173,019 results match your criteria Toxicity Hydrocarbons


Toxicity of two representative petroleum hydrocarbons, toluene and phenanthrene, to five Atlantic coral species.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Jun 3;169:112560. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Nova Southeastern University, Halmos College of Arts and Sciences, Dania, FL, USA.

Coral reefs are keystone coastal ecosystems that can be exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons from multiple sources, and when selecting spill response methods to limit environmental damages, corals represent one of the highest valued resources for protection. Because previous research to characterize the sensitivity of coral species to petroleum hydrocarbon exposures is limited, a continuous-flow passive dosing system and toxicity testing protocol was designed to evaluate the acute effects of two representative petroleum compounds, toluene and phenanthrene, on five coral species: Acropora cervicornis, Porites astreoides, Siderastera siderea, Stephanocoenia intersepta, and Solenastrea bournoni. Using analytically confirmed exposures, sublethal and lethal endpoints were calculated for each species, and used as model inputs to determine critical target lipid body burdens (CTLBBs) for characterizing species sensitivity. Read More

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Long-term exposure to environmental levels of phenanthrene disrupts spermatogenesis in male mice.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 2;285:117488. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, PR China. Electronic address:

Phenanthrene (Phe) is a tricyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with high bioavailability under natural exposure. However, there are few studies on the reproductive toxicity of Phe in mammals. In this study, male Kunming mice were gavaged once every two days with Phe (5, 50, and 500 ng/kg) for 28 weeks. Read More

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Chemical source profiles of particulate matter and gases emitted from solid fuels for residential cooking and heating scenarios in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 2;285:117503. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

The State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, 710049, China.

Incomplete combustion of solid fuels (animal dung and bituminous coal) is a common phenomenon during residential cooking and heating in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), resulting in large amounts of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere. This study investigated the pollutant emissions from six burning scenarios (heating and cooking with each of the three different fuels: yak dung, sheep dung, and bitumite) in the QTP's pastoral dwellings. Target pollutants such as carbon monoxide (CO), gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), fine particles (PM, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 2. Read More

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The inhibitory mechanism of natural soil colloids on the biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by a degrading bacterium.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 20;415:125687. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China; University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

In spite of extensive studies of soil model components, the role of natural soil colloids in the biodegradation of organic pollutants remain poorly understood. Accordingly, the present study selected Mollisol colloids (MCs) and Ultisol colloids (UCs) to investigate their effects on the biodegradation of 3, 3', 4, 4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) by Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 110. Results demonstrated that both natural soil colloids significantly decreased the biodegradation of PCB77, which partly resulted from the significant decrease in the bioaccessibility of PCB77. Read More

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Toxicity evaluation of the metabolites derived from the degradation of phenanthrene by one of a soil ubiquitous PAHs-degrading strain Rhodococcus qingshengii FF.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 15;415:125657. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, No. 13 Yanta Road, Xi'an 710055, China; Research Institute of Membrane Separation Technology of Shaanxi Province, No. 13 Yanta Road, Xi'an 710055, China. Electronic address:

Rhodococcus qingshengii strain FF is a soil ubiquitous strain that has a high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation capability. In this work, phenanthrene was used as a PAH model compound. The accumulated pattern of the metabolites of phenanthrene by strain FF was investigated, and their toxicity to Vibrio fischeri, effect on microbiota diversity of farmland soil and influence on seed of wheat were evaluated. Read More

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A review on the occurrence of organophosphate flame retardants in the aquatic environment in China and implications for risk assessment.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 19;783:147064. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China; Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Polar Environment and Ecosystem (HPKL-PEE), Harbin 150090, China. Electronic address:

Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), used extensively as substitutes for polybrominated diphenyl ethers, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. OPFR pollution in aquatic environments, the main sink of pollutants, has been studied extensively over the past decade. Here, we review the current knowledge on the consumption and applications of OPFRs, and on their ecotoxicity in aquatic environments worldwide. Read More

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Suborganismal responses of the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius to polyethylene microplastics.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 9;783:146981. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Environmental Toxicology and Biology Group, Mathematical and Fluid Physics, Department, Sciences Faculty, UNED, Madrid, Spain.

