small molecule binding to inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta in an ATP non-competitive manner.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May;57(38):4678-4681

Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, UNMC, USA. and Fred & Pamela Buffett Cancer Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68022, USA and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Anatomy, UNMC, USA.

Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta (IKKβ) is a key regulator of the cannonical NF-κB pathway. IKKβ has been validated as a drug target for pathological conditions, which include chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Pharmacological studies revealed that chronic administration of ATP-competitive IKKβ inhibitors resulted in unexpected toxicity. Read More

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Expanding role of radiotherapy in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the tracheobronchial tree: a new horizon.

Tumori 2021 May 12:3008916211012461. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.

Background: Primary adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) of central trachea-bronchi system are rare and heterogeneous tumors. Definitive radiotherapy (RT) is the recommended treatment in surgically unresectable or incomplete resection or in the presence of severe comorbidities.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of patients with ACC of trachea-bronchi treated with radiotherapy. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided above-knee lateral approach for popliteal sciatic nerve block in surgeries below the knee: a randomized controlled trial.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Ultrasound guidance has become a standard method for detection of nerve structures in regional anesthesia. During ultrasound-guided blockade, to identify anatomical structures is crucial but can be challenging. In clinical practice, we find a wide difference in the visibility score of the sciatic nerve (SN) through different approaches. Read More

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Impact of DNA Adduct Size, Number, and Relative Position on the Toxicity of Aromatic Amines: A Molecular Dynamics Case Study of dG- and dG-Containing DNA Duplexes.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive West, Lethbridge, AB T1K 3M4, Canada.

Human exposure to aromatic amines (AAs) can result in carcinogenic DNA adducts. To complement previous work geared toward understanding the mutagenicity of AA-derived adducts, which has almost exclusively studied (monoadducted) DNA containing a single lesion, the present work provides the first in-depth comparison of the structure of monoadducted and diadducted DNA duplexes. Specifically, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were initially performed on DNA containing the nonmutagenic single-ringed -(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-aniline (dG) or the mutagenic four-ringed -(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-1-aminopyrene (dG) lesion at G, G, or G in the AA deletion hotspot (5'-GGCGCC) in the or glycosidic orientation (B/S duplex conformation). Read More

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