Freshwater riverbeds are a major repository of microplastics (MPs) from inland activities. Benthic macroinvertebrates that live in close contact with sediments seem to ingest a considerable amount of such plastic particles. The effects of MPs on life-history traits are relatively well-known, but the suborganismal mechanisms underlying such effects remain unclear. Read More

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Association between maternal exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 9;783:146984. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, PR China. Electronic address:

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), a class of persistent endocrine-disrupting chemicals, are widely used in consumer products due to their unique amphiphilic properties. Previous epidemiological studies suggest association of maternal PFASs exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes, while evidences about the association are inconsistent. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the relationship of maternal PFASs exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Read More

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Toxicity assessment of typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to Daphnia magna and Hyalella azteca in water-only and sediment-water exposure systems.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 17;784:147156. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Natural Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8563, Japan; Center for Health and Environmental Risk Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506, Japan. Electronic address:

While the equilibrium partitioning (EqP) method has been demonstrated to effectively predict the adverse effects of nonionic organic chemicals in sediment on benthic organisms by sediment toxicity tests, only a limited number of studies have been performed both in water-only and whole-sediment toxicity tests using the same species and verified the validity of EqP-based toxicity assessment. To further examine the validity of the EqP method for application in a wide range of hydrophobicity, we conducted sorption/desorption experiments and both water-only and sediment toxicity tests using a popular aquatic crustacean species, Daphnia magna (48 h), and benthic species Hyalella azteca (96 h) for six typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with three to five rings and an amine derivative: anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, and 1-aminopyrene. The linear sorption coefficient was determined and ranged from 2. Read More

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Human health risks from brominated flame retardants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor dust.

Chemosphere 2021 May 26;282:131005. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9, Canada.

Exposure to dust particles containing toxic compounds is linked to serious health outcomes, including cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine if indoor dust from houses and cars contained harmful levels of brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and to assess their potential toxicity to adults and children. In Kuwait, the median concentration of total PBDEs (Ʃ14- PBDEs) was 408. Read More

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In vivo therapeutic evaluation of a novel bis-lawsone derivative against tumor following delivery using mesoporous silica nanoparticle based redox-responsive drug delivery system.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jul 29;126:112142. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata 700054, India. Electronic address:

Herein, we have evaluated the in vivo therapeutic efficacy and systemic toxicity profile of a synthetic anticancer compound [3,3'-((4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)methylene)bis(2-hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione)]. A multifunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) based drug delivery network was also fabricated which specifically showed targeting nature towards the cancer cell. The mesopores of silica nanoparticles were tagged with phenyl boronic acid (PBA) for targeted drug delivery into tumor tissue. Read More

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The joint toxicity of polyethylene microplastic and phenanthrene to wheat seedlings.

Chemosphere 2021 May 28;282:130967. Epub 2021 May 28.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 210095, PR China. Electronic address:

Due to wide distribution, easy production, and difficult degradation, microplastic pollution has become a new environmental problem that has attracted worldwide attention. However, there is little information about the effects of microplastics in soil and their combined pollution with other organic pollutants on crop growth. In this study, we conducted soil culture experiments to evaluate the effects of polyethylene microplastics (PE-MPs) (0. Read More

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Polymeric Nanocarriers with Luminescent Colloidal Nanoplatelets as Hydrophilic and Non-Toxic Two-Photon Bioimaging Agents.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 27;16:3649-3660. Epub 2021 May 27.

Advanced Materials Engineering and Modelling Group, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, 50-370, Poland.

Introduction: Semiconductor nanoplatelets (NPLs) are promising materials for nonlinear optical microscopy since they feature good two-photon absorption (TPA) properties, narrow photoluminescence spectra and high quantum yields of luminescence. Nevertheless, the use of semiconductor NPLs is inevitably connected with concerns about heavy metal ion toxicity and their intrinsically hydrophobic character.

Methods: Our contribution focuses on the design and engineering of coloidal bionanomaterial consisting of two-dimensional highly luminescent CdSe semiconductor NPLs loaded into spherical and homogeneous polymeric nanocarriers (NCs) based on poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) block co-polymer. Read More

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The Influence of Silver Nanoparticles Against Toxic Effects of Venom.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 25;16:3555-3564. Epub 2021 May 25.

Post-Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sorocaba (Uniso), Sorocaba, SP, Brazil.

Purpose: A silver nanoparticle obtained by reducing salts with solid dispersion of curcumin (130 nm, 0.081 mg mL) was used to counteract against the toxic - edematogenic, myotoxic, and neurotoxic - effects of venom.

Methods: The edematogenic effect was evaluated by plasma extravasation in rat dorsal skin after injection of 50 µg per site of venom alone or preincubated with 1, 10, and 100 µL of AgNPs; the myotoxicity was evaluated by measuring the creatine kinase released into the organ-bath before the treatment and at the end of each experiment; and neurotoxicity was evaluated in chick biventer cervicis using the conventional myographic technique, face to the exogenous acetylcholine (ACh) and potassium chloride (KCl) added into the bath before the treatment and after each experiment. Read More

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An antibody against L1 cell adhesion molecule inhibits cardiotoxicity by regulating persistent DNA damage.

Nat Commun 2021 06 2;12(1):3279. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Division of Radiation Biomedical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Seoul, Korea.

Targeting the molecular pathways underlying the cardiotoxicity associated with thoracic irradiation and doxorubicin (Dox) could reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with these anticancer treatments. Here, we find that vascular endothelial cells (ECs) with persistent DNA damage induced by irradiation and Dox treatment exhibit a fibrotic phenotype (endothelial-mesenchymal transition, EndMT) correlating with the colocalization of L1CAM and persistent DNA damage foci. We demonstrate that treatment with the anti-L1CAM antibody Ab417 decreases L1CAM overexpression and nuclear translocation and persistent DNA damage foci. Read More

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Survey of mineral oil hydrocarbons in Chinese commercial complementary foods for infants and young children.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2021 Jun 2:1-15. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Beijing Center for Physical and Chemical Analysis, Beijing Food Safety Analysis and Testing Engineering Research Center, Beijing Academy of Science and Technology, Beijing, China.

Recently, mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) in various foods have raised significant concern, especially for infants and young children due to their potential adverse health effects. Two fractions can be distinguished by certain analytical techniques, mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH). The toxicological profile of MOSH and MOAH differs greatly. Read More

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[The role of epigenetic effect in the trichloroethylene toxicity].

Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 2021 May;39(5):385-389

Institute of Dermatology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230000, China.

Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a commonly used organic solvent in industry and it was classified as a Group I carcinogen by IARC, with immunotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, kidney toxicity and neurotoxicity. Increasing evidence suggests that TCE-induced autoimmune diseases and cancer are involved in epigenetic modifications. This paper summarized the mechanism of DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA in toxicity of TCE according to the newly published articles, so as to provide new ideas for further revealing the mechanism of TCE exposure affecting health. Read More

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Jojoba Oil: An Updated Comprehensive Review on Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Uses, and Toxicity.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 24;13(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pharmacy Program, Batterjee Medical College, P.O. Box 6231, Jeddah 21442, Saudi Arabia.

Jojoba is a widely used medicinal plant that is cultivated worldwide. Its seeds and oil have a long history of use in folklore to treat various ailments, such as skin and scalp disorders, superficial wounds, sore throat, obesity, and cancer; for improvement of liver functions, enhancement of immunity, and promotion of hair growth. Extensive studies on Jojoba oil showed a wide range of pharmacological applications, including antioxidant, anti-acne and antipsoriasis, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antipyretic, analgesic, antimicrobial, and anti-hyperglycemia activities. Read More

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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Levels in Wistar Rats Exposed to Ambient Air of Port Harcourt, Nigeria: An Indicator for Tissue Toxicity.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 26;18(11). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22511, AlBeheira, Egypt.

This study investigated the PAH levels in Wistar rats exposed to ambient air of the Port Harcourt metropolis. Twenty Wistar rats imported from a nonpolluted city (Enugu) were exposed to both indoor and outdoor air. Following the IACUC regulation, baseline data were obtained from 4 randomly selected rats, while the remaining 16 rats (8 each for indoor and outdoor) were left till day 90. Read More

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Povidone-Iodine Attenuates Viral Replication in Ocular Cells: Implications for Ocular Transmission of RNA Viruses.

Biomolecules 2021 05 18;11(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Visual and Anatomical Sciences, Kresge Eye Institute, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Several RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, can infect or use the eye as an entry portal to cause ocular or systemic diseases. Povidone-Iodine (PVP-I) is routinely used during ocular surgeries and eye banking as a cost-effective disinfectant due to its broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, including against viruses. However, whether PVP-I can exert antiviral activities in virus-infected cells remains elusive. Read More

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Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of subsp. (Brot.) H.Wolff Essential Oil.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 May 17;10(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal.

Fungal infections remain a major health concern with aromatic plants and their metabolites standing out as promising antifungal agents. The present study aims to assess, for the first time, the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of subsp. (Brot. Read More

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Black Fungi and Hydrocarbons: An Environmental Survey for Alkylbenzene Assimilation.

Microorganisms 2021 May 7;9(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for the Study of Social Insects, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Rio Claro 13506-900, SP, Brazil.

Environmental pollution with alkylbenzene hydrocarbons such as toluene is a recurring phenomenon. Their toxicity and harmful effect on people and the environment drive the search for sustainable removal techniques such as bioremediation, which is based on the microbial metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Melanized fungi present extremophilic characteristics, which allow their survival in inhospitable habitats such as those contaminated with hydrocarbons. Read More

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Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Methylated Derivatives in Sewage Sludge from Northeastern China: Occurrence, Profiles and Toxicity Evaluation.

Molecules 2021 May 6;26(9). Epub 2021 May 6.

International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), Harbin 150090, China.

This paper assesses the occurrence, distribution, source, and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and their methylated form (Me-PAHs) in sewage sludge from 10 WWTPs in Northeastern China was noted. The concentrations of ∑PAHs, ∑Me-PAHs ranged from 567 to 5040 and 48.1 to 479 ng. Read More

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Partial Agonist Activity of Neonicotinoids on Rat Nicotinic Receptors: Consequences over Epinephrine Secretion and In Vivo Blood Pressure.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 12;22(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

University of Angers, INSERM U1083, CNRS UMR 6015, MITOVASC, SFR ICAT, 49000 Angers, France.

Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotine-derived molecules which exert acute neurotoxic effects over the insect central nervous system by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, these receptors are also present in the mammalian central and peripheral nervous system, where the effects of neonicotinoids are faintly known. In mammals, cholinergic synapses are crucial for the control of vascular tone, blood pressure and skeletal muscle contraction. Read More

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Hybrid Cyclobutane/Proline-Containing Peptidomimetics: The Conformational Constraint Influences Their Cell-Penetration Ability.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 11;22(10). Epub 2021 May 11.

Departament de Química, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

A new family of hybrid β,γ-peptidomimetics consisting of a repetitive unit formed by a chiral cyclobutane-containing -β-amino acid plus a -functionalized -γ-amino-l-proline joined in alternation were synthesized and evaluated as cell penetrating peptides (CPP). They lack toxicity on the human tumoral cell line HeLa, with an almost negligible cell uptake. The dodecapeptide showed a substantial microbicidal activity on parasites at 50 µM but with a modest intracellular accumulation. Read More

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Assessing the oxidative potential of PAHs in ambient PM using the DTT consumption assay.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 19;285:117411. Epub 2021 May 19.

Oregon State University, Department of Chemistry, USA; Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, USA.

The oxidative potential (OP) of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM) has been linked to organic content, which includes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The OP of 135 individual PAHs (including six subclasses) was measured using the dithiolthreitol (DTT) consumption assay. The DTT assay results were used to compute the concentration of each PAH needed to consume 50% of the DTT concentration in the assay (DTT), and the reduction potential of the PAHs (ΔG). Read More

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Linking Coregulated Gene Modules with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Related Cancer Risk in the 3D Human Bronchial Epithelium.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Environmental and Molecular Toxicology Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97330, United States.

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) often occurs as complex chemical mixtures, which are linked to numerous adverse health outcomes in humans, with cancer as the greatest concern. The cancer risk associated with PAH exposures is commonly evaluated using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach, which estimates PAH mixture carcinogenic potential based on the sum of relative potency estimates of individual PAHs, compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BAP), a reference carcinogen. The present study evaluates molecular mechanisms related to PAH cancer risk through integration of transcriptomic and bioinformatic approaches in a 3D human bronchial epithelial cell model. Read More

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The protective effect of lycopene against oxidative kidney damage associated with combined use of isoniazid and rifampicin in rats.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2021 24;54(8):e10660. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Erzincan Binali Yildirim University, Erzincan, Turkey.

It is known that the combined use of antibiotics, such as isoniazid and rifampicin, in the treatment of tuberculosis causes oxidative kidney damage. The aim of this study was to biochemically and histopathologically investigate the effect of lycopene on oxidative kidney damage due to the administration of isoniazid and rifampicin in albino Wistar male rats. Lycopene at a dose of 5 mg/kg was orally administered to lycopene+isoniazid+rifampicin (LIR) rats, and normal sunflower oil (0. Read More

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[Screening of biomarkers in exhaled breath of mice exposed to benzene].

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 May;55(5):672-678

Faculty of Health Toxicology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

To screen the biomarkers in the exhaled breath of mice exposed to benzene by using exhaled breath online analysis system. Thirty 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into six groups (0, 3, 32, 324, 648, and 1 296 mg/m) and treated with benzene vapour for 28 days. At the end of the exposure, the peripheral blood cell counts and blood glutathione (GSH) were detected. Read More

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